WorldWideScience

Sample records for open cast mines

  1. Siemens: Systems for open-cast mining

    Anon.

    1999-06-01

    Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany, is the leading manufacturer of truck trolley systems for open-cast mining and handles turnkey projects for mining companies. The complete system consists of an overhead line, transportable transformer rectifier substations and modified trucks with pantographs and hybrid engines. It has been developed for transporting ore and waste with dump trucks to the crushers and saves costs by cutting diesel fuel consumption and increasing speeds. (orig.)

  2. A review on air pollution and various dust models for open cast mines in India

    Open cast coal mining continues to create significant environmental problems in India. In particular, this type of mining creates high rates of air pollution SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx. In these particulate matter i.e. SPM and RPM is major pollution in the open cast mines. It creates several heath hazards to mine workers and surrounding peoples and high environmental deterioration occurs. Several studies are carried out in the field of air pollution and air quality modeling of open cast projects and many researchers suggested several control measures for the air pollution control in mines. Different dust models FDM, ISC3 are available for prediction and transport of the pollutants. In this paper a review has been studied about air pollution in the open cast mines and dust dispersion models for open cast mines in India. (author)

  3. Project for open cast mining of barrier pillars in the Carmaux coalfield

    Grandjean, A.; Henrich, J.F.; Hantz, D.; Vuillaume, P.

    1987-11-01

    Underground mining in the Carmaux coalfield has now reached its end. A project of open cast mining for recovery of barrier pillars is developed where the assistance of data processing is of primary importance.

  4. Land degradation due to open cast mines-a case study

    The contribution of open cast mines is increasing day by day in coal production. These open cast mines have direct and visible impacts on land surface. During mining stage, land is damaged and degraded. Excavation of coal and overburden dumping along with other infrastructural development is responsible for this damage and degradation. Impact of land degradation is observed as loss of forest cover, reduction and extinction of wildlife, reduction of agricultural land, destruction of geologic column, soil erosion, hydrological imbalance, socioeconomic problems, etc. in active mining areas. The present paper discusses the extent and impact of land degradation by open cast mining activity in Singrauli coal field. The paper also highlights the extent of land degradation particularly in one of the open cast mining projects of Singrauli coal field. It also suggests certain control measures to minimise the problem. (author)

  5. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  6. Post-stripping processes and the landscape of mined areas in Estonian oil shale open casts

    The present study describes creating a digital map of oil shale surface mining technology and evaluating mining influences on the landscape. The data from the digital map of the Sirgala open cast show a constant increase in the overburden thickness. Overburden material thickness influences directly the future landscape but it also sets limits to stripping equipment parameters and productivity. The present open cast landscape was divided into four classes: afforested area, area with poor vegetation, graded area, and spoils. The second purpose of the study is saving information in an easily accessible form for the future. For this purpose geographic information system for mining is used. (author)

  7. State of the technology for noise abatement in lignite open-cast mining; Laermminderung in Braunkohletagebauen. Zum Stand der Technik

    Sachs, Jens [KOETTER Beratende Ingenieure Berlin GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kurtz, Wilhelm [TUEV Rheinland Immissionsschutz und Energiesysteme GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of plants according to the state of the art is very significant in pollution control approval procedures. It is also important for approvals following mining law related to open cast mining and its dedicated facilities. Against this background three lignite open-cast mines in the region of Lusatia were surveyed according to the state of the art for noise abatement. The findings were converted into effective measures. (orig.)

  8. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  9. Turn around management of open-cast lignite mines in Kosovo; Turn Around Management der Braunkohletagebaue im Kosovo

    Hoehna, U. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Vattenfall Mining Consulting

    2008-03-15

    In their cooperation in turn around management of KEK, Vattenfall Europe Mining Consulting made an important contribution to supporting the Kosovo. In spite of limited resources and a short time available, many practical steps were taken, and effective, sustainable and safe operation of the open-cast mine was achieved. (orig.)

  10. Suspended sediment load below open-cast mines for ungauged river basin

    Kuksina, L.

    2011-12-01

    Placer mines are located in river valleys along river benches or river ancient channels. Frequently the existing mining sites are characterized by low contribution of the environmental technologies. Therefore open-pit mining alters stream hydrology and sediment processes and enhances sediment transport. The most serious environmental consequences of the sediment yield increase occur in the rivers populated by salmon fish community because salmon species prefer clean water with low turbidity. For instance, placer mining located in Kamchatka peninsula (Far East of Russia) which is regarded to be the last global gene pool of wild salmon Oncorhynchus threatens rivers ecosystems significantly. Impact assessment is limited by the hydrological observations scarcity. Gauging network is rare and in many cases whole basins up to 200 km length miss any hydrological data. The main purpose of the work is elaboration of methods for sediment yield estimation in rivers under mining impact and implementation of corresponding calculations. Subjects of the study are rivers of the Vivenka river basin where open-cast platinum mine is situated. It's one of the largest platinum mines in Russian Federation and in the world. This mine is the most well-studied in Kamchatka (research covers a period from 2003 to 2011). Empirical - analytical model of suspended sediment yield estimation was elaborated for rivers draining mine's territories. Sediment delivery at the open-cast mine happens due to the following sediment processes: - erosion in the channel diversions; - soil erosion on the exposed hillsides; - effluent from settling ponds; - mine waste water inflow; - accident mine waste water escape into rivers. Sediment washout caused by erosion was estimated by repeated measurements of the channel profiles in 2003, 2006 and 2008. Estimation of horizontal deformation rates was carried out on the basis of erosion dependence on water discharge rates, slopes and composition of sediments. Soil erosion on the exposed hillsides was estimated taking into account precipitation of various intensity and solid material washout during this period. Effluent from settling ponds was calculated on the basis of minimum anthropogenic turbidity. Its value is difference in background turbidity and minimal turbidity caused by effluent and waste water overflow. Mine waste water inflow was estimated due to actual data on water balance of purification system. Accident mine waste water escape into rivers was estimated by duration and material washout during accidents data measured during observation period. Total suspended sediment yield of rivers draining mine's territory is the sum of its components. Total sediment supply from mining site is 24.7 % from the Vivenka sediment yield. Polluted placer-mined rivers contribute about 35.4 % of the whole sediment yield of the Vivenka river. At the same time the catchment area of these rivers is less than 0.2 % from the whole Vivenka catchment area.

  11. Environmental compatibility investigation of the Garzweiler II open cast mine project

    Based on an EEC directive, the law on the investigation of ecological compatibility came into force in 1990. With the application of these European directives in national law, investigations to determine the ecological compatibility must now be carried out for projects to exploit brown coal. In this connection and in conjunction with the licensing procedure for Garzweiler II, Rheinbraun in 1992 for the first time compiled data on the investigations carried out to determine the ecological compatibility of an open cast mine. The data on these investigations include information on the necessity of the open cast mine and on alternative projects that have been examined, as well as a description of the project in question as regards its nature and extent. As far as the legally specified protected objects are concerned, i.e. people, water, air, nature (animals and plants, soil, climate and landscape) as well as cultural and other material objects, itemized data are furnished on the development and effects of the project and on countermeasures and the planned traffic and transport concept. (orig.)

  12. Approaches to Post-Mining Land Reclamation in Polish Open-Cast Lignite Mining

    Kasztelewicz Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the situation regarding the reclamation of post-mining land in the case of particular lignite mines in Poland until 2012 against the background of the whole opencast mining. It discusses the process of land purchase for mining operations and its sales after reclamation. It presents the achievements of mines in the reclamation and regeneration of post-mining land as a result of which-after development processes carried out according to European standards-it now serves the inhabitants as a recreational area that increases the attractiveness of the regions.

  13. Approaches to Post-Mining Land Reclamation in Polish Open-Cast Lignite Mining

    Kasztelewicz Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the situation regarding the reclamation of post-mining land in the case of particular lignite mines in Poland until 2012 against the background of the whole opencast mining. It discusses the process of land purchase for mining operations and its sales after reclamation. It presents the achievements of mines in the reclamation and regeneration of post-mining land as a result of which-after development processes carried out according to European standards-it now serves the in...

  14. Sustainable development of lignite production on open cast mines in Serbia

    Darko Danicic; Slobodan Mitrovic; Vladimir Pavlovic; Sava Kovacev [Kolubara Metal, Vreoci (Serbia)

    2009-09-15

    Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m{sup 3} of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competitive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revitalization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  16. Geoelectrical surveys for monitoring acid mine drainage in groundwater at abandoned open-cast lignite mines

    Stollberg, R.; Hirsch, M.; Weiss, H.

    2013-05-01

    Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques (DC resistivity measurements, Direct Push based electrical conductivity logging) were used to identify and localize acid mine drainage (AMD) at former lignite mining areas and adjacent groundwater bodies in Central Germany. Geoelectrical surface measurements are a fast and high-resolution survey method for the identification and discrimination of subsurface sections with different electrical properties. The method is based on a current injection by a pair of electrodes and electrical potential measurements by a second pair of electrodes. An electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface can be measured by the ratio of injected currents and measured potentials. Moreover, electrical conductivity logging (EC-logging) was applied along the profile line of the geoelectrical surface measurement. A direct-push machine was used to push a GeoProbe Wenner-Probe attached to a rod string into the ridges of mining dumps for recording vertical electrical resistivity profiles. The main objective has been the comparison between the superficial resistivity measurements and the results from in-situ downhole EC-logging for identifying the presence of AMD. Both, surface and subsurface measurements yielded in a precise and corresponding imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. A good correlation of the results obtained by these non- to minimal invasive investigation techniques with conventional (i.e. groundwater sampling) approaches could be proven.

  17. Dewatering problems at Air Laya open-cast mine, South Sumatra, Indonesia

    Radloff, R.K.

    1988-10-01

    In the area of Bukit Asam, South Sumatra, hard brown coal and higher-ranking coal have been mined in open pits since 1942. Open-pit mines in this area must contend with heavy surface run-off caused by servere tropical storms. After several years of preparatory work, Air Laya open pit started to remove overburden in late 1985; coal has been produced since early 1987. Questions concerning mine dewatering have been of decisive influence in all phases of the project, i.e. planning, development and operation. The climate and surface run-off, the drainage concept, its implementation and problems are gone into. (MOS).

  18. New construction of the motorway A44 on a fresh open-cast mining dump; Neubau der A 44 auf einer frischen Tagebaukippe

    Vogt, N.; Heyer, D.; Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik; Dahmen, D.; Karcher, C.; Vinzelberg, G. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Gebirgs- und Bodenmechanik

    2012-11-01

    Due to the extensive mass movement, the open-cast mining Garzweiler migrates continuously from east to west. Beginning in 2006, the area of the original route of the A44 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Holz was integrated in the open-cast mining. The section between these two autobahn junctions was closed to the traffic. The flows of traffic were redirected onto the A61 autobahn. In 2017 the open-cast mining Garzweiler will approach the eastern side of the A61 autobahn. A further movement of this open-cast mining to the west in 2017 will make the section of the A61 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Wanlo unusable. The A44 autobahn will need to be expanded to six lanes. This is associated with the new construction or the reconstruction of the autobahn junctions Jackerath and Holz. Within the autobahn junction Jackerath the new A44 autobahn crosses the route of the autobahn A61 nearly perpendicular and goes ahead to a 7 km long left turn in the current working area of the open-cast mining Garzweiler. From this perspective, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the construction of the A44 autobahn on a fresh open-cast mining dump.

  19. Reconstructing past environments and societies - interdisciplinary research in the open cast mine Jnschwalde, Germany

    Raab, A.; Raab, T.; Takla, M.; Nicolay, A.; Mller, F.; Rsler, H.; Bnisch, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active lignite mines in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany) are a controversial discussed issue. Though lignite mining destroys whole landscapes, it offers the opportunity to investigate prehistory and landscape development on a landscape scale. Since 2010 scientists from Brandenburgische Technische Universitt (BTU) Cottbus and archaeologists from Brandenburgisches Landesamt fr Denkmalpflege und Archologisches Landesmuseum (BLDAM) collaborate to study human-environment interactions. Our study area is the open cast mine Jnschwalde, one out of four active lignite mines in Lower Lusatia. The mine is situated c. 150 km southeast of Berlin. Archaeological excavations have been carried out in the prefield over many years and the outcome is manifold. Different approaches are combined for a comprehensive reconstruction: archaeological investigations, geomorphological/pedological studies and historical research. The archaeological fieldwork includes prospection, the opening of test trenches and area excavations. These outcrop situations provide a view into the stratigraphy and are to some extent commonly used for archaeological and sedimentological/pedological studies. In addition, chronological information is obtained by different methods of relative and absolute (14C, OSL, dendrochronological) age determination. To build up a model for the landscape development, data (topographical maps, historical maps, physiogeographical information, etc.) is gathered and processed. The initial situation for our research is the historic charcoal burning in the former "knigliche Taubendorfer Forst" and its impact on the environment. In the study area, this trade was carried out from the c. 17th to the 19th century and is very well documented by about 700 excavated ground plans of circular upright kilns and another c. 300 prospected kilns. It is assumed that charcoal was produced for the smelter at Peitz nearby, where bog iron ore was processed since 1567. There is sedimentological proof of the relationship of logging for wood/deforestation and the formation of wind-blown deposits. In addition, sedimentological/pedological studies of several test trenches (up to 150 m long and up to 150 cm deep) show that buried plough horizons are widespread. First results of radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from buried Ap horizons date to the Slavic middle ages (600-1200 AD). It is assumed that the eolian activity was triggered by deforestation and agricultural use. In conclusion, our results suggest that there are two major periods with eolian activity induced by human impact: the first period was caused by the extending agriculture during the Slavic middle ages (600-1200 AD) and the second period was induced by deforestation for charcoal burning between the 17th and 19th century. Future research concentrates on unanswered questions like to what extent the landscape was changed by human impact and the consequences for the environment (soil loss, water balance, vegetation) and for the population. Furthermore, absolute and relative age determinations are needed to supplement the chronology information. For a comprehensive understanding, especially concerning the charcoal burning in the study area, archival studies are carried out. The obtained data will be used to build up a GIS-based model of the paleoenvironment and it is intended to extend the model spatially and temporally.

  20. THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL, PETROGRAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE SLOPE STABILITY IN THE OPEN CAST MINE OF GRADNA

    Ivan Tomašić

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining technology was observed in the area. The local control of hydrogeologic properties, as well as climatic fluctuations of temperature and precipitation on the slope stability, was also recognized. It turned out that the structural relationships, characteristic of the manifold cataclased dolomite, stimulated the development of local instabilities, particularly during the period of low temperatures affecting the process of ground-water accumulation. When the temperatures are worm, the ground-water circulation is slow, exerting only the small-scale influence on the local instabilities (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Equipment, evolution and productivity improvement in open cast uranium mines of La Crouzille (France)

    La Crouzille mining division produces about 1000 t/year of uranium metal. Surface mining represents about 1/4 of its production. Evolution of productivity by improvement of structure and renewing of mining equipment is examined

  2. Infiltration and water retention of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils of former open-cast lignite mining sites in Brandenburg, north-east Germany

    Gypser Stella; Veste Maik; Fischer Thomas; Lange Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Investigations were done on two former open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation, an artificial sand dune in Welzow Sd, and a forest plantation in Schlabendorf Sd (Brandenburg, Germany). The aim was to associate the topsoil hydrological characteristics of green algae dominated as well as moss and soil lichen dominated biological soil crusts during crustal succession with their water retention and the repellency index on sandy soils under temperate climate and different reliefs.

  3. Screening for microbial markers in Miocene sediment exposed during open-cast brown coal mining

    Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Frouz, Jan; Nováková, Alena; Chroňáková, Alica

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3-4, (2006), s. 459-463. ISSN 0003-6072 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1259; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : fatty acids * microfungi * mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2006

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with obesity amongst employees of open-cast diamond mine in Namibia

    Desderius Haufiku

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with obesity amongst employees of Pocket Beaches mine. Obesity rates are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide; 1.2 billion people worldwide are overweight of which 300 million are clinically obese. Of concern, is that obesity is a risk factor for many diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and other forms of cancers. Although there are several mine workers who on reporting to occupational health services for minor ailment are found to be overweight or obese, we are not certain about the extent with the problem. The health risk associated with obesity could cause a big loss to NAMDEB in terms of care cost, low productivity and absenteeism. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of obesity amongst NAMDEB employees working at Pocket Beaches diamond mine.a descriptive; cross-sectional study measured the prevalence of obesity and describes the factors that are associated with obesity and overweight. Study population: NAMDEB employees who were working at Pocket Beaches mine. A simple random sampling technique was used to select participants. Eighty seven employees were selected from 188 total NAMDEB employees working at Pocket Beaches mine. Data was collected through interviews. Anthropometric measurements namely, weight, height and abdominal circumference were collected using a standard protocol. Data was analyzed using Epi Info 2002. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated as kg/m2. Overweight was defined as BMI = 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 and obesity as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Waist Circumference ≥80 cm was used to identify central obesity in women and ≥90 cm in men. The frequency of participation in physical activity, barriers to physical activity and food consumption is reported in percent and means. The study found prevalence 42% overweight and 32% obesity among employees of NAMDEB. A significant number of participants 48% never participate in moderate exercise per week. 71% of participants reported lack of motivation exercising and too tired after work as the major barriers to physical activity. The consumption of fatty foods such as fried chicken and fried meat was common among study subjects. A large number of respondents 79% eat fried chicken regularly while 74% eat fried meat regularly. 79% of participants consumed inadequate fruits and vegetable (one fruit and vegetable per day. The two most mentioned reasons for low fruits and vegetables consumption were lacked of fruits and vegetables in hostel food menu, and 14% don’t like fruits. This study results revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among employees. There is also low participation in physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables among employees. Lack of motivation to exercise and unavailability of fruits and vegetable contributed to unhealthy lifestyles. Appropriate interventions are necessary in order to reduce the high obesity prevalence. Wellness program to promote physical activity should be introduced at Pocket Beaches mine. Management should engage Sodexho (catering company to increase fruits and vegetables in the employees’ menu.

  5. Study of airborne radioactivity around open cast coal mines in Juelich region

    In the fall of 2003 environmental activists claimed a high risk of cancers caused by airborne fine dust originating from coal mining for its inherent high radioactivity levels. As there were only few data available (measured by the authorities) we started to collect fine-dust fractions and measure their activity. Gross alpha, gross beta and specific isotopic analyses were carried with a view to study the general background radiation level as well as to further investigate the apprehension of local communities. The data are being compared to permissible limits of radioactivity and fine dust concentrations. (orig.)

  6. Removal and accumulation of mercury by aquatic macrophytes from an open cast coal mine effluent.

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Tripathi, B D; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2009-12-30

    In this study, the mercury (Hg) removal capacities of two aquatic macrophytes, Pistia stratiotes and Azolla pinnata, were investigated against the coal mining effluent. These plants reduced mercury from the effluent via rhizofiltration and subsequent accumulation in plant. The removal rate of P. stratiotes and A. pinnata was 80% and 68%, respectively, after 21 days of exposure to the effluent containing 10 microg L(-1) of Hg. As mercury from the effluent was accumulated in the root and shoot tissues of both aquatic macrophytes, they were proven to be a root accumulator with a translocation factor of less than one during the entire study. The decreasing Hg content in effluent (from 10 to 2.0 microg L(-1)) was reflected by its accumulation in roots (0.57+/-0.02 mg g(-1) in P. stratiotes) and leaves of the experimental plants (0.42+/-0.01 mg g(-1), P. stratiotes). As a result, Hg concentrations in the coal mining effluent were tightly associated with those observed from macrophytes. Considering the high removal efficiencies of Hg by these aquatic macrophytes, these plants can be recommended for the actual treatment of Hg-containing waste waters. PMID:19665290

  7. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  8. Brown coal open cast `Belchatow` the following step in the development of surface mining engineering; Kopalnia Wegla Brunatnego `Belchatow` kolejnym krokiem w rozwoju techniki eksploatacji odkrywkowej

    Kozlowski, Z. [Poltegor-projekt, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-01

    The history of brown coal open cast ``Belchatow`` is described. The main problems of its design and realization are presented in detail. The studies carried out on optimization of coal extraction are mentioned. The coal from the open cast is burnt in `` Belchatow`` power plant (4320 MW) which produces 20% of electric energy in Poland at very low costs. The present open cast`s problems are shortly presented. The future of the open cast as well as the power plant is connected with the realization of `` Szczercow`` open cast in the same area. 7 ills.

  9. A Complex Use of the Materials Extracted from an Open-Cast Lignite Mine

    Buryan, Petr; Bučko, Zdeněk; Mika, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The company Sokolovská uhelná, was the largest producer of city gas in the Czech Republic. After its substitution by natural gas the gasification technology became the basis of the production of electricity in the combine cycle power plant with total output 400 MW. For the possibility of gasification of liquid by- -products forming during the coal gasification a entrained-flow gasifier capable to process also alternative liquid fuels has been in installed. The concentrated waste gas with these sulphur compounds is conducted to the desulphurisation where the highly desired, pure, 96 % H2SO4 is produced. Briquettable brown coal is crushed, milled and dried and then it is passed into briquetting presses where briquettes, used mainly as a fuel in households, are pressed without binder in the punch under the pressure of 175 MPa. Fine brown coal dust (multidust) is commercially used for heat production in pulverized-coal burners. It forms not only during coal drying after separation on electrostatic separators, but it is also acquired by milling of dried coal in a vibratory bar mill. Slag from boilers of classical power plant, cinder form generators and ashes deposited at the dump are dehydrated and they are used as a quality bedding material during construction of communications in the mines of SUAS. Fly ash is used in building industry for partial substitution of cement in concrete. Flue gases after separation of fly ash are desulphurized by wet limestone method, where the main product is gypsum used, among others, in the building industry. Expanded clays from overburdens of coal seams, that are raw material for the production of "Liapor" artificial aggregate, are used heavily. This artificial aggregate is characterized by outstanding thermal and acoustic insulating properties. Przedsiębiorstwo Sokolovska uhelna jest największym producentem gazu miejskiego w Republice Czeskiej. Po jego zastąpieniu przez gaz ziemny, technologia gazyfikacji stała się podstawą do produkcji elektryczności w elektrowni o cyklu mieszanym o całkowitej mocy wyjściowej 400 MW. W celu umożliwienia gazyfikacji ciekłych produktów ubocznych gazyfikacji węgla, zainstalowano na drodze przepływu generator gazu, umożliwiający przetwarzanie alternatywnych paliw ciekłych. Skoncentrowany gaz odlotowy zawierający związki siarki odprowadzany jest do instalacji odsiarczającej, gdzie produkowany jest cenny produkt H2SO4, o wysokim stopniu czystości (96%). Węgiel brunatny nadający się do produkcji brykietów jest kruszony, mielony i suszony, następnie przechodzi przez proces brykietowania w odpowiednich prasach, gdzie formowane są brykiety, poprzez ich sprasowanie pod ciśnieniem 175 MPa. Brykiety takie wykorzystywane są powszechnie jako paliwo w gospodarstwach domowych. Drobnoziarniste pyły węgla brunatnego (paliwa pyłowe) wykorzystywane są na skalę komercyjną do produkcji ciepła w paleniskach pyłowych. Pyły węglowe powstają nie tylko w trakcie suszenia węgla po procesie oddzielania w separatorach elektrostatycznych, lecz także w procesie mielenia suszonego węgla w młynach wibracyjnych. Żużel z kotłów w konwencjonalnej elektrowni, popioły z generatorów oraz te osadzające się w instalacji podlegają wysuszeniu, następnie wykorzystywane są jako wysokiej jakości materiał na podłoże w różnorodnych instalacjach. Popioły lotne wykorzystywane są przemyśle budowlanym jako częściowe zamienniki cementu. Po oddzieleni popiołu lotnego, gazy wylotowe kierowane są do instalacji odsiarczania z wykorzystaniem technologii wilgotnego wapienia, w wyniku tego procesu powstaje gips, wykorzystywany, miedzy innymi, w przemyśle budowlanym. Glinki z warstw nadkładu nad pokładami węgla wykorzystywane są powszechnie jako surowiec do produkcji sztucznego kruszywa "Liapor', wykazującego wyjątkowe właściwości termiczne i dźwiękoizolacyjne.

  10. Observation and auscultation of the geotechnical behaviour of a slope in an open cast mine influenced by old underground mining (South-western part of France)

    Soukatchoff, Véronique; Hadadou, Rafik; Driancourt, Didier; Paquette, Yves

    1993-01-01

    The final slopes of a French open pit mine of the "Charbonnage de France" Company which final depth will be 300 metres, have been designed after a Standard geotechnical survey. This one has taken into account the geomechanical, hydrogeological, structural parameters äs well äs the" decohesion", induced by former mining subsidence. However some slopes can locally present risks of slipping (increasing with the depth of the pit) induced by old Underground mining. A methodology has been defined c...

  11. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Jianli Jia; Xiaojun Li; Peijing Wu; Ying Liu; Chunyu Han; Lina Zhou; Liu Yang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), beryllium (Be) and nickel (Ni) in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT) with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS) after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil p...

  12. Geoelectrical surveys for identification and monitoring of AMD in groundwaters influenced by lignite open-cast mining

    In 1989, lignite peak production from the Zwenkau mine was 10 million tons. The Zwenkau mine is part of the central German mining district, located approximately 10 km south of Leipzig. The ratio of both overburden and sumping water to lignite is approximately 2.5:1 m3/ton. Following mine abandonment in 1999, the rising groundwater infiltrated the dump areas as well as the unexploited sedimentary sequence, resulting in significant acid mine drainage (AMD). Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques were used to identify AMD affected lignite open-pit dump areas and adjacent groundwater bodies. The survey techniques included direct current resistivity measurements and direct push based electrical conductivity logging. The paper described the methods and materials used in the geoelectrical surveys and groundwater sampling. It was concluded that both surface and subsurface measurements provided precise imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  13. From deposit modelling to the mine plan engineering guidance in a Greenfield project for the opening of a lignite open-cast mine during the preparation and development phase

    In order to supply the nearby power plant Elbistan B, a new open-cast mine is being developed at the Collolar Field in Turkey. Initial fieldwork began in mid-2007, followed by overburden removal in early 2008 and lignite production in 2009. Several planning studies have been undertaken in order to prepare and undertake the initial work in just under two years, including the establishment of a geological model as a basis for calculating reserves, and for hydrological and geotechnical calculations, leading to a drainage concept and the formulation of requirements made on the slope stability. This paper presented the framework concept for the modelling and discussed the geological modelling and selection of a suitable development plan. The hydrological calculations and planning of drainage measures were also outlined. The more detailed plans for phase two, including the database for hydro-geological modelling, pumping tests and laboratory tests, ground water modelling, and the dewatering concept were also presented. The paper also discussed the determination of geotechnical parameters, calculation methods, and the slope stabilities at the mining and dumping site. It was concluded that regular comparison to plans and calculations on drainage and slope stability must be conducted when planning and operating a mine. 3 figs.

  14. Assessment of radioactivity associated with a low ore grade open cast mine at Banduhurang, Jharkhand, India and estimation of occupational exposure to the miners

    The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative behavior of 222Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha (LLα) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in 2006-2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (χg) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m-3 with respective geometric standard deviations (σg) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m-3 and χg of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 μGy h-1 with respective σg were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 μGy h-1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively. The χg of LLα activity was observed to be 16 mBq m-3 with σg of 1.9 mBq m-3. The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to 1.41 mSv y-1, which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y-1. (author)

  15. Multi-sensorial collision prevention system for bidirectional identification of accident risks by vehicles in open-cast and deep mines; Integriertes Konzept zur Kollisionsvermeidung zwischen Personen und Fahrzeugen im Untertagebergbau

    Becker, Franz; Becker, Stephan [Becker Mining Systems AG, Friedrichsthal (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    On the basis of the gradual exhaustion of the deposits near the surface there is evidence of a clear trend from open-cast to deep mining and thus to workings under difficult geological conditions. Because of the extensive underground road networks in high-output mines and the modern working methods trackless vehicles and mobile equipment are being used to an increasing extent. Many vehicles and personnel are en route at the same time in these road networks, so that collisions with each other or accidents involving persons must be anticipated. Becker Mining Systems has successfully developed a multisensorial collision prevention system for bidirectional identification of accident risks by vehicles in open-cast and deep mines. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of the slope stability of the Afsin - Elbistan lignite open cast mine (Turkey); Analyse de la stabilite des talus de la mine de lignite d`Afsin - Elbistan (Turquie)

    Kilic, A.M.

    1996-09-27

    The aim of this work was to analyse the slope stability of the Afsin - Elbistan lignite open cast mine (Turkey) taking into account the geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and seismic factors. The analyses showed the importance to the stability of the following parameters: lithology, bedding structure, hydrogeology, geometrical configuration of the walls and the seismicity. Stability calculations enabled the comparison of several approaches (static and pseudo - static) and calculation methods (Bishop, Carter and Sarma). Finally, this study enabled the proposition of several solutions to achieve wall stability, which need further economic to find the optimal solution. (author) 48 refs.

  17. Chair in open-cast and international mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University; Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal

    Tudeshki, H.; Hardebusch, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau, TU Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2002-12-05

    The range of activities of the Chair in Open-cast and International Mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University currently comprises the field of teaching and further scientific training, research and development as well as transfer of knowledge and technology. In addition to these legally sanctioned activities PR work concerning the necessity for the mining of mineral raw materials and the associated training of mining engineers plays a central role. In accordance with the fundamental idea that a prerequisite for good training in the field of engineering science is a close link between university and industry the contents of the courses are always adapted to the state of the art in the mining industry and the main areas of research based on practical requirements. In accordance with this process current aspects of the safeguarding of raw materials, sustenance and management of knowledge in the mining industry are integrated in these courses. The current research work is interdisciplinary and deals with quality management, deposit protection, recultivation and rehabilitation as well as reduction of emissions. (orig.) [German] Das Aufgabenspektrum des Lehrstuhls fuer Tagebau und Internationalen Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal umfasst die Gebiete Lehre und wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung, Forschung und Entwicklung sowie Wissens- und Technologietransfer. Ueber diese gesetzlich verankerten Aufgaben hinaus nimmt die PR-Arbeit ueber die Notwendigkeit bergmaennischer Gewinnung mineralischer Rohstoffe und der damit einhergehenden Ausbildung von Bergbauingenieuren eine zentrale Stellung ein. Dem Leitgedanken folgend, dass eine gute Ausbildung im ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Bereich eine enge Verbindung zwischen Hochschule und Industrie voraussetzt, werden die Lehrinhalte stets dem Stand der Technik im Bergbau angepasst und die Forschungsschwerpunkte praxisbezogen abgeleitet. Diesem Prozess folgend wurden aktuell Aspekte der Rohstoffsicherung, Nachhaltigkeit und Wissensmanagement im Bergbau in die Lehre integriert. Die derzeitigen Forschungsarbeiten sind interdisziplinaer angelegt und befassen sich mit Qualitaetsmanagement, Lagerstaettenschutz, Rekultivierung und Sanierung sowie Reduzierung von Emissionen. (orig.)

  18. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nastup Tusimice

    Recently the open cast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper. (authors)

  19. Development of biological soil crusts and their influence on soil hydrology in the recultivation area of lignite open-cast mining district in Lower Lusatia (Germany)

    Sprte, R.; Veste, M.; Fischer, T.; Raab, T.; Bens, O.; Httl, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses and lichens are often the first colonizers of substrate and initial soil surfaces. They are an important factor of initial soil formation as they stabilize the substrate and decrease erosion processes. Biological soil crusts accumulate the initial soil organic matter and provide nitrogen fixation. Once settled, the crusts influence the soil water regime by delaying or limiting infiltration through enhanced water repellency. Aim of this study was to compare the influence of biological soil crusts on soil hydrology under conditions on various substrates and of different ages in recultivated areas of the open-cast mining district of Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, NE Germany) with various recultivation aims. In Brandenburg (NE Germany), where the climate is transitional between oceanic and continental and the summers are characterized by generally low of precipitation (mean annual rainfall 559 mm, mean annual temperature 9.3 C) open landscapes provide ideal conditions for biological soil crusts, e. g. on mobile sand dunes in former military training areas and in recultivation areas related to open-cast mining with initial soil development. Here biological soil crusts are commonly found (Sprte et al., 2010). At five study sites in recultivation areas with different reclamation approaches (natural development, pine reforestation, birch reforestation) we defined four types of biological soil crusts: i) cyanobacterial and green algae crusts on the soil surface with no vegetation where dominating sand grains were physically stabilized in their contact zones by this crust type (type 1), ii) cyanobacteria and green algae partially filled in the matrix pores and enmeshed sand grains between sparse vegetation cover (type 2), iii) biological soil crusts with mosses which covered most of the surface between the vegetation (type 3) and (iv) with soil lichens (type 4). We investigated the development of the amount of chlorophyll a which is an indicator for biomass productivity and depends from the species composition and crust type, and the water repellency index which shows the influence of biological soil crusts on hydrological parameters. Additionally, organic matter content (dry combustion) as well as soil pH (soil: H2O = 1:2.5) were determined. Texture was analysed by wet sieving and fractionation pipette method. At all study sites and for all crust types soil pH ranged between 7.2 to 4.7 and decreased from type 1 to type 4. Soil organic matter and chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.3 and 1.7% and from 0.95 to 16.44 mg m-2, respectively, and increased from type 1 to type 4. With few exceptions, water repellency indices ranging between 1.0 and 1.85, followed this trend. Constrarily, infiltration rates decreased from type 1 to type 4. The cause for limited infiltration is the swelling of extracellular polysaccharides in the biological soil crusts (Fischer et al., 2010) and the influence of the particle size distribution and porosity of the substrate with a relatively high content of silt and clay at some study sites. Fischer, T., Veste, M., Wiehe, W. & Lange, P. (2010): Water repellency and pore clogging at early succesional stages of microbiotic crusts on inland dunes, Brandenburg, NE Germany. - Catena, 80, 47-52. Sprte, R.,Fischer, T., Veste, M., Raab, T., Wiehe, W., Lange, P., Bens, O., Httl, R.F. (2010): Biological topsoil crusts at early successional stages on Quaternary substrates dumped by mining in Brandenburg, NE Germany. Gomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement 4/2010: 359-370.

  20. Analysis of the planned post-mining landscape of MIBRAG's open-cast mines with regard to a possible environmental impact of alteration processes in mixed dumps

    There has been an increasing body of knowledge with regard to hydro- and geochemical alteration processes in overburden dumps and their impact on groundwater quality in lignite mining and reclamation operations associated with post-mining landscapes in Germany. The operators of the MIBRAG mines have examined issues regarding alteration processes and how they affect the environment and which opportunities exist to actively influence the dumping process. The objectives were to counteract any possible negative impact of the alteration processes. Special emphasis was on the impact caused by oxidation of sulfur containing minerals. This paper presented an analysis of the situation at United Schleenhain Mine and how it reflects on the work to date for MIBRAG's mines. A future outlook was also presented. Specifically, the paper discussed the development of the United Schleenhain mine and the post-mining landscape. The potential for discharge of substances was also evaluated along with acidification. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  1. Robotic transport complex of automotive vehicles for handling of rock mass at the process of open cast mining

    Anatoly KOLGA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the applicability of the robotic transportation complex of automotive barrows for haulage transportation along various transport routes of mining enterprises. The simultaneous application of robotic transport and telemetry links makes the door-to-door transportation possible, i.e. direct transportation from the starting to the final point avoiding intermediate storage and a considerable part of auxiliary equipment.

  2. Terrestrial and photogrammetric open-cast mine surveying. Data acquisition and data processing for mine surveying purposes in the Rhenish brown coal district

    Reichenbach, K.; Vosen, H. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    Far approximately 20 years the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG has been using both data processing and aerial photogrammetry in the field of opencast mine surveying. By means of these techniques, and by introducing modern terrestrial measuring methods mine surveying operations could be rationalized and new problems could be solved. Data acquisition and data flow are marked by a terrestrial and a photogrammetric principal line. Both lines are linked by cross-connections in a way that an adaptable and efficient opencast mine survey system has been created. In this system the electronic tachometry offers an alternative to aerophotogrammetry for short period surveys of mining sites up to 65 ha. For larger areas, dumps and unexploited terrain the photogrammetric survey is economically more efficient.

  3. Buckets of bucket wheel excavators in Polish open-cast lignite mines; Schaufeln an Schaufelradbaggern in den polnischen Braunkohletagebauen

    Rusinski, E.; Gurazdowski, R. [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland). Inst. fuer Maschinenbau und -betrieb

    2000-10-01

    The stability calculations for the overburden buckets of the types 3500L and R40 in the 'Belchatow' mine have been made with a view to building asymmetric buckets, which can prevent the uneven wear of the left and the right cutting edges. The simulation has proved that the load conditions affecting these buckets were still within the permissible stress limits, so that the stability criteria have been met. The above investigations are an important example of how advanced investigation methods, such as the finite element method, can be used to assess the suitability of construction solutions as early as during the design phase. Errors can thus be avoided and individual parameters can be optimized, while investigations carried out with real objects would always require the production of prototypes and cost-intensive destructive tests. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Abraumschaufeln 3500L und R40 im Tagebau 'Belchatow' wurden Festigkeitsberechnungen fuer den Bau asymetrischer Schaufeln durchgefuehrt, die den ungleichmaessigen Verschleiss der linken und rechten Schneidecken verhindern. Durch Simulationen konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die an diesen Schaufeln auftretenden Belastungszustaende innerhalb der zulaessigen Spannungen liegen. Die Festigkeitskriterien sind damit erfuellt. Die vorgestellten Untersuchungen sind ein wichtiges Beispiel fuer den Einsatz fortschrittlicher Untersuchungsmethoden, wie hier die Anwendung der Finite-Elemente-Methode, die es ermoeglicht, bereits in der Projektierungsphase die Eignung der Konstruktionsloesungen zu bewerten. Daher lassen sich Fehler vermeiden und einzelne Kenndaten optimieren, waehrend die Untersuchung reeller Objekte jedes Mal die Anfertigung von Prototypen und die Durchfuehrung kostspieliger Zerstoerungspruefungen erfordern. (orig.)

  4. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision

    Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  5. Changing environment and urban identity following open-cast mining and thermic power plant in Turkey: case of Soma.

    Karadag, Arife

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a summary of a project changed into a book named by "Changing Environment, City and Identity in Soma with the Geographical Evaluations" issued on May 2005. In this research, Soma, which is one of the most remarkable districts in Manisa in the West Anatolia from the point of economical figures, is assessed with its physical environment potential, improving economical activities and changing socio-economical structure. Owing to the open coal basins in the northeast and southwest of the district where lignite is produced and the impact of the thermic power plant near the city centre, Soma has changed on a large scale. This change has introduced some environmental problems into the district such as the devastation of the forestry land; the infertility of farming land; and soil, water and air pollution. Even though the change under discussion has led to many problems to deal with, it has also influenced its socio-economical structure to a large extent and revealed new type of inhabitants having different life expectations and aims. In conclusion, in this article, changing environment and city structure after lignite processing and thermic station establishment in Soma are discussed through the effective geographical factors. The new city profile formed by the local dynamics in question is evaluated according to the data obtained by the studies made in the neighbourhood. PMID:21739283

  6. Groundwater monitoring in the area of open cast Belchatow

    Groundwater analyses in the area of the open cast lignite mine Belchatow and Szczercow have been continued since 2000. The field work contains analyses of macro- and microion concentrations as well as measurements of tritium, 222Rn and mean radioactivity (40K). Complementary to these analyses, isotope ratios of ?34S/32S and ?18O/16O in SO42- ion and ?D in water have been investigated. In 2005 samples of water from boreholes and drains in the area of Szczercow open cast were taken and analyzed. It was found that the groundwater was not polluted, its quality and purity being in agreement with the approved groundwater purity standards

  7. Open pit mining of uranium

    The Jackpile--Paquate Mines of the Anaconda Company are on the Laguna Indian Reservation midway between Grants and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The open pit mining of uranium ore at those mines is conducted in three separate operations (stripping, mining, and ore haul)

  8. Carbon accumulation and changes in soil chemistry in reclaimed open-cast coal mining heaps near Sokolov using repeated measurement of chronosequence sites

    Bartuška, Martin; Frouz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, 1 /SI/ (2015), s. 104-111. ISSN 1351-0754 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carbon accumulation * changes in soil chemistry * post mining sites * chronosequence Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2014

  9. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities in uranium ores and surrounding soils from Banduhurang open cast uranium mine, India: A comparative study.

    Islam, Ekramul; Dhal, Paltu K; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial community structure of heavy metal rich- uranium ores and surrounding soils was explored using 16S rRNA gene based clone library analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to provide baseline microbial diversity data on autochthonous communities. Sequence analysis of major ribotypes and/or DGGE bands revealed Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria as the two most frequently present bacterial phyla across the samples, although relative abundance of each phyla and identity of their members at lower taxonomic level showed marked difference. Gammaproteobacteria (Pseudomonas and Escherichia) was most abundant in U-ore samples along with the lineages of β-Proteobacteria (Burkholderia and Janthinobacterium), α-Proteobacteria (Brevundimonas), Bacteroidetes (Spingobacterium), Firmicutes (Peptoniphilus), Actinobacteria (Corynebacterium), uncultured -Acidobacteria, -Chloroflexi and -Cyanobacterium. In contrast to this soil communities were represented by mixed populations predominated by uncultured Acidobacteria along with Gammaproteobacteria (Succinivibrio, Cellovibrio and Legionella), β-Proteobacteria (Rhodocyclus), α-Proteobacteria (Methylocystis and Phenylobacterium), δ-Proteobacteria, unclassified bacteria, uncultured Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (Bacillus), Cyanobacteria (Scytonema), Actinobacteria (Actinomadura) and candidate division TM7. Principle Component Analyis (PCA) of geochemical data and UPGMA cluster analysis of DGGE profiles were in close agreement showing characteristic relatedness of samples obtained from either ores or soils. Our analysis indicated that soils surrounding the ore deposit bear specific geochemical as well as microbiologial characteristics distinct from the ore deposit and therefore these data obtained at the onset of mining could serve as a baseline of information to gauge the subsequent environmnetal impact of U-mining. PMID:21308598

  10. Application of Groundwater modeling for designing a dewatering system: Case study of the Buvač Open Cast Mine, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Polomčić, Dušan; Bajić, Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents groundwatermanagement based on the results of groundwater modeling used to simulate theeffects of operation of three dewatering system scenarios of the Buvač open pitmine. Several aquifers exist within the Buvač limonite ore deposit region,which puts ore exploitation at risk. Groundwater modeling, was used tounderstand the groundwater regime within these aquifers. A previous numericalmodel (2007) was completed for the state of the groundwater regime prior to theopening of ...

  11. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    ANIL Z CHITADE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This research explains the use of remote sensing (RS, Global positioning system (GPS, and GIS technology for the detection of LULC changes. In this work LULC changes have been detected using remotely sensed images during the period from 1990 to 2010, using Landsat-TM image of year 1990 and Cartosat-I image of year 2010. The above images were rectified and georeferenced using GPS data collected by point positioning mode observations.Ground truthing for the LULC classification accuracy assessment has been done using GPSinstrument. Image analysis operations have been carried out using Erdas Imagine software. Various effects of coal mining activities on the Land use have been highlighted.

  12. Raw material extraction in the Rhenish lignite district: the effect of the deep open-cast mining on the population and environment; Les exploitations de lignite a ciel ouvert dans le district a lignite rhenan: consequences sur la population et l`environnement

    Briechle, D. [Erftverband, Paffendorfer Weg, Bergheim (Norway); Holl-Hagemeier, C.; Milbert, G.; Paas, W.; Prufert, J. [Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld (Germany); Logters, Ch.; Mayers-Beecks, E. [Rheinbraun Aktiengesellschaft, Lindental, Stuttgenweg, Koln (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The approximately 2500 km{sup 2} Rhenish Lignite District in western Germany is the largest deposit of its kind in Europe. For reasons of economy and optimal extraction, the lignite seams are worked in large open-cast mines where, using sophisticated technology, mining depths of 480 m are possible. The deep intrusions into the subsurface give rise to water-budget, ecological and social problems for the mainly agricultural area of the Lower Rhine embayment. Extensive measures and programmes protect the environment and the population, and so reduce the detrimental effects of the lignite mining. For instance, waterworks and other groundwater users are supplied with drainage water so as to stop, or at least reduce, public and private groundwater extraction and prevent further lowering of the groundwater level. To protect ecological-sensitive wet biotopes large amounts of drainage water are returned to the subsurface. Once a mine has been worked out and the pit refilled with overburden, the mined areas are regenerated by the application of loess and subsequent soil re-cultivation. Before a new mine is opened, the villages affected are relocated and an effort is made to resettle the villages in groups in order to maintain existing social contacts. (authors) 35 refs.

  13. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Lucai WANG; Li, Haijuan; Wang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the...

  14. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Lucai WANG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  15. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  16. Treatment of old disused mine openings

    Didier, Christophe; Wojtkowiak, Francis; Salmon, Romuald; Barriere, Jean-Paul; Gaget, P.

    1998-01-01

    According to French regulations, the main objectives for the treatment of old abandoned mines consist of : preventing collapses and dangerous subsidence, controlling mine gas emissions and closing old abandoned mine openings. In the Herault coal basin, underground exploitation started very early, in particular by the way of shallow adits dug in hillsides. Today more than 600 adits have been listed on old maps but a lot of them have not yet been precisely located. Charbonnages de France and IN...

  17. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  18. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV; Bayan RAKISHEV; Galymzhan SAMENOV; S?adkowski, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  19. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  20. Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

  1. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  2. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. The problem of liquidating the buildings of former underground brown coal mines in the Podkrunohoøí area in connection with the decree of the czech bureau of mines no. 52/1997, collection of laws, and problems of open cast mines in places of their occurrences

    Fröhlich Emil; Hudeèek Vlastimil; Kryl Václav

    2000-01-01

    The contribution deals with the problems of liquidating buildings of former underground mining, especially of shafts of closed and damped mines. It is stated that strict maintaining the Decree of the Czech Bureau of Mines (ÈBÚ) No. 52/1997, Collection of Laws, has its justification for deep and gassy hard coal mines, but it cannot be absolutely valid in the full extent for shallow ore, and mainly brown coal mines. An example of the analysis of shaft depths of the Sokolov District and the liqu...

  4. 30 CFR 57.20020 - Unattended mine openings.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended mine openings. 57.20020 Section 57.20020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4533 - Mine opening vicinity.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine opening vicinity. 57.4533 Section 57.4533 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  7. Highwall stability due to punch mining at opencut coal mines

    Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Sasaoka, T.; Cao, H.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, H.; Ueda, T.; Yabuki, A.; Kramadibrata, S.; Sulistianto, B. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Earth Resources Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Most of Indonesia's coal is extracted from open cast mines. There are many long highwalls at abandoned mining operations where coal can no longer be safely mined because of weak strata. The feasibility of introducing punch room and pillar mining to Indonesian mines is examined. Conventional highwall mining and punch highwall mining systems are described. The stability of highwalls, because of punch mining, was studied using finite element modelling. The results are discussed. 12 refs., 11 tabs., 1 tab.

  8. Analysis of environmental pollution caused by open cast mining, processing and utilization of salt-containing lignite in the region of Merseburg, and development of technological measures for minimizing pollution

    Starting from a potential utilization scheme for salt-containing lignite and the possibilities of its technological realization, the research project was aimed at investigating the possibilities of achieving environmental compatibility in the mining and utilization of salt-containing lignite from the region of Merseburg. The authors evaluated studies, research reports and publications and carried out their own analyses, concerning the components contained in mine water and other problems. The investigations yielded information on a reasonable limitation of the mining area and the diversified removal of mine water. After an analysis of the current state of technological development and measures of environmental control, fluidized-bed combustion and high-pressure gasification are proposed as variants for utilizing salt-containing lignite. Various methods for treating salt-containing mining and process water are proposed, which will have to be assessed for economic efficiency and profitability as a basis for decision-making with respect to their realization. Proposals are presented for further detailed treatment of the problems involved. (orig.)

  9. "Roles for the boys?" Mining cast lists for gender and role distributions over time

    Radford, William; Gallé, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Film and television play an important role in popular culture, however studies that require watching and annotating video are time-consuming and expensive to run at scale. We explore information mined from media database cast lists to explore onscreen gender depictions and how they change over time. We find differences between web-mediated onscreen gender proportions and those from US Census data. We propose these methodologies are a useful adjunct to traditional analysis that allow researche...

  10. Cast

    Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Takao-Rikitsu, Etsuko; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue, Marie; Takeuchi, Masakazu; Matsubara, Kaho; Deguchi-Tawarada, Maki; Satoh, Keiko; MORIMOTO, KOJI; NAKANISHI, Hiroyuki; Takai, Yoshimi

    2002-01-01

    The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) has been implicated in defining the site of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter. We have identified here a novel CAZ protein of ∼120 kD from rat brain and named it CAST (CAZ-associated structural protein). CAST had no transmembrane segment, but had four coiled-coil domains and a putative COOH-terminal consensus motif for binding to PDZ domains. CAST was localized at the CAZ of conventional synapses of mouse brain. CAST bound directly RIM1 and ...

  11. Using open web APIs in teaching web mining

    Chau, M; Chen, H.; Li, X.; Ho, YJ; TSENG, C

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems curricula. This paper reports on an experience using open Web Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that have been made available by major Inter...

  12. Ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines

    In this paper, there is a detail description of ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines, including method, process and results. We took ecological geology environmental assessment work on the base of the results of some open-pit mines such as extremely low content magnetite in Hebei Province, inducted and summarized the ecological geology environment quality. The results are reasonable. It provides basic data for the second mines programming in Hebei Province. (authors)

  13. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both of the mines. (author). 10 refs.

  14. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    Amankwah, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  15. Cast

    Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Takao-Rikitsu, Etsuko; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue, Marie; Takeuchi, Masakazu; Matsubara, Kaho; Deguchi-Tawarada, Maki; Satoh, Keiko; Morimoto, Koji; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takai, Yoshimi

    2002-01-01

    The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) has been implicated in defining the site of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter. We have identified here a novel CAZ protein of ∼120 kD from rat brain and named it CAST (CAZ-associated structural protein). CAST had no transmembrane segment, but had four coiled-coil domains and a putative COOH-terminal consensus motif for binding to PDZ domains. CAST was localized at the CAZ of conventional synapses of mouse brain. CAST bound directly RIM1 and indirectly Munc13-1, presumably through RIM1, forming a ternary complex. RIM1 and Munc13-1 are CAZ proteins implicated in Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotansmitters. Bassoon, another CAZ protein, was also associated with this ternary complex. These results suggest that a network of protein–protein interactions among the CAZ proteins exists at the CAZ. At the early stages of synapse formation, CAST was expressed and partly colocalized with bassoon in the axon shaft and the growth cone. The vesicles immunoisolated by antibassoon antibody–coupled beads contained not only bassoon but also CAST and RIM1. These results suggest that these CAZ proteins are at least partly transported on the same vesicles during synapse formation. PMID:12163476

  16. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    Ivana Cehlárová

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is “deepened” in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level.

  17. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is 'deepened' in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level. (authors)

  18. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine

  19. Economic analysis of open-pit and in situ mining

    Today, in any feasibility study of uranium properties, the project manager would be prudent to compare the economics of in situ methods with conventional surface and underground techniques. In this comparison of in situ and open-pit uranium mining, a group of hypothetical uranium deposits was evaluated, using the three most sensitive depositional characteristics of depth, size and grade. In situ mining was shown to challenge conventional open pit methods and, even at lower uranium recoveries, to yield higher profits

  20. Concept for using automatically generated SABAS equipment position data in the context of the updating of the official mine map by the example of the open-cast mine Hambach; Konzept zur Nutzung automatisch generierter SABAS-Geraetepositionsdaten im Rahmen der Fortfuehrung des Gewinnungsrisses (Betriebsrisses) am Beispiel des Tagebaus Hambach

    Guder, W.; Weber, P. [RWE Power AG, Niederzier (Germany). Tagebau Hambach; Schulte, R.; Holzheim, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen, Bergschadenkunde und Geophysik im Bergbau

    2004-06-01

    To underpin the competitiveness of lignite mining, it is necessary to keep the specific mining costs of lignite at a constantly low level and, if required, adjust them to the market by initiating further rationalization measures. As far as the classical mine surveying tasks are concerned, this means utilizing systematically the potential offered by new surveying processes and techniques. It was against this backdrop that RWE Power AG started the SATAMA (satellite-supported mine surveying and mass calculation) project in 1995/96 with the object of automating terrestrial and photogrammetric mine surveys and updating them close to real time. In this first project, feasibility was demonstrated successfully. The target of the follow-up project SABAS (satellite-assisted excavator operation control) is to use this experience and equip the mining machines in the Hambach and Garzweiler opencast mines of RWE Power AG with the corresponding GPS technology. This article reports on the currently implemented subproject ''Further processing of the SABAS data for updating of the official mine map (automated mine survey)''. (orig.)

  1. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    Ivana Cehlárová; Michal Cehlár

    2007-01-01

    Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber an...

  2. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  3. Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine

    Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and dewatering measures were designed with the help of a numerical mathematical model. A combination of dewatering wells installed from the surface around the perimeter of the pit and horizontal drains in areas of high slope failure potential substantially improved the mining conditions and slope stability. This procedure consequently led to the successful ore recovery from the highly saturated sandstone strata. The development of drawdown during the dewatering of two separated aquifers in the overburden was close to that predicted by the model

  4. Perils of project development on public land open to mining

    Conducting a government project on public land open to the general mining laws can result in added costs, legal entanglements, schedule uncertainties, and the potential for unanticipated safety issues and concerns due to interactions with mining claimants. Planning for such projects must include a careful assessment of not only land access needs and restrictions, but also possible scenarios for conflict with activities authorized under the general mining laws throughout the life of the project. It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the applicable mining laws and how they are currently being interpreted and applied by the responsible regulatory authorities and land managers. The Yucca Mountain Project approach to land access, problems encountered with mining claims filed under the Mining Law of 1872, and the lessons learned from these experiences are discussed in this paper

  5. Erosive Wear Behavior of High-Alloy Cast Iron and Duplex Stainless Steel under Mining Conditions

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    Centrifugal pumps used in the lignite mines encounter erosive wear problems, leading to a disastrous failure of the pump casings. This paper attempts to evaluate the erosive wear resistance of Ni-Hard 4, high-chromium iron, and Cast CD4MCu duplex stainless steel (DSS), for mining conditions. The prepared test coupons were subjected to an erosion test by varying the impingement velocity and the angle of impingement, under two different pH conditions of 3 and 7, which pertained to the mining conditions. XRD analysis was carried out to confirm the phases present in the alloy. The eroded surface was subjected to SEM analysis to identify the erosion mechanisms. The surface degradation of Ni-Hard 4 and high-chromium iron came from a low-angle abrasion with a grooving and plowing mechanism at a low angle of impingement. At normal impingement, deep indentations resulted in lips and crater formations, leading to degradation of the surface in a brittle manner. A combined extrusion-forging mechanism is observed in the CD4MCu DSS surface at all the impingement angles.

  6. A Novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM) for Executing Data Mining tasks

    Asif Ali; Gajendra Chandel

    2011-01-01

    Data mining services on grids is the need of today’s era. Workflow environments are widely used in data mining systems to manage data and execution flows associated to complex applications. Weka, one of the most used open-source data mining systems, includes the Knowledge-Flow environment which provides a drag-and-drop inter-face to compose and execute data mining workflows. It allows users to execute a whole workflow only on a single compute on the basis of simplicity. There are several work...

  7. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Silwamba C; Chileshe P R K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the st...

  8. Measurement of unattached fractions in open-pit uranium mines

    A preliminary set of measurements of the unattached fraction of potential alpha energy was made at the Ranger open pit uranium uranium mine and the Nabarlek uranium mill. The measurement system, which incorporated a parallel plate diffusion battery and diffuse junction detectors, is described. Results for RaA show a wide variation in the unattached fraction. They range up to 0.76 and are higher than corresponding values for underground mining operations

  9. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  10. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

  11. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

  12. A Novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for Executing Data Mining tasks

    Asif Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Data mining services on grids is the need of today’s era. Workflow environments are widely used in data mining systems to manage data and execution flows associated to complex applications. Weka, one of the most used open-source data mining systems, includes the Knowledge-Flow environment which provides a drag-and-drop inter-face to compose and execute data mining workflows. It allows users to execute a whole workflow only on a single compute on the basis of simplicity. There are several workflows in today’s scene. Most data mining workflows include several independent branches that could be run in parallel on a set of distributed machines to reduce the overall execution time. In this paper we proposed a novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for executing data mining tasks. Our algorithm contains five phases 1 Authentication 2 Reading Database3 Define the minimum support 4 Subset Find 5 Prune phase. Finally our algorithm shows better performance showing the simulation result.

  13. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Lima, Hernani; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    The need for continuous safety improvements and increased operational efficiency is driving the mining industry through a transition towards automated operations. From a communications perspective, this transition introduces a new set of high-bandwidth business- and mission-critical applications...... that need to be met by the wireless network. This article introduces fundamental concepts behind open-pit mining and discusses why this ever changing environment coupled with strict industrial reliability requirements pose unique challenges to traditional broadband network planning and optimization...... techniques. On the other hand, unlike unpredictable disaster scenarios, mining is a carefully planned activity. Taking advantage of this predictability element, we propose a framework that integrates mine and network planning so that continuous and automated adaptation of the network becomes possible. By...

  14. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  15. Open pit and/or underground mining: a discussion

    A practical analysis of the mining of an ore body by open pit and/or underground methods is discussed. A generalized case history is presented to demonstrate the application of the major factors involved in the analysis, and the effect of a two-tier market is examined. 5 figures

  16. Environmental Management of the Pocos de Caldas Open Pit Mine

    The Pocos de Caldas mine is located in the district of Caldas, in the southwest of the Minas Gerais state of Brazil. Prior to the startup of the Lagoa Real mine in 2001, it was the only facility in Brazil where uranium concentrate was produced. The facility is an open pit mine with a surface diameter of 1000 m and an average depth of 120 m. Some 47 million m3 of overburdened ore and waste have been mined from the pit. About 1250 tonnes of uranium concentrate were recovered. The mine was closed in 1995, and actions were undertaken by INB to restore adequate environmental conditions to the site. The treatment of water percolating the waste rock pile is placing a burden on the company. The treatment consists of neutralization of the acid water percolate with CaO, recovery of the precipitate and its dumping into the open pit. Experiments have been carried out for the covering of the waste rock pile with native vegetals. The results have been promising. The chemical installation was adapted for the production of rare earth composites from monazite ore. Production is now starting with an installed annual capacity of 450 tonnes of cerium oxide and 1800 tonnes of lantanium chloride. INB is now starting a process which calls for the contracting of a specialized entity for the establishment of a global environmental restauration programme. (author)

  17. Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino

    Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes to open several pits of coal with aim to prolongate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in thi paper. (Author)

  18. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end-of-life planning was required for the extensive district-wide infrastructure of the open pit water control system for public safety after life of mine.

  19. Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles

    An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

  20. Socio-economic Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage: A Caste Study of the San Sebastian Mine in Eastern El Salvador

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    Increasing awareness of the long-term negative impacts of mining amongst civil society actors, industry groups and governments has spurred a number of publications that seek to classify, analyze and quantify negative mine legacies. Of these, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is one of the most common nega......-economic impact assessments, mine closure regulation or any other form of mineral or water resource decision making mechanism in developing countries.......Increasing awareness of the long-term negative impacts of mining amongst civil society actors, industry groups and governments has spurred a number of publications that seek to classify, analyze and quantify negative mine legacies. Of these, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is one of the most common...

  1. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. RATIONALIZATION OF ROAD TRANSPORT PARK FOR THE CARRIAGE OF MINING ROCKS IN THE OPEN MINES

    Olga VUYEYKOVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates causes and conditions of downtime of automobile and excavator complex in iron ore open mines in the structure of the multi-type fleet of dump trucks. The formulas for determining the downtime trucks of different carrying capacity allocated to a single excavator. In this article will find out the regularities of formation wasting time waiting at the loading multi-type structure of the park trucks.

  3. Mesostructural design and manufacturing of open-pore metal foams by investment casting

    Alexander Martin Matz; Bettina Stefanie Mocker; Daniel Wyn Müller; Norbert Jost; Gunther Eggeler

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the manufacturing process of open-pore metal foams by investment casting and the mesostructural/morphological evolution resulting from a new technique of modifying the precursor. By this technique, the precursor is coated with a polymer layer whereby a thickening of the struts occurs. Relative densities in the range of 1.85≤ρrel≤25% of open-pore metal foams can be achieved with high accuracy. The samples investigated have pore densities of ρP=7 ppi, 10 ppi, and 13 ...

  4. A Study of Open Source Data Mining Tools and its Applications

    P. Subathra; R. Deepika; K. Yamin; P. Arunprasad; Shriram K. Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Data Mining is a technology that is used for the process of analyzing and summarizing useful information from different perspectives of data. The importance of choosing data mining software tools for the developing applications using mining algorithms has led to the analysis of the commercially available open source data mining tools. The study discusses about the following likeness of the data mining tools-KNIME, WEKA, ORANGE, R Tool and Rapid Miner. The Historical Development and state-of-a...

  5. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations, mine dimensions, production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 630 Ci/RRY (1 RRY one = 1000-MW(e) reactor operating for 1 year) during mining operations and 26 Ci/RRY/y after abandoment of the mine assuming 100% recovery of U3O8 from the ore, or 700 Ci/RRY and 29 Ci/RRY/y assuming 90.5% recovery

  6. Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry

    Cała, Marek; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Michał; Blajer, Mateusz; Cyran, Katarzyna; D'obyrn, Kajetan

    2016-03-01

    Stability of mining openings requires consideration of a number of factors, such as: geological structure, the geometry of the underground mining workings, mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in stress caused by the influence of neighbouring workings. Long-term prediction and estimation of workings state can be analysed with the use of numerical methods. Application of 3D numerical modelling in stability estimation of workings with complex geometry was described with the example of Crystal Caves in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Preservation of the Crystal Caves reserve is particularly important in view of their unique character and the protection of adjacent galleries which are a part of tourist attraction included in UNESCO list. A detailed 3D model of Crystal Caves and neighbouring workings was built. Application of FLAC3D modelling techniques enabled indication of the areas which are in danger of stability loss. Moreover, the area in which protective actions should be taken as well as recommendations concerning the convergence monitoring were proposed.

  7. Recultivation in the Lusatian mining region - targets and prospects

    For more than 100 years, lignite has been mined in open-cast mines in the Lusatian region of northeastern Germany. The increase of output quantities in the former GDR of up to about 200 million tons per year lead to problems for recultivation and loss of public acceptance. By 1993, about 39,000 ha of land were reclaimed, but 75,000 ha of land had been utilized by open-cast mining operations until that date. Forest recultivation has a tradition of more than 60 years and shows the ways for an economically acceptable recultivation by the mining industry. Agricultural recultivation of dumps is also performed successfully. Today, the future mining operation of LAUBAG being reduced to 5 open-cast mines uses specific overburden removal technologies in order to create favourable conditions for the arrangement of a safe, variable and Lusatia-typical post-mining landscape - the beginnings are already visible. 12 refs., 6 figs

  8. Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej

    In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

  9. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Vibration response of waste rock dump in open pit mine caused by blasting operation

    Lednická, M. (Markéta); Kaláb, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the open pit mine near Jarnoltowek (Poland), phyllite is excavated and rock waste is deposited on the dump directly in the mine; that is at a distance of approximately 150 m from the quarry face. Blasting operations are used as mining technology here so the rock waste dump could be influenced by these vibrations significantly. The paper presents results of experimental seismological measurement performed on four levels of the rock waste dump in the discussed mine.

  11. Methodology of selecting dozers for lignite open pit mines in Serbia

    Stojanovic, D.; Ignjatovic, D. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Mining and Geology; Kovacevic, S.; Bulat, S. [Public Co. State Electricity Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    Apart from the main production processes (coal and overburden mining, rail conveyors transportation and storage of excavated masses) performed by great-capacity mechanization at open pit mines, numerous and different auxiliary works, that often have crucial influence on both the work efficiency of main equipment and the maintenance of optimum technical conditions of machines and plants covering technological system of open pit, are present. Successful realization of work indispensably requires a proper and adequate selection of auxiliary machines according to their type quantity, capacity, power etc. thus highly respecting specific conditions existing at each and every open pit mine. A dozer is certainly the most important and representative auxiliary machine at single open pit mine. It is widely used in numerous works that, in fact, are preconditions for successful work of the main mechanization and consequently the very selection of a dozer ranges among the most important operations when selecting mechanization. This paper presents the methodology of dozers selection when lignite open pit mines are concerned. A mathematical model defining the volume of work required for dozers to perform at open pit mines and consequently the number of necessary dozers was designed. The model underwent testing in practice at big open pit mines and can be used in design of future open pits mines.

  12. Study on the Law of the Movement and Damage to Slope with the Combination of Underground Mining and Open-Pit Mining

    Xingkui Fang; Gaofeng Ren

    2010-01-01

    Under circumstances in which both underground mining and open-pit mining are employed, the mining effects of two approaches will be superposed and the mining slope will receive several induced stress fields, which makes the sliding mechanism and deformation law of slope rock mass more complicated. This paper, targeting at the east slope of Antaibao Mine with the joint employment of underground mining and open-pit mining, aims to study the moving law of the slope rock mass and the damage mecha...

  13. Cost analysis of open-pit mining by heap leaching

    The costs of producing uranium by an open-pit mining using a heap leaching beneficiation operation are analyzed. The selection of a heap leaching operation is dictated largely by the small size of the orebody. The uranium minerals present respond readily to the lixiviant employed permitting some 75 to 80 per cent of the 1200 to 1500 ppm of U3O8 present in the heap to be recovered. Manpower and transportation account for a large proportion of the operating costs. The capital investment employed is equivalent to $ 5 000 000 and the production cost is equivalent to a value in the range $ 10 to $ 15 per pound on U3O8. Of interest is the 11.5 per cent of the overhead costs spent on security

  14. Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining

    Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

  15. A maximum flow formulation of a multi-period open-pit mining problem

    Amankwah, Henry; Larsson, Torbjörn; Textorius, Björn

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding an optimal mining sequence for an open pit during a number of time periods subject to only spatial and temporal precedence constraints. This problem is of interest because such constraints are generic to any open-pit scheduling problem and, in particular, because it arises as a Lagrangean relaxation of an open-pit scheduling problem. We show that this multi-period open-pit mining problem can be solved as a maximum flow problem in a time-expanded mine graph. ...

  16. Solid-particle erosion behavior of cast alloys used in the mining industry

    Atapek, Ş. Hakan; Fidan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    The erosive-wear response of five commercial ferrous-based cast alloys used for crushing was examined in this study. The microstructures of the alloys were modified to elucidate the effect of microstructural features on wear. Erosion tests were conducted using aluminum oxide particles (90-125 μm) at 70 m/s and a normal impact angle (90°). The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and 3D non-contact laser profilometry. It is found that (i) a pearlitic structure exhibiting a greater plastic deformation than both bainitic and martensitic structures shows the greatest resistance to erosive wear at normal impact and (ii) the fracture characteristics of carbide and graphite particles plays an important role in determining the erosion wear behavior of the cast alloy matrices.

  17. Case history of controlling a landslide at Panluo open-pit mine in China

    Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wan, Ling; Shen, Louyan

    2008-04-01

    Controlling of landsides safely and economically is a great challenge to mine operators because landslides are major geological problems especially in open-pit mines. In this paper, a case history at Panluo open-pit mine is presented in detail to share the experiences and lessons with mine operators. Panluo open-pit mine is located in the southwestern Fujian province of China. It is the largest open-pit iron mine in the Fujian province and was planned in 1965 and is in full operation from 1978. In July 1990, an earthquake of magnitude 5.3 in Taiwan Strait and big rainstorms impacted the mine slope, causing tension cracks and rather large-scale failures, and forming a U-shaped landslide. Total potential volume was estimated to be up to 1.0 × 106 m3. This directly threatened the mine production. In order to protect the mine production and the dwellers’ safety around, a dynamic comprehensive method was implemented including geotechnical investigations, in-situ testing and monitoring, stability analysis, and many mitigation and preventive measures. These measures slowed down the development and further occurrence of the landslide. The results showed that the landslides were still active, it was slowed with the control measures and moved rapidly with rainfall and mining down. However, no catastrophic accidents occurred and the pit mining was continued till it was closed at the elevation of 887 m in 2000. As a successful case of landslide control at an open-pit mine for 10 years, this paper reports the controlling measures in details. These experiences of landslide control may be beneficial to other similar mines for landslide control.

  18. Environmental and economic assessment of 'open waste dump' mining in Sri Lanka

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Open waste dumps in Sri Lanka generate adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts due to inadequate maintenance. In this study, a concept of 'open waste dump mining' is suggested in order to minimise the environmental and socio-economic impacts, together with resource recovery. A model based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing has been used to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of the suggested open waste dump mining concept. Two scenarios have been defined fo...

  19. Mining chemical patents with an ensemble of open systems.

    Leaman, Robert; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Zou, Cherry; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The significant amount of medicinal chemistry information contained in patents makes them an attractive target for text mining. In this manuscript, we describe systems for named entity recognition (NER) of chemicals and genes/proteins in patents, using the CEMP (for chemicals) and GPRO (for genes/proteins) corpora provided by the CHEMDNER task at BioCreative V. Our chemical NER system is an ensemble of five open systems, including both versions of tmChem, our previous work on chemical NER. Their output is combined using a machine learning classification approach. Our chemical NER system obtained 0.8752 precision and 0.9129 recall, for 0.8937 f-score on the CEMP task. Our gene/protein NER system is an extension of our previous work for gene and protein NER, GNormPlus. This system obtained a performance of 0.8143 precision and 0.8141 recall, for 0.8137 f-score on the GPRO task. Both systems achieved the highest performance in their respective tasks at BioCreative V. We conclude that an ensemble of independently-created open systems is sufficiently diverse to significantly improve performance over any individual system, even when they use a similar approach.Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmTools/. PMID:27173521

  20. MINE - A Game for the Analysis of Regional Water Policies in Open-Pit Lignite Mining Areas

    Weigkricht, E.; Kaden, S.

    1985-01-01

    The game MINE has been developed for the analysis of regional water policies in open-pit lignite mining areas. It is implemented for a GDR test area. The purpose of the game is above all to teach decision makers and their staff in mining regions in order to get a better understanding of the complex interrelated socio-economic processes with respect to water management in such regions. The game is designed to be played by five groups of players representing municipal and industrial water suppl...

  1. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Jinyoung Song; Yosoon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for install...

  2. Risk management of the mining authority of North Rhine-Westphalia for left daily openings of the mining; Risikomanagement der Bergbehoerde NRW fuer verlassene Tagesoeffnungen des Bergbaus

    Neumann, Heinz Roland [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW

    2010-02-15

    A perpetual danger proceeds from the unsecured daily openings of the mining industry. Many pits only are filled with bulk materials. Regarding to the use of budgetary means at preventive investigation measures and protection measures, the mining industry authority North-Rhine Westphalia operates a risk management for abandoned daily openings for which no mine companies or mine owner are at hand. For this, daily openings are classified and evaluated according to certain factors. From this, a list of priority results for preventive investigation measures and safety measurements being processed by the mining industry authority in the next years.

  3. A contribution to open pit hard coal mine waste rock management : comparing sidehill fill with layered dumping

    Ahmad, Shakeel

    2013-01-01

    Coal mining is an important economic activity as it covers the energy demands, generates export revenues and creates employment opportunities. Mining can, however, impact the local environment. Different mining operations produce several types of waste materials and one of the major wastes produced by open-pit mines is waste rock, which is dumped at waste rock dumps. The waste rock dumps can impact the environment in several ways. For instance, in Vietnam open-pit mines have disturbed the bea...

  4. A Moessbauer spectroscopy study of the corrosion of nodular cast iron in mine waters

    The corrosion of ductile cast iron in water containing different amounts of chloride ions was investigated under both static and dynamic conditions. Corrosion/time relationships were established for exposure times of up to 30 days. Post-corrosion investigations were performed, employing Moessbauer spectroscopy, optical microscopy and electrochemical techniques. It was found that the nature of the surface corrosion product formed under static conditions differed morphologically and chemically from that formed under dynamic conditions. The latter was a hard layer consisting of a mixture of ?- and ?-FeOOH (situated on an underlying cementite layer), whereas the static tests resulted in a soft, spongy corrosion product, identified as ?-FeOOH. (orig.)

  5. Mining Reviews in Open Source Code for Developers Trail: A Process Mining Approach

    Patrick Mukala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Audit trails are evidential indications of activities performers in any logs. Modern reactive systems such as transaction processing systems, management information systems, decision support systems and even executive management systems log activities of users as they perform their daily tasks for a number of reasons and perhaps one of the most important is security. In order to efficiently monitor and manage privacy and access to information, the trails as captured and recorded in these logs play a pivotal role in this regard. In Open Source realm, however, this is not the case. Although the objective with free software is to allow for access, free distribution and the rights to modify coding, having such audit trails can help to trace and understand how active members of these communities are and the type of activities they perform. In this paper, we propose using process mining to construct logs using as much data as can be found in open source repositories in order to produce a process model, also called a workflow net that graphical depicts the sequential occurrence of developers activities. Our method is exhibited through a simple algorithm called Act-Trace.

  6. GPS based checking survey and precise DEM development in open mine

    Xu, Ai-gong [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics

    2008-06-15

    The checking survey in Open mine is one of the most frequent and important work. It plays the role of forming a connecting link between open mine planning and production. Traditional checking method has such disadvantages as long time consumption, heavy workload, complicated calculating process, and lower automation. The author used GPS and GIS technologies to systematically study the core issues of checking survey in open mine. A detail GPS data acquisition coding scheme was presented. Based on the scheme an algorithm used for computer semiautomatic cartography was made. Three methods used for eliminating gross errors from raw data which were needed for creating OEM was discussed. Two algorithms were researched and realized which can be used to create open mine fine OEM model with constrained conditions and to dynamically update the model. The precision analysis and evaluation of the created model were carried out. 5 refs.

  7. Technical parametrization of uranium reserves to be mined by open-pit method

    Numerous technical parameters must be dealt with in calculating grade-tonnage relationships: some refer to ore selection criteria in the ore zone (for example the cut-off grade, the size of the standard mining unit, the blast-holes grid available when mining), others relate to geometrical constraints depending upon the mining method (for example the stripping ratio). Achieving the technical parametrization of the recoverable reserves is somewhat challenging when there is an excessive number of parameters: the example of an uranium deposit to be mined by open-pit method shows that the solution can be reached by a sequence of adequately interrelated studies

  8. Opening of the medieval Jeroným Mine in the Czech Republic to the public

    Koøínek Robert; ùrek Petr

    2003-01-01

    The beginnings of underground mining in the locality go back to the first half of the 16th century. The mining and sporadic exploitation then continued with many interruptions till the beginning of the 20th century. According to historic data, the depth range of mine workings is approximately 50 m. The opening of the Èistá Jeroným complex to the public is designed to be economical with the aim to utilise, e.g. for the purpose of mining tourism, especially a medieval large-volume room that to...

  9. In situ characterization at limestone open pit mine using prompt gamma neutron activation

    Using prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) in situ characterization of blast holes in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. has been performed. This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results for a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAA system gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines. (orig.)

  10. A Study of Open Source Data Mining Tools and its Applications

    P. Subathra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining is a technology that is used for the process of analyzing and summarizing useful information from different perspectives of data. The importance of choosing data mining software tools for the developing applications using mining algorithms has led to the analysis of the commercially available open source data mining tools. The study discusses about the following likeness of the data mining tools-KNIME, WEKA, ORANGE, R Tool and Rapid Miner. The Historical Development and state-of-art; (i The Applications supported, (ii Data mining algorithms are supported by each tool, (iii The pre-requisites and the procedures to install a tool, (iv The input file format supported by each tool. To extract useful information from these data effectively and efficiently, data mining tools are used. The availability of many open source data mining tools, there is an increasing challenge in deciding upon the apace-updated tools for a given application. This study has provided a brief study about the open source knowledge discovery tools with their installation process, algorithms support and input file formats support.

  11. Open business intelligence: on the importance of data quality awareness in user-friendly data mining

    Mazón López, José Norberto; Zubcoff Vallejo, José Jacobo; Garrigós Fernández, Irene; Espinosa, Roberto; Rodríguez, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    Citizens demand more and more data for making decisions in their daily life. Therefore, mechanisms that allow citizens to understand and analyze linked open data (LOD) in a user-friendly manner are highly required. To this aim, the concept of Open Business Intelligence (OpenBI) is introduced in this position paper. OpenBI facilitates non-expert users to (i) analyze and visualize LOD, thus generating actionable information by means of reporting, OLAP analysis, dashboards or data mining; and to...

  12. Towards the Application of Augmented Reality in the Mining Sector: Open-Pit Mines

    Hugues, Olivier; Gbodossou, André; Cieutat, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    This article put augmented reality technology, and its application in the mining sector, in perspective. The current vitality in the mining sector in Canada, and particularly in the province of Quebec, is leading decision-makers to use new technologies in a sector which is nevertheless quite traditionalist. An exploration of the different activities connected to mining operations in order to identify the potential relevance of the use of augmented reality in this sector is shown. This analysi...

  13. Robust models for simultaneous open pit and underground mines

    Morales, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Mining planning is a central problem in the mining business with the goal of setting high revenued exploitation agendas. However, current models lack robustness: they do not consider uncertainty of the future, so the plans are, indeed, recalculated every year according to the new information. This work presents some approaches to solve the above-mentioned problem: at first the current models are exposed, stochastic programming is used then to set up new models considering uncertainity. As a s...

  14. Text mining and visualization case studies using open-source tools

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Text Mining and Visualization: Case Studies Using Open-Source Tools provides an introduction to text mining using some of the most popular and powerful open-source tools: KNIME, RapidMiner, Weka, R, and Python. The contributors-all highly experienced with text mining and open-source software-explain how text data are gathered and processed from a wide variety of sources, including books, server access logs, websites, social media sites, and message boards. Each chapter presents a case study that you can follow as part of a step-by-step, reproducible example. You can also easily apply and extend the techniques to other problems. All the examples are available on a supplementary website. The book shows you how to exploit your text data, offering successful application examples and blueprints for you to tackle your text mining tasks and benefit from open and freely available tools. It gets you up to date on the latest and most powerful tools, the data mining process, and specific text mining activities.

  15. Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications

    Drew Cottle; Angela Keys

    2014-01-01

    This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley’s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

  16. Opening of the medieval Jeroným Mine in the Czech Republic to the public

    Koøínek Robert

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of underground mining in the locality go back to the first half of the 16th century. The mining and sporadic exploitation then continued with many interruptions till the beginning of the 20th century. According to historic data, the depth range of mine workings is approximately 50 m. The opening of the Èistá – Jeroným complex to the public is designed to be economical with the aim to utilise, e.g. for the purpose of mining tourism, especially a medieval large-volume room that together with flooded stoped-out workings forms an inimitable atmosphere underground. This article is focused primarily on geomechanical problems connected with the opening of this complex to the public.

  17. Land reclamation policy after open pit coal mining in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district

    An overview is presented of the results of land reclamation activities in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district, and the principles are outlined of the long-term plan for ecosystem restoration in that region. (J.B.)

  18. A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine

    Vahid Rafiee; Omid Asghari

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning...

  19. Variation of radon daughter concentrations in open-pit uranium mines

    In order to quantify the WL variations for open pit mine conditions, a series of measurements was made at the Ranger uranium mine over a two week period. The parameters measured were temperature, wind speed, radon and radon daughter concentration and WL. A preliminary analysis of the data shows a correlation between WL and the reciprocal wind speed but no apparent correlation between wind speed and the equilibrium factor

  20. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  1. Formation of the composition and properties of dumps on the open-pit mines of Kuzbass

    Lesin, Y. V.; Luk'yanova, S. Y.; Tyuleneva, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012 the total volume of coal mining in the Kuzbass was about 200 million tons, including 116 million tons (60.3%) produced open way, Figure 1. In 2014, it was produced more than 203 million tons of coal. In addition, there is no reason to believe that in the near future volume of coal will decline. Accordingly, the volume of wastewater discharged by enterprises will increase. So, from 2006 to 2009 there was an increase of polluted water discharge coal mines from 217 to 245 million m3. Therefore, the problem of water pollution mines governmental waters and career is very important.

  2. Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska

    Papić Petar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers. Calibration of the hydrodynamic model is the starting point for making prognosis calculation in order to create the most optimal system of open-pit mine protection from groundwater. The results of model calibration indicated that the rivers Gomjenica and Bistrica, precipitation and inflow from karstified rocks are the primary sources of recharge of the limonite ore body “Buvač”.

  3. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  4. A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine

    Vahid Rafiee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning and management of a mine. Optimization of long-term production planning needs correct selection of equipments and labor forces and reducing capital and operation costs. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP methods are used for optimizing production planning in open pit mines with objective of maximizing the total discounted net present value. But MIP formulation of the production scheduling in open pit mines, particularly in large open pit with many numbers of blocks needs too many variables causing it very difficult or impossible to solve. To over come this problem a new heuristic approach by reducing schedule period and applying primary guess is developed based on mixed integer linear programming to reduce the periods of planning and decrease the number of variable and the number of constraint needed in the formulation. The results of this method compared to existing methods shows the significant reduction of binary variable in MIP formulation and higher chance to obtain the optimal Net Present Value (NPV.

  5. Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska)

    Papić Petar; Bajić Dragoljub; Polomčić Dušan; Stojković Jana

    2013-01-01

    Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers...

  6. Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines

    Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

  7. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  8. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Jorg C. Sturm; Guido Busch

    2011-01-01

    High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI) or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process s...

  9. Estimation of resuspension of radioactive aerosols in equipment cab of open-pit uranium mining

    In open-pit mining of high grade ores, operators of mining equipment in a pressurized cab are protected from inhaling radioactive aerosols by the use of filtered air through a pre-impactor and a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. At present, a limited amount of scientific information is available on the worker exposure to airborne alpha emitters in the mining of high-grade ores. Four series of field samplings were conducted during the fall of 1980 and the summer of 1981 at a mining site in northern Saskatchewan to investigate the extent of protection an equipment operator has against cab internal exposure to airborne alpha emitters with short and long half-life radionuclides. The variation in the breathing zone concentration of aerosols as a result of resuspension is discussed, however no attempt was made to isolate and investigate the factors and the associated parameters of the aerosol resuspension phenomenon

  10. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  11. Dose conversion factors for radon daughters in underground and open-cut mine atmospheres.

    Wise, K N

    1982-07-01

    As uranium will be mined in Australia by open-cut methods, previous work on calculating dose conversion factors for radon daughters has been re-examined. The fractions of radon daughters deposited on lung airways and the factors for converting from equilibrium activity of radon daughters on airways to dose to basal cells are re-calculated. The variation around these estimates through variability of lung morphology and the depth of the basal cells is discussed. Average dose conversion factors calculated for atmospheres which may be typical of underground mines range from 12 mGy/WLM to 33 mGy/WLM. Use has been made of measurement results on unattached fraction at an open-cut mine in the Northern Territory, Australia, to derive dose conversion factors, ranging from 50 mGy/WLM to 135 mGy/WLM which are applicable to this environment. PMID:6290424

  12. GPSS system applied to optimization of technological process of open-pit mine

    The queuing sub-system and the stored sub-system are abstracted as a composed dynamic system from the technological process of open-pit mining. Using the GPSS system the simulation models were established, and by changing the parameters of the models the optimization of the technological process was carried out

  13. The critical analysis of austenitic manganese steel T130Mn135 used for castings in the mining industry

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.; Putan, V.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the critical analysis of making technology of austenitic manganese steel T130Mn135, used for castings of the type Mills hammer at a Romanian foundry. Are analyzed 11 charges of steel for castings and is determined the diagram of the heat treatment. After the applying of the heat treatment results a single-phase structure, consisting of homogeneous austenite. For all the 11 charges is presented the variation of chemical composition.

  14. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Jakovljević Milan; Lilić Nikola; Kolonja Božo; Knežević Dinko; Petrić Marija; Tadić Vojin; Nedić Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic...

  15. Namibia: A mining profile

    Namibia is one of Africa's major mining countries and ranks amongst the first 20 in the world. The mining industry is by far the single largest contributor to Namibia's gross domestic product, as well as its exports and public revenue. 44 deposits are currently being mined in Namibia, with diamonds, from the world's richest alluvial diamond field, and uranium, out of one of the world's largest open cast uranium mines (Roessing Mine), being most important of the 31 different commodities produced. In addition Namibia is Africa's largest producer of refined lead and zinc concentrate. Other commodities produced include copper, pyrite, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, gold, silver, tin, fluorite, salt, various pegmatitic industrial minerals, semi-precious stones and building material. Approximately 80% of the value of this mining output is derived from operations held by three major mining companies. There are, however, some 30 other operators active in the country. - Mining has a long history in Namibia with the first prospector arriving in 1761 and the first mine opening in 1856. Mining companies continue to prospect for new mineral resources and extend the reserves of those currently being mined. In 1989 a total of 62.2 million Rand was spent on exploration. The relatively high mineral potential of the country continues to attract investment in the Nambibian mining industry. Areas of particular interest are the base metal mineralization in the northern part of the country, the rare metal occurrences in pegmatites of central and southern Namibia and the offshore potential for fossil fuels, which has been stimulated by the discovery of a substantial gas field in 1974. (orig./HP)

  16. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  17. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 ± 0.32 μm and σ(ln d) = 0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 ± 0.38 μm and σ(ln d) = 0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: ► Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. ► SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles ► Particle size distributions of TSP and PM10 are lognormal ► Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar ► Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health

  18. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana.

    Darko, E O; Faanu, A; Awudu, A R; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Oppon, O C; Akaho, E H K

    2010-01-01

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 +/- 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. PMID:19767601

  19. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 ± 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. (authors)

  20. Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components

    Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

  1. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)

    Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

    2011-01-01

    Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new appro...

  2. Pb-210 growth in water in an open pit uranium mine

    In an open pit uranium mine, pluviometric precipitation may fill the pit with water. Pb-210 concentration grows in this water due to Rn-222 emanation from the submerse ore. The results of this model are compared with the numerical calculation of Pb-210 growth, from a constant value of 1 Bq of Rn-222. An independent determination of Rn-222 concentration equilibrium value, that is the value of Rn-222 concentration dissolved in water, is also necessary, in order to confirm the results of the model. Results of experiments made in the uranium mine at 'Caetite', BA, Brazil, have confirmed this model predictions, with good accuracy

  3. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region.

    Huertas, Jos I; Huertas, Mara E; Sols, Dora A

    2012-04-15

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d=5.46 0.32 ?m and ?(ln d)=0.61 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM(10)) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d=3.6 0.38 ?m and ?(ln d)=0.55 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. PMID:22405562

  4. Analysis of open-pit mines using high-resolution topography from UAV

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Among the anthropogenic topographic signatures on the Earth, open-pit mines deserve a great importance, since they significantly affect the Earth's surface and its related processes (e.g. erosion, pollution). Their geomorphological analysis, therefore, represents a real challenge for the Earth science community. The purpose of this research is to characterize the open-pit mining features using a recently published landscape metric, the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC) (Sofia et al., 2014), and high-resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) derived from drone surveyed topography. The research focuses on two main case studies of iron mines located in the Beijing district (P.R. China). The main topographic information (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) was derived using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique. The results underline the effectiveness of the adopted methodologies and survey techniques in the characterization of the main geomorphic features of the mines. Thanks to the SLLAC, the terraced area given by multi-benched sideways-moving method for the iron extraction is automatically depicted, and using some SLLAC derived parameters, the related terraces extent is automatically estimated. The analysis of the correlation length orientation, furthermore, allows to identify the terraces orientation respect to the North, and to understand as well the shape of the open-pit area. This provides a basis for a large scale and low cost topographic survey for a sustainable environmental planning and, for example, for the mitigation of environmental anthropogenic impact due to mining. References Sofia G., Marinello F, Tarolli P. 2014. A new landscape metric for the identification of terraced sites: the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.06.018

  5. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: → Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. → Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. → Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. → Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  6. Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste

    Kryl Václav

    1998-01-01

    In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

  7. Development of new metaheuristic tools for long term production scheduling of open pit mines

    Khan,Asif,

    2016-01-01

    Long term production scheduling of open pit mines is a large scale and complex optimization problem that has been extensively discussed in the technical literature since 1960s. It seeks to specify such an extraction sequence of ore and waste materials from the ground that maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the operation while satisfying a set of physical and operational constraints. Block model representation of the orebody is commonly used as a basic input for this purpose. The block m...

  8. AN ANOTHER WAY FOR OPEN PIT MINE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION – FLOATING SLOPES METHOD

    Ivo Galić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the work presents main principles of a new method of design the ultimate pit which is primarily applicable for bedded formations, but also can be acceptable for other types of deposits. On the basis of main criteria of optimum design (profitability and slope stability, the authors have tested theirs procedure and proposed a new method for optimum design of open pit mines, for which the most suitable name would be the Floating Slopes Method.

  9. Production Scheduling of Open Pit Mines Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Asif Khan; Christian Niemann-Delius

    2014-01-01

    Determining an optimum long term production schedule is an important part of the planning process of any open pit mine; however, the associated optimization problem is demanding and hard to deal with, as it involves large datasets and multiple hard and soft constraints which makes it a large combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper a procedure has been proposed to apply a relatively new and computationally less expensive metaheuristic technique known as particle swarm optimization (P...

  10. Radiation safety aspects of occupational areas at a Brazilian open-pit mine

    This paper discusses the radiation safety aspects of open-pit mining in Brazil and presents results of exposure rate measurements at points located at different work-front sites, primary crushing, static leaching sites and ore storage patio. Results of surface contamination and air monitoring in the hauling trucks and area control cabs are presented. Routine difficulties in trying to comply with the radiation safety procedures required is discussed and suggestions presented

  11. Atmospheric dispersion of radon gas from open-pit uranium mines

    The relationships between atmospheric stability and radon concentration at Nabarlek (Northern Territory) and Yeelirrie (Western Australia) were investigated. The present atmospheric dispersive approach developed from experimental work in the Northern Hemisphere cannot be used to adequately predict the near ground concentrations of radon and its daughters during stable atmospheric conditions which are encountered in open-cut uranium mines and over tailings areas in the desert regions of Australia

  12. Cluo: Web-Scale Text Mining System For Open Source Intelligence Purposes

    Przemyslaw Maciolek; Grzegorz Dobrowolski

    2013-01-01

    The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT) system, which extracts and analyzes significant quantitiesof openl...

  13. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  14. MINE-NEC - A Game for the Analysis of Regional Water Policies in Open-Pit Lignite Mining Areas: An Improved Implementation for the NEC PC-8201A

    Kaden, S.; Varis, O.

    1986-01-01

    The game MINE was developed for the analysis of regional water policies in open-pit lignite mining areas. It is implemented for a GDR test area. The purpose of the game is above all to teach decision makers and their staff in mining regions in order to get a better understanding of the complex interrelated socio-economic processes with respect t o water management in such regions. The game is designed to be played by five groups of players representing municipal and industrial water supply, a...

  15. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice

    Martin Vrubel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

  16. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice

    Martin Vrubel; Stanislav Dejl

    2007-01-01

    Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

  17. Cluo: Web-Scale Text Mining System For Open Source Intelligence Purposes

    Przemyslaw Maciolek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT system, which extracts and analyzes significant quantitiesof openly available information.

  18. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Jinyoung Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  19. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. PMID:21195454

  20. Interoperability Using Lightweight Metadata Standards: Service & Data Casting, OpenSearch, OPM Provenance, and Shared SciFlo Workflows

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E.

    2011-12-01

    Under several NASA grants, we are generating multi-sensor merged atmospheric datasets to enable the detection of instrument biases and studies of climate trends over decades of data. For example, under a NASA MEASURES grant we are producing a water vapor climatology from the A-Train instruments, stratified by the Cloudsat cloud classification for each geophysical scene. The generation and proper use of such multi-sensor climate data records (CDR's) requires a high level of openness, transparency, and traceability. To make the datasets self-documenting and provide access to full metadata and traceability, we have implemented a set of capabilities and services using known, interoperable protocols. These protocols include OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, Open Provenance Model, service & data casting technologies using Atom feeds, and REST-callable analysis workflows implemented as SciFlo (XML) documents. We advocate that our approach can serve as a blueprint for how to openly "document and serve" complex, multi-sensor CDR's with full traceability. The capabilities and services provided include: - Discovery of the collections by keyword search, exposed using OpenSearch protocol; - Space/time query across the CDR's granules and all of the input datasets via OpenSearch; - User-level configuration of the production workflows so that scientists can select additional physical variables from the A-Train to add to the next iteration of the merged datasets; - Efficient data merging using on-the-fly OPeNDAP variable slicing & spatial subsetting of data out of input netCDF and HDF files (without moving the entire files); - Self-documenting CDR's published in a highly usable netCDF4 format with groups used to organize the variables, CF-style attributes for each variable, numeric array compression, & links to OPM provenance; - Recording of processing provenance and data lineage into a query-able provenance trail in Open Provenance Model (OPM) format, auto-captured by the workflow engine; - Open Publishing of all of the workflows used to generate products as machine-callable REST web services, using the capabilities of the SciFlo workflow engine; - Advertising of the metadata (e.g. physical variables provided, space/time bounding box, etc.) for our prepared datasets as "datacasts" using the Atom feed format; - Publishing of all datasets via our "DataDrop" service, which exploits the WebDAV protocol to enable scientists to access remote data directories as local files on their laptops; - Rich "web browse" of the CDR's with full metadata and the provenance trail one click away; - Advertising of all services as Google-discoverable "service casts" using the Atom format. The presentation will describe our use of the interoperable protocols and demonstrate the capabilities and service GUI's.

  1. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    The primary motivation underlying the proposal of polygeneration systems for mine sites is to increase the efficient use of natural resources by combining different technologies and energy resources while satisfying energy service demands. For many mineral producers, particularly in Canada's mining extremes of climate and depth, energy in support of mineral production can be the second largest cost center after labor. A generic methodology is proposed for the design of energy supply systems in mine sites, based on a search for the minimum discounted cost of energy supplied for all feasible different plant configurations. These configurations can be represented within a connectivity matrix which corresponds to a network representation. A Mixed Integer Programming formulation is set out for the multiperiod synthesis and operational planning problem. This is characterized by i) binary variables for the selection of technologies, ii) integer variables for the determination of the number of units installed, and iii) by continuous variables for the representation of energy and economic flows. Through the integration of particular energy supply strategies matching specific mine circumstances (on-grid, remote, degree days, etc) and consideration of technologies that improve energy efficiency, hitherto not considered new technologies and demand management systems or new perspectives on optimal mine site energy supply can be investigated. Some of these investigations identify the economic conditions through which biomass energy feedstocks should be used, for direct heat production, for gasification and providing for Fischer–Tropsch syndiesel manufacture. As well as integrating demand from mobile diesel-fueled plant into an optimization procedure this analysis shows how the techniques can be used to explore economic conditions of threshold prices for biomass (purpose-grown biomass and peat are considered herein) and trucked-in diesel. The methodology also allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  2. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  3. A stochastic simulation framework for truck and shovel selection and sizing in open pit mines

    S.R., Dindarloo; M., Osanloo; S., Frimpong.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Material handling in open pit mining accounts for about 50% of production costs. The selection and deployment of efficient, safe, and economic loading and haulage systems is thus critical to the production process. The problems of truck and shovel selection and sizing include determination of the op [...] timal number and capacities of haulage and loading units, as well as their allocation and operational strategies. Critical survey and analysis of the literature has shown that deterministic, stochastic, and experimental approaches to these problems result in considerably different outputs. This paper presents a comprehensive simulation framework for the problem of truck and shovel selection and sizing based on the random processes underlying the network-continuous-discrete event nature of the mining operation. The framework builds on previous research in this field and attempts to address limitations of available methodologies in the form of a comprehensive algorithm. To test the validity of the framework a large open pit mine was evaluated. The stochastic processes governing the uncertainties underlying the material loading and haulage input variables were defined and built into the stochastic model. Discrete event simulation was used to simulate the stochastic model. The proposed model resulted in several modifications to the case study.

  4. Simulation of the casting process - a powerful tool for enhanced design of the cutting teeth in surface mining

    R. Slavkovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent development in the computer simulation technology caused a tremendous influence on a rapid prototyping in casting process. These computational tools facilitate engineering work and urge moulding verification in foundries. Among dedicated software packages the MAGMASoft is selected for availability reasons. Its effectiveness is proved with the simulation of moulding process of the cutting teeth for a bucket wheel excavator Use of MAGMASoft enables a shortcut to a forceful and durable product, without internal cavities and micro-porosity. Such advancement of the moulding process is described in this paper.

  5. Assessment of the possible reuse of MSW coming from landfill mining of old open dumpsites.

    Masi, S; Caniani, D; Grieco, E; Lioi, D S; Mancini, I M

    2014-03-01

    The present study addresses the theme of recycling potential of old open dumpsites by using landfill mining. Attention is focused on the possible reuse of the residual finer fraction (barrier layers of landfills, or in environmental remediation activities. Attention is mainly focused on the presence of heavy metals and on the possible interaction with test organisms. Chemical analyses of the residual matrix and leaching tests showed that the concentration of heavy metals is always below the legislation limits. Biological acute tests (with Lepidum sativum, Vicia faba and Lactuca sativa) do not emphasize adverse effects to the growth of the plant species, except the bioassay with V. faba, which showed a dose-response effect. The new developed chronic bioassay test with Spartium junceum showed a good adaptation to stress conditions induced by the presence of the mined landfill material. In conclusion, the conducted experimental activities demonstrated the suitability of the material to be used for different purposes. PMID:24412012

  6. Efficient mine management and control by integration of high-capacity data processing systems

    Mueller, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The German Rhenish brown coal mining industry has remained competitive in the energy market through increases in productivity. This is achieved through concentration on a few efficient open cast mines and the further development of bucket wheel excavator and belt conveyor technology. To provide an optimum combination of utilization of labour and mechanical equipment, efficient data processing systems are being integrated into the mining operation. Resource usage and costs data are used to facilitate cost-oriented management and control. 3 figs.

  7. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. PMID:22054578

  8. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Ykateryna D. Duka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

  9. An application of the analytic hierarchy process in equipment selection at Orhaneli open pit coal mine

    Bascetin, A. [Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining and Engineering Dept.

    2004-09-01

    Equipment selection is one of the most important factors in open pit design and production planning. Equipment selection also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, equipment selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by a systematic and logical approach to assess priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) can be used by decision-makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of a loading-haulings system using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open pit coal mine located Orhaneli, in western Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve group decision making in selecting equipment that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and that using the proposed AHP model can reduce the time taken to select optimal equipment.

  10. Conservation and utilization of forest genetic resources for the recultivation of post-mining landscapes and the forestry in Lusatia; Erhaltung und Nutzung forstgenetischer Ressourcen fuer die forstliche Rekultivierung von Bergbaufolgelandschaften und die Waldwirtschaft in der Lausitz

    Wolf, Heino; Troeber, Ute [Kompetenzzentrum fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft, Referat Forstgenetik/Forstpflanzenzuechtung, Pirna (Germany); Roesler, Michael [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Abt. Rekultivierung/Naturschutzmanagement, Cottbus (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Lignite open cast mining has serious impacts on nature and landscape. It may also affect genetic resources of forest tree species having great importance due to their specific characters and structures for the: Conservation of genetic potential of a specific species, Forestry in a particular region and Nature oriented recultivation of the post-mining landscape. Using forest stands of Sessile Oak, Scots Pine and Norway Spruce situated in front of the open cast mine Nochten, Lusatia, as an example, gene conservation activities of the State Company SaxonForest and Vattenfall Europe Mining-plc to balance the inevitable intrusion an nature and landscape will be described in the following article. (orig.)

  11. Problems of definitive slopes mining at Doly Nastup Tusimice

    The instability of slopes influents mining business in many aspects at open-cast mining. The temporary decrease of intended mined volumes due to land slips is common and sometimes there is necessary to change origin-mining plans. It has impact to economy and other essential costs for rehabilitation are required. In case of definitive slopes formation in contact to traffic and communication networks, watercourses and infrastructures of seats stability of slope security there is even more important. Monitoring of rock massive stability plays an important role. Everything which stability of slopes is concerned belongs to essential tasks for mining technicians at open-cast mining. The article explains what ways for definitive slope formation near mining boundary were selected at Severoceske doly j.s.c., Doly Nastup Tusimice mining site. The precautions refer to mining technology, preventive and reconstruction precautions for stabilization of slopes must to solve, are to described. Tasks, which mining engineers, surveyors, geologists and geotechnics have to solve are described. (authors)

  12. Integration of UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Three-Dimensional Mapping and Monitoring of Open-Pit Mine Areas

    Xiaohua Tong; Xiangfeng Liu; Peng Chen; Shijie Liu; Kuifeng Luan; Lingyun Li; Shuang Liu; Xianglei Liu; Huan Xie; Yanmin Jin; Zhonghua Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a practical framework for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) with application to open-pit mine areas, which includes UAV image and TLS point cloud acquisition, image and cloud point processing and integration, object-oriented classification and three-dimensional (3D) mapping and monitoring of open-pit mine areas. The proposed framework was tested in three open-pit mine areas in southwestern China. (1) ...

  13. Radiation monitoring program for an open pit uranium mine and uranium mill

    This paper describes the radiation monitoring program for an open pit uranium mine and uranium mill. Background monitoring was done before any ore was removed from the pit area and during mill construction. To establish base-line data radon concentrations, radiation dose using thermoluminescent dosimetry, radon flux and other parameters were routinely measured. This paper also describes the monitoring program set up for environmental and personnel monitoring during milling operations. Included are the selection of instruments, the frequency of sampling and quality control of the monitoring program. (author)

  14. A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine

    Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

  15. Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines

    Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

  16. A hybrid GA-TS algorithm for open vehicle routing optimization of coal mines material

    Yu, S.W.; Ding, C.; Zhu, K.J. [China University of Geoscience, Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    In the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP), the objective is to minimize the number of vehicles and the total distance (or time) traveled. This study primarily focuses on solving an open vehicle routing problem (OVRP) by applying a novel hybrid genetic algorithm and the Tabu search (GA-TS), which combines the GA's parallel computing and global optimization with TS's Tabu search skill and fast local search. Firstly, the proposed algorithm uses natural number coding according to the customer demands and the captivity of the vehicle for globe optimization. Secondly, individuals of population do TS local search with a certain degree of probability, namely, do the local routing optimization of all customer sites belong to one vehicle. The mechanism not only improves the ability of global optimization, but also ensures the speed of operation. The algorithm was used in Zhengzhou Coal Mine and Power Supply Co., Ltd.'s transport vehicle routing optimization.

  17. Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas

    Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

    2014-05-01

    In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and allows an easy exploration of the data to assess its quality and suitability for a specific task. More complex remote sensing image analysis is performed through 3rd party software, which is dynamically integrated into a Web Processing Service (WPS). With an increasing data volume the transmission becomes a key problem for a WPS processing this raster data. Here the Moving Code principle embedded in the 52North WPS implementation (MÜLLER et al. 2013) is applied to engage this problem by flexibly sending processes to the WPS which is directly coupled with the data on a server. The required parameters to control the processing are entered via an interface within the web portal. The Moving Code approach not only contributes to improving web processing for big data sets but it also makes it easier to integrate external executable programs into a WPS. As a result the proposed framework of web services and a web portal successfully combines various open source technologies to integrate all of the gathered vector and raster data as well as the analysis methods developed during the GMES4Mining project into a spatial data infrastructure and to enable access to them through a web browser. References: BENECKE, N., ZIMMERMANN, K., MÜTERTHIES, A., PAKZAD, K., TEUWSEN, S., GARCÍA MILLÁN, V., KATELOE, J., PREUßE, A., PEBESMA, E. & T. PRINZ (2013): GMES4Mining: GMES-based geoservices for mining areas. In: Proceedings of the XV International ISM Congress, September 2013, Aachen, Germany. MÜLLER, M., BERNARD, L. & D. KADNER (2013): Moving code - Sharing geoprocessing logic on the Web. In: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 83: 193-203.

  18. Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia

    Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event: rainfall depth, rainfall intensity in fifteen minutes and in two hours, peak discharge, runoff coefficient, dry time duration before the event and flood duration. The calculation of suspended sediment yield (SSY) at different time scales gives an evaluation of the pollution delivered to the creeks and lagoon and of the water management and sediment trap efficiency. An extreme rainfall event (December 25th, 2011) of 500 mm in 26 hours yielded downstream more suspended sediment than all the floods of the previous monitored period. This highlights the threshold effects in runoff and erosion response in these open mining areas.

  19. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

  20. [Characteristics of work environment factors and health state of workers engaged in open mining of refractory clay and structural quartz sand].

    Aleksandrova, E V; Lobachev, A S; Savrasova, M N

    2002-01-01

    This article covers evaluation of work conditions and health state in workers engaged into open-cast extraction of refractories and of building quartz sand in moderate climate of Voronezh region. PMID:12194590

  1. The using of GPS – RTK technology for creation of the Open – Pit mine basic map

    Jitka Mučková

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the open – pit mine map with results of the method GPS – RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the open – pit mine in Jakubčovice nad Odrou is evaluated. The results of comparison written are estimated in the end of the paper as well as some tasks at surveying by means of using GPS –RTK technology in the open pit mine.

  2. Radiation protection in uranium mining and milling industry

    The first phase of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle is exploration for uranium and the next is mining and milling of uranium ore. This phase is mostly characterised by low levels of radioactivity and radiation exposure of the workers involved. Yet it is a paradoxical truth that incidence of cancer among the work force, especially miners, due to occupational radiation exposure (from radon and decay products) has been proved only in uranium mines in the entire Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Of course such incidence occurred before the detrimental effect of radiation exposure was realised and understood. Therefore it is important to familiarise oneself with the radiation hazards prevalent in the uranium mining and milling facilities so as to take appropriate remedial measures for the protection of not only the workers but also the public at large. There are both open cast and underground uranium mines around the world. Radiation hazards are considerably less significant in open cast mines than in underground mines unless the ore grade is very high. By default therefore the discussion which ensues relates mainly to radiation hazards in underground uranium mines and associated milling operations. The discussion gives a brief outline of typical uranium mine and mining and milling operations. This is followed by a description of the radiation hazards therein and protection measures that are to be taken to minimise radiation exposure. (author)

  3. Reorganization of oil shale mining in Estonia

    Under the present conditions of limited demand for oil shale, the Estonian oil shale mining industry is in a state of over capacity. This results in an inefficient use of labor. This working atmosphere has resulted in high production costs per tonne of mined oil shale. To improve economic factors, it is necessary to concentrate production into a limited number of mines working at full capacity and to modernize the mining technology at those mines. A development plan for oil shale mining is proposed. It primarily includes modernization of the prospective mines to be kept in operation and reduction of surface mining at the Sirgala and Narva open cast pits. This will result in conservation of oil shale reserves for 8- 10 years of future production. It is recommended that the resumption of mining in these fields be by underground means. The detailed plan does not call for the untimely closing of mines before the exhaustion of their reserves of oil shale. At the same time, a relatively stable level of mining activity (10-13 million tonnes per year) with minimal investments in the oil shale industry is guaranteed until 2025. (author)

  4. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of Daxin uranium mine of China - 59073

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Daxin Uranium Mine is an small open pit mine. Its contaminated facilities include open pit 87620 m2, East waste rock pile 71710 m2, west waste rock pile 57828 m2, ore transfer station and industrial fields 9370 m2, building and structure 26600 m2, equipment 246 pieces, plastic conduit 3000 m. steel conduit 2500 m2 and road for transporting ores 1020 m. The integrated decommissioning programmes are presented: uranium extraction, slope stabilization, clear-up, backfill, reshape, covering, re-vegetation, dismantlement/ demolishment, decontamination, re-smelting, waste water treatment. (authors)

  5. The using of GPS – RTK technology for creation of the Open – Pit mine basic map

    Jitka Mučková

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the open – pit mine map with results of the method GPS – RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the open – pit mine in Jakubčovice nad Odrou is eva...

  6. The influence of seismic hazard on the building of inner dump in the Belchatow lignite open cut mine

    A. Wasowicz; S. Slusarczyk; Z. Kozlowski

    2003-07-01

    Vibration of surface caused by seismic quakes present a risk to large mining construction. This risk occurs in the Belchatow open cut mine where seismic quakes of various energy and range have occurred since the end of 1970s. The seismic risk influence on the mine structure with the special attention to the slopes of an internal dump has been presented. Hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions of the lignite mining and internal dumping of overburden and ash from Belchatow power plant have been considered. Seismic activity in Belchatow open cut from 1979 to 2001 was described and the connection between mine working and seismicity of this area was investigated. The energy and approximate location of the quakes and seismological parameters of the strongest ones observed from 1995 to 2001 were presented. The mechanism of the quake focuses was determined by means of the primary-arriving wave method. Stability of the slopes was evaluated by means of the Fellenius method. It has been found that seismic events occured in Belchatow region may cause only local eboulements whereas there are not any safety risks to the stability of slopes of the internal dump in Belchatow open cut. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of a uranium mine in Guangxi province of China

    Close-out of projects of a mine in Guangxi province of China includes open pit,east and west waste rock piles, ore transfer station, industrial fields, buildings, ore transporting road, and equipment and conduits. The following remediation limits are introduced: environment penetrating radiation dose rate and 222Rn flux of open pit and waste rock piles, 226Ra specific activity of soil and individual dose. Remediation objective and programme are discussed in details. Remediation effects are evaluated. (authors)

  8. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  9. Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines

    During the years 1998-2001 geotechnical processes in closed underground oil shale mines and open casts were investigated. In addition to kukersite oil shale deposit, the closed Sillamaee uranium (Dictyonema shale) mine was prospected. The main tools and methods included mine plans, aerial photographs and Geographical Information System data. 290 km2 of underground and 130 km2of strip-mined areas were studied. The mining maps of Estonian underground and surface mines were created. The stability of underground mined area, where room-and-pillar method was used, was the main objective of the study. It was studied with the help of aerial photographs, mine drawings, maps of quaternary sediments and mathematical modeling of rock failure. The main results are: 20 % of subsidences remain undiscovered and 42 % of subsidence occurrences have no remarkable influence to the land cover; the probability of subsidence remains and may increase in the case of mine drowning. As several mines will be closed during the next few years, the problems of drowned waste (which were not subjects of this study) are going to be more actual than before: increasing underground water level, pollution of underground water, formation of technogenic water sources, overflooding of reclaimed areas, etc. (author)

  10. COGEMA: Geological exploitation and supervision concerning the open pits of the Herault Division

    Cogema mines since 1974 near Lodeve (Herault) the uranium deposits located in the eastern part of the Permian basin of Lodeve. These mining operations are carried out open cast and underground by the Herault Mining Division. The methods used for mining the deposit underground at Mas Lavayre in the most important uranium mine of Western Europe were previously described. The object of the present article is to describe the methods applied to mine the deposits by open cast working, for which it is essential in view of the complex geometry of the mineralizations to have a high-quality geological supervision to ensure a good selective recovery of the ore. 9 figs., 9 refs

  11. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  12. Opening of stripe mine Oslomej - West as a contribution to exploitation of coal in Kichevo basin and extension of exploitation period of TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    Coal mining in the open mine 'Oslomej' in Macedonia has started 1980 and its regular coal production is 1,2 x 106 t per year. The whole coal produced in this mine is used for the Thermal Power Plant 'Oslomej', whose total installed capacity is 120 MW. Taking into consideration the planned exploitation dynamics, the coal reserves will meet the TPP needs for the next 4-5 years. In order to consolidate the coal reserves in the Kitchevo basin, a previous geologic examinations were carried out. In this paper economic, electro energetic and commercial justification of opening the stripe mine Oslomej - West is analysed

  13. Automatic monitoring system for high-steep slope in open-pit mine based on GPS and data analysis

    Zhou, Chunmei; Li, Xianfu; Qin, Sunwei; Qiu, Dandan; Wu, Yanlin; Xiao, Yun; Zhou, Jian

    2008-12-01

    Recently, GPS has been more and more applicative in open pit mine slope safety monitoring. Daye Iron Mine open pit high-steep slope automatic monitoring system mainly consists of three modules, namely, GPS data processing module, monitoring and warning module, emergency plans module. According to the rock mass structural feature and the side slope stability evaluation, it is arranged altogether to seven GPS distortion monitoring points on the sharp of Fault F9 at Daye iron Mine, adopted the combination of monofrequent static GPS receiver and data-transmission radio to carry on the observation, the data processing mainly uses three transect interpolation method to solve the questions of discontinuity and Effectiveness in the data succession. According to the displacement monitoring data from 1990 to 1996 of Daye Iron Mine East Open Pit Shizi mountain Landslide A2, researching the displacement criterion, rate criterion, acceleration criterion, creep curve tangent angle criterion etc of landslide failure, the result shows that the landslide A2 is the lapse type crag nature landslide whose movement in three phases, namely creep stage, accelerated phase, destruction stage. It is different of the failure criterion in different stages and different position that is at the rear, central, front margin of the landslide. It has important guiding significance to put forward the comprehensive failure criterion of seven new-settled monitoring points combining the slope deformation destruction and macroscopic evidence.

  14. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  15. Engineering application of thrust block analysis in slope stability problems in open pit mines

    Karparov, K.N.; Handley, M.F.

    2009-05-15

    The classical limit equilibrium methods are suspected to be ineffective in predicting the potential for highwall failure in many instances in coal mines around the world. Slope engineers have for many years recognized a block thrust failure mechanism for slope failures, but little work had been done before 2000 to explain the actual mechanisms which must be responsible for the failure. The main reason for this is that limit equilibrium methods implicitly assume rigid blocks, and the resulting force equations must be satisfied everywhere simultaneously for them to have any meaning. This paper will show that the material involved in the slope failure is not rigid; indeed it undergoes considerable permanent deformation during failure. This observation allows the authors to treat the block boundaries independently, because they need not maintain a constant spatial relationship with one another, as is assumed in other methods. To enable analysis of this type the authors assume that the weight of the blocks is evenly distributed. This is reasonable, because the slope material is not strong enough to be self-supporting without some sort of constraint, or strong enough to be able to apply point loads to the surrounding material. The purpose of this paper is to extend the practical application of the analytical method developed from mechanism studies to provide an objective assessment of the risk of slope failure, and therefore guidelines for more stable slope designs. This work is based on studies carried out on two failures in an open pit coal mine in South Africa, and provides a methodology to assess the potential for failure more objectively than is possible with currently accepted methods, while at the same time remaining sufficiently simple to allow a back of the cigarette box, assessment by geotechnical engineers on site.

  16. The suitable of utilization the opening spaces of browncoal and ore mines for the waste deposition

    Bauer Viliam

    2000-01-01

    In the conection with the transformation of non economical metal mining in Slovakia nowadays possibilities of secondary utilization of mine underground spaces for unmining purposes are analyzed. This paper presents the technical Aspects and the Possibilities for the undergrounding deposition of waste materials on the slowak mining works on the brown coal and metalic raw materials mines. This problems are in the last year still more solution and with the positive results too. The specific poin...

  17. Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz

    Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

  18. Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study

    Jurcakova K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

  19. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

  20. Biomonitoring of atmospheric trace elements in agricultural areas and a former uranium mine

    Rodriguez Judith H.; Wannaz Eduardo D.; Weller Sebastian B.; Pignata María L.

    2014-01-01

    Most biomonitoring studies worldwide have evaluated the air quality in industrial and urban areas, and even in mining areas to a lesser extent. However, air quality investigations in agricultural areas are scarce. In the present study, the trace metal accumulation and physiological response of the biomonitor Tillandsia capillaris were assessed. Plant samples were transplanted to a reference site, a former open-cast uranium mine, and agricultural sites with varying poll...

  1. Effects of mining on fine sediment quality; a comparison with regional metal background concentrations

    G. Karimlou

    2011-01-01

    The impact of an abandoned hydraulic gold mine and an open cast copper-gold mine on the quality of fine-grained sediment (<63 µm) was investigated at several creeks in the Quesnel river catchment catchment in British Columbia, Canada. Bed sediment samples, suspended sediment samples, vertical profiles and/or corings were collected at five field sites. Bed sediment samples were collected at weekly intervals and the suspended sediment samples were collected at 3 weeks intervals using time-in...

  2. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mined lands

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants, termites and earthworms) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable and, in terms of habitat restoration and function, typically of great value. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration, seepage, runoff generation and soil erosion. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, the soil macrofauna is typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions and field trials on post-mining lands are required to quantify (i) macrofauna-soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  3. Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit

    Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on ground water under several operating conditions. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1:1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

  4. The continuous excavating technique system parameters optimization and economic assessment simulation model in open-pit mine

    Zhao, B. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Business Administration

    2001-12-01

    Based on the fundamental simulation theories and methods, this paper studies as truck dispatching, discrete processing of belt system continuous haulage, belt system interlock, and economic assessment methods. On the basis of above studies, the paper establishes a simulation model for open-pit mine semi-continuous production technique system. The paper applies GPSS language to construct a simulation program, and the program has been successfully applied in a certain coalmine. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be ...

  6. Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia

    Sarula Kang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level during different years (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC, and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers. Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km, and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km. Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

  7. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

  8. Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations

    The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

  9. The suitable of utilization the opening spaces of browncoal and ore mines for the waste deposition

    Bauer Viliam

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the conection with the transformation of non economical metal mining in Slovakia nowadays possibilities of secondary utilization of mine underground spaces for unmining purposes are analyzed. This paper presents the technical Aspects and the Possibilities for the undergrounding deposition of waste materials on the slowak mining works on the brown coal and metalic raw materials mines. This problems are in the last year still more solution and with the positive results too. The specific points of the paper addresed in this report deal with charakterization of the waste from the point of view one coal power plant. Are charakterized their preparation and laboratory methods, but the hydrogelogical and geotechnical problems too. Ending this paper is describe one of the possibilty of the Informatik system for underground waste storage (UAE. On the relation of this problem are in the paper described the more technical aspects from point of view one brown coal mining area. Together with the problem of possibilities of storage mining in underground has been the technical consulting system soluted (WBS. Technological and temporary storage of waste and utility materials without the relation to the mining technology are described too. The mining waste management (UAE in metal and brown coal mines may in future be rather perspective industrial area of enterprising which if, it is rigthly orientated, will make possible at least the partial iprovement of the living environment.

  10. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer抯 world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

  11. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine. PMID:23315154

  12. SPRAY CASTING

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and compared...

  13. Mitigation of the environmental impacts of open pit and underground uranium mining

    Radiological and nonradiological environmental impacts of uranium mining on air, water and land are discussed. Methods of reducing impacts are covered with emphasis on Exxon's practices and experience. The message is that uranium mining environmental impacts are relatively small, but they do require good planning to avoid the need for expensive solutions later

  14. A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks

    Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.

    2009-01-01

    Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

  15. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)). PMID:25783226

  16. Uranium in mining waters of kaolin open pit in Zarow (Lower Silesia); methodology of determination and genetic remarks

    In this paper, a method of determination of uranium 238 and 234 in mining waters of Andrzej kaolin open pit in Zarow (Lower Silesia) is presented. The method is based on independent measurements of alpha and beta radiation intensities by means of a liquid scintillation spectrometer α/β. The initial volume of water sample was 3 dm3, then it was diminished by chemical preparation to 6 cm3, and then 12 cm3 of scintillator was added. The lower limit of detection (for the measurement time of 8 h) for both 234U and 238U amounted to 0.02 Bq/dm3. For determination of the uranium content in ferruginous sediments precipitating from mining waters of the above-mentioned open pit, gamma ray spectrometry was used. The obtained results may be viewed as a contribution to studies on anomalous uranium concentration within this kaolin deposit. The elevated uranium content, in comparison with its average concentration in the Earth crust, is characteristic for parent rocks of Andrzej kaolin deposit, which are granitoids of Strzegom-Sobotka massif. In connection with it, the high uranium content can be observed not only in kaolin and weakly kaolinised granitoids from the deposit in question, but also in mining waters genetically related with them

  17. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mine land

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2015-08-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants and termites) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration and seepage. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end-goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, soil macrofauna are typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions are required to quantify (i) macrofauna - soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  18. Background gamma terrestrial dose rate in Nigerian functional coal mines

    Measurements of the background terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates at different indoor and outdoor locations on the surfaces of Okpara underground and Okaba open cast mines in Nigeria were made. Two duly calibrated low-level gamma survey metres were held 1 m above the ground surface for these measurements. Measurements were also made at various locations inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine. Results indicate that the indoor background gamma radiation is comparable for both mining environments. The mean outdoor gamma dose rate determined for the Okaba mining environment is 10.4 nGy h-1 as against 11.7 nGy h-1 for Okpara. The ranges are 8.5-16.5 nGy h-1 for the Okpara measurements and 7.5-14.0 nGy h-1 for Okaba. Thus, the outdoor gamma dose rates appear to be generally lower at the Okaba open cast mine than at Okpara. The indoor dose rate values range from 11.0 to 17.0 nGy h-1 in both environments. These indoor measurements have nearly the same mean values 14.4 and 14.5 nGy h-1 for Okpara and Okaba environments, respectively. The indoor to outdoor dose rate ratio is 1.2 for Okpara and 1.4 for Okaba. These values are in consonance with the corresponding ratio given in literature. Dose rate measurements inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine are higher than the surface indoor measurements ranging from 13.5 to 20.5 nGy h-1 with a mean of 16.5 nGy h-1. The higher dose rate values measured in the mine tunnel are attributable to the concentration of radon in the 'closed' environment of the mine tunnel. (authors)

  19. Tasks and mode of action of the mining office of the city of Karl Marx Stadt to guarantee the public safety around residual open mines in respect of engineering geological aspects

    Juelich, R.

    1989-01-01

    The author refers to the value of residual open mines as ecological refuges in our intensively utilized and cultivated landscape as well as to the structural and administrative attachment of the State Mining Inspection Office. The legal fundamentals of the work of the Mining Offices are presented. Moreover the author describes the engineer-geological work for the detection of hazards and for their limitation. The management of these problems in terms of effective and economical steps to guarantee public safety is and will be problematical. 4 refs.

  20. Mining in open pits - state-of-the art and outlook

    Strzodka, K.; Kraus, P.; Sagner, R. (Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Geotechnology and Mining Section)

    1993-05-01

    Describes equipment used for the surface mining of soft rock, e.g., coals and compacted rock. Continuously operating mining machines in conjunction with continuous down-stream conveyor transport are being used more and more. Whilst bucket wheel excavators are primarily used for soft rock, those of a compact design can be found in compacted rock. Continuous surface miners in particular can be used for selective mining in compacted rock. In hard rock, other processes have to be applied. In-pit crusher systems offer clear operating cost advantages. Two large semi-mobile crushing plants at two copper mines, namely at Chuquicamata, Chile, and Kolwezi, are presented here. 20 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Causal Inferences from Mining ToxCast Data and the Biomedical Literature for Molecular Pathways and Cellular Processes in Cleft Palate (SOT)

    Sixty-five chemicals in the ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) dataset have been linked to cleft palate based on data from ToxRefDB (rat or rabbit prenatal developmental toxicity studies) or from literature reports. These compounds are structurally diverse and thus likely to...

  2. A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit

    Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

  3. A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine

    Bascetin, A.

    2007-04-01

    The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

  4. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine

    Detailed investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest uranium mining and milling operations in Australia has been carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived uranium series radionuclides and their origin (mining and milling operations versus natural radiation background) have been studied. Air concentration, horizontal flux and dry and wet deposition of the radionuclides were investigated along 45 km transect, in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region

  5. The effect of organizational climate and policy on coal mine safety. Open file report

    Sanders, M.S.; Patterson, T.V.; Peay, J.M.

    1976-07-06

    This study was designed to explore the contribution of organizational climate and management practices to the injury experience in underground coal mines. A cross-lagged panel design was used in which miners from 22 mines completed questionnaires assessing 27 organizational climate, structure, and function dimensions on two occasions. The results strongly support the hypothesis that climate and management practice have casual effect on the incidence of disabling injuries.

  6. The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984

    This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

  7. Modelling of the large scale redox front evolution in an open pit uranium mine in Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    In an open pit uranium mine at Pocos de Caldas in Brazil, the upper portions of the rock have been oxidized by infiltrating oxidizing groundwater. The redox front is very uneven and fingering is in evidence to depths ranging down to several hundred meters. The redox fingers are found in fractures and fractures zones. An attempt has been made to model the development of such redox fingerings along flow channels and to relate the structure to independent observations of flow channels in other crystalline rocks. 5 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  8. Assessment of Rosa Majalis Herrm-Fruits Contamination with Heavy Metals in Open-Pit Coal Mine Waste Dumps

    Irina Nikolaevna Egorova; Olga Alexandrovna Neverova; Lyubov Sergeevna Dyshlyuk

    2014-01-01

    The work studies heavy metals content in embryo-earths and Rosa majalis Herrm. Fruits in conditions of "Kedrovsky" open-pit coal mine waste dump in Kuzbass region, Russia. It has been experimentally proven that embryo-earths of the dump are characterized by significant fluctuations in heavy metal content - maximum values are typical for Mn and Fe (79.5 and 26.6 mg/kg), minimum values for Cd and Cu (0.134 and 0.27 mg/kg). It has been found that the content of biologically active elements, Cu a...

  9. The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.

    Fox, D K; Hopkins, B. L.; Anger, W K

    1987-01-01

    A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment da...

  10. Mitigation of adverse effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine (Bilbao, northern Spain)

    Saiz de Omeñaca, J.; Ereño, I.; Atxabal, K.; Azurmendi, I.

    1993-09-01

    Solid fills arranged in 1-m-thick layers were prepared with stone blocks and pebbles of a drainage bed every 8 m. Runoff gathering in a well and the use of silts and mud lands for bordering and sealing the limestones are the main techniques employed for minimizing unfavorable effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine. Since there were waste disposal problems in the area, the rate of disposal has made the activity profitable. No significant faults have been detected by control studies, and the objectives are being achieved without problems.

  11. Mined-out areas need not sink

    Estonia's most important mineral resource - oil-shale or kukersite - has been mined for long years. In spite of the decrease in oil-shale production over recent years, mining for this important raw material of the power and chemical industries will have to be continued. For various reasons, in the near future the prevalent role will be played by underground mining. Unfortunately, this method, as well as open-cast pit mining, has done much damage to nature in North-East Estonia. The best measure to lower the cost and diminish the negative effects of mining will probably be filling the shafts and pits with either mechanical gangue or some petrifying material. Experiments carried out in the Viru and Kivioli mines have yielded good results; the sinking of the ground lessens, the mining losses of oil-shale and the pollution of ground water are reduced and the ground water cone of depression is narrowed. At the same time the application of this method also has some negative aspects: it increases the cost of production and creates a need for procuring additional machinery. (author)

  12. Pattern-Based Web Mining Using Data Mining Techniques

    Sheng-Tang Wu; Yuefeng Li

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many data mining techniques have been proposed for fulfilling various knowledge discovery tasks in order to achieve the goal of retrieving useful information for users. Data mining techniques include association rule mining, frequent itemset mining, sequential pattern mining, maximum pattern mining and closed pattern mining. However, how to effectively exploit the discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of Web mining. In this study, we...

  13. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock (Savage and others, 2000). Although jarosite would be expected to dissolve in water having the composition of the developing pit lake, iron oxyhydroxide species (ferrihydrite and goethite) would be stable, and strong partitioning of arsenic onto suspended particles or bottom sediments containing these iron phases would be expected. Arsenic release to the lake would not be expected until stratification develops, producing a reducing, non-circulating hypolimnion in which the iron phases would be destroyed by dissolution. The fact that arsenic concentrations increased rapidly before the pit lake was deep enough to stratify shows that arsenic may not be attenuated in the ways that the earlier Clio mine area study indicated, and suggested that our understanding of release and transport of arsenic in this environment is incomplete. Therefore, in 1997 we decided to study the chemical evolution of the Harvard pit lake as part of a project on environmental impacts of gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, and in early 1998 we developed a cooperative study with several of the investigators in the Stanford University Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences who had done the Clio study. The U.S. Geological Survey portion of the project has been funded by the Mineral Resources Program. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the release and transport of arsenic into the Harvard pit lake and its accumulation there will contribute to more accurate predictions of arsenic release from weathering of sulfide-bearing rocks exposed by mining or other activities or events, and to better forecasts of pit lake evolution in this and similar environments, leading to more effective monitoring and mitigation strategies. An accurate predictive model is needed for the Harvard pit lake to forecast trends in metal concentrations, particularly arsenic, and also concentrations of major cations and anions. As the lake approaches pre-mining groundwater levels the lake water could move down the hydrologic gradient to the southeast into domestic wells, and could also affect the surface water of Woods Creek (see Figures 1-3). This report presents data for water samples collected from March, 1998 through September, 1999. Selected preliminary data for the pit lake for the 1998 calendar year have been reported (Savage and others, 2000).

  14. A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence

    Full text: The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Generally speaking, up to 80% of electronic data is textual and most valuable information is often hidden and encoded in pages which are neither structured, nor classified. The availability of huge amount of data available in the open sources leads to the well-identified nowadays paradox: an overload of information means no usable knowledge. Besides, open source texts are - and will be - written in various native languages, but these documents are relevant even to non-native IAEA speakers. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for type (scientific article, patent, free textual document), source (Internet/Intranet, database, etc), protocol (HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, GOPHER, IRC, NNTP, etc) and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of focused crawling, textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This task undoubtedly requires remarkable efforts. This poster describes is a multimedia content gathering, multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. Its focused crawling aims to crawl only the subset of the web pages related to a specific category, in order to find only information of interest and improve quality in documents gathering. The focused crawling algorithm builds a model for the context within which topically relevant pages occur on the web, typically capturing link hierarchies within which valuable pages occur, as well as model content on documents that frequently co-occur with relevant pages. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morphological, Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. The languages supported are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, but the system can be fully integrated on demand with other languages such as Arabic, Russian, simplified Chinese, etc. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence and, for each word, the Slot Grammar parser draws on the word's slot frames to cycle through the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Each slot structure can be partially or fully instantiated and it can be filled with representations from one or more statements to incrementally build the meaning of a statement. This includes most of the treatment of coordination, which uses a method of 'factoring out' unfilled slots from elliptical coordinated phrases. The parser - a bottom-up chart parser - employs a parse evaluation scheme used for pruning away unlikely analyses during parsing as well as for ranking final analyses. By including semantic information directly in the dependency grammar structures, the system relies on the lexical semantic information combined with functional application rules. The detected terms and phrases are then extracted, reduced to their Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form. Once referred to their language independent entry inside the sectorial multilingual dictionary, they are used as descriptors for documents and possible seeds of clustering. Then final system users can search document by keywords combined by boolean operators, or by typing their own query in Natural Language, expressed using normal conversational syntax. Traditional Boolean queries, while precise, require strict interpretation that can often exclude information that is relevant to user interests. The system analyzes the query, identifying the most relevant terms contained, their semantic and functional interpretation, expanding terms and concepts to all the languages supported by the system. The search engine returns as result all the documents which contain the query lemmas and concepts, having the same functional role. The automatic classification of results is made by Unsupervised Classification schema. This phase allows users to access documents by topics, providing a visual summary of the analysis. A map shows the different groups of documents as differently sized bubbles (the size depends on the number of documents the bubble contains) and the meaningful correlation among them as lines drawn with different thickness (that is level of correlation). Analysts can search inside topics and have a look of the documents populating the clusters, facilitating evaluation and analysis. By Multilingual Text Mining, international agents can get an overview of great volumes of textual data having a highly readable grid, which helps them discover meaningful similarities among documents and find any nuclear prolification and safeguard related information. Multilingual Text Mining permits to overcome linguistic barriers, allowing the automatic indexation and classification of documents, whatever it might be their language. This new methodology enables the research, the analysis, the classification of great volumes of heterogeneous documents, helping people to cut through the information labyrinth. (author)

  15. The most acidified Austrian lake in comparison to a neutralized mining lake

    Moser, Michael; Weisse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated two mining lakes located in the north of Lower Austria. These lakes arose 45 years ago when open cast lignite mining ceased. The lakes are separated by a 7-m wide dam. Due to the oxidation of pyrite, both lakes have been acidified and exhibit iron, sulphate, and heavy metal concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in circumneutral lakes. The water column of both lakes is divided into two layers by a pronounced chemocline. The smaller mining lake (AML), wi...

  16. Urinary casts

    ... necrosis , viral disease (such as CMV nephritis ), and kidney transplant rejection . Waxy casts can be found in people with advanced kidney disease and chronic kidney failure . White blood cell ( ...

  17. Hair casts

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  18. Tanacetum vulgare as a Bioindicator of Trace-Metal Contamination: A Study of a Naturally Colonized Open-Pit Lignite Mine

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appe...

  19. Prototype underground demonstration mine in oil shale deposits. Open file report (final), July 1976-February 1979

    Raymond, H.D.; Skelly, W.A.; Hoe, H.L.

    1979-03-01

    This report contains a summary of designs, specifications, costs, and schedules developed for a prototype oil-shale demonstration mining program to be undertaken at the Horse Draw site in the Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colo. The objective of the program is to assess the feasibility of extracting oil shale and associated saline minerals from deep, rich oil shale zones that occur within the central portion of the basin. Four mining systems were specified for demonstration. These include (1) chamber and pillar mining with backfill, (2) sublevel stoping with backfill, (3) sublevel stoping with full subsidence, and (4) block caving. The report also contains a detailed breakdown of projected capital and operating costs for the program.

  20. Geophysical control system of radiation-hygienic coal quality, to be mined by open method

    Consideration is given to the system of geophysical control of radiation-hygienic quality of Urtuisky brow-coal deposit coal, created in Priargunsky industrial mine-chemical association. Coal of the above-mentioned deposit is characterized by high content of natural radionuclides. The system is noted for monitoring of natural radionuclide level in initial coal and in products of its burning at all stages of technological process of mining, transportation and utilization of fuel, with the use of gamma methods (logging, sampling, rapid analysis

  1. Development of an on-line coal quality management system in a lignite open pit mine in Serbia

    Zimmer, B. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Theiben, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a study regarding the development of a coal quality management system (CQMS) for two open pit mines located in Serbia called Tamnava West and Veliki Crljeni. The study was based on on-line measurements, and was commissioned by the public energy corporation Elektroprivreda Srbjie. The purpose of the study was to develop a CQMS that met the quality requirements of the power plants by implementing a rigorous exploration, production planning, and production monitoring system in order to control the production according to certain quality parameters. The paper provided general information and described the initial situation. It also presented an analysis of the necessity to introduce a production monitoring and control system. The setup and layout of a production monitoring and control system based on on-line measurements were outlined, with particular reference to the determination of input parameters for every excavator for the tracking of masses; the simulation of mass tracking and summation of the masses at the transfer points towards the major conveyor; and the monitoring of the output and control of the mass flow according to determined limit values. Recommendations for implementation were also discussed. It was concluded that the newly developed CQMS at Tamnava West open pit mine could be classified as uncomplicated with regard to the quality parameters to be controlled, since currently only calorific value was being controlled. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment. PMID:26370817

  3. Computer cast blast modelling

    Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, ON (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  4. Solidification and casting

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  5. 77 FR 16863 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Mapping and Records of Opening...

    2012-03-22

    ... CONTACT: Greg Moxness, Chief, Economic Analysis Division, Office of Standards, Regulations, and Variances... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to assure that requested data can be... safety standards concerning mine maps. MSHA has updated the data in respect to the number of...

  6. Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas

    The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

  7. Feasibility and applicability of hydraulic mining and transport in underground noncoal mines. Open file report 21 Aug 80-20 Aug 81

    This study identifies and evaluates deposits of noncoal minerals in the United States that are most amenable to be mined underground hydraulically and transported hydraulically. A method was developed to screen and compare mineral deposits including economic comparisons. The most applicable minerals for hydraulic mining by borehole monitor jets from underground entries are soft uranium sandstones in locations where water is available. This method with hydrotransport could improve the safety, health, and economy of underground uranium mines. Soft oil-bearing sandstones could be mined and transported by this method more safely than by other underground mining methods

  8. The state of the art in noise reduction engineering in hard coal mining plants. Ermittlung des Standes der Laermminderungstechnik bei Anlagen des Steinkohlenbergbaus

    Reiser, P. (DMT-Institut fuer Foerderung und Transport, Bochum (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the studies presented here is to describe the state of the art of noise reduction engineering, to compile the plantspecific acoustic data, describe the instruments for plant planning and design and thus to provide information, facts and figures which help to build open-cast mines in an environmentally acceptable way. (orig.) With 149 figs., 88 refs., 7 tabs and diagrams.

  9. Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence

    Full text: In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured, and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbates this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest. The paper documents the process of conducting a comprehensive literature search for work that has been done in duplicate checking/filtering, narrowing the information to a workable subset, then mining the subset for the techniques, trials, and errors that have been documented. In the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure that was developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information; the paper also provides metrics on results that have been studied in controlled trials and relates that to analyst productivity. Duplicate and Near Duplicate Detection - The AKDS system provides duplicate assessment based in part on the IMatch algorithm devised by Abdur Chowdhury. The algorithm operates by taking a series of normalized 'slices' of terms from a frequency ordered bag of words document and applying the SHA1 hashing function. The process then evaluates the document hashes to identify documents that have similar content and for which subsequent documents do not have any new or unique information. Both the size and offset of the frequency 'slice' that is hashed determine the level of discrimination that is applied. Based on a system's requirements, the identical or nearly identical information (near duplicates) can be kept in the system and clustered; these document clusters can be used as an effective way to minimize how much information is presented to system users. When a user's query returns documents that are members of such a cluster, the most representative or 'best' document may be displayed to the user and the near duplicates would be initially hidden from the user. Conversely, if there is no perceived value in maintaining all of the documents, the near duplicates can also be deleted from the system. This can be accomplished in an automated manner by comparing the number of coinciding hashes while accounting for their slice size and offset in the term frequency based representation from which they were derived. The user may then specify a threshold-based degree of hash matching, above which documents may be automatically rejected. This module is particularly useful for systems that are evaluating large volumes of unstructured textual data such as Internet search engine queries that have a tendency to return the same or similar documents from multiple sources; this module has also proven to be effective in identifying documents where multiple versions have only slight modifications for which the end user would gain little utility beyond the initial document reviewed. Irrelevant Information (Spam) Filtering - The system evaluates document features to identify documents that contain little, if any, utility. This process utilizes the See5 decision tree algorithm developed by Ross Quinlan to determine whether the prevale nt features (or lack thereof) indicate that a document has a high potential for useful informational content. The features used to assess documents fall into three major categories: HTML tags, parts of speech (POS), and phrase analysis. HTML features consist of the density of a given tag within a document. POS analysis utilizes Word Net to determine the potential parts of speech individual tokens may have. In addition, stop words (e.g., a, an, the, therefore, etc.) are counted. The phrase tagging data analysis determines the density of noun and prepositional phrases as well as complete sentences, fragments, proper nouns, and other named entities. The densities of all of these features are applied to a See5 decision tree to determine whether the document is of good quality or a web form, advertisement, or list of links or other unwanted data. Documents that are determined to be low value by their See5 classification are removed from the system. (author)

  10. Mining Software Quality from Software Reviews: Research Trends and Open Issues

    Atoum, Issa; Otoom, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Software review text fragments have considerably valuable information about users experience. It includes a huge set of properties including the software quality. Opinion mining or sentiment analysis is concerned with analyzing textual user judgments. The application of sentiment analysis on software reviews can find a quantitative value that represents software quality. Although many software quality methods are proposed they are considered difficult to customize and many of them are limited...

  11. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github.com and stackoverflow.com. These popular, developer-centric websites have powerful application-programmer interfaces, and follow an open-data policy. In this regard, these sites offer a web-accessible reservoir of information that can be tapped to study questions such as: which open source software projects are eminent in the various geoscience fields? What are the most popular programming languages? How are they trending? Are there any interesting temporal patterns in committer activities? How large are programming teams and how do they change over time? What free software packages exist in the vast realms of related fields? Does the software from these fields have capabilities that might still be useful to me as a researcher, or can help me perform my work better? Are there any open-source projects that might be commercially interesting? This evaluation strategy reveals programming projects that tend to be new. As many important legacy codes are not hosted on open-source code-repositories, the presented search method might overlook some older projects.

  12. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment. PMID:23858994

  13. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  14. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

  15. Bacterial community composition in the water column of a lake formed by a former uranium open pit mine.

    Edberg, Frida; Andersson, Anders F; Holmström, Sara J M

    2012-11-01

    Mining of pyrite minerals is a major environmental issue involving both biological and geochemical processes. Here we present a study of an artificial lake of a former uranium open pit mine with the aim to connect the chemistry and bacterial community composition (454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes) in the stratified water column. A shift in the water chemistry from oxic conditions in the epilimnion to anoxic, alkaline, and metal and sulfide-rich conditions in the hypolimnion was corresponded by a strong shift in the bacterial community, with few shared operational taxonomic units (OTU) between the water layers. The epilimnetic bacterial community of the lake (~20 years old) showed similarities to other temperate freshwater lakes, while the hypolimnetic bacterial community showed similarity to extreme chemical environments. The epilimnetic bacterial community had dominance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The hypolimnion displayed a higher bacterial diversity and was dominated by the phototrophic green sulphur bacterium of the genus Chlorobium (ca. 40 % of the total community). Deltaproteobacteria were only represented in the hypolimnion and the most abundant OTUs were affiliated with ferric iron and sulfate reducers of the genus Geobacter and Desulfobulbus, respectively. The chemistry is clearly controlling, especially the hypolimnetic, bacterial community but the community composition also indicates that the bacteria are involved in metal cycling in the lake. PMID:22622763

  16. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors.

    Pettersson, H B; Koperski, J

    1991-05-01

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional "sticky vinyl" passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained. PMID:2019500

  17. igm Robots with laser measurement for an economic repair welding of equipment components of open-pit minings; igm-Roboter mit Laservermessung zum wirtschaftlichen Reparaturschweissen von Tagebauausruestungsteilen

    Wihsbeck, Martin [igm Robotersysteme AG, Wiener Neudorf (Austria); Wache, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Spremberg (Germany). Schwarze Pumpe; Springfeld, Peter

    2012-08-15

    In the Lusatian area,Vattenfall Europe AG prosecutes four open-pit minings whose lignite directly is supplied to power stations. A quarter of Germany's total electricity supply is based on lignite. The lignite mining in the area of the Lusatian open-pit minings is particularly efficient due to the horizontal orientation of the Lusatian coal seams. The movable components of the overburden conveyor bridges as well as the bucket wheel excavators and bucket ladder dredgers are subject to a tremendous wear. It is not economically feasible to refurbish certain wear parts. Such parts include Turas corners. In order to refurbish such Turas corners nevertheless, the Austrian company igm robot system AG (Wiener Neudorf, Austria) offers a welding robot.

  18. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  19. Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay

    Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

  20. Geochemical properties of topsoil around the open coal mine and Oslomej thermoelectric power plant, R. Macedonia

    Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Sulejmani, Florije; Bačeva, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The results of a first systematic study of spatial distribution of different elements in surface soil over of the Kičevo region, Republic of Macedonia, known for its coal mine and thermal power plant activity are reported. The investigated region (148 km2) is covered by sparse sampling grid of 2×2 km; but in the urban zone and around the thermal power plant the sampling grid is denser (1×1 km). In total 52 topsoil samples (0–5 cm) were collected. Inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission s...

  1. HYBRID REASONING FOR MULTI-ROBOT DRILL PLANNING IN OPEN-PIT MINES

    Masoumeh Mansouri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fleet automation often involves solving several strongly correlated sub-problems, including task allocation, motion planning, and coordination. Solutions need to account for very specific, domaindependent constraints. In addition, several aspects of the overall fleet management problem become known only online. We propose a method for solving the fleet-management problem grounded on a heuristically-guided search in the space of mutually feasible solutions to sub-problems. We focus on a mining application which requires online contingency handling and accommodating many domainspecific constraints. As contingencies occur, efficient reasoning is performed to adjust the plan online for the entire fleet.

  2. Effect of Some Parameters on the Cast Component Properties in Hot Chamber Die Casting

    Singh, Rupinder; Singh, Harvir

    2016-04-01

    Hot chamber die casting process is designed to achieve high dimensional accuracy for small products by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable moulds, called dies. The present research work is aimed at study of some parameters (as a case study of spring adjuster) on cast component properties in hot chamber die casting process. Three controllable factors of the hot chamber die casting process (namely: pressure at second phase, metal pouring temperature and die opening time) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi's parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the casting. Castings were produced using aluminium alloy, at recommended parameters through hot chamber die casting process. Analysis shows that in hot chamber die casting process the percentage contribution of second phase pressure, die opening time, metal pouring temperature for surface hardness is 82.48, 9.24 and 6.78 % respectively. While in the case of weight of cast component the contribution of second phase pressure is 94.03 %, followed by metal pouring temperature and die opening time (4.58 and 0.35 % respectively). Further for dimensional accuracy contribution of die opening time is 76.97 %, metal pouring temperature is 20.05 % and second phase pressure is 1.56 %. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the castings were improved significantly.

  3. Effect of Some Parameters on the Cast Component Properties in Hot Chamber Die Casting

    Singh, Rupinder; Singh, Harvir

    2015-11-01

    Hot chamber die casting process is designed to achieve high dimensional accuracy for small products by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable moulds, called dies. The present research work is aimed at study of some parameters (as a case study of spring adjuster) on cast component properties in hot chamber die casting process. Three controllable factors of the hot chamber die casting process (namely: pressure at second phase, metal pouring temperature and die opening time) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi's parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the casting. Castings were produced using aluminium alloy, at recommended parameters through hot chamber die casting process. Analysis shows that in hot chamber die casting process the percentage contribution of second phase pressure, die opening time, metal pouring temperature for surface hardness is 82.48, 9.24 and 6.78 % respectively. While in the case of weight of cast component the contribution of second phase pressure is 94.03 %, followed by metal pouring temperature and die opening time (4.58 and 0.35 % respectively). Further for dimensional accuracy contribution of die opening time is 76.97 %, metal pouring temperature is 20.05 % and second phase pressure is 1.56 %. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the castings were improved significantly.

  4. Ancient and medieval mining engineering in the southwest of the iberian peninsula

    This work provides a summary of our knowledge about the old mining works in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus in the light of recent investigations, always bearing in mind the descriptions of these ancient mining works made by engineers and geologists in the XIX and the XX centuries, we have been able to systematize the prehistoric and proto historic mining works and provide evidence for the existence of underground mining during these remote times, when it was believed that only open-cast extraction took place. In the same way we have looked into all the types of mining works documented from the Roman period to the present day and been able to distinguish a continued use of these during the Middle Ages at a time when, until recently, they were considered hardly to exist. (Author) 41 refs.

  5. Various effects of mining on groundwater quality and resource

    Mining excavations intercept groundwater flow, often down to considerable depth. Indeed groundwater frequently causes serious difficulties during the development and operation of mines, particularly where the style of the permeability is such that sudden high rates of inflow occur in an apparently random fashion. While the effects are quite evident on the mining environment, the effects of the large distortions on the natural pattern of groundwater flow orientation and chemical quality, on the environment at large, are often longer term and more suitable. Measurable effects, and sometimes contamination, may take some time to appear. While deep-mining of most types usually has the most noticeable involvement with groundwater, quarrying and open cast mining can also cause conspicuous effects on groundwater level and quality as observed in the Tobago mineral sand mining area of New South Wales Australia. In this case the main problem was elevated concentrations of dissolved iron. In Germany, opencast mining of lignite causes extreme drawdown of surrounding groundwater levels, one effect of which is to make the abstraction of public groundwater supplies significantly more expensive. More exotic developments such as solution mining have effects on both groundwater and aquifer, but luckily such operations are few at the moment. The most serious and widespread environmental effects of mining however emanate from the disposal or storage of spoil and groundwater tends to be especially badly effected. Geotechnical problems such as subsidence may be a further effect of groundwater abstraction for mine dewatering, and there is much evidence that the lesser degrees of deformation due to mining on the surrounding rocks can enhance permeability. This note briefly reviews the interaction of mining and groundwater with reference to case history data. 6 refs., 2 refs., 1 tab

  6. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote Sensing Systems Department at Space Research and Technology Institute thematically oriented spectrometric system TOMS working in the 0.4-0.9 μm range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). For proper comparison between the data obtained from the different sources mentioned spectral transformations such as normalized difference and rationing data for two wavelengths were applied in order to avoid misinterpretation. Statistically significant dependence between the various spectral transformations and the quantitative content of the iron in the different type of compounds was established. The achieved results provided evidence that methodology used could be extended to other regions of the country polluted by the mining activities and should be also tested in the region of the copper and zinc extraction. In the next step of our research we intend to use the results obtained by the multitemporal analysis of the satellite and ground-based multispectral data for the same and the similar regions of interest.

  7. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1997-07-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt), respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  10. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    S. Pietrowski; C. Rapiejko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  11. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  12. Mining industry lakes: From conveyor belt to bathing beach; Bergbaufolgeseen: Vom Foerderband zum Badestrand

    Benthaus, F.C. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbauverwaltungsgesellschaft (LMBV) Berlin (Germany); Renetzki, P. [GPE Gesellschaft fuer Projektmanagement und Grundstuecksentwiklung mbH Dortmund (Germany)

    2002-11-05

    The lakes created on the sites of open-cast mines are beacons of hope in the lignite districts of Central Germany and Lusatia. The land recycling of the LMBV comprises the development of 235 residual holes in the open-cast mining industry to create lakes with a secured bank length of 1,200 km. For this purpose an ingenious water management system of the main sewers and lakes in the regions has to be established. The land recycling of the LMBV includes the clean-up and utilisation of the future lakes and their banks. (orig.) [German] Die Tagebauseen sind die Hoffnungstraeger in den Braunkohlenrevieren Mitteldeutschlands und der Lausitz. Das Flaechenrecycling der LMBV umfasst die Entwicklung von 235 Tagebaurestloechern zu Bergbaufolgeseen mit einer zu sichernden Uferlaenge von 1 200 km. Dazu ist ein ausgekluegeltes Gewaessermanagementsystem der in den Regionen vorhandenen Vorfluter und Seen aufzubauen. Das Flaechenrecycling der LMBV beinhaltet die Sanierung und Verwertung der zukuenftigen Seen und deren Uferbereiche. (orig.)

  13. Numerical modeling to assess possible influence of the mine openings on far-field in-situ stress measurements at Stripa

    Finite element analyses were carried out to assess the possible effects of the Stripa mine openings on the in-situ stress measured in a 400-m-deep borehole drilled from the surface. For this assessment, four 2-dimensional cases were modeled. These cases variously included two horizontal sections, and two separate, idealized vertical sections. An iron ore body in the mine was assumed to be completely extracted, thereby providing conservative estimates of stress concentration effects. Since no in-situ stress measurements were made before mining, overburden weight and horizontal stresses measured by hyrodfracturing were assumed to be the pre-mining state of stress. The stress state resulting from excavation of the mine was calculated by the finite element model. In the cases using horizontal sections, the model predicted a stress concentration factor at the borehole of approximately 1.15, which is negligible considering the difficulty of obtaining accurate stress measurements. For the vertical sections the model predicted higher stress concentration factors at depths less than 200 m. This was expected because the vertical sections chosen brought the borehole unrealistically close to the mine openings, thereby leading to overly conservative estimates. In general, deviations in the magnitudes and orientations of the calculated redistributed principal stresses from the assumed pre-mining state of stress were found to be comparable to the scatter of overcoring data. It is, therefore, recommended that, for near-field stress calculations, the vertical stress due to overburden weight and the horizontal stresses measured by hydrofracturing at the borehole be considered the unperturbed far-field in situ state of stress

  14. A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence

    The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for source and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of automatic textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This paper describes is a multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morpho-Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence, cycling through all the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Once reduced to its Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form, referred to its language independent entry inside a sectorial multilingual dictionary, each tagged lemma is used as descriptor and possible seed of clustering. The automatic classification of results is made by Unsupervised Classification schema. By Multilingual Text Mining, analysts can get an overview of great volumes of textual data having a highly readable grid, which helps them discover meaningful similarities among documents and find any nuclear proliferation and safeguard related information. Multilingual Text Mining permits to overcome linguistic barriers, allowing the automatic indexation and classification of documents, whatever it might be their language, letting international agents cut through the information labyrinth. (author)

  15. Open pit blasting in uranium ore mining of SDAG Wismut. Pt. 3

    The article reports blasting work in the abandoned open pits at Culmitzsch and Lichtenberg, dealing primarily with the techniques of so-called detonation-wave-shielded blasting, blasting at elevated rock temperatures, and blasting at site with fractured rock. (orig./HP)

  16. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes suc...

  17. Language to Completion: Success in an Educational Data Mining Massive Open Online Class

    Crossley, Scott; McNamara, Danielle S.; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Barnes, Tiffany; Bergner, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Completion rates for massive open online classes (MOOCs) are notoriously low, but learner intent is an important factor. By studying students who drop out despite their intent to complete the MOOC, it may be possible to develop interventions to improve retention and learning outcomes. Previous research into predicting MOOC completion has focused…

  18. Mining the Geophysical Research Abstracts Corpus: Mapping the impact of Free and Open Source Software on the EGU Divisions

    Löwe, Peter; Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    Text mining is commonly employed as a tool in data science to investigate and chart emergent information from corpora of research abstracts, such as the Geophysical Research Abstracts (GRA) published by Copernicus. In this context current standards, such as persistent identifiers like DOI and ORCID, allow us to trace, cite and map links between journal publications, the underlying research data and scientific software. This network can be expressed as a directed graph which enables us to chart networks of cooperation and innovation, thematic foci and the locations of research communities in time and space. However, this approach of data science, focusing on the research process in a self-referential manner, rather than the topical work, is still in a developing stage. Scientific work presented at the EGU General Assembly is often the first step towards new approaches and innovative ideas to the geospatial community. It represents a rich, deep and heterogeneous source of geoscientific thought. This corpus is a significant data source for data science, which has not been analysed on this scale previously. In this work, the corpus of the Geophysical Research Abstracts is used for the first time as a data base for analyses of topical text mining. For this, we used a sturdy and customizable software framework, based on the work of Schmitt et al. [1]. For the analysis we used the High Performance Computing infrastructure of the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam, Germany. Here, we report on the first results from the analysis of the continuous spreading the of use of Free and Open Source Software Tools (FOSS) within the EGU communities, mapping the general increase of FOSS-themed GRA articles in the last decade and the developing spatial patterns of involved parties and FOSS topics. References: [1] Schmitt, L. M., Christianson, K.T, Gupta R..: Linguistic Computing with UNIX Tools, in Kao, A., Poteet S.R. (Eds.): Natural Language processing and Text Mining, Springer, 2007. doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-754-1_12.

  19. Mines, Non-Coal (Active), Non_metalic_mines_open, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mines, Non-Coal (Active) dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  20. Mining Creativity Research To Inform Design Rationale In Open Source Communities

    Winslow Burleson; Priyamvada Tripathi

    2011-01-01

    Design rationale can act as a creativity support tool. Recent findings from the field of creativity research present new opportunities that can guide the implementation and evaluation of design rationales ability to foster creative processes and outcomes. By encouraging the exploration of failure through use of analogy, design rationale can foster creative transfer and enable progress in new directions. Open source communities offer an opportunity to observe a form of intrinsically motivated...

  1. Mining Creativity Research to Inform Design Rationale in Open Source Communities

    Burleson, Winslow; Tripathi, Priyamvada

    2011-01-01

    Design rationale can act as a creativity support tool. Recent findings from the field of creativity research present new opportunities that can guide the implementation and evaluation of design rationales ability to foster creative processes and outcomes. By encouraging the exploration of failure through use of analogy, design rationale can foster creative transfer and enable progress in new directions. Open source communities offer an opportunity to observe a form of intrinsi...

  2. DYNAMIC MODELLING APPROACH FOR WEB USAGE MINING USING OPEN WEB RESOURCES

    B. NAVEENA DEVI; O. SREEVANI

    2010-01-01

    Predicting of users browsing behavior is an important technology of E-commerce application. The prediction results can be used for personalization. Building proper web site, improving marketing strategy , promotion, product supply, getting marketing information, forecasting market trends and increasing the competitive strength of enterprises etc., In this paper proposed system used open web resources practical e-business data sets for the development of innovative e-business applications with...

  3. Method for casting thin metal objects

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  4. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes such...... kind of relationship of a well established course at the Technical University of Denmark using statistical methods. Keyphrase extraction tool was used to find the main topics of students' comments, based on which the qualitative feedback was transformed into quantitative data for further statistical...

  5. Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence

    In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbate this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest (referred to as Spam in this document). This paper focuses on the identification and removal of duplicate, near-duplicate information and Spam in the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy. To that end, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information. In this paper, these concepts are referred to as duplicate and near duplicate detection and irrelevant information (Spam) filtering. (author)

  6. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Gila Notesco; Veronika Kopačková; Petr Rojík; Guy Schwartz; Ido Livne; Eyal Ben Dor

    2014-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR)-region image usin...

  7. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  8. Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia

    Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

  9. Ambient airborne radioactivity measurements in the vicinity of the Jackpile open pit uranium mine New Mexico. Technical note (final)

    This report discusses the results of several radiological surveys conducted in the vicinity of the Jackpile Open Pit Uranium Mine in New Mexico. During June 1976, ambient radon-222 concentrations were measured at eleven locations, seven of which appear to have been at representative background radon levels - averaging 0.50 + or - 0.033 pCi/l. The other four locations had average radon levels in excess of this typical background level; however, the highest measured radon concentration was 2.7 pCi/l. The arithmetic average ambient radon progeny working level obtained indoors at the Laguna Tribal Building appeared to be at a representative background level of 0.0049 + or - 0.00045 WL. The arithmetic average ambient working levels obtained at the Paguate Community Center and the Jackpile Housing were 0.035 + or - 0.0038 and 0.015 + or - 0.0025 WL, respectively. Ambient airborne particulate radioactivity concentrations measured outdoors at Old Laguna appear to be at typical background levels; however, other locations exhibited higher annual average concentrations for the naturally-occurring radionuclides

  10. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    Marikie Pelser; Z. C. Bergh; Deléne Visser

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administere...

  11. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Marcos E. Hartwig; José C. Mura; Waldir R. Paradella

    2013-01-01

    Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI) represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection an...

  12. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Miguel Alvarado; Felipe Gonzalez; Andrew Fletcher; Ashray Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more pr...

  13. Cooperation with emerging countries in advanced mining training programmes involving an industrial partner

    Full text: The Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources (CESMAT) is a Higher Education Institution in France to train and perform the upper management personnel working in mining, throughout the world. The program of study is comprised of seven separate year long study programs, a network of some 2 300 former students from a hundred countries with whom regular contact is maintained, and a permanent think tank unit that concentrates on the training of mining sector managers. The guiding principle for CESMAT is that cooperation and training hold a special position in French policy concerning relations with mineral producing countries. Seven programmes have been progressively developed on minerals prospecting and processing, resources evaluation, open cast mining techniques, mining economics, impact of mining on environment, management of closure of mining activities and the role of the State. These programmes bring together ten to twelve engineers or geologists who have already had professional experience. For non-French speakers, a language-training phase of three months may precede the programs. The following specializations are currently being offered: - Ore Prospecting and Mineral Processing - Nancy School of Geology - CESEV, - Treatment of Industrial Evolutions and Changes - CESTEMIN, - Geostatistical Analysis of Ore Deposits - Paris School of Mines - C.F.S.G., - Open Cut Mining Operations - Paris School of Mines - CESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining Projects - Paris School of Mines - CESPROMIN, - Mine Safety and Environments - Ales School of Mines - CESSEM, - Mines Public Administration - Paris School of Mines - CESAM. Teaching is done both by Institute professors and by public and private sector industry experts. These instructors rely heavily on technical visits and on practical case studies. One specific example is the student research project mentored by specialists in the field, which is oriented directly to circumstances in the student's country. The participation of students in each program is attested to by means of an official certificate. In some cases, this may be accompanied by a diploma from the host school. Tuition for the courses, which runs (around 15 000 Euro/year) may be covered by CESMAT for students affiliated with public or private mining organizations from foreign, mineral producing countries. Scholarships are also available from French organizations, sources in the student's country of origin, or international organizations such as the EU, UNESCO, UNPD and others. CESMAT has also built partnerships with mining companies (VALE in Brazil, CODELCO in Chili and AREVA in France) which contribute to sponsor trainees for living cost during their studies in France. AREVA is developing uranium exploration and mining in many countries and has signed cooperation agreement with the government of these countries to provide them technical and financial support for capacity building in partnership with the French school of mines. (author)

  14. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  15. Quality assessment of mined MSW from an open dumpsite for recycling potential

    Prechthai, Tawach; Padmasri, Maddala; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan [Environmental Engineering and Management Program, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    A study on recycling potential was performed on the stabilized municipal solid waste from Nonthaburi dumpsite in Thailand. The waste was excavated and subjected to separation process using trommel screen with screen openings of 25 mm and 50 mm. The screened wastes were classified into three fractions based on the sizes such as fine fraction (<25 mm), medium fraction (25-50 mm) and large fraction (>50 mm). The waste composition, physical and chemical characteristics of each waste fraction were determined to evaluate suitability of waste for recycling. The possible phytotoxicity of waste to be used as compost was explored by conducting seed germination and root elongation test of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The dumpsite was observed to be heterogeneous and mainly composed of plastics and soil. The trommel screen, proved to be effective in separating the waste fractions that can be used as feedstock for alternative applications of solid waste, particularly where the metal content of the product is a critical parameter. By screening, approximately 69% of soil was removed from waste and the remaining 31% was found in the waste fractions >50 mm size. The quality of waste fraction >50 mm composed mainly of plastics showed high potential for recycling as refuse derived fuel (RDF) and waste fraction <25 mm with soil as compost. The remaining waste fractions between 25 mm and 50 mm composed of non-combustible waste, which needs to be landfilled. (author)

  16. Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID: protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial

    Seiler Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabilization for six weeks is a simple, convenient, and ubiquitously available intervention. In contrast, ORIF requires hospitalization, but allows for functional rehabilitation. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials, it remains unclear whether ORIF leads to better functional outcomes one year after injury than closed reduction and casting. Methods/Design ORCHID (Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius is a pragmatic, randomized, multi-center, clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms. It is planned to include 504 patients in 15 participating centers throughout Germany over a three-year period. Patients are allocated by a central web-based randomization tool. The primary objective is to determine differences in the Short Form 36 (SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS between volar locked plating and closed reduction and casting of intraarticular, comminuted distal radius fractures in patients > 65 years of age one year after the fracture. Secondary outcomes include differences in other SF-36 dimensions, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH instrument. Also, the range of motion in the affected wrist, activities of daily living, complications (including secondary ORIF and revision surgery, as well as serious adverse events will be assessed. Data obtained during the trial will be used for later health-economic evaluations. The trial architecture involves a central statistical unit, an independent monitoring institute, and a data safety monitoring board. Following approval by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, conduct and reporting will strictly adhere to national and international rules, regulations, and recommendations (e.g., Good Clinical Practice, data safety laws, and EQUATOR/CONSORT proposals Discussion To our knowledge, ORCHID is the first multicenter RCT designed to assess quality of life and functional outcomes following operative treatment compared to conservative treatment of complex, intra-articular fractures of the distal radius in elderly patients. The results are expected to influence future treatment recommendations and policies on an international level. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN76120052 Registration date: 31.07.2008; Randomization of first patient: 15.09.2008

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    P. Ranade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  18. A case study of a large open pit uranium AML [Abandoned Mine Land] Project Gas Hills, Wyoming

    The Abandoned Mine Lands Program (AML), authorized under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides funding for the abatement of health and safety hazards on lands disturbed by mining prior to enactment of the Act. A good example of the implementation of the AML Program in Wyoming is the A-8 Pit. The reclamation site is located in the East Gas Hills Uranium Mining District of Wyoming. Reclamation activities include selective handling of 3.5 million cubic yards of backfill, controlling pit dewatering and water treatment, installing second order drainage channel and riprap control structures, and salvaging sufficient coversoils and topsoils for site revegetation

  19. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  20. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  1. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    Katia Kvitko; Eliane Bandinelli; Henriques, João A. P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Paula Rohr; da Silva, Fernanda R.; Naye Balzan Schneider; Simone Fernandes; Camile Ancines; Juliana da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticid...

  2. Corrosion Behavior of A356-10 Vol.% SiC Composites Cast by Gravity and Squeeze Casting in H2SO4 Solutions

    A. Fattah-Alhosseini; Ranjbaran, M.; S. Vajdi Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of A356-10 vol.% SiC composites cast by gravity and squeeze casting is evaluated. For this purpose, prepared samples were immersed in H2SO4 solution for 2?hrs. at open circuit potential. Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out to study the corrosion resistance of composites. The results showed that corrosion resistance of composites cast by squeeze casting is higher than that of the gravity cast composites. The micrographs of sca...

  3. Special thermite cast irons

    Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

    2008-01-01

    The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  4. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  5. Fundamentals of using bio-diesel for operating large fleets of mining equipment and building machines and the experience gained so far

    Against the topical background of the finite reserves of fossil mineral oil as well as internationally available vegetable fat and oil resources, of the current developments in the field of the biodiesel production technology and of the international conditions for the reduction of CO2 emissions, this paper is to examine, whether the suitability of bio-diesel for fuelling mining equipment has come true. The examination will focus on the biogenic fuel profile, on the organizational necessity to actively retrofit the machinery during operations as well as on the precise verification of the expected technical conversion problems and of the saving potentials actually achieved. The examination will be conducted in the world's first open-cast mine that has converted its entire fleet of equipment to be fuelled with bio-diesel. The open-cast mine is operated by the Ronneburg branch of Wismut GmbH, a company based in Germany (referred to hereinafter as the Lichtenberg open-cast mine). (orig.)

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  7. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  8. CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY (CAST) PROGRAM

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Hull, Christopher

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations.

  9. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war es, die durch spektrometrische Erfassungsmethoden der Fernerkundung erhaltenen Ueberfliegungsdaten mittels konventioneller petrographischer, mineralogischer und geochemischer Analytik zu kalibrieren, um der Bergbauindustrie eine wirkungsvolle Methode zu liefern, welche es ermoeglicht, die riesigen Kippenareale des Tagebaubergbaus mit geringem zeitlichen und personellen Aufwand aussagesicher zu klassifizieren, die Sachverhalte mit hoher Genauigkeit raeumlich zuzuordnen und so einer geeigneten Nutzung zuzufuehren. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag dabei in der Charakterisierung der hydro- und geochemischen Veraenderungen in den Kippensedimenten des im mitteldeutschen Raum suedlich von Leipzig aufgeschlossenen Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau. Die Erfassung dieser Daten spielt in Hinblick auf eine Rekultivierung und Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials der Tagebaulandschaft eine entscheidende Rolle. (orig.)

  10. Integration of UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Three-Dimensional Mapping and Monitoring of Open-Pit Mine Areas

    Xiaohua Tong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical framework for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS with application to open-pit mine areas, which includes UAV image and TLS point cloud acquisition, image and cloud point processing and integration, object-oriented classification and three-dimensional (3D mapping and monitoring of open-pit mine areas. The proposed framework was tested in three open-pit mine areas in southwestern China. (1 With respect to extracting the conjugate points of the stereo pair of UAV images and those points between TLS point clouds and UAV images, some feature points were first extracted by the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT operator and the outliers were identified and therefore eliminated by the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC approach; (2 With respect to improving the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery, the ground control points (GCPs surveyed from global positioning systems (GPS and the feature points extracted from TLS were integrated in the bundle adjustment, and three scenarios were designed and compared; (3 With respect to monitoring and mapping the mine areas for land reclamation, an object-based image analysis approach was used for the classification of the accuracy improved UAV ortho-image. The experimental results show that by introduction of TLS derived point clouds as GCPs, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery can be improved. At the same time, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on GCPs form the TLS derived point clouds is close to that based on GCPs from the GPS survey. The results also show that the TLS derived point clouds can be used as GCPs in areas such as in mountainous or high-risk environments where it is difficult to conduct a GPS survey. The proposed framework achieved a decimeter-level accuracy for the generated digital surface model (DSM and digital orthophoto map (DOM, and an overall accuracy of 90.67% for classification of the land covers in the open-pit mine.

  11. The application of data mining methods

    Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

  12. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

  13. Technical developments in uranium mining and milling in India

    Full text: Uranium mining in India made a formal beginning with formation of Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. in October 1967. In accordance with the mandate of producing and meeting the uranium requirement of the country, UCIL has continuously upgraded the technology and operating practices with regard to its core activities - uranium ore mining, processing and disposal of tailings. Jaduguda underground mine in Singhbhum east district of Jharkhand (Eastern India) was commissioned in 1968. Regular mining operations started with the sinking of a fully lined vertical shaft and equipping the same with two winders which support a cage and a skip. This was followed by commissioning of Bhatin mine in 1986, Narwapahar mine in 1995, Turamdih mine in 2003, and Bagjata mine in 2008. New mines adopt decline method of entry and use of track less equipment in cut-and fill method of stoping. Vertical shafts provide access to deeper levels for ore and men and material hoisting. Banduhurang, the first open cast uranium mine of the country was commissioned in Jan 2009. New mine at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh and underground mine at Mohuldih in Jharkhand are under construction. The mine at Tummalapalle has been planned with three declines along the apparent dip of the orebody and breast stoping method using trackless equipment. At Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh, room and pillar method of stoping is proposed for underground mines with deployment of low profile drilling and loading-dumping equipment. The conventional way of processing of uranium ore in India is through hydro-metallurgical route followed by acid leaching and MDU precipitation. Jaduguda plant commissioned in 1968 has been expanded in two phases and 3rd phase expansion is underway. The plant at Turamdih encompasses new equipment and monitoring systems like apron feeder, horizontal belt filter, high rate thickener, particle size monitor etc. Both Jaduguda and Turamdih plants are designed to produce magnesium diuranate (MDU) as the final product. Through in-house research, precipitation of uranium peroxide (UO4, H2O) as final product is under implementation. Since 2007, the plant at Tummalapalle is under construction which will adopt alkali leaching (under pressure) route. The operating underground uranium mines of the country are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings. The finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is disposed in engineered impoundment facility, called tailings pond. The first two tailings ponds at Jaduguda are full and are under reclamation. The third pond is in use now. The tailings pond at Turamdih has been designed with some improved floor lining to prevent any downward movement of effluent. The proposed open cast mine at KPM in Meghalaya is also being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings and backfill material. At Lambapur uranium project, thickened tailings disposal system has been proposed where small dykes shall be built to contain tailings. The uranium ore mining and processing technology in India has come a long way in emulating global practices which has helped to develop the low grade deposits in cost effective and eco-friendly manner. This sector is now ready to acquire overseas uranium properties in order to expand the production base. (author)

  14. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  15. US Bureau of Mines mineral investigations in the Unakwik Area Chugach National Forest, Alaska. Mining feasibility study for the Unakwik Area. Open file report (Final)

    Roe, C.H.; Balen, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey did a resource assessment of 40,500 ha (100,000 acre) between Unakwik Inlet and Columbia Glacier in the Chugach National Forest in South Central Alaska during 1992. The Bureau collected and evaluated data on 33 prospects, occurrences, and sample sites. The Bureau concluded that 30 sites have a low mineral development potential, two sites could not be evaluated because they were not found, and one site has an unknown mineral development potential because of limited data.

  16. Ancient and medieval mining engineering in the southwest of the iberian peninsula; Ingenieria minera antigua y medieval en el suroeste iberico

    Perez Macias, J. A.; Delgado Dominguez, A.

    2011-07-01

    This work provides a summary of our knowledge about the old mining works in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus in the light of recent investigations, always bearing in mind the descriptions of these ancient mining works made by engineers and geologists in the XIX and the XX centuries, we have been able to systematize the prehistoric and proto historic mining works and provide evidence for the existence of underground mining during these remote times, when it was believed that only open-cast extraction took place. In the same way we have looked into all the types of mining works documented from the Roman period to the present day and been able to distinguish a continued use of these during the Middle Ages at a time when, until recently, they were considered hardly to exist. (Author) 41 refs.

  17. A Decision Support System and Cost-Performance Analysis for Dust Control at Open-Pit Coal Mines

    Özdemir, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Fugitive dust emissions from mining activities can have severe health and environmental impacts unless adequately controlled. Designing proper mine dust control strategies requires evaluation of two main aspects: dust emission levels and cost-effectiveness of control methods. These aspects can be adequately evaluated by integrating location- and activity-specific dust emission factors, reduction factors and the cost parameters of control methods. This thesis presents a decision support system...

  18. Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen

    Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

  19. Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 24 February 1977 (NODC Accession 7700458)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from August 29, 1975 to...

  20. Physical and water properties of soils in the neighbourhood of “Władysławów” open cast mine

    Piotr Gajewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the properties of some soils around the area of “Władysławów” lignite pit, as well as the assessment of their degradation range caused by the pit’s activity. The basic characteristic which influences both physical and water properties of the area is the amount of organic matter. The major part of water retained in the soil was accumulated by strengths more intense than suctorial abilities of most arable plants’ roots. Despite unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, the negative effect (i.e. dehydration of the “Władysławów” lignite pit has not appeared yet.

  1. Optical and elektron microscopy and GC/MS studies in identification of tree stumps from the Bílina open cast mine, Most Basin. Czech Republic

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Matysová, Petra; Trejtnarová, Hana; Mach, K.; Šulc, Alexandr; Čermák, Ivo

    Porto Alegre : International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) and The Society for organic Petrology (TSOP), 2009. P46/89. [Joint 61st ICCP/26th meeting, Gramado/Porto Alegre/Brazil, September 19th-26th 2009, Advances in Organic Petrology and Organic Geochemistry. 19.09.2009-26.09.2009, Gramado] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : tree stumps * huminite * biomarkers Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  2. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    ANIL Z CHITADE; S K KATYAR

    2010-01-01

    Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S) has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC) due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This resea...

  3. Measurement of methane emissions in the plume of a large surface coal mine using open-path FTIR spectroscopy

    The paper gives results of a portion of an overall study to: (1) develop a methane measurements methodology and protocol that can be used at large surface mining operations, (2) conduct a field trial of this methodology and protocol and identify methodology modifications that are warranted based on field trial results, and (3) estimate the total emissions from the mine where the field trial was conducted. Specifically, the paper describes results of a study to develop a measurements methodology for surface mines and to field test the methodology at an actual surface mine. The research conducted to examine alternative measurements approaches and to develop the methodology and protocol is described first. A brief discussion of the preliminary results from the field trial is also presented. Emissions from a variety of human activities may be contributing to the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and other trace gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons are among the greenhouse gases that have been identified as contributing to global climate change phenomena. The significance of methane as a greenhouse gas is a relatively recent concern. Current global emission estimates indicate that coal mining contributes 25-45 Tg of methane per year, or about 10% of total global anthropogenic methane emissions

  4. Special thermite cast irons

    Yu. Zhiguts

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  5. LLNL casting technology

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  6. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  7. Garzweiler: Brown coal mining and wetlands; Garzweiler: Braunkohle und Feuchtgebiete

    Stolpe, H.; Kuhlbusch, K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Bauingenieurwesen

    1999-07-01

    Wetlands and moors, formerly regarded as 'badlands', are now viewed as ecologically valuable landscapes that must be preserved. Brown coal mining would destroy wetlands completely if no countermeasures were taken. The authors, both of whom are experts in the licensing procedure for Garzweiler II open-cast mine, take a good look ahead. [German] Feuchtgebiete und Moore galten lange Zeit als 'Unland', das urbar zu machen ist. Heute heisst es, die letzten dieser oekologisch wertvollen Restgebiete zu verteidigen. Zum Beispiel bei der Braunkohlenfoerderung: ein Eingriff in den Grundwasserhaushalt, der ohne Gegenmassnahmen zur Zerstoerung der Feuchtgebiete fuehren wuerde. Diese Dimension zu erfassen, laesst die Autoren - Berater und Gutachter im Genehmigungsverfahren fuer den Tagebau Garzweiler II - weit in die Zukunft blicken. (orig.)

  8. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France

    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  9. Mining in New Caledonia: environmental stakes and restoration opportunities.

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    New Caledonia is a widely recognised marine and terrestrial biodiversity hot spot. However, this unique environment is under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Major threats are related to land cover change and include fire, urban sprawling and mining. Resulting habitat loss and fragmentation end up in serious erosion of the local biodiversity. Mining is of particular concern due to its economic significance for the island. Open cast mines were exploited there since 1873, and scraping out soil to access ores wipes out flora. Resulting perturbations on water flows and dramatic soil erosion lead to metal-rich sediment transport downstream into rivers and the lagoon. Conflicting environmental and economic aspects of mining are discussed in this paper. However, mining practices are also improving, and where impacts are inescapable ecological restoration is now considered. Past and ongoing experiences in the restoration of New Caledonian terrestrial ecosystems are presented and discussed here. Economic use of the local floristic diversity could also promote conservation and restoration, while providing alternative incomes. In this regard, Ecocatalysis, an innovative approach to make use of metal hyperaccumulating plants, is of particular interest. PMID:25065482

  10. Mining in low coal. Volume 1. Biomechanics and work physiology. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81

    Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.; Caddel, D.K.

    1981-11-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the job demands associated with low coal mining, (2) to survey the anthropometry, strength, and aerobic capacity of low coal miners to determine if they differ from the U.S. population, and (3) to recommend, on the basis of available information, optimal job and work station design for low coal mining. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. Back strength for male and female miners was significantly lower than the industrial worker population. This can be one of the contributing factors of low back problems in mining. Shoveling, timbering, and helpers tasks were physiologically demanding activities. However, because of the frequent stoppage of work, adequate rest was usually available. If work stoppage is corrected, then better work and rest schedules are essential.

  11. Psychophysical investigations of discomfort and disability glare from underground coal mine illumination systems. Open File Report, May 1980-July 1983

    Whitehead, K.L.; Lindahl, P.; Vincent, R.; Crouch, C.

    1983-10-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify current light-control technology and hardware that may be applicable on underground lighting systems to minimize disability and discomfort glare. No research dealing specifically with mine lighting was found, but abstracts on research considered potentially applicable are included in the report. Information on several commercial light-control products for use in controlling glare are also included. Vision tests conducted on 137 mine personnel to determine their discomfort and disability glare sensitivity indicate their sensitivity to disability glare is about the same as the general population.

  12. Mineral investigations in the Colville Mining District and Southern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Open file report (Final)

    Kurtak, J.M.; Hicks, R.W.; Werdon, M.B.; Meyer, M.P.; Mull, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a five-year mineral resource assessment of the 16.6 million acre Colville Mining District in northern Alaska, which includes part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. During fieldwork, 1593 rock, soil, and stream sediment samples were collected and four bulk samples taken for beneficiation studies. A total of 40 mineral occurrences were documented, including 27 which were previously undescribed. Moderate potential exists for development of zinc-lead-silver, barite, and phosphate deposits.

  13. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  14. Mining technology and policy issues 1983

    This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

  15. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    N. Krishnakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  16. Exploitation study of the ore-body ''Tigre III''. Open-cut design and study of high-recovery underground mining method for the Tigre III ore-body

    The paper first carries out an analysis for the purpose of determining the limiting sterile/ore ratio for open-cut and underground mining in the specific filling case of Tigre III. In this connection it considers a high-recovery method of underground mining (involving the use of cemented hydropneumatic chambers), a general mine plan covering access, transport, ventilation and removal of ore as well as auxiliary services relating to the Tigre III ore body as a whole. The costs of this method of mining are determined for purposes of comparison with the open-cut method. Similarly, the limiting sterile/ore ratio is taken as the basis for an analysis of different types of pit and a design suited to the limiting ratio is adopted. As a final solution the paper favours a method which combines open-cut and underground mining. It proposes the use of the open-cut method up to the limiting ratio (in accordance with the pit design chosen) and of underground method (by the filling chamber method) for the rest of the area. (author)

  17. FUNCTIONS OF HYDROLOGICAL OBJECTS IN THE AREAS OF POST-MINING OPEN PIT “WŁADYSŁAWÓW”

    Mirosława Maria Gilewska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Operated by lignite mine “Adams” coal deposits are located in the upland area of ​​the Turkish, belonging to the South Plains macro-region of Wielkopolska. A feature of this region are not only low rainfall, but also the lack of water reservoirs and large rivers. Mining activity has caused major changes in the hydrological network, not just for liquidation, postpone or reconstruction of riverbeds, but also the creation of new objects that collect water. These include settling the waters “dirty”, as well as reservoirs formed in excavation voids as part of a water reclamation. After the end of coal mining operation of these facilities is dependent on hydrology and hydraulic engineering conditions. This problem will be shown on the example of dirty water clarifier and final excavation undergoing water reclamation opencast mining areas Władysławów. Outcrop ended its activities in 2013. The final excavation is no outflow basin with a capacity of 42 million m3, located within the river basin Topiec constituting the left-hand tributary of the Warta.

  18. Identification of a Hidden Volcano in an Open-pit Coal Mine by Gravity Survey, NW Bohemia

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2014, Tu PA2 03/1-Tu PA2 03/5. ISBN 978-94-6282-027-2. [Near Surface Geoscience 2014 - 20th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Athens (GR), 14.09.2014-18.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : hidden volcano * coal mine * gravity survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  19. High quality casting materials

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper briefly presents results of the new developed high quality cast materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following materials are: hypereutectoid cast steel with various microstructure modular graphite obtained in as-cast condition (raw state, ductile cast iron of bainite-martensitic carbides structure obtained in a raw state, aluminum bronzes and silumins with additives of: chromium, molybdenum, wolfram, vanadium.Findings: These alloys are characterized primarily by significant mechanical properties and high wear resistance. It was also discussed getting of layer products by combination of steel or cast iron using alphinated layer with silumin.Practical implications: The paper discusses the high quality cast alloy, layer products and presents the high quality casting materials in the point of view principles of materials selection.Originality/value: The above problem is shown in the background of Rules of material selection as well as a model of production system in company.

  20. How to design high-powered shots for low vibration casting

    Collins, B.

    1987-03-01

    Multiple-decked charges in conventional non-electric delay systems offer low levels of vibration at distances ranging from 500 to 1,000 ft, but result in excessive delay interval times. With the help of Atlas Powder Company and West Kentucky Explosives, the Caney Creek mine was able to successfully develop a new non-electric delay system that would allow daily blast casting of large shots at low vibration levels and close delay intervals. Located in western Kentucky's Muhlenberg County, the Caney Creek Mine stripping operation opened 28 years ago in the midst of a rural area that has since become more densely populated. The current permit area is ringed by homes and businesses at distances of from 500 to 3,000 ft. Even though the maximum level of vibration allowed by most states is 2 ips, Caney Creek conducts blasting under a self-imposed maximum vibration level of 0.2 ips and a target level of 0.1 ips. The operation currently mines three seams of coal: the No. 13 top seam, 18-20 in. of high quality blending coal; the No. 12 middle seam, 6 ft of primary production coal; and the No. 11 seam, coal similar in thickness and quality to that of No. 12, but large portions of which have been deep-mined in the past.

  1. Determination of box-cut area of the Collolar open pit of Afsin-Elbistan lignite mine (TEAS); Afsin-Elbistan linyit isletmesi (TEAS) Collolar acik isletmesi ilk kazi noktasinin belirlenmesi

    Dag, A.; Anil, M.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, the optimum box-cut area of the Collolar open pit of Afsin Elbistan Lignite Mine that would supply the lignite demand of the B-power station, which will have a future capacity of 4 x 340 MW, was determined by means of computer programming. 305 drill logs recovered at Collolar were evaluated and the coal body analysed using geostatistical modelling. In addition, the boundary of the optimum open pit mine that would supply the lignite demand for 30 years was determined. 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. INFLUENCE OF WOOD VERMICOMPOST ON SOME SOIL AND PLANT PROPERTIES OF COAL MINE TAILINGS (TERTIARY SAND) IN LUSATIAN LIGNITE REGION (EASTERN GERMANY)

    Nada, W.M.; BLUMENSTEIN, O.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most negative site effects of open-cast mining in Germany is the large area of post coal mining tailings dumps which have to be reclaimed and restored to an acceptable condition. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different application rates of wood vermicompost on soil physiochemical properties and on some growth parameters of a RSM grass in tertiary sand substrates. The experiment was carried using plastic pots in a greenhouse for a period of 42 days. Soil sampl...

  3. Extensive rill erosion and gullying on abandoned pit mining sites in Lusatia, Germany

    Kunth, Franziska; Kaiser, Andreas; Vláčilová, Markéta; Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    As the major economic driver in the province of Lusatia, Eastern Germany, the large open-cast lignite mining sites characterize the landscape and leave vast areas of irreversible changed post-mining landscapes behind. Cost-intensive renaturation projects have been implemented in order to restructure former mine sites into stabile self-sustaining ecosystems and local recreation areas. With considerable expenditure the pits are stabilized, flooded and surrounding areas are restructured. Nevertheless, heavy soil erosion, extensive gullying and slope instability are challenges for the restructuring and renaturation of the abandoned open-cast mining sites. The majority of the sites remain inaccessible to the public due to instable conditions resulting in uncontrolled slides and large gullies. In this study a combined approach of UAV-based aerial imagery, 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction and physically-based soil erosion modelling is carried out in order to document, quantify and better understand the causes of erosion processes on mining sites. Rainfall simulations have been carried out in lausatian post mining areas to reproduce soil detachment processes and observe the responsible mechanisms for the considerable erosion rates. Water repellency and soil sealing by biological crusts were hindering infiltration and consequently increasing runoff rates despite the mainly sandy soil texture. On non-vegetated experimental plots runoff coefficients up to 87 % were measured. In a modelling routine for a major gully catchment regarding a 50 years rainfall event, simulation results reveal runoff coefficients of up to 84% and erosion rates of 118 Mg*ha^-1. At the sediment pass over point 450Mg of sediments enter the surface water bodies. A system response of this order of magnitude were unexpected by the authorities. By applying 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction a model validation is now possible and further may illustrate the great importance of soil conservation measures under the described conditions.

  4. Real -time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozw ci??arwek o r?nej ?adowno?ci w kopalni odkrywkowej

    Ahangaran, Daryoush Kaveh; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andy; Foster, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world's open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck's travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine's conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.

  5. New casting coatings

    In this project the results of the researches about the influence of the four types of ceramic coatings of the evaporating patterns (on the basis of talc, mullite, zircon and cordierite) on the talc of the Lost Foam process and the castings quality are presented. For the valid evaluation of the results, some parallel examinations of the quality of castings obtained by casting in sand were carried out. (Original)

  6. Casting in Sport

    DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast constructio...

  7. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Multi-layers castings

    J. Szajnar; P. Wrbel; T. Wrbel

    2010-01-01

    In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co ...

  9. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon

    Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S. [Inst. of Crystal Growth Berlin (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

  11. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes....

  12. Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics.

    Lawrence, Cameron E; Akber, Riaz A; Bollhfer, Andreas; Martin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the 226Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, 222Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated 226Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced 222Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as 226Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on 222Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, 226Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence 222Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on 222Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence 222Rn flux densities considerably. PMID:18995934

  13. Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)

    Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopackov, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

    2011-11-01

    Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

  14. Evaluation of the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale mining and processing. Volume 3. Oil shale mine dust program. Open file report, 16 June 1977-15 July 1983

    Crookston, R.B.; McGuire, M.D.

    1983-07-15

    Oil shale mine settled dust samples were taken from three Colorado underground oil shale mines. The dust samples were analyzed and dust concentrations were calculated. The volatile-combustible concentrations were calculated and compared to the minimum nominal explosive concentration determined by the Bureau of Mines. The dust concentrations sampled were found to be well below the minimum nominal explosive concentrations.

  15. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan

    2013-09-01

    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect. PMID:24289011

  16. International mining news

    These columns report on news from the mining industry activities: discovery and identification of ore deposits, technological research and development studies, projects and development of ore exploitations, expansion of existing mines, rehabilitation and re-opening of sites, production stopping, environmental regulation, metal industry developments, and economical and political news. This issue reports on some news about the project of exploitation of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit (Saskatchewan, Canada) and about the re-opening of the Stepnogorsk uranium processing plant in Kazakhstan. Two short news deal with the project of exploitation of lignite deposits in Barsingsar (Rajasthan, India) and in Garzweiler (Germany). Several short notes deal with coal mining: start up of the exploitation of the Bontang mine in Indonesia (Kalimantan), expansion of Goedehoop mine in South Africa, of the Burton mine in Australia (Queensland), common development of the neighboring deposits of Oreganal and Correjon Centrale in Colombia, revival of the coal production at Moatize (Mozambique) and closure of the oldest Japanese mine of Miike, and denial of subsidies for the exploitation of Spanish and German coal mines. (J.S.)

  17. Caste and power

    Roy, Dayabati

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste...

  18. Multi-layers castings

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  19. Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies

    J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

  20. Forest ecosystem development in post-mining landscapes: a case study of the Lusatian lignite district

    Httl, Reinhard F.; Weber, Edwin

    2001-08-01

    The restoration of surface mining landscapes requires the (re)creation of ecosystems. In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generated spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Amelioration and rehabilitation measures have been developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. However, it is still not clear whether these approaches are sustainable. This paper reports on collaborative research work into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 35 years did not show differences when compared with stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development. For example, soil organism abundance and activity at minesites had already reached levels typical of non-mined sites after about 20-30 years. In contrast, mine soils are very different from non-mined soils of the test region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil organic carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for forest ecosystem development starting at "point zero" on " terra nova".

  1. Forest ecosystem development in post-mining landscapes: a case study of the Lusatian lignite district.

    Httl, R F; Weber, E

    2001-08-01

    The restoration of surface mining landscapes requries the (re)creation of ecosystems. In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generated spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Amelioration and rehabilitation measures have been developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. However, it is still not clear whether these approaches are sustainable. This paper reports on collaborative research work into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 35 years did not show differences when compared with stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development. For example, soil organism abundance and activity at minesites had already reached levels typical of non-mined sites after about 20-30 years. In contrast, mine soils are very different from non-mined soils of the test region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil organic carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for forest ecosystem development starting at "point zero" on "terra nova". PMID:11572012

  2. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  3. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jimnez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 ?m - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle concentrations are the highest in January and February, being the correlation between the TSP and PM10 measurements not as strong during this time period. This could be associated with the spatial and temporal variability of wet deposition as well as a larger mechanical and eolic resuspension of particles. We found that precipitation drastically reduces the levels of particulate matter. In order to describe the effect of wet deposition, a mathematical model was developed based on a first order relaxation proportional to the precipitation rate. Daily average concentrations and daily accumulated precipitation were used in this model, which showed high concentration reductions even for low precipitation levels essentially for all stations. Monthly precipitation values showed a better correlation with TSP concentrations. Finally, we found evidence of a significant decrease in global radiation due to particulate matter, particularly during the dry season, which could potentially affect farming and agricultural activities in the region.

  4. International data-sharing for radiotherapy research: An open-source based infrastructure for multicentric clinical data mining

    Extensive, multifactorial data sharing is a crucial prerequisite for current and future (radiotherapy) research. However, the cost, time and effort to achieve this are often a roadblock. We present an open-source based data-sharing infrastructure between two radiotherapy departments, allowing seamless exchange of de-identified, automatically translated clinical and biomedical treatment data

  5. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  6. Clean Metal Casting

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  7. Casting in sport.

    Decarlo, M; Malone, K; Darmelio, J; Rettig, A

    1994-03-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the "least hard" of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. PMID:16558257

  8. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  9. Application of artificial neural network coupled with genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to solve groundwater inflow problem to an advancing open pit mine

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Baafi, Ernest

    2016-05-01

    In this study, hybrid models are designed to predict groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine and the hydraulic head (HH) in observation wells at different distances from the centre of the pit during its advance. Hybrid methods coupling artificial neural network (ANN) with genetic algorithm (GA) methods (ANN-GA), and simulated annealing (SA) methods (ANN-SA), were utilised. Ratios of depth of pit penetration in aquifer to aquifer thickness, pit bottom radius to its top radius, inverse of pit advance time and the HH in the observation wells to the distance of observation wells from the centre of the pit were used as inputs to the networks. To achieve the objective two hybrid models consisting of ANN-GA and ANN-SA with 4-5-3-1 arrangement were designed. In addition, by switching the last argument of the input layer with the argument of the output layer of two earlier models, two new models were developed to predict the HH in the observation wells for the period of the mining process. The accuracy and reliability of models are verified by field data, results of a numerical finite element model using SEEP/W, outputs of simple ANNs and some well-known analytical solutions. Predicted results obtained by the hybrid methods are closer to the field data compared to the outputs of analytical and simple ANN models. Results show that despite the use of fewer and simpler parameters by the hybrid models, the ANN-GA and to some extent the ANN-SA have the ability to compete with the numerical models.

  10. Symptomatic stent cast.

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  11. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron

    T. Wróbel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer) is depending on accepted variant plat...

  12. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2010-01-01

    In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  13. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  14. Influence of continuous casting conditions on grey cast iron structure

    J. Szajnar; M. Stawarz; T. Wrbel; W. Sebzda; B. Grzesik; M. St?pie?

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the unification of flake graphite morphology in cast iron ingots in conditions of forced convection of liquid metal in the continuous casting mould, which contains electromagnetic stirrer.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations of grey cast iron ingots were used laboratory stand of continuous casting, which contains continuous casting mould with inductor of rotate electromagnetic field.To investigations were made metallographic researches on ...

  15. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  16. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µε. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µε. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  17. Casting AISI 316 steel by gel cast

    The feasibility of producing AISI 316 steel components from their powders and avoiding their compaction is analyzed. A casting technique is tested that is similar to gel casting, used for ceramic materials. In the initial stage, the process consists of the formulation of a concentrated barbotine of powdered metal in a solution of water soluble organic monomers, which is cast in a mold and polymerized in situ to form a raw piece in the shape of the cavity. The process can be performed under controlled conditions using barbotines with a high monomer content from the acrylimide family. Then, the molded piece is slowly heated until the polymer is eliminated, and it is sintered at temperatures of 1160oC to 1300oC under a dry hydrogen atmosphere, until the desired densities are attained. The density and micro structure of the materials obtained are compared with those for the materials compacted and synthesized by the conventional processes. The preliminary results show the feasibility of the process for the production of certain kinds of structural components (CW)

  18. An investment mold for titanium casting

    Calvert, E. D.

    1981-07-01

    The Bureau of Mines, in its effort to promote greater utilization of domestically abundant materials, conducted research on an alternate mold material that has commercial potential for titanium investment casting. Using variations of the conventional lost wax molding process, investment shell molds were formed entirely of fused, calcia-stabilized ZrO2-forming binder. Optimization of binder/slurry properties, stucco grain size and distribution, and curing practices resulted in a structurally sound investment shell that was distortion free and thermally stable.

  19. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Thị Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0.09±0.01 and 0.10±0.04 mg/kg respectively in the rice grain endosperm. The adaptation of native rice plants, combined with bioaccumulation ratios of 1±0.6 to 1.4±0.7 calculated for Cd transfer to the rice grain endosperm, and maximum Cd transfer factors of 4.3±2.1 to the plant roots, strongly suggest a continuous input of some toxic metals from coal-mining operations to agricultural lands in the region of Cam Pha. In addition, our results imply a sustained absorption of metals by native rice plant varieties, which may lead to metal accumulation (e.g., Cd) in human organs and in turn to severe disease. PMID:23990254

  20. Coal mining project for Sumatra

    1983-10-01

    A contract to the value of some DM 320 million (135 million US dollars) has been awarded to the 'Bukit Asam Consortium', consisting of O and K Orenstein and Koppel AG, PHB Weserhuette AG (PWH) and Marubeni Corporation, by the Indonesian Mining Company P.T. (Persero), Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam. The contract involves the manufacture, delivery, set-up and commissioning of open-pit mining equipment for the Air Laya Lignite mine, located in southern Sumatra.

  1. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Miguel Alvarado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2 greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  2. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  3. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

  4. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  5. Longwall mining

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  6. Development strategy to prevent mine accidents in surface coal mines in Indonesia

    Permana, Herry

    2014-01-01

    Most of mining operations in Indonesia use open pit mine methods, with truck and shovel system and a large amount of manpower. The mining industry plays an important role contributed to the national economy and development in Indonesia, otherwise the mine accidents become as sensitive issue or problem. The main cause of mine accidents is still dominant of the low safety awarenesses and accountabilities, and also improperly cost spent on the occupational health and safety (OSH) programs. This ...

  7. Automation in mining, mineral and metal processing 1995 (MMM`95)

    Barker, I.J. [ed.] [MINTEK, Randburg (South Africa)

    1997-12-01

    Papers are presented under the following headings: plenary papers; mining - robotics and automation; mining - system and automation equipment; filter plant automation; flotation plant automation; environmental control; pyrometallurgical automation; steelmaking and continuous casting; milling and grinding; predicture and adaptive control; management and sociological issues; measurement; diamond industry; artificial intelligence and related topics; and image-based techniques.

  8. Design of underground mining layouts

    Mathews, K.E.

    1978-06-01

    The mining methods in common use are described: these include block caving, sublevel caving, longwall caving, open stoping (sublevel open stoping and room-and-pillar stoping), and cut- and-fill stoping. The factors that must be considered in the selection process are reviewed. Some thoughts are given on the type of information required for feasibility studies in mining and some long term research objectives are discussed briefly.

  9. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  10. Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models

    Kasparova, Magdalena; Grafova, Lucie; Dvorak, Petr; Dostalova, Tatjana; Prochazka, Ales; Eliasova, Hana; Prusa, Josef; Kakawand, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare traditional plaster casts, digital models and 3D printed copies of dental plaster casts based on various criteria. To determine whether 3D printed copies obtained using open source system RepRap can replace traditional plaster casts in dental practice. To compare and contrast the qualities of two possible 3D printing options – open source system RepRap and commercially available 3D printing. Design and settings A method comparison study on 10 dental plaster casts from th...

  11. Mining method evaluation and dilution control in Kittilä mine

    Tommila, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Kittilä mine is a gold mine located in the Northern Finland. It began producing as an open pit mine but nowdays all the production comes from underground mine. The underground mining method was defined during the feasibility study with limited information. With the experience from the underground mining and more rock mechanical and geological data, this thesis was conducted to study if there could be more cost effective method for mining the ore and how to reduce the dilution. The study i...

  12. Reliability Analysis of Drilling Operation in Open Pit Mines / Analiza niezawodności urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalniach odkrywkowych

    Rahimdel, M. J.; Ataei, M.; Kakaei, R.; Hoseinie, S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Considering the high investment and operation costs, reliability analysis of mining machineries is essential to achieve a lean operation and to prevent the unwanted stoppages. In open pit mining, drilling, as the initial stage of the exploitation operations, has a significant role in the other stages. Failure of drilling machines causes total delay in blasting operation. In this paper, the reliability of drilling operation has been analyzed using the Markov method. The failure and operation data of four heavy rotary drilling machines in Sarcheshme copper mine in Iran have been used as a case study. Failure rate and repair rate of all machines have been calculated using available data. Then, 16 possible operation states have been defined and the probability of being of drilling fleet in each of the states was calculated using Markov theory. The results showed that there was 77.2% probability that all machines in fleet were in operational condition. It means that, considering 360 working days per year, drilling operation will be in a reliable condition in 277.92 days. Biorąc pod uwagę wysokość kosztów inwestycyjnych a także eksploatacyjnych, przeprowadzenie analizy niezawodności maszyn i urządzeń górniczych jest sprawą kluczową dla zapewnienia sprawnego działania i dla wyeliminowania niepożądanych przestojów. W kopalniach odkrywkowych prace wiertnicze prowadzone w początkowych etapach eksploatacji mają ogromne znaczenie również w późniejszych fazach działalności przedsięwzięcia. Awaria urządzeń wiertniczych powoduje opóźnienia przy pracach strzałowych. W pracy tej przeanalizowano niezawodność urządzeń wiertniczych w oparciu o metodę Markowa. Jako studium przypadku wykorzystano dane zebrane w trakcie eksploatacji i awarii czterech obrotowych urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalni rud miedzi Sarcheshme w Iranie. Awaryjność maszyn i zakres oraz częstość napraw obliczono na podstawie dostępnych danych. Zdefiniowano 16 możliwych stanów działania, a prawdopodobieństwa znalezienia się jednego z urządzeń wiertniczych w każdym z podanych stanów obliczono z wykorzystaniem teorii Markowa. Wyniki pokazują, że poziom prawdopodobieństwa tego, że wszystkie urządzenia wiertnicze znajdować się będą w stanie gwarantującym ich właściwe działanie wynosi 77.2%. Biorąc pod uwagę 360 dni roboczych w roku, oznacza to, że prace wiertnicze prowadzone być mogą w warunkach niezawodności przez 277.92 dni w roku.

  13. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  14. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    Marikie Pelser

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings. Opsomming Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat onderliggend aan die leerpotensiaal en verskeie psigomotoriese metings is, redelik oortuigend gestaaf. ’n Algemene psigomotoriese faktor is nie in die huidige ondersoek gevind nie. Voorstelle is gemaak om die ontwerp- en kriteriumtekortkominge te verbeter.

  15. Dumping of other than mining waste in mining cavities. Basic legal and mine-engineering conditions

    Fuerer, G.

    1989-05-01

    The amount of waste produced by an industrial and consumer society such as that of the Federal Republic of Germany is enormous. A vital objective of legislation is to avoid and recycle wastes, but this is still in the initial stages. Consequently, many waste materials with ecologically objectionable properties must be eliminated at geologically and hydrologically suitable disposal sites. Such dumps include cavities resulted from mining activities, such as open-pit mining, underground mining, and caverns produced by leaching. The general legal as well as technical waste-disposal and mining conditions which currently have to be satisfied in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed.

  16. Wear resistance of cast iron

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2008-01-01

    In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  17. HYDROMODELLING OF CASTING PROCESSES

    E. I. Marukovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The description of equipment for hydrodynamic experiments and methods of hydromodeling of foundry processes, allowing to carry out three-dimensional modeling of filling process, is given. This method can be used for identification of numerical models and development of casting technology of the new types of production.

  18. Extrusion cast explosive

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  19. Casting warpage study

    Patterson, E.P.

    1976-08-01

    Because of a need to reduce warpage in investment castings, and because of reported success in the use of aqueous polyalkylene glycol solutions for reducing warpage in heat-treated sheet-metal parts, particularly for aluminum alloys, an experiment was designed to include these solutions along with polyethylene glycol solutions in a study of quenching parameters. At the time of the study, the cost of polyethylene glycol was approximately one-third that of polyalkylene glycol. A total of 1032 cast parts was produced from 13 cast-furnace heats for study. Conclusions concerning warpage and mechanical properties were based on 2064 tensile specimens and the cast parts. Warpage was reduced significantly in the two glycol-solution systems. Solutions of 20 and 40 percent, by weight, appeared to be more effective for both polyethylene glycol and polyalkylene glycol. Minimum warpage occurred at a quenching temperature of 210/sup 0/F (98.9/sup 0/C). Warpage in the glycol quenching solutions was less than that which occurred in water at all temperatures studied. The average warpage of the parts was affected by their attitude during quenching. This warpage was caused by differential cooling rates on the forward and rear surfaces of the parts produced by the turbulence created by the downward motion of the basket during the quenching operation. Parts which displayed thin edges upon approach to the quenching solution showed less tendency to warp than did those which displayed broad surfaces.

  20. Electrokinetically supported pressure casting

    Krueger, H.G.; Schindler, U. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau

    2001-02-01

    On the basis of the physical operating principles characterizing electrokinetically supported pressure casting, two different processing arrangements and their relative efficiency are discussed. The investigations were conducted with a porcelain slip in a small-sized laboratory pressure casting plant. A combination of pressure filtration and electrophoresis/electroosmosis is especially effective if the filtrate volume flows of both pressure filtration and electroosmosis have the same direction. This is the case for one-sided filtration, where casting time reductions of 75% could be realized by electrokinetic effects. Furthermore, the electrical field effects enable body shaping at very low shot pressures of 5 or 10 bar. Well-balanced body shaping could be achieved at a pressure of 25 bar and at an electric current density of 7 mA/cm{sup 2}. For double-sided filtration, the filtrate volume flows add to each other only at the cathode side. The filtrate volume flows of pressure filtration and electroosmosis subtract from each other close to the anode, leading to a low amount of filtrate at the anode side. Furthermore, the centre of the symmetrically inwards-directed gradient of moisture, which is the typical situation for pressure casting, is shifted away from the centre of the green body. (orig.)

  1. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel

    T. Wróbel; M. Cholewa; S. Tenerowicz

    2011-01-01

    In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness betwe...

  2. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    2010-07-01

    ... according to the following criteria: (1) Excavation of the mine pit takes place on a relatively limited site for an extended period of time. For the purposes of this section, mine pit means an open-pit mine in... extract coal from seams dipping 15 degrees or more from the horizontal. (2) Excavation of the mine...

  3. Text Mining.

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  4. Quality of the joint between cast steel and cast iron in bimetallic castings

    M. Cholewa; S. Tenerowicz; T. Wrbel

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents conception and production method of skeleton composite castings with use of cast steel G35CrSiMnMoNi skeletoncasting and chromium cast iron EN-GJN-XCr15 filling. Working elements in winning machines and devices, which work in intensiveaberasive wear i.e. liner of exhausters, percussive and ram hammers, are destination of bimetallic castings. Skeleton geometry was basedon three-dimensional symmetrical cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors...

  5. Process Mining Versus Intention Mining

    Khodabandelou, Ghazaleh; Hug, Charlotte; Deneckere, Rebecca; Salinesi, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Process mining aims to discover, enhance or check the conformance of activity oriented process models from event logs. A new field of research, called intention mining, recently emerged. This new field has the same objectives than process mining but specifically addresses intentional process models. This paper aims to highlight the differences between these two fields of research and illustrates the use of mining techniques on a dataset of event logs, to discover an activity process model as ...

  6. 76 FR 19786 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Celatom Mine Expansion...

    2011-04-08

    ... 60 miles west of Vale, Oregon. The Celatom Mine Complex currently consists of three open-pit mines... the Project Area include open pit mines, roads within the mine operations areas, and other operations... Celatom Mine Expansion Project in Harney and Malheur Counties, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  7. 77 FR 26574 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Celatom Mine Expansion...

    2012-05-04

    ... three open-pit mines: Kelley Field (on BLM- administered land), Section 36 (on State land), and Beede... development of new mining operations ] in the Project Area include open pit mines, roads within the mine... Celatom Mine Expansion Project in Harney and Malheur Counties, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  8. Emerging trend of uranium mining: The Indian scenario

    In the Singhbhum Thrust Belt of Jharkhnad, a low-grade large tonnage deposit at Banduhurang is being planned for exploitation soon. After the initial evaluation and computerised orebody modeling, open-pit mining method has been considered as the most favourable option. Uranium orebody explored at Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh have been planned for development by both open cast and underground mining methods. A large sandstone hosted uranium deposit at Domiasiat, spread over two distinct blocks has been found within a depth of about 45m. Pre-mining activities are also set to begin in a few more deposits where the exploration is in advance stage and some reserves have already been identified. A large uranium reserve has already been established within the carbonate host rock at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh. New mining technologies are emerging where all the strenuous mining activities are automated. Development of cutting technology in place of conventional drilling and blasting, use of electronic detonators, environment friendly explosives etc are some the areas of future development. New mines have been planned with deployment of energy efficient electro-hydraulic equipment. The only uranium ore processing plant of the country at Jaduguda, in operation since 1968 is based on acid leaching technology. The final product of this plant is magnesium diuranate or yellow cake. Jaduguda plant has been expanded twice to treat the ore of Bhatin and Narwapahar mines. In the coming years, ore of Bagjata mine will also be fed to this plant. A new plant at Turamdih is being set-up to treat the ore planned to be produced from Turamdih and Banduhurang mines. The flowsheet of this plant is similar to that of Jaduguda. Another new plant at Seripalli has been planned in Andhra Pradesh to treat the ore of Lambapur-Peddagattu mine. A plant near the mine site at Domiasiat in Meghalya will be constructed with some modified process technology because of different ore characteristics. Followed by conventional grinding, the thickened slurry of sandstone will undergo two stages of leaching - weak acid (WAL) and strong acid (SAL). Resulting filtrate will be clarified, concentrated in ion exchange and precipitated along with magnesia as magnesium diuranate. A plant based on alkali-leaching technology is being proposed at Tummalapalle to treat the carbonate bearing host rock. Resolving the process know-how for alkaline leaching of Tummalapalle ore is now the emerging area for research and development. The uranium ore in India are generally of low grade, which necessitates production and processing of large quantity of ore. This results in generation of large volume of solid waste and effluent. The operating underground uranium mines of the area are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings generated during the ore processing. As the mining work progresses, the void created are sequentially backfilled utilizing about 50% of the deslimed neutralized tailings. Only the finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is stored in tailings pond separating it from the public domain. The only tailings pond of the country at Jaduguda with natural high hills on three sides and a very sound impoundment arrangement, has been progressively expanded to accommodate the tailings generated from Jaduguda plant. Tailings management at new sites: New underground mines in Singhbhum will have provisions of backfilling utilizing coarser fraction of tailings. The tailings pond proposed at Turamdih will be designed in line with Jaduguda tailings pond. The tailings pond at Seripalli is being envisaged with thickened tailings disposal system. The proposed open cast mine at Domiasiat is being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings as backfill material after artificial lining at the pit bottom. The finer fraction of the tailings will be impounded in the tailings pond to be constructed adjacent to the plant. The new tailings ponds are being envisaged with sound impermeable artificial liner at the floor to pr event any downward movement of effluent. Various laboratory studies are being conducted to implement thickened tailings disposal (TTD) system at Seripalli. Self-reliance in basic raw materials being the dominant paradigm of nuclear power programme, the growth of uranium industry in the country is expected to grow matching with the phenomenal growth of nuclear power generation. Apart from supplying the raw material for nuclear fuel, the industry will greatly contribute towards development of infrastructure, mining technology and generate employment opportunity in the nation

  9. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Search for low Energy solar Axions with CAST

    Arik, E; Autiero, D; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltrn, B; Borghi, S; Boydag, F S; Bruninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cebrin, S; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Dogan, O B; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Galn, J; Gazis, E; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Gmez, H; Hasinoff, M; Heinsius, F H; Hikmet, I; Hoffmann, D H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovicic, K; Kang, D; Karageorgopoulou, T; Karuza, M; Knigsmann, K C; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kousouris, K; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzn, G; Miller, D; Morales, A; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M; Placci, A; Raiteri, G; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodrguez, A; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Semertzidis, Y; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Solanki, S K; Soufli, R; Stewart, L; Tsagri, M; Van Bibber, K; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K

    2008-01-01

    We have started the development of a detector system, sensitive to single photons in the eV energy range, to be suitably coupled to one of the CAST magnet ports. This system should open to CAST a window on possible detection of low energy Axion Like Particles emitted by the sun. Preliminary tests have involved a cooled photomultiplier tube coupled to the CAST magnet via a Galileian telescope and a switched 40 m long optical fiber. This system has reached the limit background level of the detector alone in ideal conditions, and two solar tracking runs have been performed with it at CAST. Such a measurement has never been done before with an axion helioscope. We will present results from these runs and briefly discuss future detector developments.

  11. Effects of limes and residual ash on the recultivation characteristics of sulfate-acid tertiary sediments of brown coal mining in North Hessen

    Open-cast mining in North Hessen (Borken region) caused tertiary sediments to be dumped on the surface. The overburden is characterized by high pyrite and marcasite concentrations and a low nutrient content. Acration of the material causes oxidation of the pyrite and, in consequence, acidification of the substrate. In these extremely poor soils, revegetation by natural succession will result in a very sparse vegetation. To permit direct revegetation without laying a new layer of topsoil, commercial limes and two industrial residual ashes were mixed with the overburden. (orig.)

  12. Effects of limes and residual ash on the recultivation characteristics of sulfate-acid tertiary sediments of brown coal mining in North Hessen

    Open-cast mining in North Hessen (Borken region) caused tertiary sediments to be dumped on the surface. The overburden is characterized by high pyrite and marcasite concentrations and a low nutrient content. Acration of the material causes oxidation of the pyrite and, in consequence, acidification of the substrate. In these extremely poor soils, revegetation by natural sucession will result in a very sparse vegetation. To permit direct revegetation without laying a new layer of topsoil, commercial limes and two industrial residual ashes were mixed with the overburden. (orig.)

  13. Moving Cast Shadow Detection

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Q.M. Jonathan; Fang, Xiangzhong

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we have provided a brief overview of the works about moving cast shadow detection. The state-of-the-art methods have been categories into color model, textural model, and geometric model according to the information and model utilized, which have been disscussed systemically. Furthermore, all kinds of statistical models have been employed to tackle the problem, which are also analyzed in detail. From the results, we can see that different method is fit for different situation...

  14. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining.

    Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A P; Heuser, Vanina D; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Fernanda R; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; da Silva, Juliana

    2012-12-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001) group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05). For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001). We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work. PMID:23413045

  15. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel

    T. Wróbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

  16. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  17. Grammar mining

    Nijssen, Siegfried; De Raedt, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the problem of grammar mining, where patterns are context-free grammars, as a generalization of a large number of common pattern mining tasks, such as tree, sequence and itemset mining. The proposed system offers data miners the possibility to specify and explore pattern domains declaratively, in a way which is very similar to the declarative specification of regular expressions in popular scripting languages.

  18. Graph mining

    Ramon, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Graph mining is the study of how to perform data mining and machine learning on data represented with graphs. One can distinguish between, on the one hand, transactional graph mining, where a database of separate, independent graphs is considered (such as databases of molecules and databases of images), and, on the other hand, large network analysis, where a single large network is considered (such as chemical interaction networks and concept networks).

  19. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Z. Stradomski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  20. Yellowcake road. [Australia's uranium mining industry

    Stein, Graham

    The Australian uranium mining industry is discussed. There are three working mines but many deposits have been discovered. The three mines are looked at in more detail from the point of view of reserves, mining methods, markets, environmental aspects and safety record. General problems of the industry are mentioned - the relationship with the Aborigines for instance. Australia is supplying uranium to France and there is pressure for more mines to be opened and more uranium to be sold. (U.K.).

  1. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  2. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron

    T. Wróbel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer is depending on accepted variant plates of alloy steels sort X6Cr13, X12Cr13, X10CrNi18-8 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The verification of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches. Moreover was made computer simulation of solidification of bimetallic layered casting in NovaFlow&Solid software.Findings: The results of studies and their analysis show efficiency of new, innovative technology of corrosion and heat resisting layered castings.Research limitations: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of different material on bearing part of bimetallic layered casting.Practical implications: Prepared bimetallic layered castings according to work out technology can work in conditions, which require from working surface layer of element a high heat resistance and/or corrosion resistance in medium for example of industrial water.Originality/value: The value of this paper resides in new effective method of manufacture of heat resisting castings, mainly for lining of quenching car to coke production

  3. Skeleton castings dynamic load resistance

    M. Cholewa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article is to show selected results of research in a field of new type of cast spatial composite reinforcements. This article shows skeleton casting case as a particular approach to continuous, spatial composite reinforcement.Design/methodology/approach: The research is concerning properties of cast spatial microlattice structures called skeleton castings. In this paper results of impact test of skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell were shown. The selection of internal topology of skeleton casting was based on numerical simulations of stress distribution.Findings: The possibility of manufacturing of geometrically complex skeleton castings without use of advanced techniques was confirmed.Research limitations/implications: With use of computer tomography, analysis of deformation mechanisms was carried out. Different levels of impact energies were usedPractical implications: Spatial skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell confirmed their usefulness as impact energy absorbers.Originality/value: The overall aim of presented research was to determine the mechanisms of skeleton castings deformation processes. Thanks to CT data next step will be to create accurate numerical model for further simulation and design optimization.

  4. Mining with microbes

    Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the open-quotes bioleachingclose quotes of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as open-quotes absorbantsclose quotes of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs

  5. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Gila Notesco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at λ = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  6. Segregation in cast products

    A Ghosh

    2001-02-01

    Microsegregation gets eliminated significantly if subsequent hot working and/or annealing are done on cast products. Macrosegregation however persists, causing problems in quality, and hence, has to be attended to. Microsegregation is a consequence of rejection of solutes by the solid into the interdendritic liquid. Scheil’s equation is mostly employed. However, other equations have been proposed, which take into account diffusion in solid phase and/or incomplete mixing in liquid. Macrosegregation results from movements of microsegregated regions over macroscopic distances due to motion of liquid and free crystals. Motion of impure interdendritic liquid causes regions of positive macrosegregation, whereas purer solid crystals yield negative macrosegregation. Flow of interdendritic liquid is primarily natural convection due to thermal and solutal buoyancy, and partly forced convection due to suction by shrinkage cavity formation etc. The present paper briefly deals with fundamentals of the above and contains some recent studies as well. Experimental investigations in molten alloys do not allow visualization of the complex flow pattern as well as other phenomena, such as dendrite-tip detachment. Experiments with room temperature analogues, and mathematical modelling have supplemented these efforts. However, the complexity of the phenomena demands simplifying assumptions. The agreement with experimental data is mostly qualitative. The paper also briefly discusses centreline macrosegregation during continuous casting of steel, methods to avoid it, and the, importance of early columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) as well as the fundamentals of CET.

  7. Uranium mining

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. It is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  8. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

  9. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  10. DENDRITIC CRYSTALLIZATION OF CAST IRON

    V. Stetsenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that crystallization of the main phases in cast iron happens on the dendritic mechanism. The main phases when hardening cast iron are dendrites of austenite, graphite and a cementite. Thermodynamic it is established that spherical graphite represents strongly branched compact dendrite with a sectorial and layered structure.

  11. Evolution of cultural landscape in the Northern Bohemian coal mining region on the background of socio-economic transformations

    The NW part of Bohemia belongs to the most intensely exploited territories, both from the functional and ecological standpoints. In a sense, it is an open air laboratory, offering many topics to be discussed, researched and solved. The author strives to give a sociogeographical outline of the current state, with respect to the landscape evolution. This picture focuses on historical developments in recent decades as well. Rapid economic expansion of the examined territory started in the second half of the 19th century, having followed the pre-industrial period. A similar abrupt change of social and economic structures occurred 100 years later, in the post-war period. It was the growth of open-cast brown coal mining and corresponding activities (especially coal-fired plants) which resulted in large scale environmental disturbances and affected the settlement system and health of the population. Thus, further economic and ecological development should be based on a reclamation of the previous state. 4 refs

  12. Groundwater impacts of solution mining

    In some cases the mining of certain minerals can be achieved without the large-scale excavations involved in open pit or shaft mining. Instead, water is used to liquify the desired mineral so that it can be readily removed without disturbing the host medium or intervening deposits. In Texas this solution mining technique is used in the mining of brines, sodium sulfate, sulfur, and uranium. The advantages stem from the nondisturbing nature of the method that leaves the surface and subsurface physically intact. This is advantageous not only during mining, but also upon its termination when there is a minimum restoration requirement of the terrain. However, in some cases these advantages may be somewhat offset when a considerable chemical restoration of a host aquifer is required. The situation is considerably different with the solution (in situ) mining of uranium since these deposits often occur in usable quality groundwater aquifers. There are twenty-eight permitted sites in Texas. Eight have not yet been mined. This paper discusses the solution mining of uranium in Texas

  13. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

  14. Development of soils after reforestation in the course of reclamation of disturbed post-mining sites; Bodenentwicklung nach forstlicher Rekultivierung im Zuge der nachbergbaulichen Inwertsetzung gestoerter Landschaften

    Huettl, R.; Bens, O.; Gerwin, W. [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (DE). Forschungszentrum Bergbaulandschaften (FZB); Schneider, B.U.

    2004-07-01

    In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generate spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Comprehensive amelioration and rehabilitation measures were developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. The restoration of surface mining landscapes requires the (re)creation of ecosystems. However, it is still not clear wether these approaches are sustainable. This contribution reports on collaborative research into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 40 years did not show differences compared to stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development on these disturbed areas. In contrast, mine soils are very different compared to non-mined soils of the general region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of recently formed pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was significantly hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for terrestrial ecosystem development starting at 'point zero' on 'terra nova'. (orig.)

  15. Discover Effective Pattern for Text Mining

    Khade, A. D.; A. B. Karche

    2014-01-01

    Many data mining techniques have been discovered for finding useful patterns in documents like text document. However, how to use effective and bring to up to date discovered patterns is still an open research task, especially in the domain of text mining. Text mining is the finding of very interesting knowledge (or features) in the text documents. It is a challenging task to find appropriate knowledge (or features) in text documents to help users to find what they exactly want...

  16. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France

    Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A

    1998-02-01

    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  17. Iron precipitations in the Lusatian lignite district. Pt. 1: water pumpage and water drainage in the opencast mine of Nochten, hydrochemistry of mine water; Eisenausfaellungen im Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier. T. 1: Wasserhebung und -ableitung im Tagebau Nochten, Hydrochemie der Suempfungswaesser

    Arnold, I. [LAUBAG, Senftenberg (Germany); Uhlmann, W. [IWB - Institut fuer Wasser und Boden, Dresden (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Opencast lignite mines are subject to permanent drainage. Due to iron disulphide weathering, drainage waters are acidic and rich in ferrous iron and sulphate. In the case of the mine Nochten (Lusatia, East Germany) the originating water is directed from the mine through several open ditches and finally through a pipeline to reach to purification plant at a distance of 14 km. During this course part of the ferrous iron is oxidised to form ferric iron, which precipitates as Fe(III)-minerals. The iron loss in the drainage system between the open cast Nochten to the purification plant Schwarze Pumpe is 30-37% under summer conditions and 18% under winter conditions. Especially for the pipeline these precipitates represent a serious problem, as they result in incrustations and therefore in decreased discharge rates. This article focuses on the hydrochemical processes occurring during the discharge of water to the purification plant. Investigations were based on hydrochemical measurements in the drainage systems as well as on laboratory experiments on the oxidation kinetics of ferrous iron. These resulted in the following findings: (1) The oxidation of ferrous iron in the acidic waters is slow even at oxygen concentrations near saturation. Thus, oxygen is not the limiting factor for the oxidation process. (2) Oxidation kinetics are strongly dependent on temperature. Conclusively, a reduction of iron precipitates may be achieved firstly by shortening the distance of the transport course and secondly by preventing a warming up of waters in summer. (orig.)

  18. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  19. Process mining

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.; van Dongen, B.F.; Kindler, Ekkart; Günther, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  20. Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method

    S. Pietrowski

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce th...

  1. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP)

  2. FROM DATA MINING TO BEHAVIOR MINING

    ZHENGXIN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge economy requires data mining be more goal-oriented so that more tangible results can be produced. This requirement implies that the semantics of the data should be incorporated into the mining process. Data mining is ready to deal with this challenge because recent developments in data mining have shown an increasing interest on mining of complex data (as exemplified by graph mining, text mining, etc.). By incorporating the relationships of the data along with the data itself (rathe...

  3. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  4. Social big data mining

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  5. Origin of nitrogen in reforested lignite-rich mine soils revealed by stable isotope analysis

    Abad Chabbi; Mathieu Sebilo; Cornelia Rumpel; Wolfgang Schaaf; Andre Mariotti [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Department of Soil Protection and Recultivation

    2008-04-15

    Restoration of the nitrogen cycle is an important step in the recovery of an ecosystem after open-cast mining. Carbon and nitrogen in rehabilitated lignite containing mine soils can be derived from plant material as well as from lignite inherent to the parent substrate. We assessed the use elemental and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements to trace the origin of soil nitrogen and applied these techniques to elucidate the origin of mineral N in the soil and the soil solution. The conceptual approach of this study included physical fractionation in addition to sampling of vegetation and soil from a lignite-containing mine site in Lusatia rehabilitated in 1985 with Pinus Nigra. We studied the elemental and isotopic composition of bulk samples as well as isolated fractions and soil solution. Our data indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the soil samples are the result of mixing between plant material and substrate inherent lignite. {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes may be used as indicators of nitrogen contribution from plants to solid samples as well as soil solution. N-isotope composition of ammonia shows low spatial and interannual variability, despite strong concentration changes. Plant-derived nitrogen contributes in higher amounts to the soil solution compared to the bulk mineral soil. 45 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Argumentation mining

    Mochales Palau, Raquel; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2011-01-01

    Argumentation mining aims to automatically detect, classify and structure argumentation in text. Therefore, argumentation mining is an important part of a complete argumentation analysis, i.e. understanding the content of serial arguments, their linguistic structure, the relationship between the preceding and following arguments, recognizing the underlying conceptual beliefs, and understanding within the comprehensive coherence of the specific topic. We present different methods to aid arg...

  7. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: An in vitro study

    S Srikanth Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. Materials and Methods: 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Results: Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conclusion: Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Clinical Implication: Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  8. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  9. Ground water quality protection, mining and mining facilities in Utah

    Utah' s around water resources are extremely important to the health and economic well-being of the state's citizens. As a state second only to Nevada in aridity it depends heavily on ground water sources for water for the public, industry, and agriculture. Ground water furnishes about 20% of the state's total water needs and 66% of the public supplies. To protect this water source for current and future users, Utah has developed a Ground Water Policy and initiated the development of a ground water quality protection strategy. Included in the strategy development process was an assessment of the effects that mining and associated activities can have on ground water Quality. The effect mining has on ground water quality depends on the ore and gangue minerals, the mining method, the ore processing, and the method of disposal for waste rock, tailings, and excess mine and mill waters. Sulfide minerals will oxidize to form soluble sulfates and sulfuric acid when exposed to air. Underground, open pit, and solution mines differ in their impact on ground water quality as do the different ore processing methods conventional, heap leach, solar evaporation, etc. Finally, the methods selected for waste disposal are a major determinant of the impact on ground water quality by mining operations. In the future mining companies will need to give increased consideration to protecting ground water and other resources by designing in features to protect these resources from degradation

  10. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  11. Proposal of an environmental sustainability index for open-pit mines using landscape fragmentation indicators / Proposta de um ndice de sustentabilidade ambiental para minas a cu aberto com o uso de indicadores de fragmentao de paisagem

    Felipe Vargas E, Silva; Rodrigo, Peroni.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A percepo dos impactos ambientais das atividades econmicas pela sociedade subjetiva e muitas vezes afeta negativamente a imagem de certos setores econmicos como a minerao. Para no ser subjetiva, a avaliao de impactos ambientais deve se embasar em indicadores ambientais claros e criteriosa [...] mente selecionados. Para demonstrar que a sustentabilidade da minerao a cu aberto comparvel a outras atividades econmicas, foi criado um ndice de sustentabilidade ambiental composto do consumo de gua e energia combinado com um indicador de fragmentao de paisagem construdo com o uso de sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento. Para ilustrar a metodologia, foi realizado um estudo comparativo em um perodo de 10 anos entre a maior mina de minrio de ferro brasileira, N5W, com o maior municpio produtor de soja, Sorriso, no Mato Grosso. Abstract in english The perception of the environmental impacts caused by economic activities is subjective and usually negatively affects the image of an extractive sector such as mining. In order to avoid this, the environmental impact assessment must be supported by clear and well-selected environmental indicators. [...] An index of sustainability was created to demonstrate that open-pit mining is comparable to other economic activities. The index is composed by of environmental indicators like water and energy consumption combined with an indicator of landscape fragmentation, using remote sensing data and geoprocessing. A comparative study considering a ten-year period was carried out with the biggest iron ore mine in Brazil, N5W, and the largest Brazilian soybean producer, the Sorriso County, in the Mato Grosso State to illustrate the methodology.

  12. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Francisco César Rodrigues de Araújo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sorte a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática.This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and quality targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  13. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (?)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-01-01

    Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application ...

  14. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 5: White Cast Iron (?)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-01-01

    Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application ...

  15. Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods

    K. Labisz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

  16. JPRS report: Science and technology, [March 16, 1992]. Central Eurasia: Engineering and equipment -- Conversion of uranium mining enterprises

    NONE

    1992-03-16

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on uranium mining in Central Eurasia. Titles include: Round Table: Conversion Problems of Mining Enterprises of the USSR Ministry of Nuclear Engineering and the Nuclear Power Industry; Priugarskiy Mining-Chemical Combine; Eastern Mining-Enrichment Combine; Upgrading Technology for Open-Pit Mining of Uranium Deposits; Housing Construction in the Vicinity of Mining Enterprises and Questions of Radiation Safety; Geotechnologist Mining Engineer; Special Methods of Geotechnological Preparations; and others.

  17. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  18. Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern

    Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

    1993-01-01

    New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

  19. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    Autiero, D; Cébrian, S; Carmona, J M; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Davenport, M; Delattre, M; Di Lella, L; Formenti, F; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Irastorza, I G; Lakic, B; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Musa, L; Ortiz, A; Placci, A; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Villar, J A; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  20. Niobium in gray cast iron

    The potential for utilization of niobium in gray cast iron is appraised and reviewed. Experiments described in literature indicate that niobium provides structural refinement of the eutectic cells and also promotes pearlite formation. (Author)

  1. Current meter and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 01 December 1977 (NODC Accession 7800741)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean from August 29, 1975...

  2. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-01-01

    Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application ...

  3. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

  4. Investigating MOOCs through Blog Mining

    Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    MOOCs (massive open online course) is a disruptive innovation and a current buzzword in higher education. However, the discussion of MOOCs is disparate, fragmented, and distributed among different outlets. Systematic, extensively published research on MOOCs is unavailable. This paper adopts a novel method called blog mining to analyze MOOCs. The…

  5. Virtualisation of casting engineering

    J.S. Suchy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fast response to an enquiry, minimization of costs of identification of best-suited process solution, as well as a capacity to tackle new challenges is the shortest description of the requirements posed by the contemporary market of machines and equipment. These, in consequence, called for making use of mathematical models and their solution by means of simulation algorithms.Design/methodology/approach: The notable effectiveness of numerical methods streamlined the production preparation process. Maintaining competitiveness, even more tough because of economic factors, is only possible due to cost-effective operation, high quality and well-timed order completion. These, on the other hand, can be facilitated by a broad application of IT tools aiding production management and preparation.Findings: Integration of systems aiding design processes, systems used for simulating selected elements of technologies, as well as of systems supporting instrumentation manufacturing calls for a need to solve a number of complex problems related to IT, mathematical modelling, logistics and knowledge management. Software packages for a simulation of processes that are indispensable in order to achieve the designed distribution of matter structures and condition are of particular importance.Research limitations/implications: Despite the fact that there is a wide range of software for these purposes available on the market, there is a need to build and integrate into IT systems new purpose-developed solutions customised to technologies applied and non-standard problems.Originality/value: Virtualization of casting engineering

  6. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  7. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    D. Kopyci?ski

    2009-01-01

    It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  8. Geometric aspects of the casting process

    Ahn, H.-K.

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing is the process of converting raw materials into useful products. Among the most important manufacturing processes, casting is a commonly used manufacturing process for plastic and metal objects. The industrial casting process consists of two stages. First, liquid is filled into a cavity formed by two cast parts. After the liquid has hardened, one cast part retracts, carrying the object with it. Afterwards, the object is ejected from the retracted cast part. In both retraction an...

  9. Copper alloys in investment casting technology

    S. Rzadkosz; Zych, J; Garbacz-Klempka, A.; Kranc, M.; J. Kozana; Piękoś, M.; J. Kolczyk; Jamrozowicz, Ł.; Stolarczyk, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents research results in the field of casting technology of copper and copper alloys using the investment casting technology, both from historical as well as modern technology perspective. The analysis of exemplary elements of the old casting moulds is included, as well as the Bronze Age casts. The chemical content of various copper alloys was determined and the application of lost wax method was confirmed in the Bronze Age workshop. At present, investment casting method is use...

  10. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  11. Effect of Feeder Configuration on the Microstructure of Ductile Cast Iron

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    Feeding and microstructure of a test casting rigged with different feeder combinations was studied. Castings were examined and classified by soundness and microstructure. Subsequently the casting macro- and microstructure was analyzed to study how differences in solidification and segregation...... influence the soundness of different sections of the castings. Moreover, the microstructural changes due to variations in thermal gradients are classified, and the variations in the mushy zone described. The paper discusses how solidification and segregation influence porosity and microstructure of ductile...... iron castings. The goal is to enable metallurgists and foundry engineers to more directly target mushy zone development to prolong the possibility to feed through this section. Keeping smaller section open for an extended period will make it possible to use fewer or smaller feeders, with reduced energy...

  12. Systematic Selection and Application of Backfill in Underground Mines

    Masniyom, Manoon

    2009-01-01

    The use of backfill in underground mining is increasing due to need for systematic backfilling of mine openings and workings to avoid surface damage, increase safety and contribution to sustainable mining. This study is to investigate backfill materials and new methods suited for systematic selection and application of backfill in underground mines. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special a...

  13. 10th international conference on ground control in mining - proceedings

    36 papers are presented covering topics that include longwall pillar design, assessment of underground structural design, load and convergence measurements in longwall faces, shield strata interaction, longwall shield recovery, roof control in longwall mining, anchor resin system, thrust bolting, roof bolts, cable slings, roof support in retreat mining, coal bump prediction, delineation of abandoned workings, stability of coal mine openings, mining under rivers, rock strength determination, subsidence prediction and measurement, drag picks, measuring roof convergence, and finite element modelling of subsidence

  14. Data mining

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  15. Mine cuisine

    Casteel, K.

    1996-05-01

    The Paris-based mining equipment manufacturers` association, Sytramines, is actively pursuing new markets for French technology. These are now 47 members of Sytramines (Syndicat National des Constructeurs de Materiels pour Mines et Travaux Souterrains). France is interested in developing business in China and in India, the latter using caving techniques similar to those used in France. The article highlights services and technologies offered by several new members of Sytramines: Alios Engineering, Arcane, CSA Consultants, Duarib, Harex, Luna, Masterk, NFM, Perforex, Percevaut Environment, Secra, Semafor, and Tec. 2 photos.

  16. Mining software for the Muara Tiga Besar Project

    Wheeler, A. (Datamine International, London (UK))

    1992-05-01

    The Datamine software system consists of a database core and extension modules covering different areas including drillhole data handling, geological modelling, surveying, open pit and underground mine planning and production scheduling. The system has been used by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam for the modelling, evaluation and mine planning of the new Muara Tiga Besar open-pit coal mining project in south Sumatra. 9 figs.

  17. Research on the squeeze cast technology of the castings with large ratio of height to thickness

    Li, Chen-Xi; SAN Jing-chao; Xu, Na

    2005-01-01

    The squeeze cast technology is only applicable, at present, to the castings with a ratio of height to thickness less than 3.5. Researching the squeeze cast technology for castings with a large ratio of height to thickness will broaden the applicable range of the advanced casting technology. This paper describes a study of the temperature distribution during solidification for castings with a ratio of height to thickness of 7 by the methods of experiment and computer simulation. The shrinkage ...

  18. Gamma radiation at coal mines and sections

    The problem of radiation background in coal miner and open pits conditioned by γ-radiation of coals and enclousing rocks containing natural radioactive isotopes (40K, 226Ra, 232Th) is analyzed. The data are presented on average content of the above isotopes in coals, hard rocks and earth crest; γ-dose rate in mines and open pits as well as on possible limits and average values of external γ-radiation in mines. It is shown that external γ-radiation is an insignificant factor of radiation hazard in mines and open pits. Systematic monitoring of and accounting for external radiation dose of the personnel are required only in mines where average concentration of 226Ra exceeds 200 Bqxkg-1, and that of 232Th - 150 Bqxkg-1

  19. SME mining engineering handbook

    Hartman, H.L. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This handbook is divided into 6 parts, covering 157 separate chapters. The first part, the introduction, discusses the activities of mining, field of mining engineering, history of mining, mineral economics and the role of government in mining. Part 2, the stages of mining covers mineral prospecting and exploration, project and mining geology, mine evaluation and analysis, mine development and mine exploitation. The unit operations of mining (Part 3) includes the operations of drilling, blasting, materials handling and production and auxiliary operations needed for effective control of health safety and the environment in surface and underground mining. Among the topics covering under the surface mining part are haul road design and in-pit crushing and conveying. Underground mining developments and methods covered in part 5 include self-supported, backfill supported and caving methods. Part 6, supplemental topics include the variables to be considered for the evaluation of mining methods and guidelines for mining method selection.

  20. La hydrogeology en la traditional mining of hydrocarbons, mining new

    Is presented from the point of view of Geosciences, an approach torelations between hydrogeology and mining activities, including those of traditional non - metal deposits of ores and rocks application (underground or open pit), the so-called ''modern mining'' (pickles) and hydrocarbons. Within the traditional mining, hydrogeology participates decisively several aspects, both those related to the feasibility of the projects, water supply for the stage of exploration and exploitation, mineraloductos ácueosand mine operations, such as environmental protection of water resources. In the ''modern mining'' groundwater acquires true character mena when it comes to the use of natural brines, and subject when they are generated by injecting water into an aquifer medium. In the case of hydrocarbons, the spectrum is broader participation at the stage of exploration and exploitation, where the hydrogeology is critical to providing water to camps and processes as well as operations secondary recovery, consumers strongly. From the perspective of environmental protection, are the main protagonists of groundwater the impacts of production, but also the phases are transportation, processing and marketing. They are used in the presentation of case examples of Argentina and Chile, some reflections on the need for an appropriate regulatory framework, especially addressed to Uruguay, and information to protect the population activity production of an unfair detriment, when mining is done responsibly