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1

Company servicing at open-cast mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On of the most prospective and adoptable systems for open-cast mines appears to be the company servicing of technical machines and equipment. Such an approach offers a complex of operations (servicing) and secures parts, fittings, the repair and regulation of replaced machines, as well as their capital repair and continued service. This system will neither replace nor undermine service operations already in place at the open-cast sites. The system requires cooperation between the factory and field and the participation of repair enterprises, production organizations, energy-mechanical and separate repair and technical servicing for quarry equipment. Preliminary calculations as to the implementation of company provided technical servicing indicates a 40-50% savings in equipment repair, and an increase in the quality of repair, while at the same time, reducing expenses for spare parts which can raise an excavators productivity be 8-12%.

Nikonov, Y.S.; Grachev, A.A.

1981-01-01

2

Oberdorf, an alpine open-cast mine in Austria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After describing the geological and mining conditions of Oberdorf open-cast mine (Austria), mining technologies and the operations plan are presented. The coal mining equipment is described in detail. Problems and operating conditions of the mine are mentioned, and the production data of the last few years are presented. (HLN).

Goessler, F.

1984-11-01

3

Development of open cast mining in the northern Rhenish area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the historical development of the Rhenish brown coal field starting from the setting up of the first briquette factory towards the end of the last century and the construction of Fortuna I power station in the year 1910. It shows the development of random open cast mining. From the middle of the fifties, the thermal power stations in the Rhenish coal field were extended greatly and the brown coal output was increased. The importance of open cast mining in the North increased tremendously in the years between 1955 and 1960. Already from 1960 onward, between 50 and 60% of the entore output from the Rhenish coalfields came from these two mining areas. Since the beginning of the seventies, the figure has risen to approximately 70%. From the middle of the eighties, the Fortuna-Garsdorf open cast mine will only be mining residuals and in 1991 will be closing down altogether. From 1983 onwards, any fall-off on output will be partly compensated by the Bergheim open cast mining, but this mine will be cleared completely by 1995. After that, there are no more replacement open cast mines in this area. From 1983 onwards, the Frimmersdorf open cast mine will be subjected to a new mining concept along with the Garzweiler open cast mine. The bulk of the output that is not being attained by the Fortuna-Garsdorf area must offset by these mines. As from 1996 it will have reached its final capacity with 250 x 10/sup 6/ cubic metres + tons/year. Until the Bergheim open cast mine closes down, the Northern open cast mining area will bring in more that 60% of the output of the Rhenish area, and subsequently the Garzweiler open cast mine with even more than 40%. The Garzweiler open cast mine will be exhausted in the year 2005. Through the adjioning area Frimmersdorf-West West with a coal content of approximately 1.6 x 10/sup 9/ tons of coal, there are coal reserves available until well over the year 2000.

Sieger, W.; Schoenfeld, G.

1980-11-01

4

Aerial photogrammetric monitoring of large scale open cast mining operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In open-cast mining records of material quantity and movement are necessary data for the determination of economic viability and for mine planning. Aerial photogrammetry can be used for this monitoring. Being non-contact it overcomes some of the problems (e.g. disruption of mining operations) associated with terrestrial surveying. The paper describes a feasibility study on the implementation of aerial photogrammetry at the Mae Moh Lignite Mine, Thailand. Aspects covered are: photogrammetry technology; the pilot project; aerial survey photography; digitial photogrammetric measurement; volume computation; results; and accuracy analysis. Results indicate that the aerial survey of volumes is a reliable, accurate repeatable homogeneous process. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Rose, D. (AAM Surveys Pty. Ltd. (Australia))

1992-06-01

5

A review on air pollution and various dust models for open cast mines in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open cast coal mining continues to create significant environmental problems in India. In particular, this type of mining creates high rates of air pollution SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx. In these particulate matter i.e. SPM and RPM is major pollution in the open cast mines. It creates several heath hazards to mine workers and surrounding peoples and high environmental deterioration occurs. Several studies are carried out in the field of air pollution and air quality modeling of open cast projects and many researchers suggested several control measures for the air pollution control in mines. Different dust models FDM, ISC3 are available for prediction and transport of the pollutants. In this paper a review has been studied about air pollution in the open cast mines and dust dispersion models for open cast mines in India. (author)

2010-01-01

6

Land degradation due to open cast mines-a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The contribution of open cast mines is increasing day by day in coal production. These open cast mines have direct and visible impacts on land surface. During mining stage, land is damaged and degraded. Excavation of coal and overburden dumping along with other infrastructural development is responsible for this damage and degradation. Impact of land degradation is observed as loss of forest cover, reduction and extinction of wildlife, reduction of agricultural land, destruction of geologic column, soil erosion, hydrological imbalance, socioeconomic problems, etc. in active mining areas. The present paper discusses the extent and impact of land degradation by open cast mining activity in Singrauli coal field. The paper also highlights the extent of land degradation particularly in one of the open cast mining projects of Singrauli coal field. It also suggests certain control measures to minimise the problem. (author)

1998-01-01

7

State of the technology for noise abatement in lignite open-cast mining; Laermminderung in Braunkohletagebauen. Zum Stand der Technik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The assessment of plants according to the state of the art is very significant in pollution control approval procedures. It is also important for approvals following mining law related to open cast mining and its dedicated facilities. Against this background three lignite open-cast mines in the region of Lusatia were surveyed according to the state of the art for noise abatement. The findings were converted into effective measures. (orig.)

Sachs, Jens [KOETTER Beratende Ingenieure Berlin GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kurtz, Wilhelm [TUEV Rheinland Immissionsschutz und Energiesysteme GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

2010-07-01

8

A geotechnical rationale for the design of South African open cast coal mine highwalls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past decade, with the exhaustion of the traditional South African coal fields, geotechnical conditions have deteriorated. In addition, the nature of the open cast coal mining industry is changing from the conventional strip mining of virgin coal seams to the extraction of underground coal pillars by buffer blasted highwalls. These industry changes have resulted in the need to re-examine the manner in which geotechnical engineering is applied to highwall design. This paper proposes a geotechnical design rationale for open cast highwalls. Furthermore, the rationale takes cognizance of the various geotechnical hazards associated with conventional strip mining and pillar extraction by buffer blasted highwalls. The need to use geotechnical domain models and blasting geotechnics, as proactive tools for rock fall reduction, are also discussed.

Butcher, R.J. [SRK Consulting, Johannesburg (South Africa)

2001-12-01

9

Mining dictionary: underground mining; open-cast mining; preparation and beneficiation; geology of mineral deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dictionary reflects the latest technical developments in the vocabulary of mining methods and the mining industry. Volume I of the dictionary is English to German, Volume II German to English. 36,000 entries are included.

Goergen, H.; Stoll, R.D.; Vriesen, R.D.; Welzenberg, B.

1981-01-01

10

Open-cast mining - the innovation is in the detail; Tagebautechnik - die Innovation liegt im Detail  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution describes the latest developments in open-cast mining exhibited at bauma 2007. Against the background of the general discussion of climate and the associated tightening of the emission requirements all major manufacturers presented inter alia modified drive concepts to reduce fuel consumption and comply with the emission guidelines. A further current important development was obviously the improvement of the ergonomics, safety and user convenience. (orig.)

Drebenstedt, C.; Kressner, M. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezieltiefbau

2007-05-29

11

Technical and economic studies on continuous surface miners in open cast mining. Technisch-wirtschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von Continuous-Surface-Minern im Tagebau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the transition region between loose and solid rock in open-cast mines, so-called continuous surface miners (CSM) have been used for some time for efficient mining of thin and solidified strata. The author investigates the technical and economic aspects of CSM use in open-cast mines. Historic remarks on CSM are followed by descriptions of the different types of CSM and a review of their applications in open-cast mining so far. Winning techniques for continuous and discontinuous CSM mining with belt conveyors are described. A sensitivity analysis and economic evaluations were carried out for a model mine. (MOS).

Elze, C.

1986-11-07

12

Reclaimed spoil heap from an open-cast mine: analysis of meadow communities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evaluation of the vegetation on the reclaimed spoil heap of material deposited from the overlaying rock of an open-cast brown coal mine. The application of standard geobotanical research methods with statistical data analysis. Under the present management conditions desirable meadow taxa keep their constancy: the reduction of ruderal and weed species is evident, though statistically insignificant. For the variability of species composition over time, and in particular by the location of releves taken, the strong influence of substrate heterogeneity i.e. (in addition to exposure, humidity etc.) is inferred.

Novak, J.; Hakl, J.; Steklova, J.; Ceska, J.; Dvorakova, E. [Czech University for Life Science Prague, Prague (Czech Republic)

2008-07-01

13

Bearings for planetary gears in large open-cast mining equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growing number of planetary gears in industrial use demonstrates that this design of gearing is a logical answer to demands for high performance, smaller size and lower costs. In the mid 1950s Mannesmann-Demag Lauchhammer commenced development of planetary gear units for large machines used in open cast mining. Some examples are included in this article to show the development of the bearing arrangements during this period. A new bevel/planetary gear unit for a bucket wheel excavator serves to illustrate one of the most modern designs.

Buch, S.; Beust, W.

1989-02-01

14

Calorific value and amounts of oil shale delivered to power plants from mines and open casts in 1968-1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper provides the information about the fuel supply of Estonian oil shale fired power plants over the years 1968-1997. The data about the amounts and calorific value (as determined in the calorific bomb) of oil shale delivered to Estonian power plants by mines and open-casts are presented. (author)

2000-01-01

15

Dust measurements in the environment of the open-cast mines and the coal conversion plants in the brown coal mining area of the Rhineland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the geographic location of the dust measuring points and the evaluation of the measurements according to the Clean Air Regulation (TA-Luft). The results of measurements in 1983 (open-cast mines) and in 1982 (coal conversion plants) are presented in tables. (HLN).

Schultheis, W.

1984-11-01

16

New construction of the motorway A44 on a fresh open-cast mining dump; Neubau der A 44 auf einer frischen Tagebaukippe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the extensive mass movement, the open-cast mining Garzweiler migrates continuously from east to west. Beginning in 2006, the area of the original route of the A44 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Holz was integrated in the open-cast mining. The section between these two autobahn junctions was closed to the traffic. The flows of traffic were redirected onto the A61 autobahn. In 2017 the open-cast mining Garzweiler will approach the eastern side of the A61 autobahn. A further movement of this open-cast mining to the west in 2017 will make the section of the A61 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Wanlo unusable. The A44 autobahn will need to be expanded to six lanes. This is associated with the new construction or the reconstruction of the autobahn junctions Jackerath and Holz. Within the autobahn junction Jackerath the new A44 autobahn crosses the route of the autobahn A61 nearly perpendicular and goes ahead to a 7 km long left turn in the current working area of the open-cast mining Garzweiler. From this perspective, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the construction of the A44 autobahn on a fresh open-cast mining dump.

Vogt, N.; Heyer, D.; Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik; Dahmen, D.; Karcher, C.; Vinzelberg, G. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Gebirgs- und Bodenmechanik

2012-11-01

17

Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

2011-01-01

18

THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL, PETROGRAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE SLOPE STABILITY IN THE OPEN CAST MINE OF GRADNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining technology was observed in the area. The local control of hydrogeologic properties, as well as climatic fluctuations of temperature and precipitation on the slope stability, was also recognized. It turned out that the structural relationships, characteristic of the manifold cataclased dolomite, stimulated the development of local instabilities, particularly during the period of low temperatures affecting the process of ground-water accumulation. When the temperatures are worm, the ground-water circulation is slow, exerting only the small-scale influence on the local instabilities.

Ivan Tomaši?; Zoran Peh

1992-01-01

19

Methodological and organisational findings in the design and implementation of computer-aided dispatcher systems in GDR open-cast brown coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to rationalize winning operations in open-cast brown coal mining in the GDR, dispatcher systems were designed and constructed for the various stages of winning. So far, the specific technical features of brown coal open-cast mining have prevented the introduction of standardized, computer-aided monitoring and control systems for the whole production process (overburden removal, raw coal winning, drainage). Experience in the design and establishment of computer-aided dispatcher systems is presented, and an economic evaluation is attempted.

Sohn, F.

1984-09-01

20

Low cost mini coal beneficiation: screening of sand and fines from open cast coal mine coal - a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal supplied to thermal power stations comprises extraneous material like stone, shales, sand, fines, overburden, etc. which get mixed in the process of mining. It is generally known that to eliminate them completely is not possible. Although many thermal power stations have been successful in screening out large size stones and shales from raw coal in the past, there still remains one of the major constituents of coal, i.e., sand or fines and overburden carried over from mines to power stations. The presence of sand in the coal is found highly detrimental, specifically to the 210 MW boilers with high flue-gas velocities and also to the coal mills. An attempt was made at one of the thermal power stations for screening out sand from raw coal received, particularly from Mazri and Ballarpur open-cast mines in India with high content of sand, and it proved successful. The report of a case study incorporated in this paper gives details of screening sand and fines from coal. The benefits achieved are many and the modifications are made with less resources. 2 tabs.

Dalal, G.G. [Maharashtra State Electricity Board, Mumbai (India). Environmental Unit

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

Ergonomics in drivers' cabs on open-cast mining machines; Ergonomie bei Fuehrerstaenden auf Tagebaugeraeten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ergonomically designed driver's cabs also contribute directly to the increase in safety at work. In the course of the electrical re-design of the open-cast mining machines new drivers' cabs, which eliminate ergonomic deficits, were used. Other important aspects in addition to the improvements in the environmental factors noise, vibration and dust, are in particular the visibility conditions, visualisation of process data and monitoring as well as operating concepts. Taking into account the different types of machine drivers' cabs with a modified basic design and bearing design are used. Optimisation of the installation of the monitors and the basic structuring of the control panels was carried out. In addition to the increase in the effectiveness of control another aim is to minimise faulty operation by the driver when changing machines frequently. (orig.)

Vater, L. [Ergonomie/Gefahrstoffe, Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Senftenberg (Germany)

2004-08-12

22

Giving back the land - a look at open-cast mining. [South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining industry, particularly the gold mining industry, has, since 1886, dominated the economic life of South Africa. Revenues from mining have provided the impetus which led to the development of this country from subsistence agriculture to one of industrial power. Coal is South Africa's second largest foreign exchange earner after gold, but opencast mining necessitates the alienation of agricultural land, albeit temporarily. The coal industry is improving the speed, and standards, of land reclamation.

Thompson, G.C.

1983-01-01

23

Digging up trouble: the environment, protest and open-cast mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book examines the history and controversies surrounding UK opencast mining. The authors critically examine a range of issues including key political, social, legal and environmental impacts on the coal sector. They discuss the process of privatisation, impact of environmental regulation, and threats coal imports and gas-fired power generation. Chapter headings are: two industries in one: opencast and deep mining; regulating opencast; opencast mining: the challenge; living with opencast; the state, the public and the inquiry; democracy! what democracy?; changing patterns of protest; new government, new policies; and conclusion.

Beynon, H.; Cox, A.; Hudson, R. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). ESRC Research Centre on Innovation and Competition

1999-11-01

24

PROSPECTS OF RUBBER CRUMB APPLICATION AS A PART OF DEEP OPEN-CAST MINES ROAD COVERINGS ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of worn out tires recycling at the mining enterprises is considered. The most important results of influence research of mechanical activation to properties of a rubber crumb and to modified bitumunous concrete properties are discussed

Khristoforova A. A.; Filippov S. E.; Lebedev A. V.; Gogolev I. N.; Sokolova M. D.; Zarovnyaev B. N.

2011-01-01

25

Seasonal variation in arsenic, copper and zinc in surrounding streams and wetlands receiving coal mine drainage, Wangaloa open cast mine, south-east Otago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste piles created from mining activities expose sulphur rich minerals such as pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) to air and water, resulting in a series of oxidation and hydrolysis reactions that are often catalysed by micro-organisms. These reactions lead to the acidification of surface tailings and drainage waters (acid mine drainage, AMD). Mobilisation of heavy metals such as arsenic (As), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) by acidic drainage leads to elevated concentrations in the receiving waters. Wangaloa Open Cast mine provides an interesting comparison to findings from previous international studies. From observations the site shows symptoms of AMD, impeding the reclamation of land by recently established Pinus radiata plantations. Arsenic is the primary pollutant and is present in trace amounts (up to 100 ppm) in solid solution in authigenic pyrite, which was deposited in marginal marine coal forming environments. During the wet season (June/July 1998, 1999), water discharging from waste piles can contain up to 0.7 mg/Kg (ppm) of As ca. 70 times higher than the recommended safe drinking levels. Other metals such as Cu and Zn, are locally elevated but only marginally exceed safe drinking levels. Adverse effects from waste piles appear to be highly localised due to downstream natural remediation processes. During the summer of 1998-99, no elevated metal concentrations were detected. This is probably due to strongly depressed water levels in the tailings piles. It is predicted that rapid flushing of metals will occur when water levels rise again into waste rock, in which pyrite has been decomposing due to the ready access of oxygen over the summer. 17 refs., 4 figs.

Black, A.; Craw, D. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Environmental Science Programme

1999-07-01

26

Assessment of DNA damage in coal open-cast mining workers using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test and the comet assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coal mining is one of the most important causes of environmental pollution, as large quantities of coal dust particles are emitted. Colombia-South America has large natural coal reserves and "El Cerrejón" is the world's largest open-cast mine located in the northern department of Guajira. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genotoxic effects in a population exposed to coal residues from the open-cast mine "El Cerrejón". 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. The exposed group was divided according to different mining area activities: (i). Transport of extracted coal, (ii). Equipment field maintenance, (iii). Coal stripping and, (iv). Coal embarking. Blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers of genotoxicity, specifically, primary DNA damage as damage index (DI), tail length and% of tail DNA using the Comet assay (alkaline version) and chromosome damage as micronucleus (MN) frequency in lymphocytes. Both biomarkers showed statistically significantly higher values in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed control group. No difference was observed between the exposed groups executing different mining activities. These results indicate that exposure to coal mining residues may result in an increased genotoxic exposure in coal mining workers. We did not find a correlation between age, alcohol consumption and service time with the biomarkers of genotoxicity. Our results are the first data of genotoxic effects induced by coal mining exposure in Colombia, and thus, contribute to the exploration of test batteries use for monitoring of exposed populations and may stimulate designing control, hygiene and prevention strategies for occupational health risk assessment in developing countries.

León-Mejía G; Espitia-Pérez L; Hoyos-Giraldo LS; Da Silva J; Hartmann A; Henriques JA; Quintana M

2011-01-01

27

Study of airborne radioactivity around open cast coal mines in Juelich region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the fall of 2003 environmental activists claimed a high risk of cancers caused by airborne fine dust originating from coal mining for its inherent high radioactivity levels. As there were only few data available (measured by the authorities) we started to collect fine-dust fractions and measure their activity. Gross alpha, gross beta and specific isotopic analyses were carried with a view to study the general background radiation level as well as to further investigate the apprehension of local communities. The data are being compared to permissible limits of radioactivity and fine dust concentrations. (orig.)

2004-09-03

28

Overburden volume estimation assisted by geostatistics in open cast coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares different results for overburden volume estimation assisted by geostatics, particularly using kriging methods. The main goal is to obtain the most reliable digital terrain model for the calculation of the overburden volume. The data were collected on an irregularly spaced grid and interpolated values were calculated to provide a denser, more regular data set before volume, estimation. The field work was developed at the Butia-Leste Coal Mine, southern most Brazil. The study was developed in five main steps: data acquisition, exploratory data analysis, spatial continuity measurements, point and block kriging estimation, and verification of the results. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Oliveira, S.A.; Koppe, J.C.; Costa, J.F.C.L. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Mining Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31

29

Innovative status monitoring of open-cast mining equipment; Innovative Anlagenzustandsueberwachung auf Tagebauanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Life cycle cost (LCC) assessment is gaining ground as a method of cost assessment in industrial production. An analysis for various fields of industry showed that the operation, maintenance and repair are the biggest cost factor. The repair cost factor is increasing as plants and equipment are getting older (as they do in mining). The potential for rationalization should be fully exploited, and reserves especially in servicing and maintenance should be utilized. [German] Bei der Betrachtung der Kosten in der industriellen Produktion gewinnt zunehmend die sogenannte LCC-Methode an Bedeutung. Vereinfacht kann gesagt werden es sollten Betriebsanlagen mit einem definierten hohen Leistungsniveau und niedrigen Lebenszykluskosten (Life Cycle Cost, LCC) angeschafft werden, wobei LCC alle Kosten enthaelt die waehrend der Lebensdauer der Betriebsanlagen anfallen. Quer durch unterschiedliche Industrien zeigt sich, dass die weitaus groessten LCC-Anteile auf die Abschnitte 4. Betrieb der Anlage und 5. Wartung und Reparatur entfallen. Wobei sich diese Tendenz bei steigender Lebensdauer der Anlagen noch verstaerkt (die Anlagennutzungszeiten im Bergbau gehoeren zu den laengsten ueberhaupt.). Einzuschaetzen ist weiterhin, dass heute haeufig alle Rationalisierungspotentiale fuer den Betrieb der Anlagen ausgenutzt werden und sich bedeutende Reserven vor allem im Bereich der Wartung und Instandhaltung ergeben. (orig.)

Jahn [PC-Soft GmbH, Senftenberg (Germany)

2001-07-01

30

Assessment of radioactivity associated with a low ore grade open cast mine at Banduhurang, Jharkhand, India and estimation of occupational exposure to the miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative behavior of 222Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha (LL?) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in 2006-2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (?g) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m-3 with respective geometric standard deviations (?g) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m-3 and ?g of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 ?Gy h-1 with respective ?g were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 ?Gy h-1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively. The ?g of LL? activity was observed to be 16 mBq m-3 with ?g of 1.9 mBq m-3. The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to 1.41 mSv y-1, which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y-1. (author)

2010-01-01

31

Spatio-Temporal Land Cover Dynamics in Open Cast Coal Mine Area of Singrauli, M.P., India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Singrauli is an opencast coal mining area where large scale mining activities are going on continuously, land use/land cover studies are of vital importance to observe the changes in the land use/land cover. The present study utilizes multi-spectral/multi-temporal data of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS II geocoded (FCC) of 4th May 1993 and LISS III of 4th May 2010 for thematic mapping. Survey of India toposheet 63L/12 on scale 1:50,000 were used for preparation of base map which was overlaid on the FCC for land use/land cover mapping through visual interpretation. Visual interpretation of satellite imagery led to the identification of 15 land use/land cover categories such as dense forest, open forest, open scrub, plantation, cultivated land, uncultivated land, mining pit, overburden dumps, wasteland and settlement. The ground truth verification was carried out in key areas to rectify the errors in generated maps and then land use/land cover maps were finalized. The comparative analysis of land use/land cover shows that dense forest has been degraded to open forest, open scrubs and mining pits due to the expansion of mining activity. Open scrubs has increased, overburden dumps has increased, settlement has also increased, cultivated land has decreased and changed into uncultivated land and wasteland. It has also been observed that the plantation has been done on overburden dumps and residential colonies of NCL and NTPC. It has been identified that the main drivers which has increased the rate of change in land use/land cover are mainly coal mining activities and industrial expansion.

2012-01-01

32

Analysis of the effect of temperature and viscosity of the hydraulic fluid on the operational reliability of open-cast mining equipment; Einfluss von Temperatur und Viskositaet von Hydraulikfluessigkeiten auf die Betriebssicherheit von Tagebaugeraeten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emergency disconnection of open-cast mining equipment is often caused by the hydraulic system. The ambient temperature prevailing in open-cast mines affects the viscosity of the hydraulic fluid. Consequently the duration of a working cycle may be varied, which may adversely affect the life of the entire system and all the more so, if additional contaminants due to wear or dust from outside enter the hydraulic system. Temperature fluctuations in winter, when the ambient temperature changes from plus to minus values and rises again, are particularly critical. The tests were conducted on a TSM 250 Surface Miner in a phosphorite deposit in Uzbekistan. (orig.)

Grabski, Alexander [Moskauer Staatsuniv. (MGGU), Moskau (Russian Federation). Lehrstuhl fuer Bergbaugeraete und Bergausruestung; Grabski, Konstantin [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

2011-10-15

33

From deposit modelling to the mine plan engineering guidance in a Greenfield project for the opening of a lignite open-cast mine during the preparation and development phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In order to supply the nearby power plant Elbistan B, a new open-cast mine is being developed at the Collolar Field in Turkey. Initial fieldwork began in mid-2007, followed by overburden removal in early 2008 and lignite production in 2009. Several planning studies have been undertaken in order to prepare and undertake the initial work in just under two years, including the establishment of a geological model as a basis for calculating reserves, and for hydrological and geotechnical calculations, leading to a drainage concept and the formulation of requirements made on the slope stability. This paper presented the framework concept for the modelling and discussed the geological modelling and selection of a suitable development plan. The hydrological calculations and planning of drainage measures were also outlined. The more detailed plans for phase two, including the database for hydro-geological modelling, pumping tests and laboratory tests, ground water modelling, and the dewatering concept were also presented. The paper also discussed the determination of geotechnical parameters, calculation methods, and the slope stabilities at the mining and dumping site. It was concluded that regular comparison to plans and calculations on drainage and slope stability must be conducted when planning and operating a mine. 3 figs.

2010-01-01

34

Drilling of large-caliber wells in loose rock of the Rhenisch brown coal district for drainage of deep open-cast mines. Erstellen von grosskalibrigen Bohrbrunnen im Lockergestein des Rheinischen Braunkohlenreviers zur Entwaesserung der Tieftagebaue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In view of the geological and hydrological conditions of the Rhenish brown coal district, careful dewatering is necessary for assuring the stability of open-cast mines. The measures taken must be adapted to the increasing depths, the constant growth of the mines, and the advance rates. The paper shows the development of dewatering techniques and analyzes the modern, large-caliber drilling technique now commonly applied. (orig.).

Mock, H.P.

1989-04-28

35

The problem of liquidating the buildings of former underground brown coal mines in the Podkru?nohoøí area in connection with the decree of the czech bureau of mines no. 52/1997, collection of laws, and problems of open cast mines in places of their occurrences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contribution deals with the problems of liquidating buildings of former underground mining, especially of shafts of closed and damped mines. It is stated that strict maintaining the Decree of the Czech Bureau of Mines (ÈBÚ) No. 52/1997, Collection of Laws, has its justification for deep and gassy hard coal mines, but it cannot be absolutely valid in the full extent for shallow ore, and mainly brown coal mines. An example of the analysis of shaft depths of the Sokolov District and the liquidation of some shafts of the Most Coal Company, joint-stock company in Most is adduced. Moreover, the liquidation of objects of development and preparatory workings of former underground mines using the open-cast mining method and related problems are discussed in the contribution.

Kryl Václav; Hudeèek Vlastimil; Fröhlich Emil

2000-01-01

36

Assessment of heavy metal content and DNA damage in Hypsiboas faber (anuran amphibian) in coal open-casting mine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the study were to determine the heavy metal content in the tissues of Hypsiboas faber from a coal mining area and to compare the DNA damage in the blood cells of these animals with that of animals living in an unpolluted area. The heavy metal content was detected according to the technique of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and the DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay. Our results reveal that the specimens of H. faber collected from the coal mining area exhibited elements of order Fe>Cu>Al>Zn>Rb>Mn>Br, independently of the organ. The values of Comet assay parameters (DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency) were significantly higher in specimens collected from the coal mining area than in the reference animals. Our study concludes that the coal mining residues are genotoxic to amphibians and may have adverse effects on soil, water, vegetation and wild animals. PMID:23619523

Zocche, Jairo José; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Hainzenreder, Giana; Mendonça, Rodrigo Ávila; Peres, Poliana Bernardo; Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de

2013-04-01

37

Assessment of heavy metal content and DNA damage in Hypsiboas faber (anuran amphibian) in coal open-casting mine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of the study were to determine the heavy metal content in the tissues of Hypsiboas faber from a coal mining area and to compare the DNA damage in the blood cells of these animals with that of animals living in an unpolluted area. The heavy metal content was detected according to the technique of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and the DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay. Our results reveal that the specimens of H. faber collected from the coal mining area exhibited elements of order Fe>Cu>Al>Zn>Rb>Mn>Br, independently of the organ. The values of Comet assay parameters (DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency) were significantly higher in specimens collected from the coal mining area than in the reference animals. Our study concludes that the coal mining residues are genotoxic to amphibians and may have adverse effects on soil, water, vegetation and wild animals.

Zocche JJ; Damiani AP; Hainzenreder G; Mendonça RÁ; Peres PB; Santos CE; Debastiani R; Dias JF; Andrade VM

2013-07-01

38

Development of biological soil crusts and their influence on soil hydrology in the recultivation area of lignite open-cast mining district in Lower Lusatia (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses and lichens are often the first colonizers of substrate and initial soil surfaces. They are an important factor of initial soil formation as they stabilize the substrate and decrease erosion processes. Biological soil crusts accumulate the initial soil organic matter and provide nitrogen fixation. Once settled, the crusts influence the soil water regime by delaying or limiting infiltration through enhanced water repellency. Aim of this study was to compare the influence of biological soil crusts on soil hydrology under conditions on various substrates and of different ages in recultivated areas of the open-cast mining district of Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, NE Germany) with various recultivation aims. In Brandenburg (NE Germany), where the climate is transitional between oceanic and continental and the summers are characterized by generally low of precipitation (mean annual rainfall 559 mm, mean annual temperature 9.3° C) open landscapes provide ideal conditions for biological soil crusts, e. g. on mobile sand dunes in former military training areas and in recultivation areas related to open-cast mining with initial soil development. Here biological soil crusts are commonly found (Spröte et al., 2010). At five study sites in recultivation areas with different reclamation approaches (natural development, pine reforestation, birch reforestation) we defined four types of biological soil crusts: i) cyanobacterial and green algae crusts on the soil surface with no vegetation where dominating sand grains were physically stabilized in their contact zones by this crust type (type 1), ii) cyanobacteria and green algae partially filled in the matrix pores and enmeshed sand grains between sparse vegetation cover (type 2), iii) biological soil crusts with mosses which covered most of the surface between the vegetation (type 3) and (iv) with soil lichens (type 4). We investigated the development of the amount of chlorophyll a which is an indicator for biomass productivity and depends from the species composition and crust type, and the water repellency index which shows the influence of biological soil crusts on hydrological parameters. Additionally, organic matter content (dry combustion) as well as soil pH (soil: H2O = 1:2.5) were determined. Texture was analysed by wet sieving and fractionation pipette method. At all study sites and for all crust types soil pH ranged between 7.2 to 4.7 and decreased from type 1 to type 4. Soil organic matter and chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.3 and 1.7% and from 0.95 to 16.44 mg m-2, respectively, and increased from type 1 to type 4. With few exceptions, water repellency indices ranging between 1.0 and 1.85, followed this trend. Constrarily, infiltration rates decreased from type 1 to type 4. The cause for limited infiltration is the swelling of extracellular polysaccharides in the biological soil crusts (Fischer et al., 2010) and the influence of the particle size distribution and porosity of the substrate with a relatively high content of silt and clay at some study sites. Fischer, T., Veste, M., Wiehe, W. & Lange, P. (2010): Water repellency and pore clogging at early succesional stages of microbiotic crusts on inland dunes, Brandenburg, NE Germany. - Catena, 80, 47-52. Spröte, R.,Fischer, T., Veste, M., Raab, T., Wiehe, W., Lange, P., Bens, O., Hüttl, R.F. (2010): Biological topsoil crusts at early successional stages on Quaternary substrates dumped by mining in Brandenburg, NE Germany. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement 4/2010: 359-370.

Spröte, R.; Veste, M.; Fischer, T.; Raab, T.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

2012-04-01

39

Analysis of the planned post-mining landscape of MIBRAG's open-cast mines with regard to a possible environmental impact of alteration processes in mixed dumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There has been an increasing body of knowledge with regard to hydro- and geochemical alteration processes in overburden dumps and their impact on groundwater quality in lignite mining and reclamation operations associated with post-mining landscapes in Germany. The operators of the MIBRAG mines have examined issues regarding alteration processes and how they affect the environment and which opportunities exist to actively influence the dumping process. The objectives were to counteract any possible negative impact of the alteration processes. Special emphasis was on the impact caused by oxidation of sulfur containing minerals. This paper presented an analysis of the situation at United Schleenhain Mine and how it reflects on the work to date for MIBRAG's mines. A future outlook was also presented. Specifically, the paper discussed the development of the United Schleenhain mine and the post-mining landscape. The potential for discharge of substances was also evaluated along with acidification. 1 tab., 5 figs.

2010-01-01

40

Using computers for higher efficiency in preparation, management and control of GDR brown coal open-cast mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computers are used on the mining sector for research and development purposes, exploration, processing and operation control. All kinds of computers are used, from large central computers to decentralized microcomputers. The former will be better suited for R + D and production planning, the latter for higher efficiency at the place of work and for optimisation of the production process.

Mueller, D.; Strzodka, K.

1985-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Dust monitoring in the vicinity of Rhenish open-cast mines and coal processing plants in 1987/88  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earlier issues of Braunkohle journal presented dust monitoring data for 1981 through 1987; this article continues the statistics for the years 1987/88. Further yearly reports will follow. The measurements on behalf of the Mines Inspectorate were carried out by Institut fuer Umweltschutz und Agrikulturchemie Berge und Partner, Velbert, according to VDI 2119. No. 2, of June 1972, 'Measurements of particulate precipitations using the Bergerhoff instrument (standard method)'. According to the specifications, dust concentrations in each measuring point are determined by gravimetry, with a measuring time of 30 +- 2 days for each measured value. Dust precipitations are thus measured on a monthly basis in all measuring points throughout the whole measuring period.

Schultheis, W.

1989-03-01

42

Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.

2011-07-01

43

Changing environment and urban identity following open-cast mining and thermic power plant in Turkey: case of Soma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is a summary of a project changed into a book named by "Changing Environment, City and Identity in Soma with the Geographical Evaluations" issued on May 2005. In this research, Soma, which is one of the most remarkable districts in Manisa in the West Anatolia from the point of economical figures, is assessed with its physical environment potential, improving economical activities and changing socio-economical structure. Owing to the open coal basins in the northeast and southwest of the district where lignite is produced and the impact of the thermic power plant near the city centre, Soma has changed on a large scale. This change has introduced some environmental problems into the district such as the devastation of the forestry land; the infertility of farming land; and soil, water and air pollution. Even though the change under discussion has led to many problems to deal with, it has also influenced its socio-economical structure to a large extent and revealed new type of inhabitants having different life expectations and aims. In conclusion, in this article, changing environment and city structure after lignite processing and thermic station establishment in Soma are discussed through the effective geographical factors. The new city profile formed by the local dynamics in question is evaluated according to the data obtained by the studies made in the neighbourhood.

Karadag A

2012-03-01

44

Molecular analysis of bacterial communities in uranium ores and surrounding soils from Banduhurang open cast uranium mine, India: A comparative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial community structure of heavy metal rich- uranium ores and surrounding soils was explored using 16S rRNA gene based clone library analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to provide baseline microbial diversity data on autochthonous communities. Sequence analysis of major ribotypes and/or DGGE bands revealed Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria as the two most frequently present bacterial phyla across the samples, although relative abundance of each phyla and identity of their members at lower taxonomic level showed marked difference. Gammaproteobacteria (Pseudomonas and Escherichia) was most abundant in U-ore samples along with the lineages of ?-Proteobacteria (Burkholderia and Janthinobacterium), ?-Proteobacteria (Brevundimonas), Bacteroidetes (Spingobacterium), Firmicutes (Peptoniphilus), Actinobacteria (Corynebacterium), uncultured -Acidobacteria, -Chloroflexi and -Cyanobacterium. In contrast to this soil communities were represented by mixed populations predominated by uncultured Acidobacteria along with Gammaproteobacteria (Succinivibrio, Cellovibrio and Legionella), ?-Proteobacteria (Rhodocyclus), ?-Proteobacteria (Methylocystis and Phenylobacterium), ?-Proteobacteria, unclassified bacteria, uncultured Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (Bacillus), Cyanobacteria (Scytonema), Actinobacteria (Actinomadura) and candidate division TM7. Principle Component Analyis (PCA) of geochemical data and UPGMA cluster analysis of DGGE profiles were in close agreement showing characteristic relatedness of samples obtained from either ores or soils. Our analysis indicated that soils surrounding the ore deposit bear specific geochemical as well as microbiologial characteristics distinct from the ore deposit and therefore these data obtained at the onset of mining could serve as a baseline of information to gauge the subsequent environmnetal impact of U-mining.

Islam E; Dhal PK; Kazy SK; Sar P

2011-01-01

45

Mining reporter. Export journal for mining equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This English-language export journal is published once a year. It reports on innovations and developements on the mine suppliers' sector, presenting figures along with the text. Mining machinery is classified according to: Roadway drivage and shaft sinking, transport and haulage, winning and stowing mine supports, energy supply, ventilation, mine safety, open-cast mines, and processing.

1980-01-01

46

Cast blasting in coal mine dragline applications; Dragline dilimlerinde patlatma ile malzeme otelenmesi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In some coal mines it would be possible to reduce costs by applying modern drilling and blasting techniques with the help of explosives. In dragline applications overburden is blasted, then excavated, to expose the coal. With changes in mining plans and the application of the cast blasting technique this overburden can be removed to the spoil pile without rehandling. This leads to an increase in dragline efficiency and considerable economic advantage to the coal mine operators. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Patir, O.; Salgir, H. [Maden Yuk.Muh Nitro-Mak A.S., Soma (Turkey)

1996-11-01

47

Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

Lucai WANG; Haijuan LI; Fang WANG

2005-01-01

48

Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

Hadj-Hassen, F. [Ecole des Mines de Paris - CGES, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Bienvenu, Y. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CM, 91 - Evry (France); Noirel, J.F. [Charbonnages de France, DTN, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France); Metz, M. [charbonnages de France, ESA, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France)

2005-07-01

49

Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

2005-01-01

50

Highwall stability due to punch mining at opencut coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of Indonesia's coal is extracted from open cast mines. There are many long highwalls at abandoned mining operations where coal can no longer be safely mined because of weak strata. The feasibility of introducing punch room and pillar mining to Indonesian mines is examined. Conventional highwall mining and punch highwall mining systems are described. The stability of highwalls, because of punch mining, was studied using finite element modelling. The results are discussed. 12 refs., 11 tabs., 1 tab.

Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Sasaoka, T.; Cao, H.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, H.; Ueda, T.; Yabuki, A.; Kramadibrata, S.; Sulistianto, B. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Earth Resources Engineering

2003-07-01

51

The design, implementation and optimization of casting blasts in strip mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes experience in designing and implementing casting blasts over the past fifteen years. Important design parameters such as powder factor, burden and spacing, blast pattern geometry, front row burden and toe distance, pit width versus height, blast length, explosive selection, millisecond delay timing and tie-in types are discussed. Active highwall presplitting is often an important technique to incorporate into casting blasts. Currently mines are finding it advantageous to angle presplit to enhance the stability of the resulting highwall. Experience with angle hole presplitting is discussed. When casting is introduced in a dragline mine, changes to the dragline operating methods are often necessary. Techniques for operating the dragline in these pits are described. Cost is always an important consideration when new techniques are introduced at a mine. The economics of increased stripping rates and coal shipments resulting from cast blasting is compared to conventional, non-blasting techniques with the same dragline. It is observed that for direct cast percentages beyond 25 percent costs are quite favorable.

Workman, J.L. [Calder and Workman, Inc., Washburn, ND (United States)

1995-12-31

52

Examples of open pit mining instability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geotechnical technology for surface mining has become increasingly sophisticated as lower grade ore deposits are being developed. With larger and deeper open pits, more detailed and accurate investigation has become necessary during the past decade. Many variables influence successful open pit operations. These include ore grade, metal price, development costs, construction costs, mine design, stability and operating costs. With the great increase in the size of open pits to depths over 600 - 800 meters, the determination of pit slope angle and control of wall stability has a major influence on project economics. This paper briefly discusses preliminary considerations for pit slopes from a geotechnical standpoint to optimize economics and safety including structural geology, groundwater, blasting, pit geometry and in-situ stress. Recent developments in stability engineering are described and to illustrate a wide range of stability problems, typical examples are briefly reviewed. 12 refs., 11 figs.

Brawner, C.O.

1987-01-01

53

Cast iron for manufacturing castings of heavy-duty mining pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyzes wear of steel and iron elements of pumps used for mine draining in underground coal mines, factors that influence corrosive and abrasive wear as well as methods for reducing pump element wear. Laboratory investigations carried out by the VNIIPTuglemash Institute in the USSR show that chromium iron characterized by high resistance to wear is superior to steels and standard alloys used in the USSR for manufacturing elements for mining pumps. Curves that describe effects of chromium and carbon content in iron on its wear resistance are plotted. Selecting the optimum chromium and carbon content in the chromium iron considering operating conditions of pumps is analyzed. A special chromium iron alloy developed by the Institute and recommended for manufacturing pump elements characterized by a high resistance to wear is described. Service life of pump elements made from standard alloys and from the chromium-iron alloy recommended by the Institute are compared.

Derbasow, A.M.

1988-01-01

54

Requirements to be met by the overburden belt conveyor system from Hambach open cut to Fortuna open cut, from the aspect of mine planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report centers on the dumping of overburden at Fortuna open-cast mine. Transport by a belt conveyor system assures economic efficiency of overburden removal. The analysis of the operational availability of the conveyor system was the central aspect in operations planning. The author describes the assembly, infrastructure, monitoring and control of the belt conveyor system. (HLN).

Krug, M.

1984-11-01

55

Clearing rain from open-pit mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the large yearly rainfall in Panguna, Bougainveille Island, North Solomons Province, Papua New Guinea, unique problems have developed for the open-pit copper mine operated there by Bougainville Copper Limited. The large size of ths pit intercepts numerous streams and drainways which enter the area. The article discusses various methods to reduce and eliminate this water. Methods discussed are channels, pumping and tunneling.

1984-05-01

56

Acid mine treatment with open limestone channels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often associated with mining of pyritic coal and metal deposits. Typical AMD associated with coal mines in the eastern US can have acidity and iron concentrations ranging from the teens to the thousands of mg/l. Aluminum and manganese can be present in concentrations ranging from zero to the low hundreds of mg/l. Much attention has been devoted to developing inexpensive, limestone (LS)-based systems for treating AMID with little or no maintenance. However, LS tends to coat with metal hydroxides when exposed to AMID in an oxidized state, a process known as {open_quotes}armoring{close_quotes}. It is generally assumed that once armored, LS ceases to neutralize acid. Another problem is that the hydroxides tend to settle into plug the pore spaces in LS beds forcing water to move around rather than through the LS. While both are caused by the precipitation of metal hydroxides, armoring and plugging are two different problems. Plugging of LS pores can be avoided by maintaining a high flushing rate through the LS bed. Armoring, however, occurs regardless of water velocity. This study investigated the influence of armoring on LS solubility and the implications of armoring and plugging on the construction of open (oxidizing) LS channels for treating AMD. We evaluated the AMID treatment performance of armored and unarmored LS in oxidizing environments both in laboratory and field studies.

Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Brant, D.L.; Skousen, J.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

57

Hydrogeochemical investigations and analyses of the exothermal reaction in sediments of Witznitz open-cast mine in Saxony - an attempt to detect iron disulphide oxidation processes in dump material; Hydrogeochemische Untersuchungen und Bestimmung der exothermen Reaktion in Sedimenten im Tagebau Witznitz-Sachsen: ein Versuch der Erkennung von Eisendisulfidverwitterungsprozessen in Kippen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work different methods are used to detect and correlate exothermic reactions, which is caused by iron disulphide oxidation in dump material. Hydrogeochemical as well as, classical analysis methods, such as RDA (X-Ray diffractometry), RFA (X-Ray fluorescens) and DTA (differential thermal analysis) are used. Additionally an interpretation of the thermal bands of a scene, recorded by a DAIS 7915 Sensor, together with measurements taken with a radiation thermometer is done. The applied methods led only partly to success. The hydrogeochemical analysis in combination with the RDA and the dump substrate map proved to be a practical and also an economically feasible assessment. An initial state can be described by pH and conductivity measurements and then completed by the mineralogical deposit. This enabled to determine how much material already weathered over the dump flows. This method combination can successfully be used for the rehabilitation of dumps in the brown coal open cast mining. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird versucht, exotherme Reaktionen im Kippenmaterial, die durch die Eisendisulfidverwitterung hervorgerufen werden, mit unterschiedlichen Methoden zu erkennen und zu korrelieren. Verwendet wurden hydrogeochemische sowie, RDA (Roentgendiffraktometrie), RFA (Roentgenfluoreszens) und DTA (Differentialthermo) Analysen als klassische Methoden. Zusaetzlich wurde eine Interpretation der Thermalkanaele einer Szene, die mit einem DAIS - Sensor aufgezeichnet wurde, verwendet, wie Messungen mit dem Strahlungsthermometer. Die hier angewendeten Methoden fuehrten nur teilweise zum Erfolg. Fuer eine praktische Aufnahme, die auchoekonomisch machbar erscheint, hat sich die hydrogeochemische Analyse im Verbund mit der RDA und den Kippensubstratkarten erwiesen. Durch pH-und Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen kann ueber die Kippenablaeufe ein Grundzustand beschrieben werden, der es ermoeglicht, ergaenzt durch die mineralogische Bestandsaufnahme, zu bestimmen, wie viel Material bereits verwittert ist. Diese Methodenkombination kann erfolgreich fuer die Rehabilitation von Kippen im Braunkohletagebau eingesetzt werden.

Afonso Cortes, I.M.

2000-07-01

58

Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both of the mines. (author). 10 refs.

Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

1998-12-01

59

Technical computing in open cut mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of eight papers was presented at the seminar with the following titles: overview computer applications; geological data base; geological modelling; mine surveying; mine layout and equipment selection; mine scheduling; spatial data and CAD drafting; infrastructure and civil engineering.

1988-01-01

60

Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Knight Hawk opens Prairie Eagle. Plans for underground mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In March 2005 Knight Hawk's Prairie Eagle mine in Perry County, Illinois began operating. By midsummer a superior Highwall machine will be in use here. The mine is expected to produce 950,000 to 1.2 million tons of Herrin No. 6 coal annually with a workforce of 50. A heavy machine coal preparation plant is expected to be operational by July. The company has taken steps to open an underground mine in the Royalton area. 3 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2005-04-01

62

Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is 'deepened' in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level. (authors)

2007-01-01

63

New mines rescue station opens in Hunter Valley  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new Hunter Valley Mines Rescue Station was formally opened by Pat Hills, the New South Wales Minister for Industrial Relations, on October 29th, 1983. It was exhaustively researched and designed to suit the special needs of the coal mining industry in the Hunter Valley.

1983-01-01

64

Advances in overburden blast-casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents an overview of global development in the field of overburden blast-casting. Parameters to be considered for successful casting of overburden by blasting are discussed. The economical and environmental aspects of explosive casting are detailed. In India, where more than 60% of coal production is expected from opencast method, blast-casting is anticipated to be a cheaper alternative to conventional stripping operations. For open-pit mining of developed coal seams in Indian coalfields, blast-casting is likely to offer special technological advantage. 21 references.

Gupta, R.N.; Adhikari, G.R.; Singh, B.

1986-11-01

65

Perils of project development on public land open to mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conducting a government project on public land open to the general mining laws can result in added costs, legal entanglements, schedule uncertainties, and the potential for unanticipated safety issues and concerns due to interactions with mining claimants. Planning for such projects must include a careful assessment of not only land access needs and restrictions, but also possible scenarios for conflict with activities authorized under the general mining laws throughout the life of the project. It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the applicable mining laws and how they are currently being interpreted and applied by the responsible regulatory authorities and land managers. The Yucca Mountain Project approach to land access, problems encountered with mining claims filed under the Mining Law of 1872, and the lessons learned from these experiences are discussed in this paper.

Jacobs, W.R. [SAIC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1991-12-31

66

Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. STANDARDIZED EMISSION INVENTORY METHODOLOGY: To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (?70 Mt/year). RESULTS: The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

Huertas JI; Camacho DA; Huertas ME

2011-08-01

67

Greenhills coal mine is officially opened  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhills 300 million-dollar surface mining operation is located in the East Kootenay region of southeastern British Columbia. Production in 1983 will be approximately 1.1-million tonnes and in 1984 will reach its capacity of 2.8-million tonnes. Greenhills' strengths include its long-term contracts, its high quality product, a highly modern and flexible mining operation, and a unique system of participatory management. The mining operation which includes multiple seam mining, coal preparation, long-term contracts, and worker's association are described.

1983-10-01

68

Computer software for open pit mine design - an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer software for mine modeling and design has been evolving into systems which are strong on interactive graphics, high quality visualization of surfaces and solids, and friendly user interfaces. Fortunately, the days of compiling a file full of numbers to make a program run are long gone. Inexpensive desktop hardware can provide sophisticated graphics and interactive CAD. The latest computer and software technology helps engineers and geologists accomplish mine design and production tasks quickly and efficiently. The article starts by defining the characteristics of computer software needed for surface mine planning then gives a summary of open pit design techniques used in computer software. Brief summaries follow of the capabilities of surface mine design software. The programs listed range from signal application systems such as dragline or haulage simulation to fully integrated systems with geologic data handling, modeling, mine design and reserve calculations. The software characteristics of some 40 programs are also presented in tabular form. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Gibbs, B.L. [Gibbs Associates, Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-09-01

69

Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

1982-01-01

70

Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

1982-08-01

71

Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.).

1984-01-01

72

Energy use benchmarks for open cut coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy studies have been undertaken at a number of open cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales. This paper discusses the objectives and findings of the studies. The objective of the studies were to produce credible and meaningful information for coal mine management and the electricity industry that would result in increased energy productivity for mine establishments. It was found that energy efficient data can be used as a management tool to improve overall mine performance as well as to reduce energy consumption and thus lower operating costs. A range of energy efficiency benchmarks and targets have been established, which, when applied across coal mines, still assist in leading to a significant improvement in energy efficiency in the coal mining industry, thereby leading to an improvement in environmental performance. Given the current pricing differential between electricity and diesel, greater use of electricity in all facets of mining operations leads to lower overall energy costs. This observation was drawn from the performances of the individual mine sites making allowances for the possible improvements in energy use at each location. 4 tabs. 3 refs.

Cooke, D. [Denis Cooke and Associates Pty Ltd., Carlingford, NSW (Australia); Randall, C. [C Randall and Associates Pty Ltd., Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

1995-12-31

73

Formation of secondary iron minerals and their influence on the mobility of arsenic during the flooding of open-cut lignite mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The flooding of open cast lignite mines in Eastern Germany raises the risk of widespread contamination of ground water due to the mobilization of oxidation products of the pyrites, which are common in the backfill. Samples from a research borehole in the shut-down open-cast Cospuden show distinct zones of immobilization and mobilization of iron and arsenic. After ten years the conveying bridge spoil was covered with an approximately 17 m thick stacker spoil dump. The upper 2-3 m of the older dump are a zone of reduced element mobility. Fe is immobilized e.g. as jarosite and arsenic is predominantly adsorbed on secondary minerals like ferrihydrite and/or schwertmannite. Beneath this upper zone follows a section with ongoing pyrite oxidation resulting in an enhanced mobility of iron and arsenic with the potential of ground water contamination during flooding of the open-cast. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Ruede, T.R.; Wohnlich, S.; Vogelsang, A.

1997-08-01

74

The role of coal geologists in open cut mine planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geologists have an important responsibility in the planning of open cut coal mining operations. To be effective, they should have strong teamwork and communications skills as well as technical and professional ability. They should also be skilled in the handling of large amounts of data by the application of computer techniques and the use of geostatistics.

Goscombe, P.W.

1987-01-01

75

Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

76

Energy consumption in open pit mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article evaluates energy consumption in overburden stripping using draglines, shovels and trucks, and scrapers. Each of these systems is specified. In the dragline mine, overburden preparation, blasting, and reclamation are specified. For the dragline system, electric power accounts for about 40% of the total, compared to only 11% with scrapers. Dragline demonstrates the lowest overall energy costs. This paper measures only the energy cost.

Nilsson, D.; Reddy, N.P.

1983-07-01

77

Model studies of an open-pit mine bottom loaded by artesian water pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental modelling methods are used for prediction of deformation and groundwater outflows at the bottom of an open-pit mine during the excavation of brown coal. Thermal gasbearing artesian water exerts an uplift pressure on the impervious subsoil of the coal seam and threatens the stability of the mine bottom. The break-through of the mine bottom would seriously affect the groundwater regime and may endanger mining activities. The mining is carried out within the protection zones of the Carlsbad spa springs. Results of model studies are used to determine protective hydrogeological and mining measures for providing the maximum protection for the open-pit mine and the spa springs. (orig.)

Trckova, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

1998-09-01

78

Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

2004-01-01

79

Mining chemical information from Open patents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Linked Open Data presents an opportunity to vastly improve the quality of science in all fields by increasing the availability and usability of the data upon which it is based. In the chemical field, there is a huge amount of information available in the published literature, the vast majority of wh...

Jessop, David M; Adams, Sam; Murray-Rust, Peter

80

Mining chemical information from open patents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Linked Open Data presents an opportunity to vastly improve the quality of science in all fields by increasing the availability and usability of the data upon which it is based. In the chemical field, there is a huge amount of information available in the published literature, the vast majority of which is not available in machine-understandable formats. PatentEye, a prototype system for the extraction and semantification of chemical reactions from the patent literature has been implemented and is discussed. A total of 4444 reactions were extracted from 667 patent documents that comprised 10 weeks' worth of publications from the European Patent Office (EPO), with a precision of 78% and recall of 64% with regards to determining the identity and amount of reactants employed and an accuracy of 92% with regards to product identification. NMR spectra reported as product characterisation data are additionally captured.

Jessop David M; Adams Sam E; Murray-Rust Peter

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Importance of terrestrial photogrammetry for coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examples from the Ruhr, the Helmstedt region, Australia and Sardinia show how terrestrial photogrammetry has become an important aid in prospecting, exploration and exploitation of brown coal and hard coal both in underground mines and open-cast mines and in tectonically simple or complex rock strata.

Adolf, R.E.; Luetge, H.H.; Walter, H.A.

1985-12-01

82

Pocket glossary of mining. Das kleine Bergbaulexikon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This 4th, revised edition with 350 pages and more than 600 new terms gives precise and easily understandable definitions of more than 2200 mining terms. Apart from new developments in mining and safety engineering, the 4th edition contains technical terms of open-cast brown coal mining. The mining glossary is an ideal manual for mining engineers and others faced with problems of mining in industrial enterprises, official authorities and training institutions. The text is illustrated by about 550 figures and tables.

Bischoff, W.; Bramann, H.; Duerrer, F.; Moebius, P.G.; Quadfasel, H.; Schlueter, W.

1983-01-01

83

Fatigue crack growth in austempered ductile and grey cast irons - stress ratio effects in air and mine water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study is presented of the effect of stress ratio on fatigue crack growth in grey (GI) and austempered ductile (ADI) cast irons in laboratory air and, for the ADI, in synthetic mine water. Fatigue crack closure was measured by compliance techniques and factored out of the applied {Delta}K values ({Delta}K=K{sub max}-K{sub min}) to give effective stress intensity values. Crack growth rate modelling was then attempted for the laboratory air data using a two-parameter approach ({Delta}K and K{sub max}). This worked well for the ADI, but not for the GI, probably due to the much larger scatter inherent in the fatigue crack growth rates in the latter alloy. Trends in the observed growth rate and closure data for the two alloys are explained in terms of mechanism changes arising from microstructural/crack tip plastic zone interactions, and K{sub max} effects. (orig.) 9 refs.

James, M.N. [Plymouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mech. and Marine Eng.; Li Wenfong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

1999-06-15

84

Preparation of big size open-cell aluminum foam board using infiltration casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an infi ltration casting technique for manufacturing big size open-cell aluminum foam boards. The principle and key technologies of infi ltration casting are also analyzed. Based on the previous practice of the small size aluminum foam production, the die for preparing big size aluminum foam boards is designed and manufactured. The experiments on aluminum boards of 300 mm × 300 mm × (20-75) mm, with the pore size ranging from 1.0 to 3.2 mm and average porosity of 60%, have been performed. The experimental results show that a reliable infi ltration process depends critically on the pouring temperature of the molten Al-alloy, the preheated temperature of the mould and salt particles and vacuum. Current research explores the possibility of large-scale manufacturing and application of the aluminum foams.

Wang Lucai; Chen Yuyong; Wang Fang

2008-01-01

85

Main trends in scientific-research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Consideration is given to main trends in research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts of Priargunsky mine-chemical association. Develops and introduced principally new design solutions and technologies in the field of open mining, underground mining, as well as in-situ and heap leaching, are described

1993-01-01

86

Appraisal of overburden blast casting technique in Indian surface coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Indian surface coal mining industry is growing, prompted by the need to cut mining costs through maximizing the overall scale of the operations. Hence the need for improvement in productivity using overburden appears to be promising technique intended to improve the productivity of given operations. On these lines, this paper compares the global practices of the technique as against experience gained during the application in India. An attempt is made to analyse the potential of this technique based on assessment of Indian scenario considering various impediments. In conclusion, the paper provides suggestive measures coupled with future potential, so that the method becomes acceptable technology. 24 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Uttarwar, M.; Yerpude, R. [Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering, Chandrapur (India)

2008-07-01

87

Creep closure of an opening in a deep potash mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The creep closure of an isolated opening in a deep potash mine at Esterhazy, Canada, has been simulated with finite element calculations. These were done to assess the plausibility of a creep model, developed from laboratory data, for natural rock salt. Since it is difficult to generate and interpret creep data at the low stresses likely to be encountered around underground excavations, the comparison of field measurements with model predictions is valuable in establishing the plausibility of constitutive models for creep over a long time at low stresses. The favorable comparison obtained in this study, between predicted wall convergences, and those measured over a period of eight years in the opening at Esterhazy, helps verify the creep model used. 2 figures

1983-01-01

88

Creep closure of an opening in a deep potash mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The creep closure of an isolated opening in a deep potash mine at Esterhazy, Canada, has been simulated with finite element calculations. These were done to assess the plausibility of a creep model, developed from laboratory data, for natural rock salt. Since it is difficult to generate and interpret creep data at the low stresses likely to be encountered around underground excavations, the comparison of field measurements with model predictions is valuable in establishing the plausibility of constitutive models for creep over a long time at low stresses. The favorable comparison obtained in this study, between predicted wall convergences, and those measured over a period of eight years in the opening at Esterhazy, helps verify the creep model used. 2 figures.

Montgomery, S.T.

1983-01-01

89

Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

2004-01-01

90

30 CFR 75.501-3 - New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. 75.501-3 Section 75...Equipment-General § 75.501-3 New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. (a) Where a...

2010-07-01

91

Analyzing factors influencing productivity in Yugoslav coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results are outlined for a study made by the Mining Institute of Belgrade on the factors influencing the productivity of Yugoslav coal mines. Data published in the Yearbook of Yugoslav coal mines (published by the Mining Institute of Belgrade) were used. Altogether 34 coal mines (11 open surface casts and 23 underground coal mines) were involved in the study. The main factors influencing productivity are: level of concentration of production, level of technological innovation, miner interest in the work and motivation, level of organization, calorific value of exploited coal, mining conditions.

Perisic, M.; Vujic, J.

1984-01-01

92

Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

Kisieleski, W.E.

1980-06-01

93

In situ characterization at limestone open pit mine using prompt gamma neutron activation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) in situ characterization of blast holes in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. has been performed. This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results for a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAA system gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines. (orig.)

2010-01-01

94

Mine design using column analysis: a tool for the incremental evaluation of open-pit mining deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Column analysis is a method whereby down-hole drill data can be assessed for open-pit mining potential. This technique enables a single hole to be evaluated as a small pit, and can serve as a basis for preliminary mine design. Specific operating costs are assigned to intervals of material as they are encountered from the surface to the base of mining. Summed operating costs are then divided by the units of recoverable product anticipated. The resulting value (on a per unit basis) is then assigned to the individual hole being evaluated, and can be used directly in preliminary mine planning. Profitability can also be determined for each hole by multiplying the difference between the unit cost and the market value of the recovered product by the amount of recovered product. Mine planning can then proceed by evaluating the quantity of favorable holes within a given area, their continuity, and the overall cost and profitability relative to desired or available market and production conditions.

Tracy, L.N.

1984-04-01

95

Uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)[de] Der Bericht behandelt den Abbau und die Verarbeitung von Uran. Der erste Teil des Berichts befasst sich mit dem Brennstoffkreislauf, verschiedenen Arten von Uranlagerstaetten, Tagebau und Untertageabbau, den Gewinnungskosten und dem Strahlenschutz im Bergwerk. Der zweite Teil behandelt die Uranverarbeitung, einschliesslich Verfahrenstechnik, Saeure- und Laugenbehandlung, dem Verfahrensablauf fuer die chemische und physikalische Behandlung der Erze, und der Kosten. Jedes Kapitel wird durch Zeichnungen, graphische Abbildungen, Tabllen und Flussschemata ergaenzt. (HK)

1976-11-30

96

Planning and technical layout of bucket wheel excavators for large open pit mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first step in planning an open pit mining operation is the geological survey of the deposit using drill cores, to identify the mineable seams, their calorific value, the overburden - coal ratio and hardness of the rocks. The latter will determine whether a bucket wheel excavator system is feasible. The effective output per hour of the system may then be determined and also its theoretical output, the belt widths and belt speed for the conveyors on the machines and for the conveyor system, the bucket wheel parameters, its drive power, the required mining height and bucket wheel outreach and its technical layout. Finally, a mining plan may be drawn up.

Hoffmann, D.

1986-04-01

97

Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers. Calibration of the hydrodynamic model is the starting point for making prognosis calculation in order to create the most optimal system of open-pit mine protection from groundwater. The results of model calibration indicated that the rivers Gomjenica and Bistrica, precipitation and inflow from karstified rocks are the primary sources of recharge of the limonite ore body “Buva?”.

Polom?i? Dušan; Baji? Dragoljub; Papi? Petar; Stojkovi? Jana

2013-01-01

98

A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning and management of a mine. Optimization of long-term production planning needs correct selection of equipments and labor forces and reducing capital and operation costs. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) methods are used for optimizing production planning in open pit mines with objective of maximizing the total discounted net present value. But MIP formulation of the production scheduling in open pit mines, particularly in large open pit with many numbers of blocks needs too many variables causing it very difficult or impossible to solve. To over come this problem a new heuristic approach by reducing schedule period and applying primary guess is developed based on mixed integer linear programming to reduce the periods of planning and decrease the number of variable and the number of constraint needed in the formulation. The results of this method compared to existing methods shows the significant reduction of binary variable in MIP formulation and higher chance to obtain the optimal Net Present Value (NPV).

Vahid Rafiee; Omid Asghari

2008-01-01

99

Behavior of a wide opening in a deep potash mine: A case history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the case history of a monitored opening 4.5 m high by 42 m wide in a deep potash mine. Deformations and stresses were measured in the roof and a wall. From the monitoring data, the geometry of the active opening and viscoplastic zone was determined and compared with predicted values. Reasonable agreement between measured and predicted values was obtained. Using the data, the projected mining layout of relatively thick pillars with viscoelastic zones was evaluated and found to be satisfactory.

Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.

1987-01-01

100

The part played by the geologist in the development of open cast operations of the French collieries. Les interventions du geologue dans le developpement des exploitations a ciel ouvert des Charbonnages de France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The open cast operations of the collieries of the Centre and South, a group of the French Coal Board, are divided among seven sites (Aumance, Aveyron, Blanzy, Gard, Herault, Loire and Tarn) in a generally complex geological structure, and produce 1.3 mill. tonnes of coal per year. Geologists play an active part in: the exploration with surveys of ground, boreholes and loggings; the conception of open pits with data processing, geotechnical observations and calculations, a technical-economical evaluation of the reserves, and projects of restoration of the sites; during the exploitation with a tight-mesh examination, the sorting of coal, a follow-up of the exploitation, specially a geotechnical follow-up, and the placing of strengthening structures; during a stoppage of the operation by taking steps to ensure a green and healthy environment. These interventions which are coordinated by these collieries are partly subcontracted to specialized enterprises, colleges or universities. The collieries of the Centre and South Coalfield of the CdF group mine 1.3 mill. tonnes of open cast coal in seven sites. This production, although only modest (the British output is ten times greater) requires new and varied skills in geology. 4 figs.

Laversanne, J. (Service Technique Jour et Decouverte des HBCM (France))

1991-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ways and means of dewatering opencast mines, particularly at great depth or in difficult mining conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contains the report submitted by the Group of Experts on Open-cast Mines at its fourth session in Ankara, Turkey, on 9-13 May 1983. Reviews the need for and the importance of dewatering in opencast mining; exploration of hydrogeological conditions; dewatering techniques (filter well dewatering of large areas, road/fall-filter dewatering, surface dewatering by ditches); and special techniques of dewatering (dewatering of spoil dumps, horizontal boreholes, waterproofing wells).

1985-06-01

102

Casting methods  

Science.gov (United States)

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

103

Urinary casts  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, or ... your urine is healthy or abnormal. Types of urinary casts include: Fatty casts Granular casts Hyaline casts ...

104

Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

NONE

1995-12-31

105

Land reclamation policy after open pit coal mining in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An overview is presented of the results of land reclamation activities in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district, and the principles are outlined of the long-term plan for ecosystem restoration in that region. (J.B.)

1993-01-01

106

Open mining Garzweiler II. Monitoring for the environment; Braunkohlentagebau Garzweiler II. Monitoring fuer die Umwelt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The open mining Garzweiler II lies few kilometers far away from the nature park Schwalm-Nette (Federal Republic of Germany). Therefore, preventive measures and a monitoring were specified in its approval. With this program, the relations between water management and ecology are observed, evaluated and controlled in the next century.

Levacher, Dorothee [Landesamt fuer Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen (Germany)

2009-07-01

107

Mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mechanisation in US coal mining has advanced so far that 80% of the minerals required by the US industries are produced by less than 1% of the working population. The development of mechanisation is described using the example of the coal mining sector.

Marovelli, R.L.; Karhnak, J.M.

1982-11-01

108

Application of cast iron-platinum keeper to a collapsible denture for a patient with constricted oral opening: a clinical report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insertion of a denture is especially difficult for patents with a constricted oral opening. This report describes the fabrication of a collapsible removable partial denture with a cast iron-platinum attachment for a partially edentulous woman with a constricted oral opening resulting from rheumatoid arthritis and a craniotomy for a subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Ohkubo C; Watanabe I; Tanaka Y; Hosoi T

2003-07-01

109

Efficient mine management and control by integration of high-capacity data processing systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German Rhenish brown coal mining industry has remained competitive in the energy market through increases in productivity. This is achieved through concentration on a few efficient open cast mines and the further development of bucket wheel excavator and belt conveyor technology. To provide an optimum combination of utilization of labour and mechanical equipment, efficient data processing systems are being integrated into the mining operation. Resource usage and costs data are used to facilitate cost-oriented management and control. 3 figs.

Mueller, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

1993-12-31

110

A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs.

1991-01-01

111

Problems of definitive slopes mining at Doly Nastup Tusimice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The instability of slopes influents mining business in many aspects at open-cast mining. The temporary decrease of intended mined volumes due to land slips is common and sometimes there is necessary to change origin-mining plans. It has impact to economy and other essential costs for rehabilitation are required. In case of definitive slopes formation in contact to traffic and communication networks, watercourses and infrastructures of seats stability of slope security there is even more important. Monitoring of rock massive stability plays an important role. Everything which stability of slopes is concerned belongs to essential tasks for mining technicians at open-cast mining. The article explains what ways for definitive slope formation near mining boundary were selected at Severoceske doly j.s.c., Doly Nastup Tusimice mining site. The precautions refer to mining technology, preventive and reconstruction precautions for stabilization of slopes must to solve, are to described. Tasks, which mining engineers, surveyors, geologists and geotechnics have to solve are described. (authors)

2007-01-01

112

Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

2008-01-01

113

Efficient cycle time in loaders and trucks can mean increased production for any open-pit mining operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Loading and hauling are two major expenses for open-pit mine operators. Hauling alone can account for up to 30 to 50% of the total mining cost. The cycle time for loading and hauling is one factor that can be improved at almost any mine. Methods by which the cycle can be made more efficient are discussed. Such methods include optimizing fleet size, determining machine compatibility, location of dump sites, and improving the conditions of the hauling routes.

1984-08-01

114

Underground mine monitoring and control testing criteria. Open File report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proliferation of computer-based monitoring and control systems for underground coal mines has created the need for criteria to be used in evaluating the performance of the systems. The report contains the findings and conclusions of research on the development of test criteria for monitoring and control systems. The design of a test facility for control systems performance measurement of monitoring and control systems is presented. Tests were conducted and the results were used to develop recommended criteria. The implementation of the test facility, test conclusions, and resultant objectives are described in the executive summary. The appendix presents the detailed design of test facility hardware and software.

Nutter, R.S.; Chapman, R.S.; Kissel, A.M.; Winkelmann, C.A.; Voltz, W.R.

1984-06-30

115

Mining methods and equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mining methods and equipment for both metallic and coal deposits are described. Chapters cover: ore bodies; finding and evaluating ore bodies, opening a mineral deposit for mining; major operations of mining; developing the ore body for mining; surface mining; underground mining methods; and reclamation practices. Definitions of mining terms are included. The text is heavily illustrated.

Stout, K.S.

1980-01-01

116

Safety aspects in uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The nuclear fuels cycle rightly starts with the exploration of uranium and other nuclear materials. Mining is undertaken only after the economic and strategic viability of mining of the uranium is established. The grade of the ore (percentage of uranium) is generally of the order of 0.05 - 0.2% worldwide. There are uranium deposits in the world with much higher uranium content, even as high as 60%. Such deposits are only few in number. The uranium mine may be of open cast or of underground type depending on the size, depth, strike length, grade and other relevant characteristics of the deposit. In either case, mining or subsequent processing of the ore involves exposure of the workers to radiation in addition to the usual industrial hazards to which those in other similar industries are subjected. Generally speaking, the radiological hazards in underground mining are more serious and difficult to tackle than in open cast mines. So the ensuing discussion by default, deals with the underground mining scenario

1998-12-18

117

Optical fibre conductors also in the mining industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After presenting the advantages and short comings of optical information transmission techniques, the author explains the function of information transfer as well as some important characteristic values and features of optical waveguides or cables. Existing optical waveguide installations are described, e.g. in open-cast mines and underground mines (Bergwerk Haus Aden, Bergbau AG Niederrhein). The second section reviews the general and specific applications of optical waveguides in the sensor technology and describes an optical CH/sub 4/ monitoring system.

Schuetz, R.

1986-11-06

118

Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

Kryl Václav

1998-01-01

119

Proceedings of the Indo-British workshop on remote sensing of environment in mining field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

16 papers are presented covering: remote sensing - an aid to environment management; remote sensing application; monitoring environmental changes over iron ore mining areas; monitoring and management of environmental degradation due to geological factors; use of Landsat multispectral scanner data in environmental monitoring; geotechnical engineering problems with abandoned limestone mines; photogrammetric monitoring of mining environment; slope monitoring in open cast mines using close range remote sensing method; geobotanical remote sensing and mineral prospecting; geographical information in study of geo-environment through remote sensing; and alteration mapping in cuprite mining district.

Srivastava, V.K. (ed.)

1993-01-01

120

The physical and methodical bases of the calculation of transferring hazardous substances from open pit coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current conditions of open pit coal mines are examined with an attitude toward their interaction with the atmosphere, to characteristics of gaseous dust emission sources, and in addition to atmospheric factors which are responsible for the behavior of suspended substances.

Akhmetov, M.S.; Ashikhmin, G.B.; Naumov, V.D.; Putilov, V.G.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

Stanislav Dejl; Martin Vrubel

2007-01-01

122

Reorganization of oil shale mining in Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the present conditions of limited demand for oil shale, the Estonian oil shale mining industry is in a state of over capacity. This results in an inefficient use of labor. This working atmosphere has resulted in high production costs per tonne of mined oil shale. To improve economic factors, it is necessary to concentrate production into a limited number of mines working at full capacity and to modernize the mining technology at those mines. A development plan for oil shale mining is proposed. It primarily includes modernization of the prospective mines to be kept in operation and reduction of surface mining at the Sirgala and Narva open cast pits. This will result in conservation of oil shale reserves for 8- 10 years of future production. It is recommended that the resumption of mining in these fields be by underground means. The detailed plan does not call for the untimely closing of mines before the exhaustion of their reserves of oil shale. At the same time, a relatively stable level of mining activity (10-13 million tonnes per year) with minimal investments in the oil shale industry is guaranteed until 2025. (author).

1996-01-01

123

Tools for mining. Techniques and processes for small scale mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The handbook serves as an information source of planning and consultancy aid for technicians, engineers and advisors for small-scale mining in developing countries. It integrates both modern, historical and traditional techniques for approaches to solutions, thus providing multifarious possibilities for solving present-day problems. Included in the handbook are techniques taken from the most varied sectors of mining operations. In the part of the handbook devoted to techniques, special attention is paid to ensuring local production in developing countries, to offering environmentally-friendly technologies and to taking into account the social and cultural framework conditions of the miners when selecting the techniques. Following plots are contained: Analysis: Problem areas and units for taking samples, examination and necessary investigation, individual techniques. Underground mining: With suggestion for organisation of work environmental and health aspects, safety techniques, weathering, mine drainage, extension, lighting, extraction, loading haulage and mine transport. Open cast mining: Hints for environmental and health aspects, rocks and clay minings, techniques from the subchapters of strip mining equipment and special techniques. Mineral processing: Hints for organising work and technical procedures for diamond processing, gold processing and the processing of phosphate raw materials to fertilizers, approaches for optimising the organisation of work and techniques from the sub-chapters of comminution, classification, gravimetric sorting, gold processing, special techniques for processing, drying and purification. Mechanisation and power supply: power transformation and distribution, mechanisation, environmental and health aspects and the most varied techniques of supplying power. (orig./MSK)

Priester, M.; Hentschel, T.; Benthin, B.

1993-01-01

124

Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

1983-01-01

125

Experience and results of radiometric ash content measurements at the Nochten lignite open-cut mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A raiometric device for the ash content determination was put into practice at the filling station of the Nochten open-cut mine. The setup of the device and the measuring geometry are described and the operating experience gained is reported. The radiometric ash content measurements for assessing the quality of lignite is considered to be of great benefit from the economic point of view

1982-10-01

126

CLUO: Web-Scale Text Mining System for Open Source Intelligence Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT) system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof openly available information.

Przemyslaw Maciolek; Grzegorz Dobrowolski

2013-01-01

127

Acid mine drainage treatment with armored limestone in open limestone channels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much attention has been devoted to developing inexpensive low-maintenance limestone-based systems for treating acid mine drainage (AMD). Treatment of AMD with limestone results in a surface coating of metal hydroxides, a process known as limestone armoring. Once armored, limestone is assumed to cease dissolution and acid neutralization. Laboratory and field experiments determined acidity changes in AMD when contacted by armored and unarmored limestone and investigated the implications of armoring on the construction of open limestone channels for treating AMD. Results of laboratory titration study indicated armored limestone was only 2 to 45% less effective in neutralizing a hydrochloric acid solution as unarmored limestone. A laboratory container study showed that armored limestone was 90% as effective in neutralizing AMD as unarmored limestone. The field study surveyed 2- to 8-yr-old, rock-lined channels constructed of sandstone or limestone, and measured water quality changes down the length of the challenge. Open limestone channels, though armored, reduced more acidity in AMD than the sandstone channel. The results from open limestone channels were compared to an acid neutralization kinetics model that predicts the rate of acid neutralization for a specified channel size, and AMD flow and acidity concentration. The open limestone channels in the field neutralized more acidity than the model predicted. Open limestone channels show promise for neutralizing AMD is watershed restoration projects and abandoned mine land reclamation projects. 16 refs., 9 refs., 7 tabs.

Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Skousen, J.G.; Brant, D.L.; Sterner, P.L.; Lovett, R.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Mine Land Reclamation Center

1997-07-01

128

Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d=5.46 ± 0.32 ?m and ?(ln d)=0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM(10)) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d=3.6 ± 0.38 ?m and ?(ln d)=0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar.

Huertas JI; Huertas ME; Solís DA

2012-04-01

129

Two-dimensional simulation of pyrite oxidation and pollutant transport in backfilled open cut coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the problems associated with mining activities, acid mine drainage (AMD) is more important and is considered to be a major cause of water pollution. In this paper a two-dimensional numerical finite volume model is presented for prediction of the long-term pyrite oxidation and subsequent pollutant transportation from backfilled open cut mines. The model incorporates oxygen transport, pyrite oxidation, enthalpy balance, groundwater flow and transport of the oxidation products. A multi-purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package called PHOENICS incorporating a finite volume numerical scheme has bee modified by creating a PHOENICS pre-processing input file in the PHOENICS input language and developing a subroutine called GROUND_AMDOPCUTMI in the FORTRAN 99 language. The modelling accuracy was tested with the results obtained from the published numerical finite difference model. It was found that the oxidation of only a small fraction of pyrite is enough to generate an acid mine drainage load. If no action is taken to reduce the acid generation and pollutant leaching, the receiving environments and water resources will be seriously damaged. The lowering of pH in the range between 2.5 to 3.5 results in the bacterial oxidation of pyrite being enhanced. Subsequently the bacterial action produces more Fe{sup 3+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sup +}, and Fe{sup 2+}. The results indicated that dissolved ferric iron remains above the water table while the ferrous iron peak appears below it, in the saturated zone. The simulation results can be used for designing effective site remediation programs in order to minimise environmental effects arising from abandoned backfilled open cut mines. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Ardejani, F.D.; Singh, R.N. [Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran). Faculty of Mining and Geophysics

2004-07-01

130

Progressive methods for open pit mining of minerals and preparing them for processing. Progressivnyye metody otkrytoy dobychi poleznykh iskopayemykh i podgotovki ikh k pererabotke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issues of the effective mining of ore, coal and nonore deposits using the open pit method in Central Asia are examined, especially progressive methods, technology and the parameters of extraction of minerals in open pits, the development of open mining operations, increasing the quality of the extracted of minerals and concentrates and preparing them for processing.

Zhukov, N.A.

1983-01-01

131

Prediction of land use structure in Anjialing open-pit mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By adopting the method of combining surveying and mapping, aerial photography, statistical analysis, historical analogy and trend inferring, the land use structure of drastically disturbed mined land in Anjialing Open Pit Coal Mine of Pingshuo was studied. The result shows that there will be 1.609 billion m{sup 3} of rock and soil being stripped off, 1200.0 hm{sup 2} of land being excavated and 452.0 hm{sup 2} of land being occupied during the years of 1998 to 2019. Of the total damaged land, there will be 874.3 hm{sup 2} of arable land and 79.0 hm{sup 2} of forest and grass land. However after reclamation planning, the land use structure will be improved remarkably. For example, the proportion of arable land and that of forest land and grass land will be increased from the original 52.9% and 4.8% to 70.7% and 29.3% respectively. Essentially there will not be any barren land and other unused land. The equilibrium of the total amount of arable land in this area is forecast. The result shows that the total amount of arable land in Anjialing Coal Mine reaches equilibrium 26 years after extraction has begun if the restoration time is 6 years. However, it reaches equilibrium 34 years after the commencement of mining if the restoration time is 10 years. 2 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Bai, Z.; Guo, Q.; Shi, Y.; Shen, G.; Zhao, J. [Shanxi Agricultural University (China)

1999-04-01

132

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

2011-01-01

133

Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optim (more) ally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

Bakhtavar, E.; Shahriar, K.; Mirhassani, A.

2012-01-01

134

Interoperability Using Lightweight Metadata Standards: Service & Data Casting, OpenSearch, OPM Provenance, and Shared SciFlo Workflows  

Science.gov (United States)

Under several NASA grants, we are generating multi-sensor merged atmospheric datasets to enable the detection of instrument biases and studies of climate trends over decades of data. For example, under a NASA MEASURES grant we are producing a water vapor climatology from the A-Train instruments, stratified by the Cloudsat cloud classification for each geophysical scene. The generation and proper use of such multi-sensor climate data records (CDR's) requires a high level of openness, transparency, and traceability. To make the datasets self-documenting and provide access to full metadata and traceability, we have implemented a set of capabilities and services using known, interoperable protocols. These protocols include OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, Open Provenance Model, service & data casting technologies using Atom feeds, and REST-callable analysis workflows implemented as SciFlo (XML) documents. We advocate that our approach can serve as a blueprint for how to openly "document and serve" complex, multi-sensor CDR's with full traceability. The capabilities and services provided include: - Discovery of the collections by keyword search, exposed using OpenSearch protocol; - Space/time query across the CDR's granules and all of the input datasets via OpenSearch; - User-level configuration of the production workflows so that scientists can select additional physical variables from the A-Train to add to the next iteration of the merged datasets; - Efficient data merging using on-the-fly OPeNDAP variable slicing & spatial subsetting of data out of input netCDF and HDF files (without moving the entire files); - Self-documenting CDR's published in a highly usable netCDF4 format with groups used to organize the variables, CF-style attributes for each variable, numeric array compression, & links to OPM provenance; - Recording of processing provenance and data lineage into a query-able provenance trail in Open Provenance Model (OPM) format, auto-captured by the workflow engine; - Open Publishing of all of the workflows used to generate products as machine-callable REST web services, using the capabilities of the SciFlo workflow engine; - Advertising of the metadata (e.g. physical variables provided, space/time bounding box, etc.) for our prepared datasets as "datacasts" using the Atom feed format; - Publishing of all datasets via our "DataDrop" service, which exploits the WebDAV protocol to enable scientists to access remote data directories as local files on their laptops; - Rich "web browse" of the CDR's with full metadata and the provenance trail one click away; - Advertising of all services as Google-discoverable "service casts" using the Atom format. The presentation will describe our use of the interoperable protocols and demonstrate the capabilities and service GUI's.

Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E.

2011-12-01

135

The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

Kumar R; Ghosh AK

2013-01-01

136

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children), micronucleus analysis (56 children), and hair Mn content (166 children). Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%). The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05), increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001) and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001). Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka; Svetlana I. Ilchenko; Mykola M. Kharytonov; Tetyana L. Vasylyeva

2011-01-01

137

Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ?70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m (PM??) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM?? emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels.

Huertas JI; Huertas ME; Izquierdo S; González ED

2012-01-01

138

Performance analysis and best implementations of old and new algorithms for the Open-Pit Mining Problem  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The open-pit mining problem is to determine the contours of a mine, based on economicdata and engineering feasibility requirements in order to yield maximumpossible net income.This practical problem needs to be solved for very large data sets. In practice, moreover,it is necessary to test multiple scenarios taking into account a variety of realizations ofgeological predictions and forecasts of ore value.The industry is experiencing computational difficulties in solving the problem. Yet, theproblem is known to be equivalent to the minimum cut or maximum flow problem. Forthe maximum flow problem there are a number of very efficient algorithms that have beendeveloped over the last decade. On the other hand, the algorithm that is most commonlyused by the mining industry has been devised by Lerchs and Grossmann (LG) [LG64]. Thisalgorithm is used in most commercial software packages for open-pit mining.This paper describes a detailed study of the LG algorithm as compare...

Dorit S. Hochbaum; Anna Chen

139

Duality results for stationary problems of open pit mine planning in a continuous function framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open Pit Mine Planning problems are usually considered in a Mixed Integer Programming context. Characterizing each attainable profile by a continuous function yields a continuous framework. It allows for a more detailed modeling of slope constraints and other material properties of slanted layers. Although the resulting nonlinear programming problems are in general non-convex and non-differentiable, they provide certain advantages as one can directly compute sensitivities of optimal solutions w.r.t. small data perturbations. In this work duality results are derived for the stationary problems of the continuous framework employing an additional condition called convex-likeness.

A. Griewank; N. Strogies

2011-01-01

140

Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Evaluation of hydrologic isolation from evidence in mine openings in igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Maritime Provinces of Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Conditions in the mines inspected ranged from very wet to very dry. The Heath Steele Mine certainly provided an example of severe leakage through either the country rock, the ore, or both. By way of contrast, the Brunswick Mine is very dry, particularly at the 2800 foot level. A note of caution is raised by this dissimilarity, inasmuch as the local geologic setting for both mines is very much alike. The Buchans Mine also provided evidence of dry conditions at the depth inspected (3215 ft). The Ming Mine at Baie Verte is also nearly dry with a decrease in water leakage with depth. It seems reasonable to tentatively conclude that mined openings in the rock types investigated (volcanics and sediments metamorphosed to a low or subgreen schist facies and intensely deformed) would provide hydraulic isolation at depths on the order of 2800-3200 feet below the surface or greater. It is disturbing to have found one mine that is very wet at shallow depths and to have received reports of some water problems in shaft construction. This report in conjunction with other more comprehensive studies should provide a point of departure for more detailed studies of the nature and causes of hydraulic isolation provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks. 27 figs

1975-01-01

142

Opencast mine reclamation in Wankie Colliery with particular reference to land rehabilitation and revegetation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research on reclamation procedures suitable for conditions at Wankie Colliery are described, from initial bench studies to field trials and implementation. The colliery is the largest open cast mine in Zimbabwe. The major problems confronted in finding suitable rehabilitation methods and procedures for revegetation of the mined out land are considered. Reasons for lack of natural revegetation, improvement of surface conditions to facilitate revegetation, selection of appropriate plant species, substrate improvement and planting, problems, improvements, and further research are discussed. 4 refs.

Eaton, A.J.M.; Ncube, B.; Piha, M.; Reeler, B. [Wankie Colliery Company, Hwange (Zimbabwe)

1995-12-31

143

A communication and monitoring system for an underground coal mine, iron ore mine, and deep underground silver mine. Open file report Jun 73-Mar 78  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced communication and monitoring systems were developed and demonstrated in three underground mines representing different mining techniques, geographical areas, and material mined. The first was a large coal mine in western Pennsylvania using room-and-pillar techniques and continuous mining methods. The system developed provided private telephone channels, environmental monitoring, and control of underground equipment, all on a single coaxial cable, with all system operations under the direction of a minicomputer. The second was a magnetite ore mine in eastern Pennsylvania that used block caving mining techniques. A radio system was developed that provided two-way communications between trackless vehicles and roving personnel. A unique system of uhf-vhf repeaters combined with a 'leaky-feeder' transmission line offered operational and emergency features not previously found in mine communication systems. The third was a deep silver mine in the Cour d'Alene district of Idaho. This system utilizes a single wire pair to provide up to 14 voice channels. A combination of PBX, telephone carrier systems, and intercoms offered private conversations, selective signaling, and emergency backup communications.

Bergeron, A.A.; Collins, R.L.; Michels, J.L.

1981-11-01

144

Preventing and fighting the deformations of the constructive elements in open-pit mines and waste dumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deformations of the constructive elements in open-pit mine and waste dumps are presented, together with actions to be taken in order to prevent and fight them in relation to the development degree and the rock nature. 7 references.

Fodor, D.

1986-01-01

145

Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

146

The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling. Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of publi (more) shed mineral reserves and provides input into the Letseng overall business plan. The process of defining the key inputs for the entire mine planning process is discussed, which covers: ? Slope design as an input ? Diamond price inputs ? Operating and capital cost inputs ? Generation of pit shells ? Selection of an optimum pit shell and interim cutbacks using operational scenarios ? Sensitivity analysis on the selected optimum pit shell. ? Slope design criteria in the detailed design ? Split shell vs concentric pit design ? Practical mining widths to determine cutback design ? Pit design process in the GEMS software package. ? Development of scheduling scenarios in the XPAC software package ? Planning through mining production bottlenecks. ? Company-level NPV model ? Comparing scenarios and input of the different schedule scenarios into the company NPV model.

Madowe, A.

2013-01-01

147

Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background.

1982-01-01

148

System of procurement and elaboration of basic geological and topographical data files for mining projecting, control, monitoring and supervision of Most Coal Company, JSC coal mines operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the end of the 1980s preparatory works started for the definitive integrated geodetical and geological systems while procuring and elaborating primary data files with the aim of creating final modules for short-term and medium-term projection of mining progress intentions for large open-cast brown coal mines. Simulation using photogrammetrics was performed at the beginning of the 1990s. In the area of geology it is necessary to perform revision of all results concerning geological research and its follow up evaluation. Topographical and geological modules were performed afterwards and they were created for each locality of open-cast mines. Geological modules are resolved separately in cave fields. Update of topographical and geological modules was performed thoroughly during the whole year. Detailed data from day to day air measuring, scanning, and evaluated drills from actual geological research form the basis of the documentation.

Havlicek, M. [Most Coal Company (Czech Republic). Geology and Mine Surveying Dept.

1997-12-31

149

New blasting technique research on the cutting of the underground filtering pipeline in Huolinha open mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the shaped charge were used to cut the underground filtering pipelines in Huolinhe Open-pit Mine which focuses the blasting energy and forms an extremely high speed penetrating jet. Through experiments the optimal geometry of shaped charge was studied. The penetration mechanisms of three kinds of charges, such as dot shaped charge, line shaped charge and internal circle shaped charge, were also investigated and compared. The YYC-3A{sub o}C type blasting cutters with internal circle shaped charge and detonated at the centre of charge were designed and made which can successfully cut the underground filtering pipelines of diameter 219 and 273 respectively. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Yang, R.; Song, J.; Cheng, X.; Yang, Y.; Qi, C.; Dou, C.; Ma, J.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

1997-03-01

150

Deoxidation casting, aluminium casting and casting equipment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A deoxidized casting method for removing the oxidized film on the surface of molten metal to obtain high quality of castings includes such steps as preparing deoxidant by reaction between metallic vapor and inactive gas, and reaction between said deoxidant and molten metal.

KOICHI TOMO KEISUKE OGIHARA

151

Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declin (more) es due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

Asad, M.W.A; Topal, E

2011-11-01

152

Recovery of Zircon from Investment Casting Molds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bureau of Mines conducted physical and chemical beneficiation studies on three samples of waste investment casting molds to devise a method to liberate and recover zircon. Rod mill grinding, autogenous attrition grinding, and caustic leaching were lib...

C. W. Smith T. O. Llewellyn

1985-01-01

153

Safety regulation in uranium mining and milling in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exploration for uranium in India started as early as 1950. At present there are three underground mines at Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar located within 12 km of one another and one more is at the development stage at Turamdih located 20 km away from Jaduguda mine in the Jharkhand State. One more open cast mine at Banduhurang located near Turamdih in the Singhbum thrust belt, is also being explored. There are proposals for three more mines in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Meghalaya. Jaduguda is the first uranium mine opened in mid 1960s in India is semi mechanised. Bhatin mine is relatively small mine. Narwapahar mine is one of the most modern mines in the country, is highly mechanised with trackless vehicle used for movement of man and material with wide drives and large exposed surface area of the rocks. The ore excavated from all the mines, i.e. Jaduguda, Bhatin, and Narwapahar is transported by road to the ore processing plant at Jaduguda. The ore is crushed, wet ground to fine and made in pulp and is treated (leached) with sulphuric acid. The intermediate product is filtered, purified and concentrated using ion exchange process. The filterate containing uranium is allowed to react with Magnesium oxide slurry to the final product Magnesium- di-uranate, which is a yellow coloured cake collected in drums and sent to Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad. Operational hazards, the Indian regulatory framework and the environmental monitoring and control are reported. AERB continuously monitors the radiation and industrial safety aspects in uranum mines and mill and stipulates actions, which are compulsorily implemented in the mines and mill. These actions contribute to reduction in individual dose both external and internal and prevent occupation health hazards associated with the mining

2005-01-01

154

Data Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

Data Mining, also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases, is a process used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. This first website (1) provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki (2). This website from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (3) describes a project involving the development of new algorithms that will be applied to the creation of two large-scale databases to be used to "enable insight into government efficiency and the flow of scientific ideas." This white paper (4) provides a nice educational resource for Data Mining. If you are inspired to try your the process, the Weka Machine Learning Project from Waikato University (5) offers open source software that can be used for data mining tasks. KD Nuggets (6) posts articles on Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Genomic Mining, Web Mining that range from the serious to the silly, along with other resources. For a brief history of data mining and related fields, visit this website (7). Finally, The Data Mine website (8) is an excellent place to venture into further explorations on Data Mining.

155

Cast iron - a predictable material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI) or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer? world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

Jorg C. Sturm; Guido Busch

2011-01-01

156

Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Kukacka, L.

2013-04-01

157

Slope design based on geotechnical study and numerical modelling of a deep open pit mine in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed geotechnical study and numerical modelling were done for optimum slope design of a deep (170 m) open pit mine in Rajasthan state of India. The study includes physical characterization of the discontinuities in and around the mine, geomechanical properties of the slope materials, estimation of rock mass ratin and rock mass properties. The data related to different geotechnical parameters were collected from the benches of the partially developed mine and logs of the boreholes. Further, numerical modelling was done for slope stability and sensitivity analyses, based on which optimum slope angle was determined. The study revealed 42 and 48{degree} overall footwall and hangingwall slope angles respectively. Sensitivity analysis shows that ground water is detrimental to the slopes. Hence, every attempt should be done to control the ground water condition. 8 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

Singh, V.K.; Prasad, M.; Singh, S.K.; Rao, D.G.; Singh, U.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

1995-12-31

158

Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An article of manufacture is described comprising a cast iron container having an opening at one end and a cast iron plug; a first nickel-carbon alloy fusion weldable insert surrounding the opening and metallurgically bonded to the cast iron container at the one end of the container; a second nickel-carbon alloy insert metallurgically bonded to the cast iron plug located within the opening and surrounded by the first insert the inserts being jointed by a fusion bond in the opening without heating the cast iron container to an austenite formation temperature thereby sealing the interior of the container from the exterior ambient outside the opening; the nickel-carbon alloy containing about 2 to 5 w% carbon; and both the nickel-carbon alloy insert and the cast iron container have a microstructure containing a graphite phase.

Filippi, A.M.; Sprecace, R.P.

1987-10-20

159

Deserado Mine computerized monitoring and control system evaluation. Open file report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the planning, installation, and evaluation of a microcomputer-based monitoring and control system at the Deserado Mine, an underground coal mine. Costs, benefits, problems, and management and labor perceptions are included, and recommendations are provided for mine operators and monitoring system vendors considering future installations.

Eros, L.A.; King, R.H.

1986-06-01

160

Casting Titanium and Zirconium in Zircon Sand Molds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A zircon sand molding process was developed by the Bureau of Mines for static casting small titanium or zirconium shapes. Castings with unfinished weights up to 3.5 kg (7.7 lb) were produced in an inductoslag furnace and castings up to 7 kg (15.4 lb) were...

J. L. Hoffman M. L. Transue R. A. Beall R. K. Koch

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64°?N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

Søndergaard J

2013-08-01

162

Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

2005-07-01

163

The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor (more) progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

van Rensburg, D.; Melis, L.

2012-01-01

164

Investment casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Materials and manufacturing technologies for investment casting have made impressive gains over the past several years, resulting in higher productivity, shorter lead times, and superior castings. To improve efficiency, investment casters have applied total quality control methods, new management concepts, and computer controls. Management and production efficiency improvements have been critical factors in maintaining and expanding market share.

Bidwell, H.T. [Investment Casting Inst., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-04-01

165

On the atmospheric response to urbanization and open-pit mining under various geostrophic wind conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulations alternatively assuming a real landscape with and without open-pit mines and grown settlements were performed with a non-hydrostatic meteorological model of the meso-{beta}-scale to elucidate whether the atmospheric response to such land-use changes is sensitive to the direction and magnitude of geostrophic wind. The results of simulations with the same geostrophic wind conditions substantiate that the daily domain-averages of the variables of state hardly differ for the different landscape realizations, except for cloud- and precipitating particles. However, land-use changes may significantly affect the local conditions over and downwind of the altered surfaces. The significant differences in the cloud- and precipitating particles, however, are not bound to the surroundings of land-use changes. The vertical component of wind vector, which is modified by the different heating of converted land-use, strongly affects cloud- and precipitation formation by the interaction cloud microphysics-dynamics. The magnitude of atmospheric response changes under the various directions and speeds of geostrophic wind for most of the field quantities and fluxes. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Moelders, N. [Universitaet Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany). LIM - Institut fuer Meteorologie

1999-07-01

166

Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on ground water under several operating conditions. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1:1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

1978-07-28

167

?Relation of loess units and prehistoric find density in the Garzweiler open-cast mine, Lower Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Auf der Basis einer detaillierten Lössstratigraphie wurden auf dem Lössplateau des westlichen Niederrheins von einer Abbauwandgesamtfläche von 11.000qm die Anteile der wichtigsten Lösseinheiten berechnet. Darin nimmt der Brabant-Löss (spätes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS 2) 45% Anteil ein, also nahezu die Hälfte des vorhandenen Lösses, der Hesbaye-Löss (frühes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS2) etwa 5%. Ein Viertel des Lösses (25%) geht an den Keldach-Löss (Älteres Hochwürm, MIS4), nur wenig (1,5%) an den Rheingau-Löss (MIS 5). Dem Prä-Eem-Löss gehört das letzte Viertel (24%) desgesamten Lösses. Eine statistische Suche nach prähistorischen Funden erbrachte 131 paläolithische Knochen und Artefakte, die stratigraphisch genau zugeordnet werden konnten. Die Hauptmasse der Funde gehört den beiden Stadien MIS4 und MIS2 an – bemerkenswerterweise zwei kalten Perioden. Das Fehlen interglazialer Funde – solche sind vom übrigen Lössplateau durchaus bekannt – wird der starken periglazialen Abtragung und Einebnung in Plateauposition zugeschrieben. Die vorliegenden Funde belegen erstmals lokale Jagdaktivität während feuchter Perioden im Stadium MIS4. Ob die Funde aus dem MIS2 autochthon sind oder aus älteren Schichten aufgearbeitet wurden, muss offen bleiben.

Holger Kels; Wolfgang Schirmer

2011-01-01

168

Guidance on brake testing for rubber-tyred vehicles operating in quarries, open cast coal sites and mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For both 'simple' and 'instrumented' test methods, international standard ISO 3450 is often (wrongly) used as the guide to acceptable brake performance testing regimes. In order to address these shortcomings regarding brake testing of rubber-tyred vehicles, this guide explains the brake ratio method of brake testing. A step-by-step guide on how to correlate braking performance with actual site conditions and how to design and put in place a suitable brake test regime is preceded by several discussion chapters.

Edwards, D.J.; Holt, G.D.; Spittle, P.G. (eds.)

2007-07-01

169

The state of the art in noise reduction engineering in hard coal mining plants. Ermittlung des Standes der Laermminderungstechnik bei Anlagen des Steinkohlenbergbaus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the studies presented here is to describe the state of the art of noise reduction engineering, to compile the plantspecific acoustic data, describe the instruments for plant planning and design and thus to provide information, facts and figures which help to build open-cast mines in an environmentally acceptable way. (orig.) With 149 figs., 88 refs., 7 tabs and diagrams.

Reiser, P. (DMT-Institut fuer Foerderung und Transport, Bochum (Germany))

1991-01-01

170

30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated...The area within 100 feet of main mine fans and intake air openings shall be...ventilation plan. (g) If multiple mine fans are used, the mine ventilation...

2010-07-01

171

Implementation of the EC water framework directive and its significance for the protection of water in lignite mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the location of the deposits, lignite in Germany is mined in open casts. This has a far-reaching impact on the water landscape in a given mining area, and indeed also on its bodies of water, which includes a major change to the groundwater situation available before the extraction of the lignite. Any body of water above ground in the area needs to be removed, and as soon as open-cast mining has been concluded, new water bodies come into being, creating a new water landscape. To ensure that mining operations are dry and safe, the groundwater has to be pumped off in large volumes and needs to be largely redirected into water bodies near the mines. This inevitably means that the water management situation in and around a lignite mine changes continually - a fact which is rather difficult to reconcile with developments initiated in water management at the European level and aiming to keep water bodies largely untouched and free from human influences. Although this article does not provide enough space to give a comprehensive overview of the effects of water management policies on mining in general or on lignite mining in particular, we can nevertheless highlight a number of foreseeable conflicts of aims and possible solutions. Before we do so, we need to give a brief introduction to the new water management principles specified in the EC Water Framework Directive. (orig.)

Viertel, B. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

2005-05-01

172

The assessment and management of coal recovery in open pit mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the results of research projects undertaken by the Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre relating the overall mining and washing performance reported by mines to the detailed transformations occurring at each stage of the mining and processing of coal. The work has identified that few mines in Australia realistically report or schedule mining recovery and dilution and that the use of global reporting and scheduling parameters obscures opportunities to improve the overall recovery of coal from its in situ state to a saleable product. Examples are presented to demonstrate how the overall recovery of coal can be increased from most operations with little capital expenditure or change in operating cost. The economic impact of increasing sales revenue in this way dwarfs most other initiatives when `optimising` mine performance. 3 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Scott, A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre

1998-12-31

173

Aquatic invertebrates in final void water bodies at an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the diversity of aquatic invertebrates colonising water-filled final voids produced by an open-cut coal mine near Moura, central Queensland. Ten disused pits that had been filled with water from < 1 year to 22 years prior to the survey and three nearby 'natural' water bodies were sampled in December 1998 and again in March 1999. All invertebrates collected were identified to family with the exception of oligochaetes, cladocerans, ostracods and copepods, which were identified to these coarser taxonomic levels. Sixty-two taxa were recorded from > 20 000 individuals. The greatest familial richness was displayed by the Insecta (33 families) followed by the mites (Acari) with 12 families. While natural water bodies held the greatest diversity, several mine pits were almost as rich in families. Classification analyses showed that natural sites tended to cluster together, but the groupings did not clearly exclude pit sites. Mining pits that supported higher diversity tended to be older and had lower salinity (< 2000 {mu}S/cm); however, salinity in all water bodies varied with rainfall conditions. We conclude that ponds formed in final voids at this mine have the potential to provide habitat for many invertebrate taxa typical of lentic inland water bodies in central Queensland.

Proctor, H.; Grigg, A. [Griffith University, Nathan, Qld. (Australia). Australian School of Environmental Studies

2006-07-01

174

Cyclic sedimentation in Tertiary Lower-Rhine Basin, Germany - the `Liegendrucken` of the brown-coal opencast Fortuna mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Lower-Rhine Basin, at the northwestern headlands of the Schieferbegbirge in western Germany, the Oligocene-Miocene Koln Formation once was splendidly exposed in the former Fortuna mine, one of the open-cast mines of the regional brown-coal mining industry. There, a complex 60 m thick elastic marine shoreline succession was studied. Coastal marine sediments were formed along the coast in the basal sediment-fill of the basin. Due to repeated ingression of the Tertiary North Sea, a number of subtidal to supratidal coastal onlap cycles developed. This paper discusses cyclic sedimentation in the Tertiary of the Lower-Rhine Basin.

Schafer, A.; Hilger, D.; Gross, G.; Vonderhocht, F. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Inst. of Geology

1996-06-01

175

Human resource management skills and coal-mine productivity. Final report. Volume 2. Open File report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume II of the report explains reasons for the productivity differences in mining crews. The literature on group productivity is examined. Then a new approach to estimating productivity differences is proposed and estimated across seven different mines. The results indicate a fairly robust model in terms of explanatory power. Recommendations on how the model can be used as a managerial tool are presented.

Goodman, P.S.; Leyden, D.P.

1985-03-01

176

A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks  

Science.gov (United States)

Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.

2009-01-01

177

Computer cast blast modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, ON (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01

178

Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

1978-07-28

179

Various effects of mining on groundwater quality and resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining excavations intercept groundwater flow, often down to considerable depth. Indeed groundwater frequently causes serious difficulties during the development and operation of mines, particularly where the style of the permeability is such that sudden high rates of inflow occur in an apparently random fashion. While the effects are quite evident on the mining environment, the effects of the large distortions on the natural pattern of groundwater flow orientation and chemical quality, on the environment at large, are often longer term and more suitable. Measurable effects, and sometimes contamination, may take some time to appear. While deep-mining of most types usually has the most noticeable involvement with groundwater, quarrying and open cast mining can also cause conspicuous effects on groundwater level and quality as observed in the Tobago mineral sand mining area of New South Wales Australia. In this case the main problem was elevated concentrations of dissolved iron. In Germany, opencast mining of lignite causes extreme drawdown of surrounding groundwater levels, one effect of which is to make the abstraction of public groundwater supplies significantly more expensive. More exotic developments such as solution mining have effects on both groundwater and aquifer, but luckily such operations are few at the moment. The most serious and widespread environmental effects of mining however emanate from the disposal or storage of spoil and groundwater tends to be especially badly effected. Geotechnical problems such as subsidence may be a further effect of groundwater abstraction for mine dewatering, and there is much evidence that the lesser degrees of deformation due to mining on the surrounding rocks can enhance permeability. This note briefly reviews the interaction of mining and groundwater with reference to case history data. 6 refs., 2 refs., 1 tab.

1994-01-01

180

Slope stability during combined underground and open-pit mining operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the combined actions of underground and surface mining operations, the movement and deformation of the slope is a serious problem. Presently, research materials on how to analyse and calculate the effect on slope stability under such conditions are very lacking. Previous studies only considered the effect of surface mining on slope stability, without including the factors due to underground mining. As a result, the analysis and calculations do not match the actual situation, and fail to fully and objectively reflect the degree of slope instability. This paper studies the analytical methods on this problem, and deduces an appropriate calculation method and theory. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Sun, S. [Central Coal Research Institute (China). Fushun Branch

1996-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Investment casting  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods are provided for producing investment cast articles, such as orthopedic implants, or portions thereof, having at least a partially textured surface that is formed during casting of the article. In an exemplary method, a textured metal casting is produced by creating a heat destructible pattern and spraying the pattern with a texturing material to cause the texturing material to form a textured surface on at least a portion of the pattern. In another embodiment, a textured template is pressed against a heat softenable pattern to provide a textured pattern. With respect to each of these methods, a shell is the created around the textured pattern to form a mold, and the pattern is removed from the shell. Molten metal is introduced into the mold and allowed to harden, after which the mold is removed. In yet another embodiment a textured pattern for investment casting is provided by creating a textured model and enveloping it with a resilient material to create a resilient mold. The textured model is removed from the resilient mold and the mold is filled with investment casting wax to create a textured pattern.

Mastrorio Brooke W.; Fifolt Douglas A.

182

Rio Algom's Lisbon uranium mine in Utah opens up new area of ore potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the modified room-and-pillar mine is discussed. Details of the mill design, including a processing flowsheet, are given. Safety features and the monitoring system of the facility are discussed. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

183

Water resources modeling for decision support in open-pit lignite mining areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on an introduction to the water problems in the Lusatian lignite region the paper presents different types of models, which have been developed and/or used for the Lusatian lignite mining region. Such models include groundwater flow and transport models (FEFLOW), long-term water resources planning models (GRM) and decision-support model (DSS MINE). The applicability of such models, their advantages, disadvantages, and their role in practical planning and decision making is discussed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Kaden, S. [WASY Institute for Water Resources, Planning and Systems Research Ltd., Berlin (Germany)

1997-08-01

184

New casting model tracks unwanted overburden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes the use of a discrete element model to track the movement of pyritic material during blasting in opencast coal mines. Actual field data from coal mine bench blasts at a mine in the central Appalachia - including geometry, geology, blast design, and percent-cast - were employed to simulate a pyritic shale layer`s blast-induced movement and final location. The tracking of pyritic material can be used to improve its removal thus avoiding problems such as acid mine drainage. 4 figs.

Preece, D.S.; Scovira, D.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

185

Investment casting  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods are provided for producing investment cast articles, such as orthopedic implants, or portions thereof, having at least a partially textured surface that is formed during casting of the article. In an exemplary method, a textured metal casting is produced by creating a heat destructible pattern and spraying the pattern with a texturing material to cause the texturing material to form a textured surface on at least a portion of the pattern. In another embodiment, a textured template is pressed against a heat softenable pattern to provide a textured pattern. With respect to each of these methods, a shell is the created around the textured pattern to form a mold, and the pattern is removed from the shell. Molten metal is introduced into the mold and allowed to harden, after which the mold is removed.

Mastrorio Brooke W.; Fifolt Douglas A.

186

Dozers, draglines, and cast blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technique of cast blasting coupled with pre-splitting has been mastered by the Black Butte Coal Co's mine in southwest Wyoming. This mine has a highwall 180 ft high and half a mile long. It uses two Bucyrus-Erie 1570 76 cu yd. draglines which work two pits up to 250 ft deep with Dresser doozers working below; the dozers assist the dragline by dozing the sheer wall clean and feeding material from the key to the dragline. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Harder, P.

1988-11-01

187

Electromagnetic casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electromagnetic casting (EMC) is a technology that is used extensively in the aluminum industry to cast ingots with good surface finish for subsequent rolling into consumer product. The paper reviews briefly some investigations from the eighties wherein models for EMC were developed. Then more recent work is examined wherein more realistic 3D models have been developed, the traditional studies of electromagnetic and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena have been supplemented with research on heat transport, and the stability of the metal free surface has been examined. The paper concludes with three generalizations concerning modeling that may have wider applicability than EMC.

Evans, J.W.; Kageyama, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deepak [Motorola Corp., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Cook, D.P. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States); Prasso, D.C. [Intel Corp., Aloha, OR (United States); Nishioka, S. [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1995-12-31

188

Geotechnical safety state of `Turow` mine; Stan bezpieczenstwa geotechnicznego kopalni `Turow`  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

`Turow` brown coal mine located in tectonic syncline /South-West Poland/ has difficult geotechnical conditions. The coal and capping strata are described in detail. They declined to the open cast and therefore the slopes stability is important problem. The slopes are permanently observed and studied. In a case of serious ground motion the slope is supported by capping. This method was successfully applied in 1989 and 1993. 2 ills.

Rybicki, S. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland)

1995-03-01

189

Computer cast blast modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the advance in computer technology has increased the computing power of small work stations as well as PC (personal computers) to permit a much shorter turn-around time for complex computations. The DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARC station 10-41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, Ontario (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

190

Simulating a high pressure die casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High pressure die casting is simulated for parts with complex geometry such as a large automotive transmission case. The closed die is filled in approximately 40 ms, the casting cools in the closed die for approximately 40s, to open the die, eject the casting and spray the die cavity surface requires another 40s. This 3D cyclic process is simulated using the following coupled composite solvers: the energy equation in the die and in the casting with solidification; filling of the casting by a droplet or a Navier-Stokes solver, and thermal stress analysis of the casting machine, casting and die during the cycle. This thermal analysis can be done for both starting and stopping transients and for the cyclic steady state. The software enables this analysis to be done almost automatically by designers. (author)

2000-01-01

191

Simulating a high pressure die casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High pressure die casting is simulated for parts with complex geometry such as a large automotive transmission case. The closed die is filled in approximately 40 ms, the casting cools in the closed die for approximately 40s, to open the die, eject the casting and spray the die cavity surface requires another 40s. This 3D cyclic process is simulated using the following coupled composite solvers: the energy equation in the die and in the casting with solidification; filling of the casting by a droplet or a Navier-Stokes solver, and thermal stress analysis of the casting machine, casting and die during the cycle. This thermal analysis can be done for both starting and stopping transients and for the cyclic steady state. The software enables this analysis to be done almost automatically by designers. (author)

Goldak, J.; Zhou, J.; Downey, D.; Aldea, V.; Li, G.; Mocanita, M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

2000-07-01

192

Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured, and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbates this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest. The paper documents the process of conducting a comprehensive literature search for work that has been done in duplicate checking/filtering, narrowing the information to a workable subset, then mining the subset for the techniques, trials, and errors that have been documented. In the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure that was developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information; the paper also provides metrics on results that have been studied in controlled trials and relates that to analyst productivity. Duplicate and Near Duplicate Detection - The AKDS system provides duplicate assessment based in part on the IMatch algorithm devised by Abdur Chowdhury. The algorithm operates by taking a series of normalized 'slices' of terms from a frequency ordered bag of words document and applying the SHA1 hashing function. The process then evaluates the document hashes to identify documents that have similar content and for which subsequent documents do not have any new or unique information. Both the size and offset of the frequency 'slice' that is hashed determine the level of discrimination that is applied. Based on a system's requirements, the identical or nearly identical information (near duplicates) can be kept in the system and clustered; these document clusters can be used as an effective way to minimize how much information is presented to system users. When a user's query returns documents that are members of such a cluster, the most representative or 'best' document may be displayed to the user and the near duplicates would be initially hidden from the user. Conversely, if there is no perceived value in maintaining all of the documents, the near duplicates can also be deleted from the system. This can be accomplished in an automated manner by comparing the number of coinciding hashes while accounting for their slice size and offset in the term frequency based representation from which they were derived. The user may then specify a threshold-based degree of hash matching, above which documents may be automatically rejected. This module is particularly useful for systems that are evaluating large volumes of unstructured textual data such as Internet search engine queries that have a tendency to return the same or similar documents from multiple sources; this module has also proven to be effective in identifying documents where multiple versions have only slight modifications for which the end user would gain little utility beyond the initial document reviewed. Irrelevant Information (Spam) Filtering - The system evaluates document features to identify documents that contain little, if any, utility. This process utilizes the See5 decision tree algorithm developed by Ross Quinlan to determine whether the prevale nt f

2006-01-01

193

Comparative economics truck haulage vs. conveying for lignite mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional method of material transportation in open pit mines has been truck haulage. Principally, this is because trucks offer a high degree of flexibility which permits the operator to modify and redirect the mining plan in order to change production goals as variable factors dictate. In recent years, the trend in open pit mining has been to minimize truck haulage and substitute belt conveyor systems. Initially the crusher was placed at the pit perimeter, with the natural evolution to ''in-pit'' crushing, and finally, the relative recent development of portable in-pit crushers. Reduction of the ROM (run-off mine) material at the working face combined with belt conveyor haulage has long been recognized as an economically desirable method for transporting material from the mine to a location where it may be further processed. This method of mining and moving material was pioneered in Europe, and in particular, in the brown-coal fields of Germany. This was due to the fact that European countries are generally more dependent on imported oil, and truck haulage is extremely sensitive to escalating oil prices. In addition, in-pit crushing and conveying requires a significant capital expenditure. In the case of the open cast lignite mines of Germany, long term contracts were available to reduce the economic risk that this large capital expenditure would impose on the mining operation. This general world-wide trend to minimize truck haulage and maximize conveyor transport has slowly been implemented in the United States, and is now being fully recognized as a viable cost cutting measure. The reluctance to substitute conveyors for truck haulage may be attributed to the following factors: Natural resistance to change. The misconception that conveyors do not provide sufficient flexibility. Reluctance to apply ''state of the art'' technology when conservative, conventional methods are available.

Williamson, K.L.

1983-11-01

194

Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

CERN Multimedia

Privacy preserving data mining implies the "mining" of knowledge from distributed data without violating the privacy of the individual/corporations involved in contributing the data. This volume provides an overview of approaches, techniques and open problems in privacy preserving data mining. It is for industry practitioners and policy makers.

Vaidya, Jaideep; Clifton, Christopher W

2006-01-01

195

Production begins at Pecket, Chile's first large scale, open-pit coal operation and world's southernmost mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes Chile's first large-scale, open-pit subbituminous steam coal mine and mechanized bulk loading marine terminal. The Pecket coal project will save money in energy production and oil imports. The mine is a classic truck and shovel operation and it will be possible to dump the overburden into mined out sections of the pit, although initially it will be used to form windbreaks and a pad in the coal stockpile area. Crushed coal is carried by conveyor to the radial ship loader. Dust accumulation and excessive coal drying is avoided by crushing only when a ship is docked. The mine was begun after feasibility studies, market considerations and characterization of deposits. Investment and financing organizations are listed. The Pecket operation should be just the beginning of development of coal reserves in the Magellan area. 3 figs.

O' Neil, T.

1988-01-01

196

Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal pha (more) se design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

Asad, M.W.A.; Dimitrakopoulos, R.

2012-07-01

197

Process development of thin strip steel casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

1990-12-01

198

Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

S. Pietrowski; C. Rapiejko

2008-01-01

199

The morphology of fossil pebbles as a tool for determining their transport processes (Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit, central Poland)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit is the southernmost exposure of Palaeogene (lower Oligocene) deposits in central Poland. This study is focused on Palaeogene pebbles of the so-called Ko?min Gravels, rede- posited in the Neogene sands. These pebbles are not known from the adjacent territory of central Poland and they vary in petrographic composition, shape and surface texture. The classification of the pebble-size particle form is determined as DI/DL (elongation ratio) and DS/DI (flatness ratio). A great number of pebbles are disc-shaped (oblate-shaped) and blade-shaped or they can be classified as platy, bladed and very bladed pebbles. The oblate-prolate index (OP) is less than -2 for 45% of the particles (typical of beach pebbles), the mean sphericity (yp) is 0.56 (typical of beach pebbles), and the mean roundness (RWt) is 0.73 (typical of beach pebbles).The data obtained from SEM analysis of quartz pebble surface micromorphology are characteristic of high mechanical energy of the littoral environment. The surface of some pebbles is excellently polished with v-shaped indentations and grooves. The average composition of the heavy mineral fraction occurring with these pebbles is marked by the predominance of zircon (exceeding 70%). All the above-mentioned data, in the light of extensive literature, indicate that more morphological features of the analysed pebbles have been inherited from the littoral/beach environment. Moreover, a detailed petrographic study was very useful for determining the prove- nance of these pebbles. The most characteristic rocks are greyish-blue quartzes. They are known only from the Sudetes Mts., situated on the NE slope of the Bohemian Massif. Thus, the rock fragments were transported at least 300 km by rivers from the Sudetes to the littoral/beach zone of the Palaeogene sea. Then, the residually-marine beach pebbles were redeposited into the Neogene debris flow and/or fluvial deposits. The present-day area of the Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit was tectonically active at that time.

Marek WIDERA

2010-01-01

200

Design of a new mechanism for the automatic alternative opening and closing of the safety platform doors of a sinking mine shaft (I)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors present the graphical method of synthesis for the cam profile of the kibble guiding sledge for the automatic alternative opening and closing of the safety platform doors, in a new procedure and device applied to the sinking mine shaft. 4 references.

Zamfir, V.; Andras, I.; Bolog, C.

1985-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github.com and stackoverflow.com. These popular, developer-centric websites have powerful application-programmer interfaces, and follow an open-data policy. In this regard, these sites offer a web-accessible reservoir of information that can be tapped to study questions such as: which open source software projects are eminent in the various geoscience fields? What are the most popular programming languages? How are they trending? Are there any interesting temporal patterns in committer activities? How large are programming teams and how do they change over time? What free software packages exist in the vast realms of related fields? Does the software from these fields have capabilities that might still be useful to me as a researcher, or can help me perform my work better? Are there any open-source projects that might be commercially interesting? This evaluation strategy reveals programming projects that tend to be new. As many important legacy codes are not hosted on open-source code-repositories, the presented search method might overlook some older projects.

Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

2013-04-01

202

German mining equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

1993-10-01

203

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

P. Ranade

2007-01-01

204

Description of Basic Mining Legal Principles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Federal Mining Act Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure operations plan procedure , whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently.

Schmidt R

2013-07-01

205

Bacterial community composition in the water column of a lake formed by a former uranium open pit mine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mining of pyrite minerals is a major environmental issue involving both biological and geochemical processes. Here we present a study of an artificial lake of a former uranium open pit mine with the aim to connect the chemistry and bacterial community composition (454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes) in the stratified water column. A shift in the water chemistry from oxic conditions in the epilimnion to anoxic, alkaline, and metal and sulfide-rich conditions in the hypolimnion was corresponded by a strong shift in the bacterial community, with few shared operational taxonomic units (OTU) between the water layers. The epilimnetic bacterial community of the lake (~20 years old) showed similarities to other temperate freshwater lakes, while the hypolimnetic bacterial community showed similarity to extreme chemical environments. The epilimnetic bacterial community had dominance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The hypolimnion displayed a higher bacterial diversity and was dominated by the phototrophic green sulphur bacterium of the genus Chlorobium (ca. 40 % of the total community). Deltaproteobacteria were only represented in the hypolimnion and the most abundant OTUs were affiliated with ferric iron and sulfate reducers of the genus Geobacter and Desulfobulbus, respectively. The chemistry is clearly controlling, especially the hypolimnetic, bacterial community but the community composition also indicates that the bacteria are involved in metal cycling in the lake.

Edberg F; Andersson AF; Holmström SJ

2012-11-01

206

Operating experience with pulley coatings in the Fortuna/Bergheim open pit mine of the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The advancing technical developments and the higher demands imposed on conveyor belts require a continuing adaptation to new insights and practices. With the construction of conveyor systems with capacities of up to 240000 m/sup 3//d, the coatings of conveyor belt pullies have acquired a constantly growing importance. The investigations mentioned in the report were carried out in order to recognize from the variety of installations of belt pullies in the Fortuna/Bergheim open pit mine those in which a higher rate of wear appeared on the pulley coating. In all 550 installations were investigated. In the course of the investigations, up to six maintenance procedures on 144 pullies were necessary. Twenty four pullies with advanced wear on the coatings were subjected to exhaustive investigation. On the basis of these, measured were introduced which have already led to improvements in the service life of drum coatings.

Suchodoll, F.

1983-04-01

207

Coal dust explosion in opencast coal mine attached with underground opening - a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a case study for finding the causes of coal dust explosion that occurred during the blasting of coal by large diameter slurry explosive with detonating cord and detonators in the top section of the KOCP mine of Bharat Coking Coal Ltd. It also deals with the investigations carried out into various safety aspects associated with the usage of non-permitted explosives for blasting in coal. It is concluded that all the three large diameter explosive - Aviprime, NCN-500 and NCN-600 studied were of incendiary nature, even at a low charge weight level, towards coal dust atmosphere. When opencast coal mines are worked in multi-sections, stipulated safety norms should be meticulously observed e.g. stone dusting, precautions to see that there arises no situation of blown through shot while blasting in upper or overlaying coal seams. 10 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Singh, R.R.; Paul, R.K.; Roy, S.K.; Ram, P.; Bhattacharyya, M.M. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

2001-07-01

208

Development of effective face-ventilation systems for oil-shale mining. Open File report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project describes the design and testing of large face-ventilation systems for oil-shale mining. A design data base was generated by reviewing general industry practice, oil-shale-industry planning, and technical literature. Conceptual designs for seven different systems were developed and evaluated for suitability. A large, free-standing, jet fan and reversible fan with rigid duct were selected for fabrication and testing.

Brechtel, C.E.; Adam, M.E.; Agapito, J.F.T.

1985-10-01

209

Numerical modeling to assess possible influence of the mine openings on far-field in-situ stress measurements at Stripa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Finite element analyses were carried out to assess the possible effects of the Stripa mine openings on the in-situ stress measured in a 400-m-deep borehole drilled from the surface. For this assessment, four 2-dimensional cases were modeled. These cases variously included two horizontal sections, and two separate, idealized vertical sections. An iron ore body in the mine was assumed to be completely extracted, thereby providing conservative estimates of stress concentration effects. Since no in-situ stress measurements were made before mining, overburden weight and horizontal stresses measured by hyrodfracturing were assumed to be the pre-mining state of stress. The stress state resulting from excavation of the mine was calculated by the finite element model. In the cases using horizontal sections, the model predicted a stress concentration factor at the borehole of approximately 1.15, which is negligible considering the difficulty of obtaining accurate stress measurements. For the vertical sections the model predicted higher stress concentration factors at depths less than 200 m. This was expected because the vertical sections chosen brought the borehole unrealistically close to the mine openings, thereby leading to overly conservative estimates. In general, deviations in the magnitudes and orientations of the calculated redistributed principal stresses from the assumed pre-mining state of stress were found to be comparable to the scatter of overcoring data. It is, therefore, recommended that, for near-field stress calculations, the vertical stress due to overburden weight and the horizontal stresses measured by hydrofracturing at the borehole be considered the unperturbed far-field in situ state of stress.

Chan, T.; Guvanasen, V.; Littlestone, N.

1981-03-01

210

Environmental assessment for opencast coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Open cast coal mining has a very 'environmentally unfriendly' image. It has been described as one of the most environmentally destructive forms of mining activity. In 1981 the Flowers Commission Report (Commission on Energy and the Environment, Coal and the Environment, HMSO) stated that even if the greatest possible care is taken in both the extraction of opencast coal and the subsequent restoration of the land, and while acknowledging that in some cases amenities have been enhanced by opencast restoration, opencast mining has a severe impact on the environment in both the short and long term. The Commission concluded that the visual intrusion of a site, the effects of dust, noise and vibration from blasting and heavy traffic movement can, taken together, add up to a very severe diminution in the quality of life for those worst affected. This article discusses the following: short term environmental impacts during working; longer term impacts on land resources; the meaning of environmental assessment (EA); procedural and technical aspects of EA for opencast coal mining; and the benefits of environmental assessment. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Coppin, N. (Wardell Armstrong, Newcastle under Lyme (United Kingdom). Environmental Consultancy Unit)

1989-01-01

211

Hair casts.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of hair casts in an 8-year-old girl is described. The disorder is rare, the first description dating back to 1897 with a total of only 31 cases reported in the literature since then. The results of research conducted using the optic and electron microscopes (transmission and scanning) are recorded. These studies show that the typical lesion consists of two concentric layers of keratinized cells of differing structure: one resembling the inner layer of Huxley's sheath and the outer layer resembling Henle's layer. PMID:2455695

Fabbri, P; Difonzo, E M; Palleschi, G M; Pacini, P

1988-06-01

212

Hair casts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of hair casts in an 8-year-old girl is described. The disorder is rare, the first description dating back to 1897 with a total of only 31 cases reported in the literature since then. The results of research conducted using the optic and electron microscopes (transmission and scanning) are recorded. These studies show that the typical lesion consists of two concentric layers of keratinized cells of differing structure: one resembling the inner layer of Huxley's sheath and the outer layer resembling Henle's layer.

Fabbri P; Difonzo EM; Palleschi GM; Pacini P

1988-06-01

213

Casting materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

2011-06-14

214

Dimensional accuracy analysis of implant framework castings from 2 casting systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the dimensional accuracy of implant framework castings from an argon vacuum casting machine with those from a centrifugal casting machine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three 4 x 10-mm external hex-type implants (3i/Implant Innovations) were embedded in an acrylic resin block 7 mm apart, with a 2 mm offset of the middle implant. Eight reference points were marked on the implant collars. Twenty implant bar frameworks were waxed with UCLA abutments, invested with a ringless system, and subjected to the same thermal cycle. Ten wax patterns were cast in gold alloy using an oxygen-propane torch and centrifugal casting system; 10 were cast using an argon vacuum casting machine (KDF; Denken). The White 1-screw technique was applied after sequentially tightening the mesial and distal abutment screws to 10 Ncm. Fit of the implant framework castings was evaluated by measuring the marginal opening between the casting and implant at the reference points. These measurements were averaged and statistically compared for differences. RESULTS: The mean marginal openings at the most distant measuring locations from the tightened retaining screw at location 1 was between 44 to 48 microm for the centrifugal system compared to between 28 to 32 mm for KDF (P < .01). For screws tightened at location 3, the mean marginal openings at the most distant measuring locations were between 40 to 51 mm for the centrifugal system compared to between 27 to 29 microm for KDF (P < .01). DISCUSSION: In comparison with the centrifugal casting and oxygen-propane system, the argon vacuum system was more accurate and user friendly and less technique-sensitive. CONCLUSION: The argon vacuum casting machine tested produced more accurate, better fitting implant-supported prosthesis frameworks than a conventional centrifugal casting system. The "1-screw" method of evaluating casting fit was most effective when either of the prostheses' end screws were tightened.

Chang TL; Maruyama C; White SN; Son S; Caputo AA

2005-09-01

215

Mining technology, economics and policy 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented under the following headings: opening session; cooperation in developing mining technology; delivering mining's message; dynamics of minerals supply; management/employees-speaking together; mining and the environment; mining and trade; mining law - what now ; money matters for mining; people, products and profitability; safety and health - perceptions and promotion; technology needs for mining for the 21st century and the future of Western coal.

1993-01-01

216

AC flame-proof motors for underground mining of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extensive mechanisation of coal mining is needed. The new economic policy of globalisation and technology upgradation will not only enhance coal demand but will compel the mining industry to go for modern technologies. The proportion of output from underground mining compared to opencast will have to be moderated to keep pace with the demand, productivity and price of coal. AC and DC motors and generators have been used in equipment like excavators, shovels, draglines, OB drills, mine-winders etc. for open cast mining. Safety is a major consideration for underground mines, where fire and roof collapse, water logging and explosive/inflammable atmosphere are common. AC flame proof induction motors are considered most suitable drives for coal-cutting, conveyors, power packs, fans, pumps etc. in the underground mines. 80% of coal reserves in India are underground. Present production from underground mines is about 1/3rd of total coal output. The traditional manual and partly mechanised Bord and Pillar methods, are used. The modern mechanised technique is Long Wall Face, responsible for 65% of underground output the world over. LWF methods were introduced in India in 1978. As per the projections of 70s, some 90 LWFs should have been operating, but only some 18-20 can be counted. These are contributing an output of the order of 4% of total production from underground operations. Liberalised new policy is expected to facilitate the import of equipment, but the development of indigenous equipment for Long Wall Faces is also expected to be favoured when it comes to initial capital investment, standardisation, availability of maintenance spares and resultant price of coal. The paper describes the developments and scope of application to coal sector, in the area of Electrical Machines, in particular the AC flame proof induction motors for underground mining, in the context of changed scenario. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

Bhargava, A.K. (BHEL, Hardwar (India))

1994-01-01

217

Effects of the mining regulations concerning protection of the health of employees on the collieries and their implementation. Auswirkungen der Bergverordnung zum gesundheitlichen Schutz der Beschaeftigten auf die Betriebe und Umsetzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining regulations concerning health protection which came into force on 1 January 1992 lay down the type and extent of precautionary occupational health checks and the protection of employees against environmental effects harmful to health such as dangerous substances, fibrogenous mine dusts, noise and vibration, work at VDUs and manual handling of loads. The requirements laid down in the regulations improve the health protection of employees in the underground and open-cast coal mining industry. However, they lead to more stringent limit values for the individual exposure of employees in many areas. (orig.).

Goeretz, H.; Mummedey, N.; Reinhardt, M.

1992-01-09

218

Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

2007-01-01

219

Human resource management skills and coal mine productivity. Final report. Volume 1. Open File report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume I of the report presents the first national survey of miners' attitudes and opinions about their work. The goal is to present attitudinal data that bear on coal production. Interviews were conducted in 26 mines with 2000 miners. High levels of cooperation were exhibited by management, union, and the employees. Data are presented about miners' attitudes about general aspects of their work such as pay, supervision, their jobs, etc. Another section of the report reviews opinions about specific aspects of work performance. Recommendations are presented.

Goodman, P.S.; Hersh, M.S.; Zak, C.A.

1985-03-01

220

An extended drain heavy duty engine oil field trial at an open pit coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extended drain field trial of an SAE 15W40 Heavy Duty Diesel Oil (HDEO) used in surface coal mining equipment is described. The trial shows that, in some diesel engines, oils perform up to 1000 operator hours. Such extended drain intervals require highly formulated oils, suitable filtration, an oil analysis programme, and a proactive maintenance department. The following parameters need to be tracked: viscosity at 100{degree}C, iron wear levels, TAN/TBN levels, and amount of solids. Test results and data covering engines from three Original Equipment Manufacturers are presented. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Rawn, W.J.; Morrison, J.D. [Cardinal River Coals, Hinton, AB (Canada)

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Sensitive ground-fault protection for mines. Phase 1. Aalternating-current utilization. Open File report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report concerns the research and development of sensitive ground-fault relays for ac utilization systems in mining. Sensitive relaying employs very low pickup levels such that, when used in conjunction with very high resistance grounding, the exposure of a human to ventricular fibrillation is significantly reduced. To delineate the desired relay characteristics, the report commences by reviewing and updating previous research in this area. The critical relay component for sensitive ground-fault relays has been found to be the current transformer; their theory and design are detailed. Electronics for two prototype relays have been produced through the research and information is presented so that either may be duplicated.

Morley, L.A.; Trutt, F.C.; Novak, T.

1984-09-01

222

Features based representation for casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports a method for automatic recognition of casting features from a Boundary Representation of the solid model. The proposed method is based principally on the evaluation of two topological invariant of concave parts of the modeled object. Some aspects of the {open_quotes}domain of application{close_quotes} of the method are considered and seven categories of casting features identified. In this work the attention is placed on the influence of the geometry of the molded object, in drawing problems and in core identification.

Di Stefano, P. [Universita degli Studi di L`Aquila (Italy)

1996-12-31

223

Improvement of high productivity blasting technologies in security conditions in underground and open pit mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the activities of workers in developing high security, damp proof explosives, manufacturing detonating phases, improving blasting technologies in underground and in open pits and protecting objects located in blasting areas.

Tat, S.; Zaporojan, M.; Fissgus, K.; Heljiu, N.; Ciocoiu, C.

1987-09-01

224

Technical developments in uranium mining and milling in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Uranium mining in India made a formal beginning with formation of Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. in October 1967. In accordance with the mandate of producing and meeting the uranium requirement of the country, UCIL has continuously upgraded the technology and operating practices with regard to its core activities - uranium ore mining, processing and disposal of tailings. Jaduguda underground mine in Singhbhum east district of Jharkhand (Eastern India) was commissioned in 1968. Regular mining operations started with the sinking of a fully lined vertical shaft and equipping the same with two winders which support a cage and a skip. This was followed by commissioning of Bhatin mine in 1986, Narwapahar mine in 1995, Turamdih mine in 2003, and Bagjata mine in 2008. New mines adopt decline method of entry and use of track less equipment in cut-and fill method of stoping. Vertical shafts provide access to deeper levels for ore and men and material hoisting. Banduhurang, the first open cast uranium mine of the country was commissioned in Jan 2009. New mine at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh and underground mine at Mohuldih in Jharkhand are under construction. The mine at Tummalapalle has been planned with three declines along the apparent dip of the orebody and breast stoping method using trackless equipment. At Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh, room and pillar method of stoping is proposed for underground mines with deployment of low profile drilling and loading-dumping equipment. The conventional way of processing of uranium ore in India is through hydro-metallurgical route followed by acid leaching and MDU precipitation. Jaduguda plant commissioned in 1968 has been expanded in two phases and 3rd phase expansion is underway. The plant at Turamdih encompasses new equipment and monitoring systems like apron feeder, horizontal belt filter, high rate thickener, particle size monitor etc. Both Jaduguda and Turamdih plants are designed to produce magnesium diuranate (MDU) as the final product. Through in-house research, precipitation of uranium peroxide (UO4, H2O) as final product is under implementation. Since 2007, the plant at Tummalapalle is under construction which will adopt alkali leaching (under pressure) route. The operating underground uranium mines of the country are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings. The finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is disposed in engineered impoundment facility, called tailings pond. The first two tailings ponds at Jaduguda are full and are under reclamation. The third pond is in use now. The tailings pond at Turamdih has been designed with some improved floor lining to prevent any downward movement of effluent. The proposed open cast mine at KPM in Meghalaya is also being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings and backfill material. At Lambapur uranium project, thickened tailings disposal system has been proposed where small dykes shall be built to contain tailings. The uranium ore mining and processing technology in India has come a long way in emulating global practices which has helped to develop the low grade deposits in cost effective and eco-friendly manner. This sector is now ready to acquire overseas uranium properties in order to expand the production base. (author)

2009-01-01

225

A method for open pit mining of horizontal and flat mineral deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to increase the safety of mining operations by reducing the deformations of internal banks and reducing the water influx into the operational zone of a pit and through creating favorable conditions for subsequent recultivation, the proposed method includes selective extraction of covering rock of different structures, including soil, the processing of minerals by passes with selective disposition of the covering rocks in the worked space of the pit by the tailing passes along the front of the mining operations. In the process of dumping the rocks of the next tailings pass, the soil coverings are first dumped on the bank of the rocks of the previous trailing pass and then the remaining covering rocks are dumped with a subsequent backing run in the direction from the base of the tailings heap to its surface. The soil rocks are discharged to a level which exceeds the lift level of the waters in the body of the heap. A trench is formed before dumping the rock of each subsequent tailing heap pass near the lower brow of the bank of rocks of the previous tailings pass to the floor of the filtering layer, while the soil rocks are additionally dumped into the cited trench.

Repetukh, V.K.; Astafyev, A.F.; Rogach, M.S.; Smirnov, M.M.; Timchenko, A.I.

1983-01-01

226

Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

1997-01-01

227

Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

1997-07-01

228

Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

Nichiporuk, A.

2007-09-15

229

Hydraulic mining studies of Storm King Mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the United States coal industry is slow to accept hydraulic mining, continued expansion is taking place in Russia, China, India, and Canada. With strip ratios constantly expanding on surface mines, the cost effectiveness of thick seams will bring about increased utilization of this hydraulic mining technique. Today in Canada, hydraulic mining competes favorably with a 5.5:1 strip ratio. In the hope of being repetitive, we have prepared a movie which summarized the development of the Glenwood Springs Coal Property. The effects of the hydraulic monitor on a section of outcrop opened for this purpose are demonstrated.

Arentz, S.S.

1983-03-01

230

The efficiencies of cast blasting in wide pits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blasting activities in all four pits at Thunder Basin`s Black Thunder opencast coal mine are focused on cast efficiencies. With widths varying from 190 feet (ft) to 265 ft and bench heights varying from 90 ft to 175 ft, casting efficiencies vary with differing geometry. For example, the percent cast to final in the 200-ft pit is on the average higher than the 270-ft pit. The powder factors are somewhat higher in the narrower pits, thus increasing the cost of blasting. This leads to a very detailed look at the actual benefit of cast blasting and the associated costs. The conditions and calculations involved are described.

Martin, R.L.; King, M.G. [Thunder Basin Coal Co. (United States)

1995-06-01

231

Impact of mine development on geological environment in tropical and subtropical areas of South China and proposal for future management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solid and liquid wastes produced by mine exploitation, e.g. waste rocks, tailings, pit drainings, have considerable impact on the environment which is mainly reflected via changes in geomorphological features, hydrogeological conditions and environmental ecology. Changes in geomorphological landscape are characterised by the destruction of land by open cast mining, accumulation of waste ores and tailings on land, and the occurrence of land subsidence, surface cracking and collapse. These effects are illustrated by a number of case studies. Changes in hydrogeologic conditions include changes in the course of surface water systems and deterioration in groundwater quality. Changes in environmental ecology encompass (i) impact on surface water, (ii) impact on soil, and (iii) influence on the atmosphere. Other forms of pollution which may be caused by mine exploitation are radioactive and thermal pollution. Measures adopted to solve environmental problems in mining are discussed.

Deng Aisong

1987-01-01

232

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

233

The efficiencies of cast blasting in wide pits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blasting activities in all four pits at Thunder Basin Coal`s Black Thunder Mine are focused on cast blasting. With widths varying from 190 feet to 265 feet and bench heights varying from 90 feet to 175 feet, casting efficiencies vary with different geometry`s. For example, the percent cast to final in the 200 foot pit is on the average higher than the 270 foot pit. The powder factors are somewhat higher in the narrower pits, thus increasing the cost of blasting. This leads to a very detailed look at the actual benefit of cast blasting and the associated cost of these benefits. The simple solution would be to reduce the width of the pits, thereby increasing the percent cast to final. However, the lower rehandle and low coal loss associated with wide pits would be fortified. Upon further review it becomes obvious that the wider pits could not be compared to the narrow pits with the cast to final percent indices. The focus should be shifted to cubic yards cast to final per lineal foot of pit. This will allow for more accurate measures of the casting efficiency of the shot. When comparing the pits with these indices their performances were much closer than the percent cast to final indices. The powder factors being higher in the narrow pits drove up the cost per cubic yard cast to final. Therefore, even though the percent cast to final was higher, the cost per cubic yard was also higher.

Martin, R.L.; King, M.G.

1995-12-31

234

High pressure die-casting of magnesuim  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnesium has a long tradition of use as a lightweight construction material in the field of automobile and aviation technology. The application in the automobile manufacture is characterized by the demands for high volume capability in manufacturing and processing. A daily production requirement of one thousand component parts and more is a normal requirement for the usual production series run. Cast component parts in such series are often produced using the high pressure die-casting process. In the past this process was not usable on account of the cast quality of component parts which were subject to high demands, however new ranges of application have opened as a result of new processing technologies like Vacural high pressure die-casting and squeeze casting. (orig.)

Roesch, R.; Wanke, P. (Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)); Kluge, S. (Volkswagen AG Kassel (Germany))

1998-01-01

235

The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

1998-01-01

236

Mapping rehabilitated coal mine soils in South Africa using GPR  

Science.gov (United States)

Open-cast mining, involving severe disturbance, of shallow coal deposits has taken place in Mpumalanga, South Africa for some time with little control until recently. Current legislation requires soil investigations. The soils are agriculturally productive and merit effective rehabilitation, but several problems in this process can occur, leading to drastically reduced agricultural productivity. GPR investigation of these mine soils can help with the mapping of the depth to spoil after rehabilitation, on a significantly more cost-effective basis than traditional point observations. A field trial was carried out as part of a research project at Kleinkopje Colliery where it was shown that, despite wet conditions due to irrigation, GPR was able to map spoil depth around six times faster than augering. There is substantial scope in South Africa for GPR to make a significant contribution in this field.

Paterson, D. G.

2000-04-01

237

Optimization models to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption of transport in open pit mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the mining industry, approximately 20% of total cost corresponds to material transportation and, in the case of copper, 25% of the total energy consumed for extraction. These high values, together with growing concerns over excess CO2 emissions, have motivated the development of the optimization models discussed in this paper. The objective was to introduce energy and environmental variables into production planning and scheduling. The methodology includes variables that can save transportation energy and models that decrease material rehandling and hence, the cost of transportation. Two types of variables were adapted in the model: environmental and energetic. The advantage, leaving aside the costs and mileage of transportation, was a reduction in emissions of CO2 and in the amount of diesel used. With the inclusion of blending constraints, this model could be used in milling or other such processes. The results are shown using graphs. It worth noting that rehandling decreased, Cu production increased, and the model was able to calculate the extraction sequence over all time horizons.

Alpizar, Maria J.; Morales, Nelson; Wiertz, Jaques [Universidad de Chile (Chile)

2010-07-01

238

Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

Zeinab Aliabadian; Mansour Sharafisafa; Mohammad Nazemi

2013-01-01

239

Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI) represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year) were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

Marcos E. Hartwig; Waldir R. Paradella; José C. Mura

2013-01-01

240

Process of dump formation during open-cut strip mining of deposits of useful fossils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of dump formation consists in pouring a dam, establishing the contours of a flushing dump, pouring hard rocks on the flushing dump along the contour of the latter in terraces with the development of a dumping front concentric with the center of the flushing dump with initial partial pouring of the first terrace, subsequent piling up of the second terrace to a width equal to half of the width of the partially piled-up first terrace, and repetition of the cycles of piling up first and second terraces until complete filling of the area of the flushing dump with hard rocks and later multiterrace dump formation. The dump is poured to half of the width of the dam from the outer side with potentially fertile-soil rocks. The piling up of each terrace with the exception of the last place with displacement toward the center of the flushing dump by the width of the dam. Each terrace is filled up with potentially fertile-soil rocks to half of the width of the dam from the outer side of the dump, and the last terrace is piled up completely with potentially fertilesoil rocks. The height of a terrace is then equal to a third of the width of the dam. The proposed process by comparison with the known one makes it possible in the course of dump formation to create terraced dump slopes covered with potentially fertilesoil rocks, with the main volume of the work on mining engineering restoration to cultivation to be done in the period of dump formation, which leads to an increase in intensification and an decrease in times (required) for doing the work of restoration to cultivtion and eliminates additional expenditure of effort in excavating, delivering, and laying in place the potentially fertilesoil rocks for covering the surface of the dump with them.

Mikhailov, A.M.

1981-02-23

 
 
 
 
241

Quaternary biostratigraphical, geological and prehistorical evidence of the open mine 'Schoeningen' near Helmstedt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glaciofluvial sand is overlain by sediments of the Elsterian moraine, extending to about 28 m. Late Elsterian silty layers derive from three interstadial phases. Offleben I- and II-Interstadial, Esbeck-Interstadial, which have been unknown until now. They are separated one from another by coarse grained sediments, which are sterile. Limnic-telmatic deposits, reaching about 6 m of depth, comprise vegetational zones of late Holsteinian age. The following silty layers, which contain partly more organic material, show first subarctic conditions (Buschhaus-Stadial), followed by an interstadial climatic improvement (Missaue-Interstadial). Both newly discovered units are directly connectable with the Late Holsteinian deposits and are overlain by sediments of an Early Saalian morain, solifluidal transported material and alluvial loess. The Eemian integlacial sediments consist of a loose kind of Travertine, organic silts and peat. Silty layers alternating with peaty horizons are characteristic elements of the Early Weichselian. The Late Weichselian is represented by a peat of Alleroed age and alluvial loess of the Younger Dryas. The Holocene sequence in the investigated are comprises alluvial loess layers with meadow chernozems of Boreal age, marl and peat horizons, which are finally overlain by a river clay in which the recent soil is developed. Since 1983 still it has been possible to excavate aproximately 250 000 m/sup 2/ of prehistoric settlement area in the forefront of the opencast mining operation. During the course of these excavations the outlines of many houses and graves documenting the periods from the beginning of the Neolithic up until the early Iron Age were investigated.

Urban, B.; Thieme, H.; Elsner, H.

1988-01-01

242

Coal mining industry on the Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 1973 and 1985, coal production in the Philippines increased from 39 000 tpa to 1.26 million tpa. Private investors were attracted by changes in the concession procedure; this helped to lower the country's dependence on imported petroleum. Nearly half the annual production comes from a modern open-cast mine on Semirara Island. The next in productivity is the Malangas Coal Corp. mine on Mindanao Island of the Philippine National Oil Company, which is worked by longwall caving. 40% of the country's production is from small mines worked by simple methods and with high productivity losses. 2.4 million tonnes of coal were consumed in 1985, 50% of which were imported. By 1995, coal consumption is expected to equal 4.8 million tpa, with a domestic production of 3.75 million tpa. With the government's decision of abandoning the 620 MW nuclear power plant project on Batan Island, coal will become a still more important factor in Philippine power supply. (orig./MOS).

Bomasang, R.B.; Bandelow, F.K.; Casupang, D.M.

1987-07-23

243

Recultivation and landscaping in areas after brown-coal mining in Middle-East European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The research on the reclamation of areas devasted by open cast mining has a long tradition in the Middle-East European Countries. Results obtained from the research in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia and Estonia are summarized. Mining technologies, law regulations and the physiogeographical situation of the mining regions are different in the particular countries. This resulted in different reclamation strategies in these countries. In Poland, forest recultivation is of great importance because of the physical and chemical properties of the uppermost layers of the dumps, whereas in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania agricultural recultivation is more important. The results of studies on the forest recultivation of dumps in Estonia are of great interest, because they have been carried out for more than 50 years. 26 refs., 3 tabs

1996-01-01

244

Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID): protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabilization for six weeks is a simple, convenient, and ubiquitously available intervention. In contrast, ORIF requires hospitalization, but allows for functional rehabilitation. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials, it remains unclear whether ORIF leads to better functional outcomes one year after injury than closed reduction and casting. Methods/Design ORCHID (Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius) is a pragmatic, randomized, multi-center, clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms. It is planned to include 504 patients in 15 participating centers throughout Germany over a three-year period. Patients are allocated by a central web-based randomization tool. The primary objective is to determine differences in the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Physical Component Score (PCS) between volar locked plating and closed reduction and casting of intraarticular, comminuted distal radius fractures in patients > 65 years of age one year after the fracture. Secondary outcomes include differences in other SF-36 dimensions, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) instrument. Also, the range of motion in the affected wrist, activities of daily living, complications (including secondary ORIF and revision surgery), as well as serious adverse events will be assessed. Data obtained during the trial will be used for later health-economic evaluations. The trial architecture involves a central statistical unit, an independent monitoring institute, and a data safety monitoring board. Following approval by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, conduct and reporting will strictly adhere to national and international rules, regulations, and recommendations (e.g., Good Clinical Practice, data safety laws, and EQUATOR/CONSORT proposals) Discussion To our knowledge, ORCHID is the first multicenter RCT designed to assess quality of life and functional outcomes following operative treatment compared to conservative treatment of complex, intra-articular fractures of the distal radius in elderly patients. The results are expected to influence future treatment recommendations and policies on an international level. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN76120052 Registration date: 31.07.2008; Randomization of first patient: 15.09.2008

Bartl Christoph; Stengel Dirk; Bruckner Thomas; Rossion Inga; Luntz Steffen; Seiler Christoph; Gebhard Florian

2011-01-01

245

A case study of a large open pit uranium AML [Abandoned Mine Land] Project Gas Hills, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Abandoned Mine Lands Program (AML), authorized under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides funding for the abatement of health and safety hazards on lands disturbed by mining prior to enactment of the Act. A good example of the implementation of the AML Program in Wyoming is the A-8 Pit. The reclamation site is located in the East Gas Hills Uranium Mining District of Wyoming. Reclamation activities include selective handling of 3.5 million cubic yards of backfill, controlling pit dewatering and water treatment, installing second order drainage channel and riprap control structures, and salvaging sufficient coversoils and topsoils for site revegetation

1990-01-01

246

Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war es, die durch spektrometrische Erfassungsmethoden der Fernerkundung erhaltenen Ueberfliegungsdaten mittels konventioneller petrographischer, mineralogischer und geochemischer Analytik zu kalibrieren, um der Bergbauindustrie eine wirkungsvolle Methode zu liefern, welche es ermoeglicht, die riesigen Kippenareale des Tagebaubergbaus mit geringem zeitlichen und personellen Aufwand aussagesicher zu klassifizieren, die Sachverhalte mit hoher Genauigkeit raeumlich zuzuordnen und so einer geeigneten Nutzung zuzufuehren. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag dabei in der Charakterisierung der hydro- und geochemischen Veraenderungen in den Kippensedimenten des im mitteldeutschen Raum suedlich von Leipzig aufgeschlossenen Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau. Die Erfassung dieser Daten spielt in Hinblick auf eine Rekultivierung und Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials der Tagebaulandschaft eine entscheidende Rolle. (orig.)

Wiegand, U.

2002-07-01

247

The application of data mining methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data,...

Geng, Xiaoli

248

Methane emissions from coal mining - a perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane is one of the significant ingredients in the greenhouse phenomenon. This paper presents an outline of the current evaluation of methane emissions from coal mining in Australia for both underground and open cut mines and also post-mining emissions. The magnitude of the methane emissions from coal mining is compared to other significant sources.

Williams, D.; Saghafi, A.

1993-01-01

249

Preliminary report on the implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain local and regional seismic data together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

Jarpe, S.P.; Goldstein, P.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1995-07-01

250

Longwall mining principles for safely working steep coal seams. Open file report 3 Dec 79-30 Jun 81  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the principles of safely working steep coal seams using longwall mining methods. The report presents the state of the art and identifies the problems that result from seam inclination. Details are given on foreign longwall faces achieving good records of safety and productivity when mining on 30 degrees to 50 degrees inclined seams. Recommendations for further research are suggested.

Adam, R.F.J.; Douglas, W.J.; Reese, B.J.

1981-06-30

251

Cast bone ingrowth surface  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A prosthetic part for use as an orthopaedic implant has a cast metal base member 20' and a tissue ingrowth surface spaced outwardly therefrom. The tissue ingrowth surface is in the form of a cast metal lattice element 10' which covers at least a part of the outer surface of the base member 20'. The cast metal lattice element 10' is cast simultaneously and integrally with the base member from the same metal. This metal may be any well known castable material for ortho-paedic implants such as Vitallium or titanium. The lattice element 10' is in the form of a grid-like mesh which includes spacer members 16' cast integrally with the wire mesh and the base member to space the lattice element 10' a predetermined distance above the prosthesis surface 18'. An investment casting technique wherein a meltable material is coated with a ceramic casting shell is utilized to produce the integrally cast orthopaedic implant and tissue ingrowth surface.

Gustavson Larry J.; Schwartz Melvin M.

252

Cast bone ingrowth surface  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A prosthetic part for use as an orthopaedic implant has a cast metal base member and a tissue ingrowth surface spaced outwardly therefrom. The tissue ingrowth surface is in the form of a cast metal lattice element which covers at least a part of the outer surface of the base member. The cast metal lattice element is cast simultaneously and integrally with the base member from the same metal. This metal may be any well known castable material for orthopaedic implants such as Vitallium or titanium. The lattice element is in the form of a grid-like mesh which includes spaced members cast integrally with the wire mesh and the base member to space the lattice element a predetermined distance above the prosthesis surface. An investment casting technique wherein a meltable material is coated with a ceramic casting shell is utilized to produce the integrally cast orthopaedic implant and tissue ingrowth surface.

GUSTAVSON LARRY J; SCHWARTZ MELVIN M

253

Subaqueous deposition of reactive mine tailings in an open trench; Deposition subaquatique de residus miniers reactifs dans une fosse a ciel ouvert  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This poster presentation gave an overview of the subaqueous deposition of reactive mine tailings in the open trench Don Rouyn, located near Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec. The author began by providing a brief background of subaqueous mine tailing storage, and discussed the interest of the Don Rouyn trench. The site was described according to geomorphological and geological aspects. The hydrology conditions existing at the site were mentioned, and the results of the hydrology analysis performed were indicated. Close monitoring of the situation was maintained, and the chemical and physical stability of the tailings were evaluated. The conditions that prevailed both before and after the flooding of the site were explained. Water quality is being monitored, and the results obtained at this site might be used at other locations. 40 figs.

Lavoie, J. [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

2000-07-01

254

Tanacetum vulgare as a Bioindicator of Trace-Metal Contamination: A Study of a Naturally Colonized Open-Pit Lignite Mine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Be?chatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

Jasion M; Samecka-Cymerman A; Kolon K; Kempers AJ

2013-10-01

255

Tanacetum vulgare as a Bioindicator of Trace-Metal Contamination: A Study of a Naturally Colonized Open-Pit Lignite Mine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Be?chatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

2013-06-08

256

Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved.

1994-01-01

257

Special thermite cast irons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

2008-01-01

258

LLNL casting technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

1994-01-01

259

Innovative method for casting steel armorplate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Bureau of Mines, through an Interagency Agreement with the US Tank-Automotive Command (TACOM), has successfully developed a steel expendable pattern casting process (EPC) for the manufacture of armorplate. The new armor is lighter and more ballistically effective than conventional rolled homogeneous armor (RHA), and costs less. An applique armor spinoff from the program was field-tested during the Gulf War. The applique armor withstood direct impacts from enemy munitions without failure.

Turner, P.C.; Hansen, J.S.

1993-01-01

260

A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Generally speaking, up to 80% of electronic data is textual and most valuable information is often hidden and encoded in pages which are neither structured, nor classified. The availability of huge amount of data available in the open sources leads to the well-identified nowadays paradox: an overload of information means no usable knowledge. Besides, open source texts are - and will be - written in various native languages, but these documents are relevant even to non-native IAEA speakers. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for type (scientific article, patent, free textual document), source (Internet/Intranet, database, etc), protocol (HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, GOPHER, IRC, NNTP, etc) and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of focused crawling, textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This task undoubtedly requires remarkable efforts. This poster describes is a multimedia content gathering, multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. Its focused crawling aims to crawl only the subset of the web pages related to a specific category, in order to find only information of interest and improve quality in documents gathering. The focused crawling algorithm builds a model for the context within which topically relevant pages occur on the web, typically capturing link hierarchies within which valuable pages occur, as well as model content on documents that frequently co-occur with relevant pages. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morphological, Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. The languages supported are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, but the system can be fully integrated on demand with other languages such as Arabic, Russian, simplified Chinese, etc. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence and, for each word, the Slot Grammar parser draws on the word's slot frames to cycle through the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Each slot structure can be partially or fully instantiated and it can be filled with representations from one or more statements to incrementally build the meaning of a statement. This includes most of the treatment of coordination, which uses a method of 'factoring out' unfilled slots from elliptical coordinated phrases. The parser - a bottom-up chart parser - employs a parse evaluation scheme used for pruning away unlikely analyses during parsing as well as for ranking final analyses. By including semantic information directly in the dependency grammar structures, the system relies on the lexical semantic information combined with functional application rules. The detected terms and phrases are then extracted, reduced to their Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form. Once referred to their language independent entry inside the sectorial multilingual dictionary, they are used as descriptors for documents and possible seeds of clustering. Then final system users can search document by keywords combined by boolean operators, or by typing their own query in Natural Language, expressed using normal conversational syntax. Traditional Boolean queries, while precise, require strict interpretation that can often exclude information that is relevant to u

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Cast blasting pay dividends for Spring Creek coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spring Creek Coal is a low-sulfur, high-btu subbituminous coal mine located in southeastern Montana. Currently, operating at an annual rate of 11 million tons per year, Spring Creek has an accumulated production of more than 130 million tons of coal during its mine life. Faced with increasing stripping ratios, limited overburden loading capacity, and intense competition, in 1998 Spring Creek began investigating the viability of cast blasting. A considerable amount of time and effort had been invested in designing and preparing the first blasts at Spring Creek. Cast blasting was demonstrated as an efficient and economical system to move overburden and uncover coal at a faster rate. Spring Creek foresees a bright future for cast blasting at the mine. Casting will continue in areas where overburden depths derive the economics needed to justify the extra initial investment, but the Spring Creek team is not content with the status quo - they are now exploring casting low strip-ratio overburden in the 100 ft range, believing there is a positive risk to return even at low overburden depths. With the existing geology, pit geometry, and continuous improvement philosophy, cast blasting will continue to be an integral part of Spring Creek's continued success. 1 tab. 2 photos.

Wachendorf, J. [Kennecott Energy Co. (USA)

2002-02-01

262

Stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in lake water from a former open-pit mine through addition of organic wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic ({approximately} pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms under anoxic conditions. In selected microcosms, populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased with time; sulfide was generated by sulfate reduction; sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations approached zero; and pH approached neutrality. Best results were obtained with intermediate amounts of waste potato skin.

Castro, J.M.; Wielinga, B.W.; Gannon, J.E.; Moore, J.N.

1999-03-01

263

Planning mining operations in coal mines in foreign countries. Planirovka gornykh rabot na ugol'nykh shakhtakh za rubezhom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses methods for opening and developing coal deposits as well as mining systems used in various countries. It evaluates the following problems: opening and developing coal fields in the FRG, mining at large depths in the FRG, mining systems in the United Kingdom in coal mines under the sea bed, methods for mining level coal seams, methods for mining thin and medium coal seams with caving in the FRG, thin seam mining under the sea bed in the United Kingdom, thick seam mining with caving in France and Yugoslavia, room and pillar mining systems in France, India, South Africa and the USA, mining with stowing in Czechoslovakia, India and Poland, steep seam mining, thin steep seam mining in the FRG, thick seam mining with caving in Romania, France, India and the People's Republic of Korea, thick seam mining with stowing in France. (8 refs.) (In Russian)

Khudin, Yu.L.; Ustinov, M.I.; Churilov, A.A.; Gorbachev, D.T.

1983-01-01

264

High quality casting materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The paper briefly presents results of the new developed high quality cast materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following materials are: hypereutectoid cast steel with various microstructure modular graphite obtained in as-cast condition (raw state), ductile cast iron of bainite-martensitic carbides structure obtained in a raw state, aluminum bronzes and silumins with additives of: chromium, molybdenum, wolfram, vanadium.Findings: These alloys are characterized primarily by significant mechanical properties and high wear resistance. It was also discussed getting of layer products by combination of steel or cast iron using alphinated layer with silumin.Practical implications: The paper discusses the high quality cast alloy, layer products and presents the high quality casting materials in the point of view principles of materials selection.Originality/value: The above problem is shown in the background of “Rules of material selection” as well as a model of production system in company.

S. Pietrowski

2010-01-01

265

Advances in aluminum casting technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This symposium focuses on the improvements of aluminum casting quality and reliability through a better understanding of processes and process variables, and explores the latest innovations in casting-process design that allow increasing use of the castings to replace complex assemblies and heavy steel and cast-iron components in aerospace and automotive applications. Presented are 35 papers by international experts in the various aspects of the subject. The contents include: Semisolid casting; Computer-aided designing of molds and castings; Casting-process modeling; Aluminum-matrix composite castings; HIPing of castings; Progress in the US car project; Die casting and die design; and Solidification and properties.

Tiryakioglu, M.; Campbell, J. (eds.)

1998-01-01

266

Web Mining Functions in an Academic Search Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with Web mining and the different categories of Web mining like content, structure and usage mining. The application of Web mining in an academic search application has been discussed. The paper concludes with open problems related to Web mining. The present work can be a useful input to Web users, Web Administrators in a university environment.

Jeyalatha SIVARAMAKRISHNAN; Vijayakumar BALAKRISHNAN

2009-01-01

267

Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclaimed mine soils (RMS) which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe) reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L). Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control plots were arrang- ed in managed pine forests on natural sites in the surrounding area. The results shows high Carbon accumulation in RMS, estimated on 16.77 Mg?ha-1 in poor (oligotrofic) soils on Quaternary sands on sand quarry and up to 65.03 Mg?ha-1 on external waste heap after Sulfur sur- face mining exploitation on Quaternary sands mixed with Tertiary clays. These results were very similar to natural forest soils on control plots. Potential rate of Carbon sequestration in RMS was estimated on 0.73 (on the poorest sa- ndy soils on quarry) to 2.17 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on potentially abundant sandy-clayish soils on Sulfur waste heap), and 5.26 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on Tertiary sands substrate soils on lignite mining waste heap). In conslusion the average Carbon accu- mulation in RMS was estimated on 41 Mg?ha-1 and Carbon sequestration rate was 1.45 Mg? ha-1?yr-1. According to the result of this study and range of post-mining areas reclaimed to forestry in Poland (ca 15000 ha) total Carbon accumulation in RMS was estimated on 615 × 103 Mg and potential Carbon sequestration rate in new ecosystems on 21.75 × 103 Mg?ha-1?yr-1. However, the main factors affecting Carbon sequestration and protection in RMS under tree stand were substrate, percentage of clay and silt sized fraction, in order to formulate guidelines for sustainable management of post-mining ec- osystem, further study must be continue for be- tter understanding.

Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski

2010-01-01

268

Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões/ A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sorte a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua co (more) mplexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and quality targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on (more) the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

Araújo, Francisco César Rodrigues de; Souza, Marcone Jamilson Freitas

2011-03-01

269

Grid-enabling data mining applications with DataMiningGrid: An architectural perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The DataMiningGrid system has been designed to meet the requirements of modern and distributed data mining scenarios. Based on the Globus Toolkit and other open technology and standards, the DataMiningGrid system provides tools and services facilitating the grid-enabling of data mining applications ...

Stankovski, V.; Swain, M.; Kravtsov, V.; Niessen, T.; Wegener, D.; Kindermann, J.; Dubitzky, W.

270

Optimizing longwall mine layouts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before spending the time to design an underground mine in detail, the mining engineer should be assured of the economic viability of the location of the layout. This has historically been a trial-and-error, iterative process. Traditional underground mine planning usually bases the layout on the geological characteristics of a deposit such as minimum seam height, quality, and the absence of faults. Whether one attempts to make a decision manually. or use traditional mine planning software, the process works something like this: First you build geological model. Then you impose a {open_quotes}best guess{close_quotes} as to which geological layers will become part of the mined product, or will influence mining. Next you place your design where you believe is the best location to make a mine. Then you select equipment which you believe will cost-effectively mine the area. Finally, you schedule your equipment selection through the design over the mine life, run financial analyses and see if the rate of return is acceptable. If the NPV is acceptable, the design is accepted. If the NPV is not acceptable, the engineer has to restart the cycle of redesigning the layout, rescheduling the equipment, and restudying the economics again.

Minkel, M.J.

1996-12-31

271

Highwall mining comes of age  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent production record by Mining Technologies` Addcar Highwall-Mining System has confirmed that this radical method of mining is not only a viable alterative to established primary open-case and underground mining techniques but can also drastically reduce costs as well as offering other less obvious benefits. The article discusses the viability of the Addcar Highwall Mining System. At present there are 12 systems in operation in the USA and three in Australia. The basic elements of the system are a continuous miner, a launch system and the Addcar conveyor car. 4 photos.

NONE

1998-11-01

272

Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto/ Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido (more) um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, have been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the (more) behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

Rodrigues, Lásara Fabrícia; Pinto, Luiz Ricardo

2012-09-01

273

Properties and applications of cast aluminum sponges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although most structural applications for cellular metals call for a closed cell morphology, functional application rely on a certain degree of open porosity. An inexpensive alternative to investment casting processes could be the well-known infiltration process of space-holding fillers for manufacturing metallic sponge-like structures. Recent process improvements allow to produce such materials in very good quality. (orig.)

Banhart, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung, Bremen (Germany)

2000-04-01

274

Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S. [Inst. of Crystal Growth Berlin (Germany)

1995-08-01

275

Research to determine the feasibility of utilizing employee-assistance programs for the mining industry. Open File Report (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report examines the feasibility of employee-assistance plans for the coal industry. Three issues are examined in detail. First, the prevalence of off-the-job factors such as alcoholism, drug abuse, and marital problems are examined in a sample of miners from the eastern, midwestern, and western underground coalfields. Then, data are presented from examination of the link between these off-the-job factors and behaviors critical to the mines such as absenteeism and turnover. Lastly, the effectiveness of the major employee-assistance program in underground coal mining - the HELP Program was examined. The report contains recommendations on whether coal-mining companies should implement these programs and how these programs should be designed.

Goodman, P.S.

1986-01-01

276

Innovative recontouring of abandoned surface-coal-mined lands. Open file report, 1 October 1979-30 May 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the work performed and the results obtained under a study directed toward identifying innovative recontouring strategies for abandoned surface-coal-mine lands. The study examined nine specific sites considered typical of abandoned mine lands in the United States. Recontouring costs for these sites were estimated first using conventional reclamation equipment (dozers, scrapers, etc.) as a base case, and second using large dragline stripping equipment for comparison. Using the cost and efficiency data generated during these studies, five innovative techniques were devised and applied to appropriate sites for cost estimation.

Bowen, P.; Philips, G.; Mathieson, G.; Consalis, G.; Tausan, G.

1983-09-01

277

Evaluation of coal mine electrical system safety. Open file report (final) 8 Jul 74-30 May 81  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report concludes the documentation under grant G0155003 and details research not covered under foregoing report volumes. The first chapter lists all other reports. The following chapters are divided into three major research tasks: Continuous Safety Monitoring Systems, Battery and Battery-Charging Safety, and Mine Power System Transients. The monitoring chapter discusses the prediction of power-system failures. The battery chapter details work on battery-box stresses, battery chargers, and the elimination of electrocutions. The final chapter covers transient instrumentation, distribution transients sources and suppression, and utilization transients on mine power systems.

Morley, L.A.; Trutt, F.C.; Kohler, J.A.

1981-06-01

278

ESTIMATION OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A SURFACE COAL MINE USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROSCOPY AND MODELING TECHNIQUES  

Science.gov (United States)

A new measurements methodology has been developed which allows the rapid and efficient measurement of methane (CH4) emissions from surface coal mines. An initial field trial of this methodology has been completed, and results from the field trial revealed that emissions from one ...

279

Bimetallic layer castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layer casting in configuration: working part (layer) from ferritic or austenitic alloy steel and bearing part from grey cast iron.Design/methodology/approach: In applied technology surface layer on the basis of alloy steel at 2 or 5mm thickness was put directly in founding process of cast iron with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Quality of bimetallic layer castings was estimated on the base of ultrasonic non-destructive testing and examination of the structure and selected usable properties i.e. hardness.Findings: The results of studies and their analysis show efficiency of new, innovative technology of heat-resisting layer castings.Research limitations/implications: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of different type of alloy steels on working part (layer) of bimetallic casting.Practical implications: On the basis of research results was affirmed that application of thinner plates i.e. about thickness 2mm causes their deformation in time of pouring, what disqualify this layer casting for industrial application. Considerably best results was obtained with use thickness of plate 5mm.Originality/value: The value of this paper resides in new effective method of manufacture of heat-resisting castings, mainly for lining of quenching car to coke production.

M. Cholewa; T. Wróbel; S. Tenerowicz

2010-01-01

280

Higher Education's Caste System  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

Iannone, Ron

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Orthopedic cast construction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An improved orthopedic cast construction is disclosed. It is intended for application to broken bones, sprains, etc. The improved construction utilizes an elastic sleeve for those instances where the cast is placed on a limb, a second layer of spooled felting material which serves as a buffer against the elastic sleeve, and a third layer formed of a plaster bandage which is applied in multiple wraps soaked in water for the purpose of hardening into a supportive cast. The improvement comprises a felted layer of polyester or cotton fibers with ground silica-gel to adsorb perspiration from the body to keep the cast dry after installation and draws water out of the plaster media to enhance its drying. This protects and extends the life of the cast. It improves comfort to the patient.

SAIN BERNARD S

282

Multi-layers castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

J. Szajnar; P. Wróbel; T. Wróbel

2010-01-01

283

Extensibility in data mining systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The successful application of data mining techniques ideally requires both system support for the entire knowledge discovery process and the right analysis algorithms for the particular task at hand. While there are a number of successful data mining systems that support the entire mining process, they usually are limited to a fixed selection of analysis algorithms. In this paper, we argue in favor of extensibility as a key feature of data mining systems, and discuss the requirements that this entails for system architecture. We identify in which points existing data mining systems fail to meet these requirements, and then describe a new integration architecture for data mining systems that addresses these problems based on the concept of {open_quotes}plug-ins{close_quotes}. KEPLER, our data mining system built according to this architecture, is presented and discussed.

Wrobel, S.; Wettschereck, D.; Sommer, E.; Emde, W. [Inst. of Applied Information Technology, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

1996-12-31

284

Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

2010-01-01

285

The ancient Chinese casting techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong), etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

2011-01-01

286

CASTE FRAMEWORK AT NATIONAL LEVEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caste is an important element of the Indian political process. It is legitimate. Caste has been inequality creating in Indian society. Therefore its influence on power shaping & Policy Making process. In this sense caste element has got sphere of influence in political process. Relationship between Caste & politics has been more eminent. Caste has been influencing on politics & politics has been influenced by caste. Limitation of Dominant caste at national level: dominant caste has been demanding for representation on national level. But their demands were not accepted by forward castes. The forward caste has been controlling National level power. Dominant caste has been controlling the state level power.Hinduvat Framework has Successes but Caste Framework has Failure. ST'S Community is not related to Caste Politics. Caste framework is Failure to inclusion of all backward Caste. Caste framework had not successful to decided Social & Economic Public Policy. Because of this caste framework is empty so it has no capacity to competing with other frameworks. It has own Sense of Political Efficacy but on national level it made no impact.

PRAKASH PAWAR

2013-01-01

287

Development of soil nematode communities on coal-mining dumps in two different landscapes and reclamation practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil nematodes were studied in two chronosequences of plots from open-cast coal-mining dumps near Cottbus (Germany, acidic tertiary sandy spoils afforested with pines) and near Sokolov (Czech Republic, alkaline tertiary clays afforested with alder). Nematodes at Sokolov developed more abundant and diverse communities with a high proportion of omnivores and plant parasites than those at Cottbus. The pH and spoil texture, amount of precipitation, litter accumulation and colonisation of dumps by plants and soil biota were probably important factors for different development of nematode assemblages in the regions compared.

Hanel, L. [Academy of Science for Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

2002-07-01

288

Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the footwear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals (more) exposed to pesticides (p

Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A.P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Rohr, Paula; Silva, Fernanda R. da; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; Silva, Juliana da

2012-01-01

289

Monitoring report of groundwater quality in and around the former Yotsugi open-pit mining site, Ningyo-toge, Okayama, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of groundwater quality from boreholes in and around the former Yotsugi open-pit mining site in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC, have been carried out to estimate extent and quality of contaminated water plume from the buried heap-leaching residue. In this report, data collected from 1979 to 1998 fiscal year were listed and their spatial and time variation of physicochemical parameters, uranium and radium were also summarized. Additionally, groundwater sampler has been improved and analytical method has been modified. Some results from groundwater quality were; 1. Generally, electric conductivity and concentrations of uranium and radium outside of the site tend to lower than one from the inside area. 2. Data from borehole No. 13, installed outside of the site, exceptionally little higher than one from the inside area. (author)

Matsumura, Toshihiro; Takeuchi, Akira; Sato, Kazuhiko; Tsurudome, Koji; Tokizawa, Takayuki [Environmental Research and Development Group, Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

1999-08-01

290

Longwall mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

NONE

1995-03-14

291

Additional requirements for recultivation in open mine pits. O Dopolinitelnykh trebovoniyakh k rekultibatsii na otkrytykh gornykh razrabotkakh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mine edges of quarries occupy considerable land tracts which results in their exclusion from land use and formation of foci of environmental pollution. At the stage of planning, minimum values of the edge are defined. An order is proposed for coordinating the deviations from the plan. An order is recommended for controlling the weeds and water. Erosion of the soil, and work on irrigation and land reclamation.

Ilenko, S.M.; Arutinova, Z.Z.

1983-01-01

292

Methodology development for mine life safety system evaluation. Open file report 1 Jan 80-28 Feb 82  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A methodology was developed for qualitative safety hazard evaluation and quantitative reliability analysis of mine monitoring and control systems. Detailed application of these techniques were made to two commercial monitor-control systems and to a microprocessor-based system. A controlled environmental test was conducted on a set of one of the commercial system's outstations. A software reliability evaluation methodology was also developed and applied.

Nutter, R.S.; Smith, N.S.; Voltz, W.R.; Klinkhachorn, P.; Tuthill, D.F.

1982-06-06

293

Clean Metal Casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

294

Clean Metal Casting; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

2002-01-01

295

Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopacková, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

2011-10-01

296

Environmental impact analysis (UVP) of mining projects. Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung bergbaulicher Vorhaben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German law on 'Environmental Compatibility Analysis' (UVPG) of February 1990 was the national implementation of a corresponding EC Directive (1985). This type of environmental impact analysis or rather 'environmental compatibility analysis' as suggested by its German name is based on the principle of prophylatic or provisory care and prexcaution, i.e. to foresee any hazards for and impacts on the environment and to evaluate them in this respect. This analysis is used to identify and rate all environmental impacts and effects originating from projects both in the planning and the execution stages. Mining projects like waste tipping, or sinking and operating open-cast pits are long-term and often permanent features which will characterize their immediate surroundings and the larger landscape and may also have a lasting effect on the environment. (orig.)

Simon, M.; Brunk, M.

1993-09-01

297

The Bullmoose Mine project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bullmoose Mine is currently under construction in the North East Coal area of British Columbia, and approximately $300 million will be spent to bring this 2.3 million-tonnes-per-year metallurgical and thermal coal mine into production by December 1, 1983. The project is an unincorporated joint venture undertaking, with Teck-Bullmoose Coal Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Teck Corporation, holding 51%, Lornex Mining Corporation holding 39%, and Nissho-Iwai (Canada) Ltd. holding 10%. Bullmoose Operating Corporation will be the manager and operator of the project. This paper covers the history and exploration work on the property, the geology, open-pit mining plans and equipment, the preparation plant flowsheet from breaker station to clean coal silo, the 35 km highway truck haul, the railroad loadout system, manpower requirements, construction progress, approvals and permits, and general financial arrangements.

Drozd, R.

1983-05-01

298

General requirement for effective overburden casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effective overburden casting requires the efficient use of todays explosives and initiations systems if a mine is to survive. This paper uses a major coal stripping operation as an example of the proper application of explosives and initiation system to their conditions. High speed photography, rock analysis and computer modeling were used to assist in determining the effective use of the explosives and the initiation systems. The high speed photography confirmed the computer modeling done by SABREX, the Scientific Approach to Blasting Rock with Explosives developed by ICI Explosives world group of companies. The major coal company used in this paper mines the 36 inch Sewanee coal seam in Tennessee for TVA steam generation. The overburden is usually in excess of 100 ft. of sandstone.

Cook, J.D. [Tennessee Nitrate Technology, Inc., Dunlap, TN (United States); McCutchen, D. [ICI Explosives USA Inc., Roswell, GA (United States)

1994-12-31

299

On Inverse Frequent Set Mining  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Frequent set mining is a well-known technique to summarizebinary data. However, it is an open problem howdifficult it is to invert the frequent set mining, i.e., how difficultit is to find a binary data set that is compatible withfrequent set mining results, the frequent sets. This inversedata mining problem is related to the questions of how wellprivacy is preserved in the frequent sets and how well thefrequent sets characterize the original data set. In this paperwe analyze the computational complexity of the problemof finding a binary data set compatible with a givencollection of frequent sets and show that in many cases theproblem is computationally very difficult.

Taneli Mielik Ainen

300

Canada's largest mining scheme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

1984-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theme of the 1993 Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute Meeting was [open quotes]producing productivity.[close quotes] Papers were presented at the meeting that dealt with worker productivity, improved technology for increased productivity, optimizing productivity, new cost blasting technology, advances in conveyer technology, battery-powered face haulage, high wall mining, stress analysis in coal mines, safety programs, and best mining practices. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for the data base.

Finnie, D.G. (ed.)

1993-01-01

302

Method of casting aerogels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01

303

(Continuous casting 1985)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the Continuous Casting '85 Conference including informal discussions with conference attendees. In general, the papers presented at the conference concerned an overview of continuous steel casting worldwide, state-of-the-art aspects of steel continuous casting technology including caster startup problems, modifications, control system strategies, energy use profiles, quality control aspects, steel chemistry control, refractories, operational aspects of continuous casters, etc. No papers were presented in the development of thin section or thin strip casting of steel. Informal discussions were held with several conference attendees including (1) Bernard Trentini, Executive Director of the Association Technique De La Siderurgie Francaise in Paris, France (similar to the American Iron and Steel Institute); (2) Dr. Wolfgang Reichelt and Dr. Peter Voss-Spilker both of Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik -a continuous casting and other steel making machine builder in-lieu of meeting at their plant in Duisburg, FRG on May 31; (3) Ewan C. Hewitt of Devote McKee Corp., Sheffield, England; (4) Wilfried Heinemann, head of R D Dept. at Concast Standard AG in Zurich, Switzerland; and (5) Hideo Ueno, engineer of melting section, Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Co. Ltd, Tokyo Japan. A visit was made to the Teesside Laboratories of British Steel Corp. for discussions of their thin section casting research program in particular and R D program in general.

Wilde, R.A.

1985-06-12

304

Interactive mine-power-system analysis: Volume I. Open file report, 28 September 1979-30 November 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is intended as a reference for personnel interested in the computer analysis of coal mine electrical power systems under either normal operating conditions or fault situations. The procedures developed are described and implementation considerations are discussed. Considerations for choosing a solution technique and some examples are included. During program development, strict attention was given to the inclusion of core and/or time-saving techniques such that these algorithms may be implemented on small or large computers. Program languages include Fortran IV for batch processing applications and APL or BASIC for interactive applications.

Trutt, F.C.; Morley, L.A.; Rivell, R.A.

1981-01-31

305

The Institute for Mining Science III, extraction of raw materials above ground and drilling technology of the Rhineland-Westphalia Technological University, Aachen; Das Institut fuer Bergbaukunde III, Rohstoffgewinnung ueber Tage und Bohrtechnik der RWTH Aachen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Institute for Mining Science III of the Rhineland-Westphalia Technological University, Aachen with its concentration on open-cast mining technology, drilling technology and environmental protection makes an important contribution to the practical training of mining engineers. As a result of research over many years and close cooperation with the raw materials industry the institute is now a competent partner for the entire range of this branch of industry in Germany and abroad. Taking into account the dynamic requirements of society and industry with regard to the tasks of a teaching and research institute, the activities of the institute will in future concentrate on safeguarding of raw materials, protection of resources, environmental protection and introduction of innovative technologies in open-cast mining and drilling technology. (orig.) [German] Das Institut fuer Bergbaukunde III der RWTH Aachen mit den Schwerpunkten Tagebautechnik, Bohrtechnik und Umweltschutz liefert einen wesentlichen Beitrag bei der praxisorienierten Ausbildung der Bergbauingenieure. Resultierend aus der langjaehrig angewandten Forschung und einer intensiven Zusammenarbeit mit der Rohstoffindustrie stellt das Institut heute einen kompetenten Partner fuer das gesamte Spektrum dieses Wirtschaftszweigs im In- und Ausland dar. Den dynamischen Anforderungen der Gesellschaft und Industrie hinsichtlich der Aufgaben einer Lehr- und Forschungseinrichtung Rechnung tragend werden sich die Taetigkeiten des Instituts zukuenftig auf die Bereiche Rohstoffsicherung, Ressourcenschonung, Umweltschutz sowie Einfuehrung innovativer Technologien in der Tagebau- und Bohrtechnik konzentrieren. (orig.)

Niemann-Delius, C.; Tudeshki, H.H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

2001-04-12

306

Belt conveyors replace trucks in lignite mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When considering earthmoving equipment teams, there is a tendency to overlook material handling systems and focus major attention on excavating equipment. While choosing the right excavator is essential to a high-efficiency earthmoving operation, the method of transportation in open-pit mines is also important. Recently, in-pit conveying has been replacing truck haulage in some open-pit mines. The comparative economics for truck haulage versus conveying in lignite mines is examined.

Williamson, K.L.

1984-02-01

307

Costain's Ravensworth South mine makes profitable use of modern innovations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ravensworth South coal mine, in the Hunter Valley near Singleton, is Australia's newest coal mine. Its opening late in 1988 has highlighted Australia's capacity for innovative mine development.

1989-06-01

308

Quality of the joint between cast steel and cast iron in bimetallic castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents conception and production method of skeleton composite castings with use of cast steel G35CrSiMnMoNi skeletoncasting and chromium cast iron EN-GJN-XCr15 filling. Working elements in winning machines and devices, which work in intensiveaberasive wear i.e. liner of exhausters, percussive and ram hammers, are destination of bimetallic castings. Skeleton geometry was basedon three-dimensional symmetrical cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian coordinatesystem. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. In rangeof studies were casted cast steel skeletons with chromium cast iron filling and based on metallographic research on light and scanningelectron microscope was made quality assessment of joint in bimetallic castings. Moreover in range of studies was used microanalysisof chemical composition in transition zone of cast steel-cast iron joint.

M. Cholewa; S. Tenerowicz; T. Wróbel

2008-01-01

309

Mine drivage in hydraulic mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 20 to 25% of labor cost in hydraulic coal mines falls on mine drivage. Range of mine drivage is high due to the large number of shortwalls mined by hydraulic monitors. Reducing mining cost in hydraulic mines depends on lowering drivage cost by use of new drivage systems or by increasing efficiency of drivage systems used at present. The following drivage methods used in hydraulic mines are compared: heading machines with hydraulic haulage of cut rocks and coal, hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage, drilling and blasting with hydraulic haulage of blasted rocks. Mining and geologic conditions which influence selection of the optimum mine drivage system are analyzed. Standardized cross sections of mine roadways driven by the 3 methods are shown in schemes. Support systems used in mine roadways are compared: timber supports, roof bolts, roof bolts with steel elements, and roadways driven in rocks without a support system. Heading machines (K-56MG, GPKG, 4PU, PK-3M) and hydraulic monitors (GMDTs-3M, 12GD-2) used for mine drivage are described. Data on mine drivage in hydraulic coal mines in the Kuzbass are discussed. From 40 to 46% of roadways are driven by heading machines with hydraulic haulage and from 12 to 15% by hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage.

Ehkber, B.Ya.

1983-09-01

310

Mining heritage and housing in Ipswich City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discovery and mining of coal in Ipswich, how byproducts of the coal mining industry are being recycled and also how the coal mining heritage is influencing the selection and design of residences, are discussed in this paper. The geological setting of the coal seams, and the various methods used to mine the deposit, are outlined. Mine workings at first were not much more than surface scrapings, but mining via tunnels from the banks of the river, soon became the main method of extracting the coal. Open cut mining commenced around the 1960s when the use of appropriate earthmoving equipment became economically viable. The open cut mines, which extended down to maximum depths of about 70 metres, were confined to the eastern and north western edges of the basin where the seams outcropped at the surface. Rehabilitation, development over mined areas and recycling of mine byproducts forms the final phase of the mining cycle. The most appropriate use of the land depended on the results of mining studies at the re-zoning or building approval stages. Areas that are unsuitable for conventional slab on ground residences are frequently suitable for heritage type stump structures which have traditionally been an acceptable style of housing in the area. All structures are fully engineered. In conclusion, the mining heritage of the city is recognised without the need to sterilize the land. This engineering approach is believed to be the way to the future. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

Grubb, K.B. [Moreton Geotechnical Services Pty. Ltd., QLD (Australia)

1995-12-31

311

Mining 94. International mining conference, 'technology for profit'. Conference papers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented under the following session headings: aspects of international mining industries; open pit operations; underground coal mining technology; transport; aids to profitability; underground coal mining operations; and profit contributors. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

1994-01-01

312

Plant size and mining technique as factors for the competitiveness of mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article looks at the factors which make mines competitive, or not, as the case may be. These factors include economies of scale, plant size, and selection of mining techniques; piece production cost functions are considered for both open pit and underground mines.

Noetstaller, R.

1985-06-01

313

Coal Mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

The panel on coal mining technology of the NRC committee on processing and utilization of fossil fuels was appointed to assess the distribution and quality of the nation's coal reserve, underground and surface mining techniques, processing techniques, man...

1978-01-01

314

Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

2010-01-01

315

Investment casting compound and fine-investment casting compound  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a investment casting compound for making casting moulds for alloy castings, especially in dental engineering, with the MgO/SiO2/P2O5 ceramic system, and to a fine-investment casting compound for making casting moulds for alloy castings, especially in dental engineering, with ceramic constituents as a thin coating for the model of the alloy casting to be cast, the coating serving as a primary layer for the further application of an ordinary investment casting compound as secondary layer for making the final casting mould. To provide investment compounds, with which casting moulds can be made which make alloy castings with low surface roughness possible, the addition of a substance is proposed which increases the liquidus temperatures of the ceramic system and reduces the high-temperature oxidation of the alloy casting. This substance can be zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4) and/or a titanium(IV) oxide (TiO2 (anatase and/or rutile)).

GRILL GUENTHER; NOWACK NORBERT PROF DR ING

316

Invisible macrodefects in castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There is a wide spectrum of controls which are required to be in place to ensure the maintenance of quality in castings. Most of these are well known, and are not therefore considered in this paper. The parameters which are often overlooked, and thus not controlled, are (i) the rate of flow of liquid metal in the mould to avoid surface turbulence and the generation of macroscopic crack-like defects as a result of folded-in surface films; and (ii) the rate of quench following solution heat treatment. As a result of failure to control these critical parameters castings traditionally exhibit random failure from leakage, and mechanical failure, especially fatigue. Mechanical failure is enhanced by internal stress which is superimposed on service stress to promote premature failure. It is considered that these are the main reasons why in the past castings have been found to be unreliable, compared to other production techniques such as forging. Techniques to control both surface turbulence and internal stresses include respectively (i) the limiting of flow velocities in moulds to less than 0.5 m/s, and (ii) eliminating the water quench from casting heat treatments. These actions are expected to revolutionise the concept of castings as totally reliable products. (orig.)

1993-01-01

317

Invisible macrodefects in castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a wide spectrum of controls which are required to be in place to ensure the maintenance of quality in castings. Most of these are well known, and are not therefore considered in this paper. The parameters which are often overlooked, and thus not controlled, are (i) the rate of flow of liquid metal in the mould to avoid surface turbulence and the generation of macroscopic crack-like defects as a result of folded-in surface films; and (ii) the rate of quench following solution heat treatment. As a result of failure to control these critical parameters castings traditionally exhibit random failure from leakage, and mechanical failure, especially fatigue. Mechanical failure is enhanced by internal stress which is superimposed on service stress to promote premature failure. It is considered that these are the main reasons why in the past castings have been found to be unreliable, compared to other production techniques such as forging. Techniques to control both surface turbulence and internal stresses include respectively (i) the limiting of flow velocities in moulds to less than 0.5 m/s, and (ii) eliminating the water quench from casting heat treatments. These actions are expected to revolutionise the concept of castings as totally reliable products. (orig.).

Campbell, J. (Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom))

1993-11-01

318

Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)

2011-07-01

319

Late glacial at the turn of the San Glaciation and the Ferdynandow Interglacial in the open mine Belchatow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies the glacial and interglacial paleoenvironment in the area of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine in Poland. Samples of geological stratification from the Lawki 1 and Lawki 2 sites were evaluated by soil, pollen, elemental, flora, fauna and sediment analyses. Results showed that paleoenvironment had 4 waves of milder climate and 3 returning cold periods, proven by changing lithology, traces of weathering processes, soil development, plant and pollen remains. Several types of tundra (Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Equisetum) were distinguished. Paleohydrological changes are displayed in lake sediments (sand, shale, mud, silt, peat etc.) and in particular, in pollen. Peat samples are also characterized. The upper till of the San Glaciation was dated at 596 ka; sediments from the late glacial period were dated at 563 ka. 19 refs.

Baraniecka, M.D.; Konecka-Betley, K.; Sowinski, L. (Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland). Zaklad Kartografii Geologicznej)

1992-01-01

320

Data Mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

Benoit, Gerald

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x108m3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

1978-06-23

322

30 CFR 75.371 - Mine ventilation plan; contents.  

Science.gov (United States)

...310(a)(4)). (c) Methods of protecting main mine fans and associated components from the forces of an underground...310(a)(6)); and the methods of protecting main mine fans and intake air openings if combustible material will...

2010-07-01

323

Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. RESULTS: Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. CONCLUSION: Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

Reddy SS; Revathi K; Reddy SK

2013-07-01

324

Cast Heatsink Design Advantages  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

:Power dissipation of chips has been raising faster thanthe technology needed to economically cool them.Especially in the high performance arena. To get highefficiency heatsinks presently, extrusions are machined orentire heatsinks are machined with strategically arrangedfins. These methods are not as effective in highcomponent densities or cost sensitive units compared tonewer, porosity free castings.Die casting of, low cost materials, especially aluminumdoped zinc, creates a porosity free, low cost, efficientheatsink. Hand poured aluminum and brass alloys are alsouseful in special circumstances, but with a cost penalty.Airfoil shapes can be made to take full advantage of true3D casting shapes and direct the airflow as required; thiscan greatly reduce back pressure by creating turbulenceonly where needed. Assembly clues such as arrows can belocated along with stops and alignment pins. Eventurbulence enhancing grooves and attachment points canbe added with little p...

Kurtis P. Keller

325

Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

Rhodes, M.J. [Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

326

Highwall mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highwall mining systems, employing either augers or continuous miners, allow the economic recovery of reserves such as those in Appalachia comprising low-sulphur steam and metallurgical coal that would be uneconomic to mine by other surface mining techniques. The article describes one of the most advanced highwall mining systems available, the Joy Highwall Miner (HWM) and another similar system; the Jeffrey 102HP continuous miner. It goes on discuss the range of auger mining systems, particularly those available from Salem Tool and Brydet Development. 1 tab., 7 photos.

Chadwick, J.

1993-12-01

327

Contamination of ground and surface waters due to uranium mining and milling. Volume I: Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Open file report 25 Jul 79-14 Sep 81  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wastewater from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, N. Mex., contains uranium, selenium, radium, and molybdenum. A novel treatment process for waters from two mines, sections 35 and 36, to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants was developed. Particulates are settled by ponding and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment, and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters.

Brieley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

1981-11-01

328

Process Mining Versus Intention Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Process mining aims to discover, enhance or check the conformance of activity oriented process models from event logs. A new field of research, called intention mining, recently emerged. This new field has the same objectives than process mining but specifically addresses intentional process models....

Khodabandelou, Ghazaleh; Hug, Charlotte; Deneckere, Rebecca; Salinesi, Camille

329

Effects of limes and residual ash on the recultivation characteristics of sulfate-acid tertiary sediments of brown coal mining in North Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Open-cast mining in North Hessen (Borken region) caused tertiary sediments to be dumped on the surface. The overburden is characterized by high pyrite and marcasite concentrations and a low nutrient content. Acration of the material causes oxidation of the pyrite and, in consequence, acidification of the substrate. In these extremely poor soils, revegetation by natural sucession will result in a very sparse vegetation. To permit direct revegetation without laying a new layer of topsoil, commercial limes and two industrial residual ashes were mixed with the overburden. (orig.)

1990-01-01

330

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

331

From pneumatic transport to pneumatic mining in underground mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses feasibility of pneumatic coal transport from working faces in an underground coal mine to the ground surface. The Donugi research institute has investigated selected programs associated with development of a pneumatic coal transport system which would replace haulage and hoisting in underground mining. Efficiency of pneumatic coal trasport will depend on development of new equipment and improved transport schemes. At present pneumatic transport is characterized by energy consumption about 10 times higher than that of conveyor transport. Two schemes for deposit opening, mining and pneumatic transport are comparatively evaluated. Pneumatic coal transport systems with automatic control and new heavy-duty equipment meeting requirements for safety in underground mining will be economic due to reduced dimensions of haulage roadways, reduced diameter of mine shafts, reduced total length of mine roadways and increased safety in underground mining. Effects of selected parameters of pneumatic transport such as pipeline diameter, pressure or power of electric motors on energy consumption of pneumatic transport and the average mining cost are analyzed. The results of analysis are given in a table. Recommendations for research on pneumatic transport systems for underground mining are made. 6 refs.

Savenko, Yu.F.; Gulyaev, O.K.

1986-07-01

332

Coal mining at the Sunagawa (Japan) mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mining at the Sunagawa mine began in 1914. The new mining technology, which involves using hydraulic coal mining, was introduced to the mine in 1964. In recent years, the hydraulic coal mining method has been continuously improved and expanded in its applications. Today, the mine works inclined seams at depths of 900 to 1000 meters.

Nishida, M.

1983-01-01

333

Investment Casting of Columbium Alloys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The state of the art of columbium alloy investment castings has been advanced. In addition to demonstration of castability of four different alloys, the cast material itself has been characterized with respect to microstructure, alloy segregation, weldabi...

J. R. Humphrey A. I. Niravath

1975-01-01

334

Investment casting method and apparatus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A modified investment casting process is effective to more safely and efficiently produce cast articles. The casting process utilizes a solid, rigid riser tube, in place of a wax tree, upon which heat disposable, positive models of an article to be cast are joined. This assembly is coated with a refractory and after drying of the refractory the heat disposable positive models are removed. Thereafter the ceramic shell is heated and fired and molten casting material is poured into the assembly. The molten casting material flows from the riser tube to fill the cavities formerly occupied by the positive models. Upon cooling and solidification of the casting material, the refractory is fractured and cast parts are removed.

Hoherchak Joseph M.

335

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de Lima

2012-01-01

336

Azimuthal variation of radiation of seismic energy from cast blasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a series of seismic experiments designed to improve the understanding of the impact of mining blasts on verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, a sixteen station network of three-component seismic sensors were deployed around a large cast shot in the Black Thunder Mine. The seismic stations were placed, where possible, at a range of 2.5 kilometers with a constant inter-station spacing of 22.5 degrees. All of the data were recorded with the seismometers oriented such that the radial component pointed to the middle point of the approximately 2 kilometer long shot. High quality data were recorded at each station. Data were scaled to a range of 2.5 kilometers and the sum of the absolute value of the vertical, radial, and transverse channels computed. These observations were used to construct radiation patterns of the seismic energy propagating from the cast shot. It is obvious that cast shots do not radiate seismic energy isotropically. Most of the vertical motion occurs behind the highwall while radial and transverse components of motion are enhanced in directions parallel to the highwall. These findings have implications for local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and possibly for regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic observations of cast blasting. Locally, it could be argued that peak particle velocities could be scaled not only by range but also by azimuthal direction from the shot. This result implies that long term planning of pit orientation relative to sensitive structures could mitigate problems with vibration levels from future blasting operations. Regionally, the local radiation pattern may be important in determining the magnitude of large scale cast blasts. Improving the transparency of mining operations to international seismic monitoring systems may be possible with similar considerations.

Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martin, R.L. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States)

1996-12-31

337

Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146?±?0.004, 23.3?±?0.1, and 23.5?±?0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006?±?0.004, 1.9?±?0.5, and 2.4?±?1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2?±?0.1 to 140?±?3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60 % with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10 % was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84?±?0.02 and 7.7?±?0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0.09?±?0.01 and 0.10?±?0.04 mg/kg respectively in the rice grain endosperm. The adaptation of native rice plants, combined with bioaccumulation ratios of 1?±?0.6 to 1.4?±?0.7 calculated for Cd transfer to the rice grain endosperm, and maximum Cd transfer factors of 4.3?±?2.1 to the plant roots, strongly suggest a continuous input of some toxic metals from coal-mining operations to agricultural lands in the region of Cam Pha. In addition, our results imply a sustained absorption of metals by native rice plant varieties, which may lead to metal accumulation (e.g., Cd) in human organs and in turn to severe disease.

Martinez RE; Marquez JE; Hòa HT; Gieré R

2013-08-01

338

Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146?±?0.004, 23.3?±?0.1, and 23.5?±?0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006?±?0.004, 1.9?±?0.5, and 2.4?±?1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2?±?0.1 to 140?±?3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60 % with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10 % was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84?±?0.02 and 7.7?±?0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0.09?±?0.01 and 0.10?±?0.04 mg/kg respectively in the rice grain endosperm. The adaptation of native rice plants, combined with bioaccumulation ratios of 1?±?0.6 to 1.4?±?0.7 calculated for Cd transfer to the rice grain endosperm, and maximum Cd transfer factors of 4.3?±?2.1 to the plant roots, strongly suggest a continuous input of some toxic metals from coal-mining operations to agricultural lands in the region of Cam Pha. In addition, our results imply a sustained absorption of metals by native rice plant varieties, which may lead to metal accumulation (e.g., Cd) in human organs and in turn to severe disease.

Martinez RE; Marquez JE; Hòa HT; Gieré R

2013-11-01

339

Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146?±?0.004, 23.3?±?0.1, and 23.5?±?0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006?±?0.004, 1.9?±?0.5, and 2.4?±?1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2?±?0.1 to 140?±?3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60 % with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10 % was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84?±?0.02 and 7.7?±?0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0.09?±?0.01 and 0.10?±?0.04 mg/kg respectively in the rice grain endosperm. The adaptation of native rice plants, combined with bioaccumulation ratios of 1?±?0.6 to 1.4?±?0.7 calculated for Cd transfer to the rice grain endosperm, and maximum Cd transfer factors of 4.3?±?2.1 to the plant roots, strongly suggest a continuous input of some toxic metals from coal-mining operations to agricultural lands in the region of Cam Pha. In addition, our results imply a sustained absorption of metals by native rice plant varieties, which may lead to metal accumulation (e.g., Cd) in human organs and in turn to severe disease. PMID:23990254

Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Th? Bích; Gieré, Reto

2013-08-30

340

Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS) is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini; Siamak Haji Yakhchali

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Wear resistance of cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

2008-01-01

342

Extrusion cast explosive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

343

Polycrystal silicon semiconductor casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A commonly used silicon casting is to melt solid silicon in a silica crucible inside a heating furnace and cast it into a graphite mold. Recently coupling of O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ gases with silicon is prevented by melting solid silicon in vacuum or in inactive gas. According to the processes of West German and American companies, a container in which silicon melts is made of silica, consequently is easy to be worn and according to the processes of a French company and the same American company as above, they take time and their productivity per furnace declines since melting and solidification of the raw material are done in the same crucible using the same heat source. In order to solve the above problems, in this invention, continuous casting is conducted without generating adhesives of silicon oxide or nitride and dust by casting silicon in high vacuum, then in the first process, solid silicon is directly melt in the mold with an electron beam gun or in the second process, solid silicon is melt by the heat source of an electron beam gun on an unwearing water cooled hearth. Thus this invention offers in either way above the process appropriate for mass production of polycrystal silicon semiconductor ingots at low cost. (3 figs)

Shiraiwa, Toshio; Kaneko, Kyojiro

1987-11-13

344

Clad Cast Steel Strip.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for producing continuous cast hot band crystalline metal strips comprising feeding thin gauge metal strips and molten metal into a gap formed between opposed quenching surfaces. The film of molten metal is cooled while in contact with the quench...

R. L. Sheneman

1983-01-01

345

Influence of continuous casting conditions on grey cast iron structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the unification of flake graphite morphology in cast iron ingots in conditions of forced convection of liquid metal in the continuous casting mould, which contains electromagnetic stirrer.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations of grey cast iron ingots were used laboratory stand of continuous casting, which contains continuous casting mould with inductor of rotate electromagnetic field.To investigations were made metallographic researches on scanning electron microscope and investigations of usable properties i.e. measurements of hardness and machinability.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show possibility of unification of flake graphite morphology in cast iron structure, and distribution of hardness on cross-section of ingot and its machinability.Research limitations/implications: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of introduced method of continuous casting with use of electromagnetic field in industrial tests.Practical implications: The work presents method of unification of structure and properties, which are particularly important in continuous casting. Uniform morphology of flake graphite in structure of cast iron ingots for automobile industry is very important in viewpoint of machinability.Originality/value: Contributes to improvement in quality of grey cast iron continuous casted ingots.

J. Szajnar; M. Stawarz; T. Wróbel; W. Sebzda; B. Grzesik; M. St?pie?

2010-01-01

346

Bulk metallic glass tube casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: > Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. > Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. > Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. > Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

Soinila, E., E-mail: Erno.Soinila@hut.fi; Antin, K.; Bossuyt, S.; Haenninen, H.

2011-06-15

347

Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better buy-to-fly ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means. 25 references.

Tien, J.K.; Borofka, J.C.; Casey, M.E.

1986-12-01

348

Mining equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mining equipment adapted for repeated traversing to and fro adjacent to a conveyor arranged along a longwall face in an underground mine, has a mining machine support structure which bridges the conveyor and which has a curtain for guiding airborne dust arising during cutting of mineral by a rotary cutting head mounted on the machine. The air flow passage defined by the curtain has an air flow inducing means therein, such as a fan or water spray.

Brooks, D.J.; French, A.G.

1982-02-16

349

Search for low Energy solar Axions with CAST  

CERN Document Server

We have started the development of a detector system, sensitive to single photons in the eV energy range, to be suitably coupled to one of the CAST magnet ports. This system should open to CAST a window on possible detection of low energy Axion Like Particles emitted by the sun. Preliminary tests have involved a cooled photomultiplier tube coupled to the CAST magnet via a Galileian telescope and a switched 40 m long optical fiber. This system has reached the limit background level of the detector alone in ideal conditions, and two solar tracking runs have been performed with it at CAST. Such a measurement has never been done before with an axion helioscope. We will present results from these runs and briefly discuss future detector developments.

Arik, E; Autiero, D; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltrán, B; Borghi, S; Boydag, F S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Dogan, O B; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Galán, J; Gazis, E; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Hasinoff, M; Heinsius, F H; Hikmet, I; Hoffmann, D H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovicic, K; Kang, D; Karageorgopoulou, T; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K C; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kousouris, K; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Miller, D; Morales, A; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M; Placci, A; Raiteri, G; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Semertzidis, Y; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Solanki, S K; Soufli, R; Stewart, L; Tsagri, M; Van Bibber, K; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K

2008-01-01

350

Color Casts Detection and Adjustment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for detection and adjustment color cast. Using the neural network to detect color cast and classify images into three subsets: no cast, real cast, and intrinsic cast (image presenting a cast due to a predominant color that must be preserved). We have a database of 700 images which are downloaded from internet or acquired using various digital still cameras. We randomly select 350 images from the database for the neural network learning, and the others are for testing. From each training image, we can calculate 13 statistical parameters as input to the neural network. The second part is the white balance algorithm which is applied to the image while a real cast is found by the color cast detector. The test image is divided into m blocks. For each block, the output weighting can be obtained by a fuzzy system and the luminance weighted value is also calculated. Finally, we can obtain the new amplifier gains of the R, G, and B channel to adjust the color cast. If the input image be classified as no cast or intrinsic cast, white balance algorithm is not applied.

Sheng-Fuu Lin; Huang-Tsun Chen; Tsung-Han Lin

2011-01-01

351

Mine and mini-computer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mini-computer has become an essential tool in mining, with a large number of useful applications in all areas of mine project study and operation. Examples of its use in deposit modelling, estimation of reserves, optimization of open-pit mining methods and economic studies are given. The flexibility afforded by the mini-computer, enabling adustments to be made in order to improve the decision-making process, is particularly valuable in an industry vulnerable to natural and economic contingencies. (In English and in French)

Girard, M.

1982-07-01

352

Corporate considerations in mine decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decision to proceed with mine decommissioning, generally involves a number of complex and independent factors. These factors, including potential for re-opening, legal requirements, contingent liability, asset depreciation, due diligence, and public relations are discussed in the context of the financial implications on a net-present-value basis. It is concluded that the decision to delay mine decommissioning is commonly not in the best financial interests of the mine operator. Some measures to reduce decommissioning costs and expedite the process are presented. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

Brodie, M.J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

1995-04-01

353

Volume MLS ray casting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

354

Volume MLS ray casting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data.

Ledergerber C; Guennebaud G; Meyer M; Bächer M; Pfister H

2008-11-01

355

Metal casting extended assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1997, the Industrial Assessment Center program of the US Department of Energy initiated Extended Assessments as an option for some of their in-plant assessments. Intended for larger, more complex manufacturing facilities, the multi-day Extended Assessment allows the plant assessment team to explore more complex recommendations with the intent of encouraging major process and equipment changes. In this paper the authors describe the results of Extended Assessments at plants in the Metal Casting Industry, one of the DOE Industries of the Future. They visited five plants, two foundries and three die casting plants, with combined annual sales of $134 million and a combined annual production volume of 35,300 tons. The recommendations offered potential savings to each plant of an average $417,000 or 1.5% of average gross sales. A number of generalizations can be observed based on the assessments in the cast metals industry. First is that many of the smaller firms in this industry have been slow to adopt innovative technology. Off the shelf technologies are available that will help these firms reach the 21st Century. The concept of remelt of metal or scrap in the plant is an operation that can be improved. They found approximately two pounds of metal melted for every pound shipped. Finally, many opportunities exist outside of the core plant operations to reduce operating costs.

Ambs, L.; Kosanovic, D.; Muller, M.; Kasten, D.

1999-07-01

356

Metal casting extended assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997, the Industrial Assessment Center program of the US Department of Energy initiated Extended Assessments as an option for some of their in-plant assessments. Intended for larger, more complex manufacturing facilities, the multi-day Extended Assessment allows the plant assessment team to explore more complex recommendations with the intent of encouraging major process and equipment changes. In this paper the authors describe the results of Extended Assessments at plants in the Metal Casting Industry, one of the DOE Industries of the Future. They visited five plants, two foundries and three die casting plants, with combined annual sales of $134 million and a combined annual production volume of 35,300 tons. The recommendations offered potential savings to each plant of an average $417,000 or 1.5% of average gross sales. A number of generalizations can be observed based on the assessments in the cast metals industry. First is that many of the smaller firms in this industry have been slow to adopt innovative technology. Off the shelf technologies are available that will help these firms reach the 21st Century. The concept of remelt of metal or scrap in the plant is an operation that can be improved. They found approximately two pounds of metal melted for every pound shipped. Finally, many opportunities exist outside of the core plant operations to reduce operating costs.

1999-01-01

357

Computerizing calculations in designing optimum structure of mining horizons in a black coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reviews literature on methods of optimizing structural parameters of a mine's production horizon. A method of designing the optimum structure of mining horizons in a coal mine under given mining-geological conditions is presented. In the framework of the proposed method, called OSPW, the following optimizing problems are solved: optimizing size of mining fields located in one horizon, selecting the optimum method of opening the coal deposit in a horizon, developing the optimum order of mining the fields located in various sections of a horizon, determining the parameters characterizing the structure of a mining horizon for the analyzed systems of opening a deposit. The following parameters are considered in the OSPW method: I. natural parameters: properties of surrounding rock, methane content, water influx, types of mined coal, parameters characterizing coal seams (thickness, inclination, properties of rock layer in the direct and main roof, gassiness of the seam); II. engineering parameters: mining depth, height of a horizon, coal output per 24 h, method of deposit development within the horizon, system of coal haulage, type of supports, parameters characterizing shafts, stowing, and parameters characterizing the system of mining. The technical-economic models of a mining field and of the structure of a mining horizon are described. (24 refs.) (In Polish)

Pazdziora, J.; Karbownik, A.

1980-01-01

358

The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A

1998-02-01

359

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing), structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

T. Wróbel; M. Cholewa; S. Tenerowicz

2011-01-01

360

Contemporary art casting’s education in Guangdong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the practical experience of establishing three art casting laboratories in three different colleges of Guangdong, this paper focuses on the development of contemporary art casting’s education. By analyzing the reason for the shortage of professionals nowadays and the characteristics of modern foundry industry in the Pearl River Delta, the authors try to find out what kind of knowledge structures a modern foundry industry professional should have. Then, from the viewpoint of education, the authors introduce how to combine the art casting laboratory and the creative art casting course as a new teaching pattern, on the one hand, to attract more students to study casting technology, on the other hand, to train them to be qualified professionals for the modern foundry industry.

Ji Qing; Wu Chunmiao

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

1995-08-01

362

African mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

1987-01-01

363

Mining method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A deep level mining method is claimed wherein conventional mining takes place to recover ore and pillars are left for support purposes. The ore in the pillars is recovered before or after their formation by drilling overlapping holes into the reef in the pillars. The holes are plugged thereafter to restore the supporting function of the pillars.

Hopley, R.J.; van der Westhuizen, W.J.

1984-07-10

364

Mining communications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the development of mining communications in the United Kingdom since the 1950s. Roadway and face communication systems are described, and the advances in mine telephone systems are discussed. The impact of microprocessor technology on all these systems is considered.

Galvin, G.A.

1982-09-01

365

Mining assistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trolley assist haul trucks became popular in South Africa during the mid 1970s, largely due to the region`s high cost of diesel fuel. Iscor`s Grootegeluk surface coal mine, located 25 km from Ellisras in the Northern Province of South Africa, is currently upgrading its fleet of trolley assisted coal hand trucks and expanding its ten-year-old trolley system. The mine`s previous truck fleet consisted of LeTourneau, Terex and Unit Rig units, the new contract has been awarded to Komatsu South Africa for a fleet of Komatsu Haulpak 730E trucks, with a phase-in of five years. The article explains the reasons for choice of trolley assist, and describes the mining and coal washing operations. The mine operates five processing modules - the Grootegeluk 1 plant produces both steam and coking coal while plants GG2 and GG3 produce steam coal for the Matimba Power Station. 5 photos.

NONE

1998-11-01

366

Analysis of reasons causing riser feeding failure in nodular iron castings production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to mold rigidity and metallurgical quality of iron melting, the main reasons causing riser feeding failure in nodular iron castings production are: (a) open and cold metal flowing-over risers were adopted; (b) riser location was not proper; (c) riser was too small or/and not enough high; (d) ingates did not freeze up instantly as soon as pouring finished;(e) there're isolated hot spots in the casting which are not connected with feeding channel of the riser; (f) the feeding channel of castings with small size and thin sections is too narrow for feeding liquid to enter casting; and so on.

ZHOU Gen

2005-01-01

367

Uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. It is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

2008-01-01

368

Continuous roll casting of aluminium alloys – casting parameters analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of the paper was to present the influence of casting parameters on casting conditions and interference of casting parameters on the final strip characteristics such as constant strip thickness, surface quality and roughness of aluminum alloys sheet 6,30 to 6,50 mm thick. The study shows that casting speed, roll force and roll gap should have the greatest influence on the final strip thickness, and that the examined parameters agree well with the theoretical standpoints.

E. Krsti? Vukelja; I. Duplan?i?; B. Lela

2010-01-01

369

Numerical Study on an Applicable Underground Mining Method for Soft Extra-Thick Coal Seams in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The EGAT Mae Moh Mine is the largest open pit lignite mine in Thailand and it produces lignite about 16 million tons annually. In the near future, the pit limit of the mine will be reached and underground mine will then be developed through the open pit in the depth of 400 - 600 m from the surface. ...

Nay Zarlin; Takashi Sasaoka; Hideki Shimada; Kikuo Matsui

370

JPRS report: Science and technology, [March 16, 1992]. Central Eurasia: Engineering and equipment -- Conversion of uranium mining enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on uranium mining in Central Eurasia. Titles include: Round Table: Conversion Problems of Mining Enterprises of the USSR Ministry of Nuclear Engineering and the Nuclear Power Industry; Priugarskiy Mining-Chemical Combine; Eastern Mining-Enrichment Combine; Upgrading Technology for Open-Pit Mining of Uranium Deposits; Housing Construction in the Vicinity of Mining Enterprises and Questions of Radiation Safety; Geotechnologist Mining Engineer; Special Methods of Geotechnological Preparations; and others.

NONE

1992-03-16

371

Process lines in mining equipment plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Programs are discussed of the KOMAG Mining Mechanization Center for automation of process lines in mining equipment plants in Poland and for new technologies. The following projects are evaluated: lines for welding and assembling elements for hydraulic cylinders (FAZOS, GLINIK), an assembling and welding line for mine cars (MONTANA), plasma cutting of steel sheets for chain conveyors (RYFAMA), a department for vacuum casting of aluminium alloys (WIROMET), a molding unit characterized by high molding quality (POWEN), a department for manufacturing tubes for hydraulic cylinders (FAZOS), a line for manufacturing idlers (MIFAMA). Flexible systems for manufacturing elements of mining equipment are characterized. Two pilot flexible systems being developed by KOMAG (1986-1990) are discussed: the ASO-K125 DUPLEX and the ISP-T35. Development programs for computer integrated manufacturing are evaluated.

Bienias, A.; Dziubinski, B.

1986-12-01

372

Modeling of alloy casting solidification  

Science.gov (United States)

Alloy casting solidification processes involve many physical phenomena such as chemistry variation, phase transformation, heat transfer, fluid flow, microstructure evolution, and mechanical stress.1 Simulation technologies are applied extensively in casting industries to understand the effects of these phenomena on the formation of defects and on the final mechanical properties of the castings. As of today, defect prediction is still one of the main purposes for casting solidification simulation. In this paper, we will first present the commonly used microstructure simulation methods, then discuss the predictions of the major defects of a casting, such as porosity, hot tearing, and macrosegregation. The modeling of casting solidification can be chained with later stages of heat treatment such that the resultant microstructure, defects, and mechanical state will be used as the initial conditions of the subsequent processes, ensuring the tracking of the component history and maintaining a high level of accuracy across metallurgical stages.

Guo, Jianzheng; Samonds, Mark

2011-07-01

373

CAST PELLETS FOR PLANTING SEEDS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multi-plant product and a method of producing a container of plants are described. Cast pellets containing plant seeds selected for their seed germination timing are planted in a container with a vegetative cutting. The cutting can be selected for having root initiation timing synchronized with the seed germination timing of the plant seeds in the cast pellet. The seed germination timing of the plant seeds can be modified by selecting the volume of the cast pellet.

CONRAD ROBERT

374

Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator  

Science.gov (United States)

A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-11-10

375

Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

1996-12-31

376

Origin of nitrogen in reforested lignite-rich mine soils revealed by stable isotope analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Restoration of the nitrogen cycle is an important step in the recovery of an ecosystem after open-cast mining. Carbon and nitrogen in rehabilitated lignite containing mine soils can be derived from plant material as well as from lignite inherent to the parent substrate. We assessed the use elemental and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements to trace the origin of soil nitrogen and applied these techniques to elucidate the origin of mineral N in the soil and the soil solution. The conceptual approach of this study included physical fractionation in addition to sampling of vegetation and soil from a lignite-containing mine site in Lusatia rehabilitated in 1985 with Pinus Nigra. We studied the elemental and isotopic composition of bulk samples as well as isolated fractions and soil solution. Our data indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the soil samples are the result of mixing between plant material and substrate inherent lignite. {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes may be used as indicators of nitrogen contribution from plants to solid samples as well as soil solution. N-isotope composition of ammonia shows low spatial and interannual variability, despite strong concentration changes. Plant-derived nitrogen contributes in higher amounts to the soil solution compared to the bulk mineral soil. 45 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Abad Chabbi; Mathieu Sebilo; Cornelia Rumpel; Wolfgang Schaaf; Andre Mariotti [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Department of Soil Protection and Recultivation

2008-04-15

377

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer) is depending on accepted variant plates of alloy steels sort X6Cr13, X12Cr13, X10CrNi18-8 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The verification of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing), structure and macro- and microhardness researches. Moreover was made computer simulation of solidification of bimetallic layered casting in NovaFlow&Solid software.Findings: The results of studies and their analysis show efficiency of new, innovative technology of corrosion and heat resisting layered castings.Research limitations: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of different material on bearing part of bimetallic layered casting.Practical implications: Prepared bimetallic layered castings according to work out technology can work in conditions, which require from working surface layer of element a high heat resistance and/or corrosion resistance in medium for example of industrial water.Originality/value: The value of this paper resides in new effective method of manufacture of heat resisting castings, mainly for lining of quenching car to coke production

T. Wróbel

2011-01-01

378

Casting mould comprising a photopolymer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of casting a product comprises creating a finished photopolymer mould, introducing liquid into the mould, hardening the liquid and removing the photopolymer mould. Removal may be conventional or comprise destroying the mould by burning or dissolving the. The mould may comprise a photopolymer plate attached to a formwork and treated with release agent or a heat resistant material prior to casting. The mould may be used to cast a refractory mould used to cast a secondary product comprising glass metal or ceramics. The mould may be used to cast concrete, glass, gels, metal, polymer, plaster and foodstuffs such as high-resolution embossed icing on a cake. A design having line work or halftones by way of recesses in the photopolymer can produce a cast product with tonal variations. During production one or both sides of a photopolymer plate may be exposed to light through a mask comprising a filter which permits variable intensity of light to reach the photopolymer. The mould may be used to cast company logos into walls of buildings. Items such as reflectors or precious or semi-precious stones may be placed in the photopolymer prior to casting to incorporate them into the cast article.

DALE ANDREW MARK; BARRETT ERIC

379

Skeleton castings dynamic load resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The article is to show selected results of research in a field of new type of cast spatial composite reinforcements. This article shows skeleton casting case as a particular approach to continuous, spatial composite reinforcement.Design/methodology/approach: The research is concerning properties of cast spatial microlattice structures called skeleton castings. In this paper results of impact test of skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell were shown. The selection of internal topology of skeleton casting was based on numerical simulations of stress distribution.Findings: The possibility of manufacturing of geometrically complex skeleton castings without use of advanced techniques was confirmed.Research limitations/implications: With use of computer tomography, analysis of deformation mechanisms was carried out. Different levels of impact energies were usedPractical implications: Spatial skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell confirmed their usefulness as impact energy absorbers.Originality/value: The overall aim of presented research was to determine the mechanisms of skeleton castings deformation processes. Thanks to CT data next step will be to create accurate numerical model for further simulation and design optimization.

M. Cholewa; J. Szajnar; T. Szuter

2013-01-01

380

Mining equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equipment for longwall mining shown at the Ugol-83 exhibition in Donetsk in 1983 is reviewed. The following systems developed and produced in the USSR are evaluated: the 1KM-103, KMT, 1UKP, and the 2UKP face systems, the ANShch shield mining system, KD-80 powered supports, K-103/3 and Poisk-2 cutter loaders, the USV-2 coal plow. Selected shearer loaders, cutter loaders, chain conveyors and powered supports developed in foreign countries are also discussed. The 1KM-103 system consists of the K-103 shearer loader for mining coal seams from 0.56 m to 1.4 m thick, driven by electric motors with a rated power of 224 KW, the 1MK-103 powered supports and the SP-202V1 chain conveyor. The KMT face system consists of the 1GSh-68 shearer loader for mining coal seams from 1.1 to 1.4 m, the MT powered supports and the SP-87PM chain conveyor. The 1UKP face system consists of the 2GSh-68B shearer loader for mining seams from 1.1 m to 2.6 m thick driven by 264 kW motors, the 1UKP powered supports and the SPK-87K chain conveyor. The 2UKP face system consists of the 2KSh-3 shearer loader for mining seams from 2.0 m to 4.0 m thick driven by 400 kW motors, the 2UKP powered supports and the 2UKP-02.00.00 chain conveyor. The KD-80 consisting of the KA-80 shearer loader, the KD-80 powered supports and the SPTs-151 chain conveyor is used for mining seams from 0.8 to 1.0 m thick. The ANShch integrated shield mining system is used for mining steep seams from 0.8 to 1.3 m thick.

Khorin, V.N.; Semenov, Yu.N.

1984-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

Soil-depth requirements to reclaim surface-mined areas in the northern Great Plains. Open file report 29 Jul 76-8 Apr 82  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research was to determine existing reclamation practices and measure reclamation success for surface coal mines in the Northern Great Plains, determine the optimum soil-depth requirements for grass production following surface mining, and determine plant uptake of nutrients and trace elements in reclamation situations. Fourteen field plots were established at active coal mines. A wedge was cut into spoil and backfilled with soil; soil depth ranged from zero to 152 cm over a linear distance of 15 m. Perennial grasses were planted in each plot and production was measured from 1978 to 1981.

Barth, R.C.; Martin, B.K.

1982-04-01

382

Mining machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author submits a mining machine consisting of actuation and feed mechanisms, an impulse drive, and a transfer mechanism, which has interconnected cranks. Operational efficiency is improved through the use of a single motor and several transmission mechanisms with interconnected cranks. A connected rod is used as the transmission mechanism tying the cranks together. The use of an impulse drive in mining machinery allows greater efficiency while at the same time reducing the energy volumes required to fracture rock massifs or to haul fracture rock. The impulse drive also permits the acceleration of mining machinery feed rates without any drop in the rate of productivity.

Fedorovskiy, Yu.D.; Alekseev, M.S.; Potapov, V.D.; Romanov, P.D.; Sokolov, S.I.

1981-01-01

383

Uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The winning of uranium ore is the first stage of the fuel cycle. The whole complex of questions to be considered when evaluating the profitability of an ore mine is shortly outlined, and the possible mining techniques are described. Some data on uranium mining in the western world are also given. (RB)[de] Die Gewinnung des Uranerzes steht am Beginn des Brennstoffzyklus. Hier wird der gesamte Fragenkomplex zur Bewertung des mit dem Abbau einer Lagerstaette zu erzielenden Nutzens kurz dargelegt und die moeglichen Methoden des Abbaus beschrieben. Einige Daten zur Foerderung von Uran in den Laendern der westlichen Welt werden mitgeteilt. (RB)

1975-09-08

384

Surface mining 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Topics covered: project evaluation; mine planning and design and contract mining; equipment selection and maintenance philosophy; mining operations - drilling, blasting and general; and environmental management.

Glen, H.W. [ed.

1996-12-31

385

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 5: White Cast Iron (?)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology). Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2011-01-01

386

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (?)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology). Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos. Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2011-01-01

387

Incline caving as a massive mining method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Finsch Mine is a kimberlite diamond mine located at Lime Acres in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The mine was founded in 1961 and started surface mining in 1964. Underground production commenced in 1990 using a modified blast-hole open stoping method for the mining of Blocks 1, 2 and 3. Block 4 is currently being mined as a block cave. The process of identifying and optimizing a method to mine the Block 5 orebody started in 1991, and in 2006 incline caving wa (more) s identified as being technically feasible. This paper aims to document the process employed in developing this method by the Block 5 pre-feasibility team as well as discuss the technical challenges encountered during this process. The paper commences with a history of Finsch Mine and highlights the complex geology and threat of sidewall failure that prompted the decision to use block caving as the mining method for Block 4. A literature study of mines that implemented mining methods upon which the incline cave was conceptualized is then presented. These practices were then used to form the basis for the designs on which the initial geotechnical modelling was done and built upon through an iterative process of modelling and design changes. The ventilation of the mining area, initial productivity simulation results, and the applicability of automation and comminution processes in the incline cave are also presented. The paper concludes with an investigation into some of the challenges of the mining method, and shows that that incline caving is a technical option available for further investigation in determining the optimal mining method to be employed at Block 5, Finsch Diamond Mine.

Munro, D.D.

2013-01-01

388

On Inverse Frequent Set Mining  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Frequent set mining is a well-known technique to summarize binary data. However, it is an open problem how difficult it is to invert the frequent set mining, i.e., how difficult it is to find a binary data set that is compatible with frequent set mining results, the frequent sets. This inverse data mining problem is related to the questions of how well privacy is preserved in the frequent sets and how well the frequent sets characterize the original data set. In this paper we analyze the computational complexity of the problem of finding a binary data set compatible with a given collection of frequent sets and show that in many cases the problem is computationally very difficult.

Taneli Mielik Ainen

389

Mining drill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a mine tool of the type having a drive body holding a bit, the drive body includes a pair of forwardly projecting flanges forming air passages in proximity to the cutting edges for the convey of detritus.

Sarin, V.K.

1983-08-16

390

Mine management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of the management systems that can be used in managing a mine is given. Where these systems are unique to mining they are described in detail. Chapters discuss: corporate planning; organization; management by objectives; performance appraisal process; education, training, and development; providing information mangement; labour standard costing; establishing standards for labour cost control; using standards for labour cost control; underground incentive bonus schemes; maintenance management; compensation management; and industrial relations.

Sloan, D.A.

1983-01-01

391

Surface mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of the Interior currently regulates surface mining. Should this function be transferred to another federal agency, the cost would probably range between $2 million and $3.3 million with program disruption for about 2 or more years. The Environmental Protection Agency seems to be the most logical agency to carry out the surface mining regulatory function if it were moved from Interior but determining whether this relocation would improve regulation is difficult.

1988-01-01

392

Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

2002-07-30

393

10th international conference on ground control in mining - proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 36 papers are presented covering topics that include longwall pillar design, assessment of underground structural design, load and convergence measurements in longwall faces, shield strata interaction, longwall shield recovery, roof control in longwall mining, anchor resin system, thrust bolting, roof bolts, cable slings, roof support in retreat mining, coal bump prediction, delineation of abandoned workings, stability of coal mine openings, mining under rivers, rock strength determination, subsidence prediction and measurement, drag picks, measuring roof convergence, and finite element modelling of subsidence

1991-01-01

394

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials (``STEREOLITHOGRAPHY``) continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the ``SHELL`` processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex ``C`` HOUSING design by the ``shell`` mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

Cromwell, W.E.

1992-03-01

395

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials ( STEREOLITHOGRAPHY'') continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the SHELL'' processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex C'' HOUSING design by the shell'' mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

Cromwell, W.E.

1992-03-01

396

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)|

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

397

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology). Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2009-01-01

398

Environmental management and rehabilitation of the Nabarlek Uranium Mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental protection was considered at Nabarlek since before mining commenced, continued during the mining life and culminated in its decommissioning and rehabilitation. Measures for the protection of the physical environment included: containment of all contaminated waters and treatment of tailing waters, return of the tailings direct to the open pit, backfilling of the open pit, landscaping and revegetation of disturbed area. ills.

1997-01-01

399

Effects of mining on groundwater resources in the Hunter Valley. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regional groundwater occurrence and quality in the Upper Hunter Valley, NSW, was examined and the existing and possible future effects of coal mining were investigated. The following aspects of the interaction between mining and groundwater resources were examined: potential inflows of groundwater into excavations made by open-cut and underground mining; effect of open-cutting on the continuity of aquifers; effect of mine dewatering on groundwater supplies to neighbouring properties; effect of moisture infiltration and leachate movement through open-cut spoil piles on groundwater, quality and quantity; and the feasibility of creating large water storages in the final voids of open-cut mines. Volume 2 contains the appendices.

1984-06-01

400

Metallographic characterization of hypoeutectic martensitic white cast irons: Fe-C-Cr system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High wear resistance and low cost are among the most appreciated properties for the non-alloyed white cast irons. Their toughness levels, however, are poor. An attempt to optimize the compromise between abrasive wear resistance and impact toughness could be reached through the use of low-alloy Ni-Hard cast irons satisfying the majority of mining applications in mineral crushing, classification, and transportation. The present work, based on microstructural considerations, points out some of the limitations in the use of Ni-Hard martensitic cast irons, in contrast to the advantages brought about by the use of white cast irons of non-ledeburitic matrix with high chromium content with respect to the wear resistance and toughness level.

Pero-Sanz, J.A.; Plaza, D.; Verdeja, J.I.; Asensio, J.

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Ohno continuous casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Production of net-shape products directly from the liquid is an attractive manufacturing route for alloys that are difficult to process or that cannot be rolled, drawn, or extruded. Developed at the Chiba Institute of Technology in Japan, the Ohno Continuous Casting (OCC) approach not only provides significant cost savings, but also has the potential to create new products. OCC process equipment includes a melting furnace, crucible, mold level-control block, cooling device, and pinch rolls. OCC is currently used to produce copper rods and wires for audio and video cables, and aluminum alloy welding rods for hard-surfacing applications. For example, Mitsui Engineering and Ship Building Co. has used OCC to produce copper tubing products with internal fins and partitions for applications such as heat exchanger tubes and induction coils.

Soda, H.; McLean, A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Motoyasu, G.; Ohno, A. [Chiba Institute of Technology (Japan)

1995-04-01

402

Al - BASED CAST COMPOSITES  

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Full Text Available The economy is very important feature nowadays in themarket. The researches are playing an important role inengineering field to increase the life of machine parts /components and decrease the cost. The compositematerials have the potential to replace widely used steeland aluminium due to their good characteristics withbetter performance. The Al-based composites have foundextensive applications in automobile industries andaerospace industries due to their increased stiffness,strength, thermal conductivity and wear resistanceproperties. A number of particulate phases have beenemployed in the Al-alloy matrix. The cast aluminiumceramicparticulate composites are finding applications inpistons, connecting rods, cylinder liner, engine cylinderblock, electrical contacts etc.The present investigation isbased on study of the effect of particulate phase on theSEM study, micro-hardness, elastic modulus, tensilestrength and the wear behaviour of Al-5 % SiC-7 % Fe,Al-10 % SiC-6 % Fe and Al-15 % SiC-5 % Fe composites.

Rakesh Kumar Yadav; Ashu Yadav

2011-01-01

403

Electronic casting brake  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A casting reel (10) has a reel housing (22). A reel spool shaft (14) is rotatably mounted in the reel housing. A magnetic disc (12) is connected to rotate with the shaft (14). An electrical coil (20) produces an output signal in response to movement of the disk (12). A control circuit (28) is connected to receive the output signal from the electrical coil (20). The control circuit (28) has a thyristor (52) which produces a drag signal that varies based on the output signal from the electrical coil. The electrical coil and magnetic disk provide a vari