WorldWideScience

Sample records for open cast mines

  1. Open Cast Mining: An Environmental Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents a case study in which students investigate the environmental issue of open cast coal mining. Students examine the issue from different perspectives; interpret the available evidence; draw appropriate conclusions; and evaluate such conclusions. (MDH)

  2. A review on air pollution and various dust models for open cast mines in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open cast coal mining continues to create significant environmental problems in India. In particular, this type of mining creates high rates of air pollution SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx. In these particulate matter i.e. SPM and RPM is major pollution in the open cast mines. It creates several heath hazards to mine workers and surrounding peoples and high environmental deterioration occurs. Several studies are carried out in the field of air pollution and air quality modeling of open cast projects and many researchers suggested several control measures for the air pollution control in mines. Different dust models FDM, ISC3 are available for prediction and transport of the pollutants. In this paper a review has been studied about air pollution in the open cast mines and dust dispersion models for open cast mines in India. (author)

  3. Land degradation due to open cast mines-a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of open cast mines is increasing day by day in coal production. These open cast mines have direct and visible impacts on land surface. During mining stage, land is damaged and degraded. Excavation of coal and overburden dumping along with other infrastructural development is responsible for this damage and degradation. Impact of land degradation is observed as loss of forest cover, reduction and extinction of wildlife, reduction of agricultural land, destruction of geologic column, soil erosion, hydrological imbalance, socioeconomic problems, etc. in active mining areas. The present paper discusses the extent and impact of land degradation by open cast mining activity in Singrauli coal field. The paper also highlights the extent of land degradation particularly in one of the open cast mining projects of Singrauli coal field. It also suggests certain control measures to minimise the problem. (author)

  4. The seismically safe management of explosions in the uranium ore deposits -Lichtenberg open cast mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simultaneous execution of underground mining work with parallel secondary mining of the deposit by open cast mining sets great requirements for the safety of the employees, the protection of engineering structures and technical equipment and the maintenance of working seams. From the outline of the planned opencast mining one could see that the mining work of parts of the deposit would approach the mining seams to be maintained and protected to within less than 30 metres. (orig.)

  5. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  6. Humification processes in reclaimed open-cast lignite mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros, M.C.; Gil-Sotres, F.; Ceccanti, B.; Trasar-Cepeda, M.C.; Gonzales-Sangregorio, M.V. (Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agraria)

    1993-10-01

    To identify the principal humification pathways which occur during the initial stages of pedogenesis, organic matter from mine soils of different ages from the Meirama lignite mine in NW Spain was subjected to a series of physicochemical and chemical fractionations. Although humic molecules of molecular weight lower than 10,000 Da were always predominant, the percentage of C associated with molecules of between 50,000 and 200,000 Da increased with soil age, as did the percentage of chemically stabilized humus and the percentage of C associated with immobile complexes. In general, these results suggest that the principal humification pathway in these soils involves abiotic condensation reactions, as in the case of natural soils of this region. The low complexed metal content of the mine soils in comparison with natural soils indicates the low degree of weathering of inorganic fraction which has occurred in the former.

  7. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In laboratory experiments, we tested reactive materials that may speed up the process of bacterial sulfate reduction. In in-situ experiments, we quantified nitrification rates. Based on the results, we are able to suggest promising technical measures that enhance natural attenuation processes at mine dump site and in mining lakes. The natural water cycle in lignite mining landscapes is heavily impacted by human activities. Basically, nature is capable of cleaning itself to a certain extent after mining activities stopped. However, it is our responsibility to support biogeochemical processes to make them more efficient and more sustainable. Isotopic monitoring proved to be an excellent tool for assessing the relevance and performance of different re-cultivation measures for a positive long-term development of the water quality in large-scale aquatic systems affected by the impact of lignite mining.

  8. Turn around management of open-cast lignite mines in Kosovo; Turn Around Management der Braunkohletagebaue im Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehna, U. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Vattenfall Mining Consulting

    2008-03-15

    In their cooperation in turn around management of KEK, Vattenfall Europe Mining Consulting made an important contribution to supporting the Kosovo. In spite of limited resources and a short time available, many practical steps were taken, and effective, sustainable and safe operation of the open-cast mine was achieved. (orig.)

  9. Case study: Inflow of groundwater into open-cast mine Hambach, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiller, M.; Forkel, C.; Kongeter, J. [University of Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In November 1997 an outflow of up to 0.4 m{sup 3}/s of groundwater from deep seated aquifers occurred in the open-cast lignite mine of Hambach, Germany. Although this incident was technically under control and did not affect the mining activities, it was studied in a joint research project to exclude recurrences at other locations. In this paper we summarize the results from a hydromechanical point of view. One key issue of this paper is to present a continuous and consistent explanation of the progression of the incident based on an analysis of the available geological, hydraulic, and chemical data. The probability of similar incidents is highly unlikely due to the rare combination of a thin sealing clay smear in the fault, high pressure gradient, and fractured coal seams in direct contact with the sealing clay. As a perspective, strategies for a responsible mining policy are derived based on the outcome of this study to prevent a recurrence of this type of incident and to ensure optimal safety for the mining operations with minimum effects on water resources.

  10. Integral management system for production in open-cast coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, M.A.A.; Garcia-Sineriz M, J.L. [Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., Meirama (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    In 1991, 9.5 million m{sup 3} of material from a Spanish open-cast brown coal mine were transported by a belt conveyor system to a coal depot or a waste heap. Development of an integral management system to automate the conveyor belt circuits for transport of the lignite and clayish material extracted by three excavators and the rock from two semi-mobile crushers is described. The material is carried to a distribution point and tipped onto three collector circuits for coal and waste. The system saturates the capacity of the conveyor belt circuits for coal and waste without causing overloading or holdup. The control system acts on allocated set-points of the production machines. The system does not require weighers or density sensors in the belts to continuously estimate the density of the material being transported. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  12. Geoelectrical surveys for monitoring acid mine drainage in groundwater at abandoned open-cast lignite mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollberg, R.; Hirsch, M.; Weiss, H.

    2013-05-01

    Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques (DC resistivity measurements, Direct Push based electrical conductivity logging) were used to identify and localize acid mine drainage (AMD) at former lignite mining areas and adjacent groundwater bodies in Central Germany. Geoelectrical surface measurements are a fast and high-resolution survey method for the identification and discrimination of subsurface sections with different electrical properties. The method is based on a current injection by a pair of electrodes and electrical potential measurements by a second pair of electrodes. An electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface can be measured by the ratio of injected currents and measured potentials. Moreover, electrical conductivity logging (EC-logging) was applied along the profile line of the geoelectrical surface measurement. A direct-push machine was used to push a GeoProbe® Wenner-Probe attached to a rod string into the ridges of mining dumps for recording vertical electrical resistivity profiles. The main objective has been the comparison between the superficial resistivity measurements and the results from in-situ downhole EC-logging for identifying the presence of AMD. Both, surface and subsurface measurements yielded in a precise and corresponding imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. A good correlation of the results obtained by these non- to minimal invasive investigation techniques with conventional (i.e. groundwater sampling) approaches could be proven.

  13. Groundwater recharge in order to compensate the impacts of sump dewatering of the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Grundwasseranreicherung zum Ausgleich von Suempfungsauswirkungen des Tagebaues Garzweiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forkel, Chrsitian [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Wasserwirtschaft und Wasserwirtschaftliche Planung und Genehmigung; Mueller, Christian [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Langfrist- und Entwaesserungsplanung

    2013-01-15

    RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) annually produces nearly 100 million tons of brown coal in the Rhenish lignite mining district within the triangle of cities formed by Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach (Federal Republic of Germany). The secure production of brown coal requires a drainage of the aquifers above the coal as well as relaxed aquifers beneath the deepest seams of coal. Actually, the sump dewatering being necessary for the operation of the open-cast mining amounts nearly 600 million m{sup 3} per year. The dewatering of the open-cast mining is performed by means of wells which were set up nearly five to ten years prior to the date of coal mining. Due to the ongoing coal mining, continuously new wells have to be set up. Moreover, the centres of drainage or the funnels of sump dewatering, respectively, move with the progress of coal mining. The measures of sump dewatering are optimized by minimizing the amounts and impacts of sump dewatering.

  14. De recursos naturales a bienes comunes: la minería a cielo abierto / From natural resources to common goods: open -cast mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Milesi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La crisis política e institucional ocurrida en Argentina en 2011 muestra un escenario donde se instaura con fuerza la protesta “desde abajo” corporizada en diversas asambleas populares. En este caso específicamente el interés recae sobre los colectivos sociales que resisten las explotaciones mineras [...] a cielo abierto. Las negociaciones, las luchas, los intereses en juego, las actividades de promoción y los procesos de resistencia, conforman un escenario particular donde los actores sociales y su capacidad de acción dan cuenta de modalidades renovadas de apropiación cultural del ambiente. La recategorización del medio, por parte de las asambleas ambientales, rechazando la designación de recurso natural y sustituyéndola por bien común, permite a estos actores sociales establecer un nuevo anclaje para llevar adelante la lucha. Abstract in english The political and institutional crisis happened in Argentina in 2011 shows a political scene where the protest is restored strongly "from below" embodied in diverse popular assemblies. In this article, the interest specifically relapses on the social groups that resist the open-cast mining. The nego [...] tiations, the fights, the interests in game, the activities of promotion and the processes of resistance, shape a particular scene where the social actors and their capacity of action realize of modalities renewed of cultural appropriation of the environment. The new categorization of the habitat by environmental assemblies, rejecting the designation of natural resource and replacing it by common good, allows these social actors to establish a new anchorage to take forward the fight.

  15. Construction of the new material distribution point in the open-cast mining. Inden from a geotechnical point of view; Bau des neuen Bandsammelpunktes im Tagebau. Inden aus geotechnischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weuffel, Michael; Wilden, Ulrich [RWE Power AG, Abteilung PCS-GE, Bergheim (Germany); Nendza, Matthias [Geotechnisches Buero Prof. Dr.-Ing. H. Duellmann, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The Rhenish lignite mining area with the three open-cast minings Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden is located between the three cities Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach. Here, up to 100 million tons of brown coal is produced annually. The stocks of lignite amount to 3.24 billion tons. 20-25 million tons of lignite is produced annually in the open-cast mining Inden. In order to explore the further activities of the open-cast mine Inden with respect to the coal mining, the material distribution point had to be moved to a site in the north of the location Lamersdorf. The commissioning of the material distribution point took place in June 2008.

  16. Screening for microbial markers in Miocene sediment exposed during open-cast brown coal mining.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Krišt?fek, Václav; Frouz, Jan; Nováková, Alena; Chro?áková, Alica

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 89, ?. 3-4, (2006), s. 459-463. ISSN 0003-6072 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA526/03/1259; GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : fatty acids * microfungi * mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2006

  17. Study of airborne radioactivity around open cast coal mines in Juelich region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 2003 environmental activists claimed a high risk of cancers caused by airborne fine dust originating from coal mining for its inherent high radioactivity levels. As there were only few data available (measured by the authorities) we started to collect fine-dust fractions and measure their activity. Gross alpha, gross beta and specific isotopic analyses were carried with a view to study the general background radiation level as well as to further investigate the apprehension of local communities. The data are being compared to permissible limits of radioactivity and fine dust concentrations. (orig.)

  18. Removal and accumulation of mercury by aquatic macrophytes from an open cast coal mine effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Tripathi, B D; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2009-12-30

    In this study, the mercury (Hg) removal capacities of two aquatic macrophytes, Pistia stratiotes and Azolla pinnata, were investigated against the coal mining effluent. These plants reduced mercury from the effluent via rhizofiltration and subsequent accumulation in plant. The removal rate of P. stratiotes and A. pinnata was 80% and 68%, respectively, after 21 days of exposure to the effluent containing 10 microg L(-1) of Hg. As mercury from the effluent was accumulated in the root and shoot tissues of both aquatic macrophytes, they were proven to be a root accumulator with a translocation factor of less than one during the entire study. The decreasing Hg content in effluent (from 10 to 2.0 microg L(-1)) was reflected by its accumulation in roots (0.57+/-0.02 mg g(-1) in P. stratiotes) and leaves of the experimental plants (0.42+/-0.01 mg g(-1), P. stratiotes). As a result, Hg concentrations in the coal mining effluent were tightly associated with those observed from macrophytes. Considering the high removal efficiencies of Hg by these aquatic macrophytes, these plants can be recommended for the actual treatment of Hg-containing waste waters. PMID:19665290

  19. Vibration control using digital energy control system in open cast coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A.K.; Singh, V.K.; Daruka, R. [IEL/Orica, Kolkata (India)

    2006-07-01

    The study was conducted to reduce blast induced ground vibration in drag line bench without reducing the maximum instantaneous charge and control side and back break using digital detonators and compare the results with conventional system. Technological constraints in terms of precise delay timings of pyrotechnic detonators had forced DGMS and other institutions to formulate laws which are not favourable for mining of locked up coal reserve near settlements and structures. The i-kon digital energy control system a revolutionary system in blasting owing to its precision in delay timing. The enhanced level of control on timing and wide flexibility that i-kon offers enables blasting close to environmentally sensitive areas safer and hassle free. 4 refs.

  20. A Complex Use of the Materials Extracted from an Open-Cast Lignite Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryan, Petr; Bu?ko, Zden?k; Mika, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The company Sokolovská uhelná, was the largest producer of city gas in the Czech Republic. After its substitution by natural gas the gasification technology became the basis of the production of electricity in the combine cycle power plant with total output 400 MW. For the possibility of gasification of liquid by- -products forming during the coal gasification a entrained-flow gasifier capable to process also alternative liquid fuels has been in installed. The concentrated waste gas with these sulphur compounds is conducted to the desulphurisation where the highly desired, pure, 96 % H2SO4 is produced. Briquettable brown coal is crushed, milled and dried and then it is passed into briquetting presses where briquettes, used mainly as a fuel in households, are pressed without binder in the punch under the pressure of 175 MPa. Fine brown coal dust (multidust) is commercially used for heat production in pulverized-coal burners. It forms not only during coal drying after separation on electrostatic separators, but it is also acquired by milling of dried coal in a vibratory bar mill. Slag from boilers of classical power plant, cinder form generators and ashes deposited at the dump are dehydrated and they are used as a quality bedding material during construction of communications in the mines of SUAS. Fly ash is used in building industry for partial substitution of cement in concrete. Flue gases after separation of fly ash are desulphurized by wet limestone method, where the main product is gypsum used, among others, in the building industry. Expanded clays from overburdens of coal seams, that are raw material for the production of "Liapor" artificial aggregate, are used heavily. This artificial aggregate is characterized by outstanding thermal and acoustic insulating properties. Przedsi?biorstwo Sokolovska uhelna jest najwi?kszym producentem gazu miejskiego w Republice Czeskiej. Po jego zast?pieniu przez gaz ziemny, technologia gazyfikacji sta?a si? podstaw? do produkcji elektryczno?ci w elektrowni o cyklu mieszanym o ca?kowitej mocy wyj?ciowej 400 MW. W celu umo?liwienia gazyfikacji ciek?ych produktów ubocznych gazyfikacji w?gla, zainstalowano na drodze przep?ywu generator gazu, umo?liwiaj?cy przetwarzanie alternatywnych paliw ciek?ych. Skoncentrowany gaz odlotowy zawieraj?cy zwi?zki siarki odprowadzany jest do instalacji odsiarczaj?cej, gdzie produkowany jest cenny produkt H2SO4, o wysokim stopniu czysto?ci (96%). W?giel brunatny nadaj?cy si? do produkcji brykietów jest kruszony, mielony i suszony, nast?pnie przechodzi przez proces brykietowania w odpowiednich prasach, gdzie formowane s? brykiety, poprzez ich sprasowanie pod ci?nieniem 175 MPa. Brykiety takie wykorzystywane s? powszechnie jako paliwo w gospodarstwach domowych. Drobnoziarniste py?y w?gla brunatnego (paliwa py?owe) wykorzystywane s? na skal? komercyjn? do produkcji ciep?a w paleniskach py?owych. Py?y w?glowe powstaj? nie tylko w trakcie suszenia w?gla po procesie oddzielania w separatorach elektrostatycznych, lecz tak?e w procesie mielenia suszonego w?gla w m?ynach wibracyjnych. ?u?el z kot?ów w konwencjonalnej elektrowni, popio?y z generatorów oraz te osadzaj?ce si? w instalacji podlegaj? wysuszeniu, nast?pnie wykorzystywane s? jako wysokiej jako?ci materia? na pod?o?e w ró?norodnych instalacjach. Popio?y lotne wykorzystywane s? przemy?le budowlanym jako cz??ciowe zamienniki cementu. Po oddzieleni popio?u lotnego, gazy wylotowe kierowane s? do instalacji odsiarczania z wykorzystaniem technologii wilgotnego wapienia, w wyniku tego procesu powstaje gips, wykorzystywany, miedzy innymi, w przemy?le budowlanym. Glinki z warstw nadk?adu nad pok?adami w?gla wykorzystywane s? powszechnie jako surowiec do produkcji sztucznego kruszywa "Liapor', wykazuj?cego wyj?tkowe w?a?ciwo?ci termiczne i d?wi?koizolacyjne.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Land Cover Dynamics in Open Cast Coal Mine Area of Singrauli, M.P., India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Singrauli is an opencast coal mining area where large scale mining activities are going on continuously, land use/land cover studies are of vital importance to observe the changes in the land use/land cover. The present study utilizes multi-spectral/multi-temporal data of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS LISS II geocoded (FCC of 4th May 1993 and LISS III of 4th May 2010 for thematic mapping. Survey of India toposheet 63L/12 on scale 1:50,000 were used for preparation of base map which was overlaid on the FCC for land use/land cover mapping through visual interpretation. Visual interpretation of satellite imagery led to the identification of 15 land use/land cover categories such as dense forest, open forest, open scrub, plantation, cultivated land, uncultivated land, mining pit, overburden dumps, wasteland and settlement. The ground truth verification was carried out in key areas to rectify the errors in generated maps and then land use/land cover maps were finalized. The comparative analysis of land use/land cover shows that dense forest has been degraded to open forest, open scrubs and mining pits due to the expansion of mining activity. Open scrubs has increased, overburden dumps has increased, settlement has also increased, cultivated land has decreased and changed into uncultivated land and wasteland. It has also been observed that the plantation has been done on overburden dumps and residential colonies of NCL and NTPC. It has been identified that the main drivers which has increased the rate of change in land use/land cover are mainly coal mining activities and industrial expansion.

  2. Geoelectrical surveys for identification and monitoring of AMD in groundwaters influenced by lignite open-cast mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, lignite peak production from the Zwenkau mine was 10 million tons. The Zwenkau mine is part of the central German mining district, located approximately 10 km south of Leipzig. The ratio of both overburden and sumping water to lignite is approximately 2.5:1 m3/ton. Following mine abandonment in 1999, the rising groundwater infiltrated the dump areas as well as the unexploited sedimentary sequence, resulting in significant acid mine drainage (AMD). Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques were used to identify AMD affected lignite open-pit dump areas and adjacent groundwater bodies. The survey techniques included direct current resistivity measurements and direct push based electrical conductivity logging. The paper described the methods and materials used in the geoelectrical surveys and groundwater sampling. It was concluded that both surface and subsurface measurements provided precise imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  3. From deposit modelling to the mine plan engineering guidance in a Greenfield project for the opening of a lignite open-cast mine during the preparation and development phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to supply the nearby power plant Elbistan B, a new open-cast mine is being developed at the Collolar Field in Turkey. Initial fieldwork began in mid-2007, followed by overburden removal in early 2008 and lignite production in 2009. Several planning studies have been undertaken in order to prepare and undertake the initial work in just under two years, including the establishment of a geological model as a basis for calculating reserves, and for hydrological and geotechnical calculations, leading to a drainage concept and the formulation of requirements made on the slope stability. This paper presented the framework concept for the modelling and discussed the geological modelling and selection of a suitable development plan. The hydrological calculations and planning of drainage measures were also outlined. The more detailed plans for phase two, including the database for hydro-geological modelling, pumping tests and laboratory tests, ground water modelling, and the dewatering concept were also presented. The paper also discussed the determination of geotechnical parameters, calculation methods, and the slope stabilities at the mining and dumping site. It was concluded that regular comparison to plans and calculations on drainage and slope stability must be conducted when planning and operating a mine. 3 figs.

  4. From deposit modelling to the mine plan engineering guidance in a Greenfield project for the opening of a lignite open-cast mine during the preparation and development phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertling, H. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft, Theiben (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In order to supply the nearby power plant Elbistan B, a new open-cast mine is being developed at the Collolar Field in Turkey. Initial fieldwork began in mid-2007, followed by overburden removal in early 2008 and lignite production in 2009. Several planning studies have been undertaken in order to prepare and undertake the initial work in just under two years, including the establishment of a geological model as a basis for calculating reserves, and for hydrological and geotechnical calculations, leading to a drainage concept and the formulation of requirements made on the slope stability. This paper presented the framework concept for the modelling and discussed the geological modelling and selection of a suitable development plan. The hydrological calculations and planning of drainage measures were also outlined. The more detailed plans for phase two, including the database for hydro-geological modelling, pumping tests and laboratory tests, ground water modelling, and the dewatering concept were also presented. The paper also discussed the determination of geotechnical parameters, calculation methods, and the slope stabilities at the mining and dumping site. It was concluded that regular comparison to plans and calculations on drainage and slope stability must be conducted when planning and operating a mine. 3 figs.

  5. The problem of liquidating the buildings of former underground brown coal mines in the Podkru?nohoøí area in connection with the decree of the czech bureau of mines no. 52/1997, collection of laws, and problems of open cast mines in places of their occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Emil

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the problems of liquidating buildings of former underground mining, especially of shafts of closed and damped mines. It is stated that strict maintaining the Decree of the Czech Bureau of Mines (ÈBÚ No. 52/1997, Collection of Laws, has its justification for deep and gassy hard coal mines, but it cannot be absolutely valid in the full extent for shallow ore, and mainly brown coal mines. An example of the analysis of shaft depths of the Sokolov District and the liquidation of some shafts of the Most Coal Company, joint-stock company in Most is adduced. Moreover, the liquidation of objects of development and preparatory workings of former underground mines using the open-cast mining method and related problems are discussed in the contribution.

  6. Evaluating top soil trace element pollution in the vicinity of a cement plant and a former open-cast uranium mine in central Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.A.; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (AR). Inst. Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV); Moreno, Monica; Invernizzi, Rodrigo; Pla, Rita [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAE), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares

    2010-10-15

    Heavy metals are especially dangerous because of their persistence and toxicity. Soil behaves as a sink of heavy metals by aerial deposition of particles emitted by different human activities. The aims of this work were to identify the levels and sources of heavy metal and trace elements in agricultural and residential areas in Argentina and to evaluate the enrichment of total and HCl-extracted heavy metals. Materials and methods: Ninety-four topsoil samples were collected in Cordoba, Argentina (0-10 cm). The majority of the samples were subject to agricultural practices. The possible metal pollution sources were a cement plant and an industrial waste incinerator, a former open-cast uranium mine, petrochemical, and mechanical and metallurgical industries among others. The elements As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn were measured by neutron activation analysis, and Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were partially extracted by 0.5-M HCl and measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Several nonparametric statistics were performed to the dataset in order to accomplish the objectives of the study. Results and discussion: The mean total Ba concentration exceeded soil quality guidelines for residential areas, with the maximum total As and Co concentrations surpassing the agricultural and residential limits stated in national and international legislations. The elements As and Ba were found to be controlled by parent factors, whereas Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were controlled by both anthropogenic and pedogenic factors. A cement plant was the main source of Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, whereas lanthanides, Fe, K, U, and also Zn were associated with a former open-cast operation uranium mine. A correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter and pH had strong associations with 0.5-M HCl-extracted Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Conclusions: Fe-normalized enrichment factors calculated for 0.5-M HCl-extracted heavy metals are potentially significant for characterizing the element bioavailability, the anthropogenic contamination, and the anomaly assessment. According to soil quality guidelines for environmental health, the human and wildlife populations in Cordoba Province might be experiencing toxic As, Ba, Co, Cr, Ta, U, and Zn effects. Therefore, mitigation strategies should be performed on an abandoned mine (Schlagintweit Uranium Mine), Yocsina, Despenaderos, and Oliva. (orig.)

  7. 50 years of brown coal open cast ''Konin''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history as well as present condition of brown coal mine ''Konin'' located in Central Poland are presented. In 1994 about 13380 million tons of coal were extracted from this open cast and 95% of it was burnt in power plants. The prognosis of future production up to 2020 is given and the program of mine restructurization is described. 3 ills

  8. Chair in open-cast and international mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University; Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudeshki, H.; Hardebusch, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau, TU Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2002-12-05

    The range of activities of the Chair in Open-cast and International Mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University currently comprises the field of teaching and further scientific training, research and development as well as transfer of knowledge and technology. In addition to these legally sanctioned activities PR work concerning the necessity for the mining of mineral raw materials and the associated training of mining engineers plays a central role. In accordance with the fundamental idea that a prerequisite for good training in the field of engineering science is a close link between university and industry the contents of the courses are always adapted to the state of the art in the mining industry and the main areas of research based on practical requirements. In accordance with this process current aspects of the safeguarding of raw materials, sustenance and management of knowledge in the mining industry are integrated in these courses. The current research work is interdisciplinary and deals with quality management, deposit protection, recultivation and rehabilitation as well as reduction of emissions. (orig.) [German] Das Aufgabenspektrum des Lehrstuhls fuer Tagebau und Internationalen Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal umfasst die Gebiete Lehre und wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung, Forschung und Entwicklung sowie Wissens- und Technologietransfer. Ueber diese gesetzlich verankerten Aufgaben hinaus nimmt die PR-Arbeit ueber die Notwendigkeit bergmaennischer Gewinnung mineralischer Rohstoffe und der damit einhergehenden Ausbildung von Bergbauingenieuren eine zentrale Stellung ein. Dem Leitgedanken folgend, dass eine gute Ausbildung im ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Bereich eine enge Verbindung zwischen Hochschule und Industrie voraussetzt, werden die Lehrinhalte stets dem Stand der Technik im Bergbau angepasst und die Forschungsschwerpunkte praxisbezogen abgeleitet. Diesem Prozess folgend wurden aktuell Aspekte der Rohstoffsicherung, Nachhaltigkeit und Wissensmanagement im Bergbau in die Lehre integriert. Die derzeitigen Forschungsarbeiten sind interdisziplinaer angelegt und befassen sich mit Qualitaetsmanagement, Lagerstaettenschutz, Rekultivierung und Sanierung sowie Reduzierung von Emissionen. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of the planned post-mining landscape of MIBRAG's open-cast mines with regard to a possible environmental impact of alteration processes in mixed dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing body of knowledge with regard to hydro- and geochemical alteration processes in overburden dumps and their impact on groundwater quality in lignite mining and reclamation operations associated with post-mining landscapes in Germany. The operators of the MIBRAG mines have examined issues regarding alteration processes and how they affect the environment and which opportunities exist to actively influence the dumping process. The objectives were to counteract any possible negative impact of the alteration processes. Special emphasis was on the impact caused by oxidation of sulfur containing minerals. This paper presented an analysis of the situation at United Schleenhain Mine and how it reflects on the work to date for MIBRAG's mines. A future outlook was also presented. Specifically, the paper discussed the development of the United Schleenhain mine and the post-mining landscape. The potential for discharge of substances was also evaluated along with acidification. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Linkage of spreaders an the LWL infrastructure of the control room Garzweiler II in the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Anbindung der Absetzer an die LWL-Infrastruktur des Leitstandes Garzweiler II im Tagebau Garzweiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueren, Daniel [RWE Power Aktiengesellschaft, Grevenbroich (DE). Tagebau Garzweiler, Infrastruktur Elektrotechnik - Technische Unterstuetzung (PCG-IE-T)

    2011-12-15

    In the Rhenish mining area nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were produced annually. The conveyors are connected with each other and with the central process control system. The control of the plant is performed by a control room. In light of the retrofitting of the band control center for the open-cast mining Garzweiler a broadband communication network based on OTN (Open Transport Network) was established. The connection of the spreader to the infrastructure of the control room via OTN nodes was performed in the years 2006 to 2010. Six spreaders as well as the associated belt grinding carriages can be connected to the central control of the band control station.

  11. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  12. Changing environment and urban identity following open-cast mining and thermic power plant in Turkey: case of Soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Arife

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a summary of a project changed into a book named by "Changing Environment, City and Identity in Soma with the Geographical Evaluations" issued on May 2005. In this research, Soma, which is one of the most remarkable districts in Manisa in the West Anatolia from the point of economical figures, is assessed with its physical environment potential, improving economical activities and changing socio-economical structure. Owing to the open coal basins in the northeast and southwest of the district where lignite is produced and the impact of the thermic power plant near the city centre, Soma has changed on a large scale. This change has introduced some environmental problems into the district such as the devastation of the forestry land; the infertility of farming land; and soil, water and air pollution. Even though the change under discussion has led to many problems to deal with, it has also influenced its socio-economical structure to a large extent and revealed new type of inhabitants having different life expectations and aims. In conclusion, in this article, changing environment and city structure after lignite processing and thermic station establishment in Soma are discussed through the effective geographical factors. The new city profile formed by the local dynamics in question is evaluated according to the data obtained by the studies made in the neighbourhood. PMID:21739283

  13. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANIL Z CHITADE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This research explains the use of remote sensing (RS, Global positioning system (GPS, and GIS technology for the detection of LULC changes. In this work LULC changes have been detected using remotely sensed images during the period from 1990 to 2010, using Landsat-TM image of year 1990 and Cartosat-I image of year 2010. The above images were rectified and georeferenced using GPS data collected by point positioning mode observations.Ground truthing for the LULC classification accuracy assessment has been done using GPSinstrument. Image analysis operations have been carried out using Erdas Imagine software. Various effects of coal mining activities on the Land use have been highlighted.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix - Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC Manufacturing Operations...Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC Manufacturing Operations...coat 27 lb/ton. 7. Centrifugal casting—CR/HS 3,4 A...

  15. Study of Internal Dump Stability of Dudhichua Open Cast Project, Northern Coalfields Limited, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Roy, I.

    2015-04-01

    Dudhichua Open Cast Project is one of the prestigious projects of Northern Coalfields Limited, India; with total mineable coal reserves of approximately 400 million tonnes and corresponding 1,700 million m3 volume of waste rock i.e. overburden material. Accommodating this waste dump masses in the limited space of the de-coaled portion of the quarry is considered as one of the major challenges to the mine operators. It has been reported that this mine is facing frequent slope failures of waste rock dumps which is of great concern to the mine management in view of unsafe working condition. To tackle the above problem, a detailed investigation was carried out to propose a stable dump profile which will cater to the land economics and safety aspects of the mine. A detailed investigation along with recommendation of optimum design for dragline dump profile along with shovel-dumper-dump profile is presented in this paper.

  16. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucai WANG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  17. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  18. Applications of knowledge based expert systems in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, D.P. [REC, Rourkela (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1998-07-01

    The use of knowledge based expert systems for blast design, mine planning and design, failure diagnostic improvement in mining equipment, selection of open cast mine equipment, controlling ore flow, coal scheduling, CPP design, selection of gateway support, mine ventilation, surface mine design, mineral exploration, assessing mine fires and other applications are described. 14 refs. 10 figs.

  19. Official opening of new mine in Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluff Mining's uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan was officially opened 1981 April 2. General information is provided, with emphasis on worker safety and environmental protection. (N.D.H.)

  20. A study into the potential of using coal mining and preparation wastes in the production of cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpirt, M.I.; Gorjunova, N.P.; Rainbow, A.K.M. [Fossil Fuel Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The potential of using coal mining and coal preparation wastes as an additive to partially reduce the quantity of coke used in the production of cast iron is being investigated by Russia. The method is based on the formation of silicon carbide and ferrosilicon during the heating process in a blast furnace. The study involved thermodynamic calculations and experiments using two types of feed stock at two metallurgical plants. This paper reflects the progress that has been made. The results show that the decrease of coke consumption and increase in blast furnace capacity was achieved. According to our calculations lt. of CW can be used in lieu of 0.5 t of coke for casting cast iron instead of cast iron produced for steel manufacture. Furthermore favourable results were also achieved using shungit rocks in this process; to the extent that shungits are used constantly for decreasing coke quantities in the production of cast iron. 3 tabs.

  1. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both of the mines. (author). 10 refs.

  2. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  3. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-04-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine.

  4. Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

  5. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is 'deepened' in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level. (authors)

  6. Perils of project development on public land open to mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting a government project on public land open to the general mining laws can result in added costs, legal entanglements, schedule uncertainties, and the potential for unanticipated safety issues and concerns due to interactions with mining claimants. Planning for such projects must include a careful assessment of not only land access needs and restrictions, but also possible scenarios for conflict with activities authorized under the general mining laws throughout the life of the project. It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the applicable mining laws and how they are currently being interpreted and applied by the responsible regulatory authorities and land managers. The Yucca Mountain Project approach to land access, problems encountered with mining claims filed under the Mining Law of 1872, and the lessons learned from these experiences are discussed in this paper

  7. IMPROVEMENT IN DETERMINATION OF AN AVERAGE MINE OPENING PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Renduli?

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of air current resistance in a mine opening with allowable error depends very much on knowing the exact values of its geometric characteristics, i.e. length, cross-section, and perimeter. Eventual error in determining an opening profile grows when calculating the resistance by raising to the third power. The paper describes the construction of a portable device for illumination of cross-sectional area for taking photographs. Determination of geometric characteristics of an average stage profile of a mine opening is analytically and graphically presented herewith by application of F3/U relation of measured profiles.

  8. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  9. 30 CFR 75.501-3 - New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy...Section 75.501-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

  10. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

  11. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  12. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

  13. A Novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for Executing Data Mining tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Data mining services on grids is the need of today’s era. Workflow environments are widely used in data mining systems to manage data and execution flows associated to complex applications. Weka, one of the most used open-source data mining systems, includes the Knowledge-Flow environment which provides a drag-and-drop inter-face to compose and execute data mining workflows. It allows users to execute a whole workflow only on a single compute on the basis of simplicity. There are several workflows in today’s scene. Most data mining workflows include several independent branches that could be run in parallel on a set of distributed machines to reduce the overall execution time. In this paper we proposed a novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for executing data mining tasks. Our algorithm contains five phases 1 Authentication 2 Reading Database3 Define the minimum support 4 Subset Find 5 Prune phase. Finally our algorithm shows better performance showing the simulation result.

  14. Environmental Management of the Pocos de Caldas Open Pit Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pocos de Caldas mine is located in the district of Caldas, in the southwest of the Minas Gerais state of Brazil. Prior to the startup of the Lagoa Real mine in 2001, it was the only facility in Brazil where uranium concentrate was produced. The facility is an open pit mine with a surface diameter of 1000 m and an average depth of 120 m. Some 47 million m3 of overburdened ore and waste have been mined from the pit. About 1250 tonnes of uranium concentrate were recovered. The mine was closed in 1995, and actions were undertaken by INB to restore adequate environmental conditions to the site. The treatment of water percolating the waste rock pile is placing a burden on the company. The treatment consists of neutralization of the acid water percolate with CaO, recovery of the precipitate and its dumping into the open pit. Experiments have been carried out for the covering of the waste rock pile with native vegetals. The results have been promising. The chemical installation was adapted for the production of rare earth composites from monazite ore. Production is now starting with an installed annual capacity of 450 tonnes of cerium oxide and 1800 tonnes of lantanium chloride. INB is now starting a process which calls for the contracting of a specialized entity for the establishment of a global environmental restauration programme. (author)

  15. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

  16. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Preparation of big size open-cell aluminum foam board using infiltration casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lucai

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an infi ltration casting technique for manufacturing big size open-cell aluminum foam boards. The principle and key technologies of infi ltration casting are also analyzed. Based on the previous practice of the small size aluminum foam production, the die for preparing big size aluminum foam boards is designed and manufactured. The experiments on aluminum boards of 300 mm × 300 mm × (20-75 mm, with the pore size ranging from 1.0 to 3.2 mm and average porosity of 60%, have been performed. The experimental results show that a reliable infi ltration process depends critically on the pouring temperature of the molten Al-alloy, the preheated temperature of the mould and salt particles and vacuum. Current research explores the possibility of large-scale manufacturing and application of the aluminum foams.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator; requirements...Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION,...

  19. Rehabilitation of alluvial lands after open cut mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Development consent for Coal & Allied's Hunter Valley Operations required completion of open cut mining to be followed up with rehabilitation and reinstatement of 63 hectares of land to class 1 and 2 cropping capacity by growing lucerne. The alluvial lands were backfilled with overburden, manured and sown with Aurora and Pioneer varieties and an irrigation system was installed in 2003. Drought conditions and prevalence of the white fringed weevil led to decreased yields but in February 2008 the lucerne productivity performance complied with the completion criteria. 2 photos.

  20. Black Butte switches to laser for mapping open pit mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbley, K.P. [Corbley Communications Inc., Littleton, CO (USA)

    2001-03-01

    The Black Butte Coal Co. has turned to a new laser-based mapping technology called Light Detection and Ranging, LIDAR, for mapping the topography of surface mines. The system, known as the Remote Airborne Mapping System (RAMS), is provided by EnerQuest Systems LLC of Denver. In four projects at the 63-square mile Black Butte operation, advanced airborne LIDAR has demonstrated advantage over aerial photography in terms of timeliness and convenience for mapping coal seams in an open-pit mine. LIDAR uses a scanning laser altimeter to directly measure the latitude, longitude and elevation coordinates of ground points by emitting light pulses towards the ground from the unit in the aircraft. Black Butte mine uses a dragline for overburden stripping. 3-D models of the pit and seams are created with Minescape software. The LIDAR system allows modeling of overburden to determine the position of the economic cutoff by mapping outside the pit: mapping inside the pit enables the 3-D model to be checked. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  1. Creep closure of an opening in a deep potash mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creep closure of an isolated opening in a deep potash mine at Esterhazy, Canada, has been simulated with finite element calculations. These were done to assess the plausibility of a creep model, developed from laboratory data, for natural rock salt. Since it is difficult to generate and interpret creep data at the low stresses likely to be encountered around underground excavations, the comparison of field measurements with model predictions is valuable in establishing the plausibility of constitutive models for creep over a long time at low stresses. The favorable comparison obtained in this study, between predicted wall convergences, and those measured over a period of eight years in the opening at Esterhazy, helps verify the creep model used. 2 figures

  2. A Moessbauer spectroscopy study of the corrosion of nodular cast iron in mine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of ductile cast iron in water containing different amounts of chloride ions was investigated under both static and dynamic conditions. Corrosion/time relationships were established for exposure times of up to 30 days. Post-corrosion investigations were performed, employing Moessbauer spectroscopy, optical microscopy and electrochemical techniques. It was found that the nature of the surface corrosion product formed under static conditions differed morphologically and chemically from that formed under dynamic conditions. The latter was a hard layer consisting of a mixture of ?- and ?-FeOOH (situated on an underlying cementite layer), whereas the static tests resulted in a soft, spongy corrosion product, identified as ?-FeOOH. (orig.)

  3. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. High-quality welds in heavy-duty mining modules. Productive robot welding of preheated fine-grained steel structures; Qualitaetsnaehte fuer hoch belastete Bergbaumodule. Produktives Roboterschweissen von vorgewaermten Feinkorn-Stahlbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-04-15

    Bucyrus is a global leader in design and construction of heavy-duty equipment for open-cast mining and deep mining. Bucyrus mining equipment is used for production of coal, copper, iron ore, oil sands and other minerals and especially for coal production in the underground mining industry. (orig.)

  5. Radioecological study of the open reservoirs of the North Kazakhstan area uranium-mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the radiological data of open reservoirs in the former uranium-mining enterprise territory and settlements are given. The received data show, that both the Kutunguz river and reservoirs close to uranium-mining enterprise are polluted by radionuclides. On the received data it is possible to assume, that the essential contribution to the Kutunguz river contamination by radioactive substances the acting mine 11 water is giving. (author)

  6. GPTIPS 2: an open-source software platform for symbolic data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Searson, Dominic P.

    2014-01-01

    GPTIPS is a free, open source MATLAB based software platform for symbolic data mining (SDM). It uses a multigene variant of the biologically inspired machine learning method of genetic programming (MGGP) as the engine that drives the automatic model discovery process. Symbolic data mining is the process of extracting hidden, meaningful relationships from data in the form of symbolic equations. In contrast to other data-mining methods, the structural transparency of the gener...

  7. 28. international trade fair for construction machinery, building material machines, mining machines, construction vehicles and construction equipment - bauma + mining 2007; 28. internationale Fachmesse fuer Bau-, Baustoff- und Bergbaumaschinen, Baufahrzeuge und Baugeraete - bauma + mining 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, K. [VGE Verlag GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2007-05-29

    Between 23. and 29. April 2007 the latest technologies from the fields of open-cast mining, deep mining, tunnel construction, preparation and conveying technology, geology, geophysics, exploration and consulting were introduced to the international public of 'bauma + mining 2007'. The fair was thus the international meeting point for the entire mining and construction industry above and below ground for the second time. (orig.)

  8. Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska)

    OpenAIRE

    Papi? Petar; Baji? Dragoljub; Polom?i? Dušan; Stojkovi? Jana

    2013-01-01

    Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with ei...

  9. In situ characterization at limestone open pit mine using prompt gamma neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) in situ characterization of blast holes in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. has been performed. This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results for a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAA system gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines. (orig.)

  10. Open business intelligence: on the importance of data quality awareness in user-friendly data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Mazo?n Lo?pez, Jose? Norberto; Zubcoff Vallejo, Jose? Jacobo; Garrigo?s Ferna?ndez, Irene; Espinosa, Roberto; Rodri?guez, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    Citizens demand more and more data for making decisions in their daily life. Therefore, mechanisms that allow citizens to understand and analyze linked open data (LOD) in a user-friendly manner are highly required. To this aim, the concept of Open Business Intelligence (OpenBI) is introduced in this position paper. OpenBI facilitates non-expert users to (i) analyze and visualize LOD, thus generating actionable information by means of reporting, OLAP analysis, dashboards or data mining; and to...

  11. Cast iron - a predictable material

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Jorg C.; Guido Busch

    2011-01-01

    High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI) or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process s...

  12. Open-pit coal mines: anthropogenic stressors and vegetation succession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, J.; Steklova, J.; Ceska, J. [Czech University of Life Science Prague, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    In the spoil heaps, i.e. in the waste dumps of the soil removed in open-pit coal mining, the emergence and development of spontaneous vegetation is a prerequisite for 'bringing them to life', i.e. for development of flora and fauna. Here, the diversity of plants is the result of locally different conditions - often extreme ones (such as drought and overheating of the surface, toxicity of the substrate, erosion, etc.). At initial stages, phytocenoses, which are not rich in the number of species and which usually have a dominant edificator species, emerge here. The abiotic stress in the spoil heaps is a regular and predictable phenomenon. The theory of primary strategies, represented by the relations of stress, disturbance and competition, was applied. A general diagram of succession development of vegetation in the spoil heaps in the North Bohemia has been prepared; the basic concept is the concept of C-S-R strategies here. The stress-tolerant taxa are determined by the conditions of these anthropogenic areas, i.e. these species are diagnostic indicators for an environment strongly burdened with stress factors (S-strategists). On the other hand, there are species well adapted to unpredictable disturbances (R-strategists); these often include field weeds and ruderal plants. Competitive C-strategists grow in the relatively stable habitats of spoil heaps areas. They are able to resist stress and disturbance only with difficulties. The C-S-R life strategies represent intersections based on the principle of the compromise of profits and losses.

  13. Casting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  14. 30 CFR 57.22103 - Open flames (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Open flames (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22103 Section 57.22103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  15. Casting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  16. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

    2011-01-01

    Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new app...

  17. A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Rafiee; Omid Asghari

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning...

  18. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  19. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  20. Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

  1. A knowledge-informed chemotype approach to mining the ToxCast/Tox21 chemical-data landscape (WC9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ToxCast and Tox21 chemical libraries currently exceed 2000 and 8000 unique chemicals, respectively, and span a broad diversity of chemical use-types, functionality, and toxicity mechanism and endpoint space. These libraries function as mechanism probes across hundreds of high-th...

  2. Post mining land reclamation using ashes from lignite combustion stored in open pit excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudelko, Jan; Nowak, Janusz [KGHM CUPRUM Research and Development Centre, Wroclaw (Poland). Energy Resources Dept.

    2010-10-15

    The power industry in Poland is based on brown and hard coal combustion and transferring the heat into electric power. About 99% of lignite, mined in open pits, is used as a fuel in power plants. Therefore very deep excavations having great volume are formed. Thus such type of mining has the impact on land degradation. In order to reduce this effect, at the earliest possible moment the cap rocks are dumped in the pit but at the safe distance from the mining face. Due to the big amounts of lignite delivered to the power plant, there are shortages of solids for filling the pit after completing the mining operations. Geotechnical properties of dumped combustion by-products depend on the lignite type, combustion technology and ashes haulage methods. The paper describes using waste from power industry for filling the open pits. It presents the types of post-mining open pits which require filling and reclamation. The methods of using combustion by-products which come from commercial power stations and thermal-electric power stations are presented in the paper too. (orig.)

  3. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  4. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In adisposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  5. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary motivation underlying the proposal of polygeneration systems for mine sites is to increase the efficient use of natural resources by combining different technologies and energy resources while satisfying energy service demands. For many mineral producers, particularly in Canada's mining extremes of climate and depth, energy in support of mineral production can be the second largest cost center after labor. A generic methodology is proposed for the design of energy supply systems in mine sites, based on a search for the minimum discounted cost of energy supplied for all feasible different plant configurations. These configurations can be represented within a connectivity matrix which corresponds to a network representation. A Mixed Integer Programming formulation is set out for the multiperiod synthesis and operational planning problem. This is characterized by i) binary variables for the selection of technologies, ii) integer variables for the determination of the number of units installed, and iii) by continuous variables for the representation of energy and economic flows. Through the integration of particular energy supply strategies matching specific mine circumstances (on-grid, remote, degree days, etc) and consideration of technologies that improve energy efficiency, hitherto not considered new technologies and demand management systems or new perspectives on optimal mine site energy supply can be investigated. Some of these investigations identify the economic conditions through which biomass energy feedstocks should be used, for direct heat production, for gasification and providing for Fischer–Tropsch syndiesel manufacture. As well as integrating demand from mobile diesel-fueled plant into an optimization procedure this analysis shows how the techniques can be used to explore economic conditions of threshold prices for biomass (purpose-grown biomass and peat are considered herein) and trucked-in diesel. The methodology also allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  6. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan, A.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India) resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils). To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study b...

  7. Conservation and utilization of forest genetic resources for the recultivation of post-mining landscapes and the forestry in Lusatia; Erhaltung und Nutzung forstgenetischer Ressourcen fuer die forstliche Rekultivierung von Bergbaufolgelandschaften und die Waldwirtschaft in der Lausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Heino; Troeber, Ute [Kompetenzzentrum fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft, Referat Forstgenetik/Forstpflanzenzuechtung, Pirna (Germany); Roesler, Michael [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Abt. Rekultivierung/Naturschutzmanagement, Cottbus (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Lignite open cast mining has serious impacts on nature and landscape. It may also affect genetic resources of forest tree species having great importance due to their specific characters and structures for the: Conservation of genetic potential of a specific species, Forestry in a particular region and Nature oriented recultivation of the post-mining landscape. Using forest stands of Sessile Oak, Scots Pine and Norway Spruce situated in front of the open cast mine Nochten, Lusatia, as an example, gene conservation activities of the State Company SaxonForest and Vattenfall Europe Mining-plc to balance the inevitable intrusion an nature and landscape will be described in the following article. (orig.)

  8. Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

    1065-10-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

  9. Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

  10. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton

    2007-06-15

    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining. PMID:17419090

  11. Mine simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotou, G.N.; Sturgul, J.R. [eds.] [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    1997-12-31

    The technical sessions covered: simulation - open pit mining operations; simulation - underground mining operations; general topics; expert systems - genetic algorithms; neural networks; mine safety - training; modelling, planning and production scheduling; rock mechanics; and mine equipment. The book contains abstracts of the papers. The full papers are included on the enclosed CD-ROM.

  12. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: ? Archiactivity. - Research Highlights: ? Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. ? Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. ? Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. ? Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  13. Mining method and grade control practices at Baghalchur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of surface exploratory drilling in the Baghalchur area, the occurrence of significant uranium mineralization in two sandstone-filled paleo-stream channels has been proved. The ore in one of the channels is above the water table and is oxidized, while in the other, which is below the water table, it is unoxidized. The oxidized ore-body near the surface is being mined on an experimental basis by open-cast mining while the unoxidized deposit, being deeper, is to be mined by underground mining methods. It is planned to use the short-wall retreating mining method. (author)

  14. Slope orientation assessment for open-pit mines, using GIS-based algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Martin; Laflamme, Amélie-Julie

    2011-09-01

    Standard stability analysis in geomechanical rock slope engineering for open-pit mines relies on a simplified representation of slope geometry, which does not take full advantage of available topographical data in the early design stages of a mining project; consequently, this may lead to nonoptimal slope design. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology that allows for the rigorous determination of interramp and bench face slope orientations on a digital elevation model (DEM) of a designed open pit. Common GIS slope algorithms were tested to assess slope orientations on the DEM of the Meadowbank mining project's Portage pit. Planar regression algorithms based on principal component analysis provided the best results at both the interramp and the bench face levels. The optimal sampling window for interramp was 21×21 cells, while a 9×9-cell window was best at the bench level. Subsequent slope stability analysis relying on those assessed slope orientations would provide a more realistic geometry for potential slope instabilities in the design pit. The presented methodology is flexible, and can be adapted depending on a given mine's block sizes and pit geometry.

  15. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 ± 0.32 ?m and ?(ln d) = 0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 ± 0.38 ?m and ?(ln d) = 0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: ? Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. ? SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles ? Particle size distributions of TSP and PM10 are lognormal ? Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar ? Heavyassium feldspar ? Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health

  16. Reorganization of oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the present conditions of limited demand for oil shale, the Estonian oil shale mining industry is in a state of over capacity. This results in an inefficient use of labor. This working atmosphere has resulted in high production costs per tonne of mined oil shale. To improve economic factors, it is necessary to concentrate production into a limited number of mines working at full capacity and to modernize the mining technology at those mines. A development plan for oil shale mining is proposed. It primarily includes modernization of the prospective mines to be kept in operation and reduction of surface mining at the Sirgala and Narva open cast pits. This will result in conservation of oil shale reserves for 8- 10 years of future production. It is recommended that the resumption of mining in these fields be by underground means. The detailed plan does not call for the untimely closing of mines before the exhaustion of their reserves of oil shale. At the same time, a relatively stable level of mining activity (10-13 million tonnes per year) with minimal investments in the oil shale industry is guaranteed until 2025. (author)

  17. Dose conversion factors for radon daughters in underground and open-cut mine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As uranium will be mined in Australia by open-cut methods, previous work on calculating dose conversion factors for radon daughters has been re-examined. The fractions of radon daughters deposited on lung airways and the factors for converting from equilibrium activity of radon daughters on airways to dose to basal cells are re-calculated. The variation around these estimates through variability of lung morphology and the depth of the basal cells is discussed. (author)

  18. Slope Design and Implementation in Open Pit Mines: Geological and Geomechanical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fleurisson, Jean-alain

    2012-01-01

    Slopes in open pit mines must be considered as geotechnical structures. Therefore their design and implementation must be conducted with all consideration including technical, economical, environmental and safety issues. But these structures are above all natural geological and geomechanical features and the geological structures as well as the petrographical nature of the rock material control the deformation and failure mechanisms. It is therefore important to implement a well-defined metho...

  19. CLUO: Web-Scale Text Mining System for Open Source Intelligence Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Przemyslaw Maciolek; Grzegorz Dobrowolski

    2013-01-01

    The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT) system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof...

  20. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  1. Data mining in the young open cluster IC2391

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    Large-scale astrometric and photometric data bases have been used to search for and confirm stellar membership of the open cluster IC2391. 125 stars were found that satisfied criteria for membership based on proper motion components and BRI photometry from the United States Naval Observatory B (USNO-B) catalogue and JHK photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) catalogue. This listing was compared with others recently published. A distance to the cluster of 147.7 +/- 5.5 pc was found with mean proper motion components, from the Tycho2 catalogue of (-25.04 +/- 1.53 masyr-1+23.19+/-1.23 masyr-1). A revised Trumpler classification of II3r is suggested. Luminosity and mass functions for the candidate stars were constructed and compared with those of field stars and other clusters.

  2. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  3. Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1998-2001 geotechnical processes in closed underground oil shale mines and open casts were investigated. In addition to kukersite oil shale deposit, the closed Sillamaee uranium (Dictyonema shale) mine was prospected. The main tools and methods included mine plans, aerial photographs and Geographical Information System data. 290 km2 of underground and 130 km2of strip-mined areas were studied. The mining maps of Estonian underground and surface mines were created. The stability of underground mined area, where room-and-pillar method was used, was the main objective of the study. It was studied with the help of aerial photographs, mine drawings, maps of quaternary sediments and mathematical modeling of rock failure. The main results are: 20 % of subsidences remain undiscovered and 42 % of subsidence occurrences have no remarkable influence to the land cover; the probability of subsidence remains and may increase in the case of mine drowning. As several mines will be closed during the next few years, the problems of drowned waste (which were not subjects of this study) are going to be more actual than before: increasing underground water level, pollution of underground water, formation of technogenic water sources, overflooding of reclaimed areas, etc. (author)

  4. Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

    1059-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

  5. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. PMID:23324038

  6. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ?70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m (PM??) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM?? emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. PMID:22054578

  7. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ykateryna D. Duka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

  8. Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event: rainfall depth, rainfall intensity in fifteen minutes and in two hours, peak discharge, runoff coefficient, dry time duration before the event and flood duration. The calculation of suspended sediment yield (SSY) at different time scales gives an evaluation of the pollution delivered to the creeks and lagoon and of the water management and sediment trap efficiency. An extreme rainfall event (December 25th, 2011) of 500 mm in 26 hours yielded downstream more suspended sediment than all the floods of the previous monitored period. This highlights the threshold effects in runoff and erosion response in these open mining areas.

  9. [Characteristics of work environment factors and health state of workers engaged in open mining of refractory clay and structural quartz sand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, E V; Lobachev, A S; Savrasova, M N

    2002-01-01

    This article covers evaluation of work conditions and health state in workers engaged into open-cast extraction of refractories and of building quartz sand in moderate climate of Voronezh region. PMID:12194590

  10. A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

  11. Laboratory rainfall simulator studies of selected open-cut coal mine overburden spoils from Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.G.; Loch, R.J.; Aspinall, T.O.; Bell, L.C. [Eros and Hydrology Group, Jabiru, NT (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    Data on the erodibility of overburden spoils resulting from open-cut coal mining are limited. These data are required to derive parameters for erosion prediction models which can be used in the design of re-formed landscapes after mining. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation data were used to derive CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) interfill erodibility parameters K and n{sub bov} for Central Queensland coal mine overburden spoils. For the spoils studied, K values ranged from 0.0111 to 0.1398 Mg ha h/(ha MJ mm) and n{sub bov} values ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0081. Sediment yield was transport controlled. Results for 1 spoil, South Blackwater Terang, showed that total soil loss increased linearly with slope, and both K and n{sub bov} varied non-linearly with slope. If a constant set of K and n{sub bov} values is used in modelling, CREAMS over-predicts spoil loss for slopes greater than that for which the parameter values were determined, and under-predicts spoil loss for slopes less than that for which the parameter values were determined.

  12. Evaluation of hydrologic isolation from evidence in mine openings in igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions in the mines inspected ranged from very wet to very dry. The Heath Steele Mine certainly provided an example of severe leakage through either the country rock, the ore, or both. By way of contrast, the Brunswick Mine is very dry, particularly at the 2800 foot level. A note of caution is raised by this dissimilarity, inasmuch as the local geologic setting for both mines is very much alike. The Buchans Mine also provided evidence of dry conditions at the depth inspected (3215 ft). The Ming Mine at Baie Verte is also nearly dry with a decrease in water leakage with depth. It seems reasonable to tentatively conclude that mined openings in the rock types investigated (volcanics and sediments metamorphosed to a low or subgreen schist facies and intensely deformed) would provide hydraulic isolation at depths on the order of 2800-3200 feet below the surface or greater. It is disturbing to have found one mine that is very wet at shallow depths and to have received reports of some water problems in shaft construction. This report in conjunction with other more comprehensive studies should provide a point of departure for more detailed studies of the nature and causes of hydraulic isolation provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks. 27 figs

  13. A hybrid GA-TS algorithm for open vehicle routing optimization of coal mines material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.W.; Ding, C.; Zhu, K.J. [China University of Geoscience, Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    In the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP), the objective is to minimize the number of vehicles and the total distance (or time) traveled. This study primarily focuses on solving an open vehicle routing problem (OVRP) by applying a novel hybrid genetic algorithm and the Tabu search (GA-TS), which combines the GA's parallel computing and global optimization with TS's Tabu search skill and fast local search. Firstly, the proposed algorithm uses natural number coding according to the customer demands and the captivity of the vehicle for globe optimization. Secondly, individuals of population do TS local search with a certain degree of probability, namely, do the local routing optimization of all customer sites belong to one vehicle. The mechanism not only improves the ability of global optimization, but also ensures the speed of operation. The algorithm was used in Zhengzhou Coal Mine and Power Supply Co., Ltd.'s transport vehicle routing optimization.

  14. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of Daxin uranium mine of China - 59073

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Daxin Uranium Mine is an small open pit mine. Its contaminated facilities include open pit 87620 m2, East waste rock pile 71710 m2, west waste rock pile 57828 m2, ore transfer station and industrial fields 9370 m2, building and structure 26600 m2, equipment 246 pieces, plastic conduit 3000 m. steel conduit 2500 m2 and road for transporting ores 1020 m. The integrated decommissioning programmes are presented: uranium extraction, slope stabilization, clear-up, backfill, reshape, covering, re-vegetation, dismantlement/ demolishment, decontamination, re-smelting, waste water treatment. (authors)

  15. An open data mining framework for the analysis of medical images: application on obstructive nephropathy microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Charalampos; Goudas, Theodosis; Fischer, Simon; Mierswa, Ingo; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an open image-mining framework that provides access to tools and methods for the characterization of medical images. Several image processing and feature extraction operators have been implemented and exposed through Web Services. Rapid-Miner, an open source data mining system has been utilized for applying classification operators and creating the essential processing workflows. The proposed framework has been applied for the detection of salient objects in Obstructive Nephropathy microscopy images. Initial classification results are quite promising demonstrating the feasibility of automated characterization of kidney biopsy images. PMID:21096629

  16. The influence of seismic hazard on the building of inner dump in the Belchatow lignite open cut mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wasowicz; S. Slusarczyk; Z. Kozlowski

    2003-07-01

    Vibration of surface caused by seismic quakes present a risk to large mining construction. This risk occurs in the Belchatow open cut mine where seismic quakes of various energy and range have occurred since the end of 1970s. The seismic risk influence on the mine structure with the special attention to the slopes of an internal dump has been presented. Hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions of the lignite mining and internal dumping of overburden and ash from Belchatow power plant have been considered. Seismic activity in Belchatow open cut from 1979 to 2001 was described and the connection between mine working and seismicity of this area was investigated. The energy and approximate location of the quakes and seismological parameters of the strongest ones observed from 1995 to 2001 were presented. The mechanism of the quake focuses was determined by means of the primary-arriving wave method. Stability of the slopes was evaluated by means of the Fellenius method. It has been found that seismic events occured in Belchatow region may cause only local eboulements whereas there are not any safety risks to the stability of slopes of the internal dump in Belchatow open cut. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

  18. 29{sup th} international trade fair for construction machinery, building material machines, mining machines construction vehicles and construction equipment - bauma; 29. Internationale Fachmesse fuer Baumaschinen, Baustoffmaschinen, Bergbaumaschinen, Baufahrzeuge und Baugeraete - bauma 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, Karsten [VGE Verlag GmbH - Verlag Glueckauf, Essen (Germany); Ipp, Benjamin [Inst. fuer Maschinentechnik der Rohstoffindustrie (IMR), RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Between 19. and 25. April 2010 the latest technologies from the fields of open-cast mining, deep mining, tunnel construction, preparation and conveying technology, geology, geophysics, exploration and consulting were introduced to the international public of ''bauma 2010''. The fair was thus the international meeting point for the entire mining and construction industry above and below ground for the third time. (orig.)

  19. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  20. The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Madowe.

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling [...] . Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves and provides input into the Letseng overall business plan. The process of defining the key inputs for the entire mine planning process is discussed, which covers: ? Slope design as an input ? Diamond price inputs ? Operating and capital cost inputs ? Generation of pit shells ? Selection of an optimum pit shell and interim cutbacks using operational scenarios ? Sensitivity analysis on the selected optimum pit shell. ? Slope design criteria in the detailed design ? Split shell vs concentric pit design ? Practical mining widths to determine cutback design ? Pit design process in the GEMS software package. ? Development of scheduling scenarios in the XPAC software package ? Planning through mining production bottlenecks. ? Company-level NPV model ? Comparing scenarios and input of the different schedule scenarios into the company NPV model.

  1. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  2. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer? world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

  3. Background gamma terrestrial dose rate in Nigerian functional coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokobia, C E; Balogun, F A

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the background terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates at different indoor and outdoor locations on the surfaces of Okpara underground and Okaba open cast mines in Nigeria were made. Two duly calibrated low-level gamma survey metres were held 1 m above the ground surface for these measurements. Measurements were also made at various locations inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine. Results indicate that the indoor background gamma radiation is comparable for both mining environments. The mean outdoor gamma dose rate determined for the Okaba mining environment is 10.4 nGy h(-1) as against 11.7 nGy h(-1) for Okpara. The ranges are 8.5-16.5 nGy h(-1) for the Okpara measurements and 7.5-14.0 nGy h(-1) for Okaba. Thus, the outdoor gamma dose rates appear to be generally lower at the Okaba open cast mine than at Okpara. The indoor dose rate values range from 11.0 to 17.0 nGy h(-1) in both environments. These indoor measurements have nearly the same mean values 14.4 and 14.5 nGy h(-1) for Okpara and Okaba environments, respectively. The indoor to outdoor dose rate ratio is 1.2 for Okpara and 1.4 for Okaba. These values are in consonance with the corresponding ratio given in literature. Dose rate measurements inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine are higher than the surface indoor measurements ranging from 13.5 to 20.5 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 16.5 nGy h(-1). The higher dose rate values measured in the mine tunnel are attributable to the concentration of radon in the 'closed' environment of the mine tunnel. PMID:14978296

  4. Background gamma terrestrial dose rate in Nigerian functional coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the background terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates at different indoor and outdoor locations on the surfaces of Okpara underground and Okaba open cast mines in Nigeria were made. Two duly calibrated low-level gamma survey metres were held 1 m above the ground surface for these measurements. Measurements were also made at various locations inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine. Results indicate that the indoor background gamma radiation is comparable for both mining environments. The mean outdoor gamma dose rate determined for the Okaba mining environment is 10.4 nGy h-1 as against 11.7 nGy h-1 for Okpara. The ranges are 8.5-16.5 nGy h-1 for the Okpara measurements and 7.5-14.0 nGy h-1 for Okaba. Thus, the outdoor gamma dose rates appear to be generally lower at the Okaba open cast mine than at Okpara. The indoor dose rate values range from 11.0 to 17.0 nGy h-1 in both environments. These indoor measurements have nearly the same mean values 14.4 and 14.5 nGy h-1 for Okpara and Okaba environments, respectively. The indoor to outdoor dose rate ratio is 1.2 for Okpara and 1.4 for Okaba. These values are in consonance with the corresponding ratio given in literature. Dose rate measurements inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine are higher than the surface indoor measurements ranging from 13.5 to 20.5 nGy h-1 with a mean of 16.5 nGy h-1. The higher dose rate valy h-1. The higher dose rate values measured in the mine tunnel are attributable to the concentration of radon in the 'closed' environment of the mine tunnel. (authors)

  5. The morphology of fossil pebbles as a tool for determining their transport processes (Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit, central Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Widera, Marek

    2010-01-01

    The Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit is the southernmost exposure of Palaeogene (lower Oligocene) deposits in central Poland. This study is focused on Palaeogene pebbles of the so-called Ko?min Gravels, rede- posited in the Neogene sands. These pebbles are not known from the adjacent territory of central Poland and they vary in petrographic composition, shape and surface texture. The classification of the pebble-size particle form is determined as DI/DL (elongation ratio) and DS/DI (flatn...

  6. [Health status of children living in the vicinity of coal open pits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, M F; Reshetnik, L A; Liashchenko, O V

    2000-01-01

    Open-cast mining in the vicinities of the town of Cheremkhovo is cause of environmental pollution with Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, B, Ni, Be, Sn, Y, Cr, V. Assessing the health status of children living in this area revealed the following: a high incidence of diseases; multimorbidity with a tendency for chronicity; reduced concentrations of a complex of essential trace elements in the children's hair below the physiological level; abundant hair heavy metals; the relation of hair trace element composition to the coal output. Micro- and macroelement imbalance is likely to cause high morbidity in the children living in the open-cast mining area. PMID:10900801

  7. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  8. Mined-out areas need not sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia's most important mineral resource - oil-shale or kukersite - has been mined for long years. In spite of the decrease in oil-shale production over recent years, mining for this important raw material of the power and chemical industries will have to be continued. For various reasons, in the near future the prevalent role will be played by underground mining. Unfortunately, this method, as well as open-cast pit mining, has done much damage to nature in North-East Estonia. The best measure to lower the cost and diminish the negative effects of mining will probably be filling the shafts and pits with either mechanical gangue or some petrifying material. Experiments carried out in the Viru and Kivioli mines have yielded good results; the sinking of the ground lessens, the mining losses of oil-shale and the pollution of ground water are reduced and the ground water cone of depression is narrowed. At the same time the application of this method also has some negative aspects: it increases the cost of production and creates a need for procuring additional machinery. (author)

  9. Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurcakova K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

  10. Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Kukacka, L.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

  11. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor. PMID:24310366

  12. Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarula Kang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level during different years (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC, and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers. Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km, and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km. Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

  13. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

  14. The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., van Rensburg; L., Melis.

    Full Text Available Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate [...] highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

  15. Pigmented casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  16. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  17. Uranium in mining water of kaolin open pit in Zarów (Lower Silesia); methodology of determination and genetic remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D; Wyszomirski, P; Chru?ciel, E; Ocho?ski, A

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, a method of determination of uranium 238 and 234 in mining waters of Andrzej kaolin open pit in Zarów (Lower Silesia) is presented. The method is based on independent measurements of alpha and beta radiation intensities by means of a liquid scintillation spectrometer alpha/beta. The initial volume of water sample was 3 dm3, then it was diminished by chemical preparation to 6 cm3, and then 12 cm3 of scintillator was added. The lower limit of detection (for the measurement time of 8 h) for both 234U and 238U amounted to 0.02 Bq/dm3. For determination of the uranium content in ferruginous sediments precipitating from mining waters of the above-mentioned open pit, gamma ray spectrometry was used. The obtained results may be viewed as a contribution to studies on anomalous uranium concentration within this kaolin deposit. The elevated uranium content, in comparison with its average concentration in the Earth crust, is characteristic for parent rocks of Andrzej kaolin deposit, which are granitoids of Strzegom-Sobótka massif. In connection with it, the high uranium content can be observed not only in kaolin and weakly kaolinised granitoids from the deposit in question, but also in mining waters genetically related with them. PMID:10464924

  18. A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.

    2009-01-01

    Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

  19. Mining coal deposits under difficult mining and geologic conditions. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratczenko, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Selected problems associated with underground coal mining in the USSR are discussed. Deteriorating mining and geologic conditions are evaluated: mining depth increase to more than 1000 m in 22 mines, high methane content in 30% of mined coal seams, rock burst hazards in 25% of mined coal seams, unstable roofs in 40% of mined coal seams, roofs difficult to break down in 25% of mined coal seams, and decreasing coal seam thickness (45% of mined coal seams is less than 1.2 m thick). The following problems associated with underground mining are analyzed: opening coal deposits, mining seams in zones of tectonic dislocations, mining seams with varying thickness, longwall mining using sets of mining equipment (70% of coal output), mining seams 0.71 to 1.25 m thick by the KM103 and the KD80 systems, mining seams 1.2 to 4.0 m thick by the UKP and the KMG systems, mining steep seams by the AShchM, the ANShch and the 2ANShch shield mining systems, manless mining of thick coal seams using scraper loaders and auger mining, hydraulic coal mining, mine drivage in coal seams and rock layers (the Soyuz and the KRT heading machines), mine surveying (using the ShSA-2 and the Tektonika seismic systems), effects of increasing mining depth on temperature in underground coal mines and air conditioning systems, coal dust control, prevention of rock bursts and methane control.

  20. Vibration response and evaluation of oil shale mine openings to the Rio Blanco event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project Rio Blanco was designed to further study the economic and technical feasibility of the commercial development of natural gas, using underground nuclear explosions to stimulate production. Simultaneous detonation of the three, 30 kt devices took place on May 17, 1973, at 10:00:00.12 hours +-0.01 second, M.D.T. The initial compressional impulse was evident on all data channels at the Colony, Anvil Points and Dutch Creek No. 1 Mines. Other phases were not readily identifiable due to the complexity of the seismic signals. Recorded particle velocity and acceleration were, in general, near that predicted for the event. Particle velocity was directly recorded from all station points. Acceleration was directly recorded only from selected stations for comparative purposes. Displacement was derived for all station points from recorded particle velocity and/or acceleration. Propagation velocity was calculated to be 13,950 feet/second to the Colony Mine and 15,800 feet/second to the Anvil Points Mine. In view of the fact that both mines lie very nearly on a common line to ground zero, a higher velocity to the Anvil Points mine is unique. This may indicate the presence, at depth, of a high velocity refraction layer through which the seismic wave to both mines was transmitted. Loss of the transmitted time signal at the Dutch Creek No. 1 mine station prevents calculation of the propagation velocity

  1. Tanacetum vulgare as a Bioindicator of Trace-Metal Contamination: A Study of a Naturally Colonized Open-Pit Lignite Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Be?chatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare ap...

  2. Modelling of the large scale redox front evolution in an open pit uranium mine in Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an open pit uranium mine at Pocos de Caldas in Brazil, the upper portions of the rock have been oxidized by infiltrating oxidizing groundwater. The redox front is very uneven and fingering is in evidence to depths ranging down to several hundred meters. The redox fingers are found in fractures and fractures zones. An attempt has been made to model the development of such redox fingerings along flow channels and to relate the structure to independent observations of flow channels in other crystalline rocks. 5 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  3. UTILISATION OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION IN OPENCAST MINES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntha Karthik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In past several decades, the mining industry has globally shifted thrust from Underground to open cast mining. The use of large capacity Heavy Earth Moving Machinery (HEMM, their extensive deployment and ever growing challenge to i ncrease productivity have led to increased complexity of operation and management. Developments in information and communications technology (ICT support the collection, connection and analysis of data through sensing and monitoring of trucks in mines. Sensors are parts of all machines that gather data and have an integral role in subsequent processing and transmission of data. Monitoring is a process that observes a state in time or tracks changes in data sets to derive information. Together, sensing and monitoring provide a mechanism for harvesting digital data. This growth in digital data is being used to drive changes in production and distribution processes and the reach of services in the mines. The application of monitoring plays an important role in collecting sufficient relevant information to achieve the desired outcomes of the process in mines. To provide maximum benefit, wireless mining communication networks must offer broadband speeds and form a flexible and reliable foundation to securely support multiple applications on one cost-effective physical infrastructure. A single mining communication network can simultaneously support a range of applications such as, Lower costs by maximizing truck tire life and minimizing unscheduled maintenance Enhance worker safety with improved situational awareness, collision avoidance systems, real-time streams of high wall scans and “man down” systems Improve security using video surveillance and physical access Control Increase efficiency by enabling mine management software (MMS in the field Improve office staff productivity with high-speed connectivity.

  4. Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hua; Liu, Yin-ping; Xiao, Jian [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering

    2008-06-15

    The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time, can only use the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring, the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectiveness. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured, and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbates this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest. The paper documents the process of conducting a comprehensive literature search for work that has been done in duplicate checking/filtering, narrowing the information to a workable subset, then mining the subset for the techniques, trials, and errors that have been documented. In the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure that was developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a connical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information; the paper also provides metrics on results that have been studied in controlled trials and relates that to analyst productivity. Duplicate and Near Duplicate Detection - The AKDS system provides duplicate assessment based in part on the IMatch algorithm devised by Abdur Chowdhury. The algorithm operates by taking a series of normalized 'slices' of terms from a frequency ordered bag of words document and applying the SHA1 hashing function. The process then evaluates the document hashes to identify documents that have similar content and for which subsequent documents do not have any new or unique information. Both the size and offset of the frequency 'slice' that is hashed determine the level of discrimination that is applied. Based on a system's requirements, the identical or nearly identical information (near duplicates) can be kept in the system and clustered; these document clusters can be used as an effective way to minimize how much information is presented to system users. When a user's query returns documents that are members of such a cluster, the most representative or 'best' document may be displayed to the user and the near duplicates would be initially hidden from the user. Conversely, if there is no perceived value in maintaining all of the documents, the near duplicates can also be deleted from the system. This can be accomplished in an automated manner by comparing the number of coinciding hashes while accounting for their slice size and offset in the term frequency based representation from which they were derived. The user may then specify a threshold-based degree of hash matching, above which documents may be automatically rejected. This module is particularly useful for systems that are evaluating large volumes of unstructured textual data such as Internet search engine queries that have a tendency to return the same or similar documents from multiple sources; this module has also proven to be effective in identifying documents where multiple versions have only slight modifications for which the end user would gain little utility beyond the initial document reviewed. Irrelevant Information (Spam) Filtering - The system evaluates document features to identify documents that contain little, if any, utility. This process utilizes the See5 decision tree algorithm developed by Ross Qui

  6. The morphology of fossil pebbles as a tool for determining their transport processes (Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit, central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek WIDERA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit is the southernmost exposure of Palaeogene (lower Oligocene deposits in central Poland. This study is focused on Palaeogene pebbles of the so-called Ko?min Gravels, rede- posited in the Neogene sands. These pebbles are not known from the adjacent territory of central Poland and they vary in petrographic composition, shape and surface texture. The classification of the pebble-size particle form is determined as DI/DL (elongation ratio and DS/DI (flatness ratio. A great number of pebbles are disc-shaped (oblate-shaped and blade-shaped or they can be classified as platy, bladed and very bladed pebbles. The oblate-prolate index (OP is less than -2 for 45% of the particles (typical of beach pebbles, the mean sphericity (yp is 0.56 (typical of beach pebbles, and the mean roundness (RWt is 0.73 (typical of beach pebbles.The data obtained from SEM analysis of quartz pebble surface micromorphology are characteristic of high mechanical energy of the littoral environment. The surface of some pebbles is excellently polished with v-shaped indentations and grooves. The average composition of the heavy mineral fraction occurring with these pebbles is marked by the predominance of zircon (exceeding 70%. All the above-mentioned data, in the light of extensive literature, indicate that more morphological features of the analysed pebbles have been inherited from the littoral/beach environment. Moreover, a detailed petrographic study was very useful for determining the prove- nance of these pebbles. The most characteristic rocks are greyish-blue quartzes. They are known only from the Sudetes Mts., situated on the NE slope of the Bohemian Massif. Thus, the rock fragments were transported at least 300 km by rivers from the Sudetes to the littoral/beach zone of the Palaeogene sea. Then, the residually-marine beach pebbles were redeposited into the Neogene debris flow and/or fluvial deposits. The present-day area of the Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit was tectonically active at that time.

  7. Geophysical control system of radiation-hygienic coal quality, to be mined by open method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the system of geophysical control of radiation-hygienic quality of Urtuisky brow-coal deposit coal, created in Priargunsky industrial mine-chemical association. Coal of the above-mentioned deposit is characterized by high content of natural radionuclides. The system is noted for monitoring of natural radionuclide level in initial coal and in products of its burning at all stages of technological process of mining, transportation and utilization of fuel, with the use of gamma methods (logging, sampling, rapid analysis

  8. Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

  9. Method for casting thin metal objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  10. igm Robots with laser measurement for an economic repair welding of equipment components of open-pit minings; igm-Roboter mit Laservermessung zum wirtschaftlichen Reparaturschweissen von Tagebauausruestungsteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wihsbeck, Martin [igm Robotersysteme AG, Wiener Neudorf (Austria); Wache, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Spremberg (Germany). Schwarze Pumpe; Springfeld, Peter

    2012-08-15

    In the Lusatian area,Vattenfall Europe AG prosecutes four open-pit minings whose lignite directly is supplied to power stations. A quarter of Germany's total electricity supply is based on lignite. The lignite mining in the area of the Lusatian open-pit minings is particularly efficient due to the horizontal orientation of the Lusatian coal seams. The movable components of the overburden conveyor bridges as well as the bucket wheel excavators and bucket ladder dredgers are subject to a tremendous wear. It is not economically feasible to refurbish certain wear parts. Such parts include Turas corners. In order to refurbish such Turas corners nevertheless, the Austrian company igm robot system AG (Wiener Neudorf, Austria) offers a welding robot.

  11. Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

  12. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, V. K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several value body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni (Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and where applicable, with data on sand castings.

  13. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and, where applicable, with data on sand castings. 22 figures.

  14. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github.com and stackoverflow.com. These popular, developer-centric websites have powerful application-programmer interfaces, and follow an open-data policy. In this regard, these sites offer a web-accessible reservoir of information that can be tapped to study questions such as: which open source software projects are eminent in the various geoscience fields? What are the most popular programming languages? How are they trending? Are there any interesting temporal patterns in committer activities? How large are programming teams and how do they change over time? What free software packages exist in the vast realms of related fields? Does the software from these fields have capabilities that might still be useful to me as a researcher, or can help me perform my work better? Are there any open-source projects that might be commercially interesting? This evaluation strategy reveals programming projects that tend to be new. As many important legacy codes are not hosted on open-source code-repositories, the presented search method might overlook some older projects.

  15. Mining in Germany 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers were presented on the following subjects: Mining in the new German states; Development of knowledge-based consulting systems for waste disposal and mine savitation operations; Advantages and drawbacks of underground leaching of uranium ores - proposals for environmentally compatible termination of mining operations; Backfilling of open shafts; The final operation plan -legal fundamentals of mine abandonment; stability assessment of subsurface workings of the Ehrenfriedersdorf tin mine and conclusions for safety measures; Experience and problems of landscaping measures for abandoved mines in densely populated areas; Performance of pipeless shaft drilling machines in hard and extremely hard rock; subsurface tunnelling in subsidence areas; Selective cutters in potassium mining in Alsace-Rock salt mining at Bernburg; Problems of stabilisation of abandoned shafts in potassium mines in central Germany. Six of the papers have been recorded as separate entries in this database. (orig./HS)

  16. [Organic substances in the artificial forest ecosystems created on overburden dumps of open-cut coal mines in Middle Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugale?, L S

    2010-01-01

    The stock and structure of organic substances in the pine tree plantations on the overburden dumps of open-cut coal mines in Middle Siberia have been determined. It has been shown that the forming forest biogeocenoses differ from the natural phytocenoses and soils of the forest landscapes in the structure of the carbon pool and its distribution between the vegetation and soil components. In artificial forest ecosystems, the bulk of the plant component is accumulated in the aboveground part of the forest stand (40-59%). The aboveground grass cover contains only 0.1-1.4% of the total phytomass stock of the ecosystem. The annual accumulation of organic substances in the initial soils amounts to 0.28-1.45 t/ha. PMID:20799651

  17. Using sensitivity analysis and visualization techniques to open black box data mining models

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Paulo; Embrechts, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new visualization approach based on a Sen- sitivity Analysis (SA) to extract human understandable knowledge from su- pervised learning black box data mining models, such as Neural Networks (NN), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and ensembles, including Random Forests (RF). Five SA methods (three of which are purely new) and four mea- sures of input importance (one novel) are presented. Also, the SA approach is adapted to handle discrete variables and to aggregate mult...

  18. SONDY : An Open Source Platform for Social Dynamics Mining and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guille, Adrien; Favre, Ce?cile; Hacid, Hakim; Zighed, Djamel Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes SONDY, a tool for analysis of trends and dynamics in online social network data. SONDY addresses two audiences: (i) end-users who want to explore social activity and (ii) researchers who want to experiment and compare mining techniques on social data. SONDY helps end-users like media analysts or journalists understand social network users interests and activity by providing emerging topics and events detection as well as network analysis functionalities. To this end, the ...

  19. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Kvitko; Eliane Bandinelli; Henriques, Joa?o A. P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Paula Rohr; Da Silva, Fernanda R.; Naye Balzan Schneider; Simone Fernandes; Camile Ancines; Juliana da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticid...

  20. Fundamentals of using bio-diesel for operating large fleets of mining equipment and building machines and the experience gained so far

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against the topical background of the finite reserves of fossil mineral oil as well as internationally available vegetable fat and oil resources, of the current developments in the field of the biodiesel production technology and of the international conditions for the reduction of CO2 emissions, this paper is to examine, whether the suitability of bio-diesel for fuelling mining equipment has come true. The examination will focus on the biogenic fuel profile, on the organizational necessity to actively retrofit the machinery during operations as well as on the precise verification of the expected technical conversion problems and of the saving potentials actually achieved. The examination will be conducted in the world's first open-cast mine that has converted its entire fleet of equipment to be fuelled with bio-diesel. The open-cast mine is operated by the Ronneburg branch of Wismut GmbH, a company based in Germany (referred to hereinafter as the Lichtenberg open-cast mine). (orig.)

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  2. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  3. Emerging trend of uranium mining: The Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Singhbhum Thrust Belt of Jharkhnad, a low-grade large tonnage deposit at Banduhurang is being planned for exploitation soon. After the initial evaluation and computerised orebody modeling, open-pit mining method has been considered as the most favourable option. Uranium orebody explored at Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh have been planned for development by both open cast and underground mining methods. A large sandstone hosted uranium deposit at Domiasiat, spread over two distinct blocks has been found within a depth of about 45m. Pre-mining activities are also set to begin in a few more deposits where the exploration is in advance stage and some reserves have already been identified. A large uranium reserve has already been established within the carbonate host rock at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh. New mining technologies are emerging where all the strenuous mining activities are automated. Development of cutting technology in place of conventional drilling and blasting, use of electronic detonators, environment friendly explosives etc are some the areas of future development. New mines have been planned with deployment of energy efficient electro-hydraulic equipment. The only uranium ore processing plant of the country at Jaduguda, in operation since 1968 is based on acid leaching technology. The final product of this plant is magnesium diuranate or yellow cake. Jaduguda plant has been expanded twice to treat the ore of Bhatin and Narwapahar mines. I the ore of Bhatin and Narwapahar mines. In the coming years, ore of Bagjata mine will also be fed to this plant. A new plant at Turamdih is being set-up to treat the ore planned to be produced from Turamdih and Banduhurang mines. The flowsheet of this plant is similar to that of Jaduguda. Another new plant at Seripalli has been planned in Andhra Pradesh to treat the ore of Lambapur-Peddagattu mine. A plant near the mine site at Domiasiat in Meghalya will be constructed with some modified process technology because of different ore characteristics. Followed by conventional grinding, the thickened slurry of sandstone will undergo two stages of leaching - weak acid (WAL) and strong acid (SAL). Resulting filtrate will be clarified, concentrated in ion exchange and precipitated along with magnesia as magnesium diuranate. A plant based on alkali-leaching technology is being proposed at Tummalapalle to treat the carbonate bearing host rock. Resolving the process know-how for alkaline leaching of Tummalapalle ore is now the emerging area for research and development. The uranium ore in India are generally of low grade, which necessitates production and processing of large quantity of ore. This results in generation of large volume of solid waste and effluent. The operating underground uranium mines of the area are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings generated during the ore processing. As the mining work progresses, the void created are sequentially backfilled utilizing about 50% of the deslimed neutralized tailings. Only the finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is stored in tailings pond separating it from the public domain. The only tailings pond of the country at Jaduguda with natural high hills on three sides and a very sound impoundment arrangement, has been progressively expanded to accommodate the tailings generated from Jaduguda plant. Tailings management at new sites: New underground mines in Singhbhum will have provisions of backfilling utilizing coarser fraction of tailings. The tailings pond proposed at Turamdih will be designed in line with Jaduguda tailings pond. The tailings pond at Seripalli is being envisaged with thickened tailings disposal system. The proposed open cast mine at Domiasiat is being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings as backfill material after artificial lining at the pit bottom. The finer fraction of the tailings will be impounded in the tailings pond to be constructed adjacent to the plant. The new tailings ponds are being envisaged with sound impermeabl

  4. The application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

  5. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  6. Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; ed ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

  7. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Gila Notesco; Veronika Kopa?ková; Petr Rojík; Guy Schwartz; Ido Livne; Eyal Ben Dor

    2014-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR)-region image usin...

  8. Technical developments in uranium mining and milling in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uranium mining in India made a formal beginning with formation of Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. in October 1967. In accordance with the mandate of producing and meeting the uranium requirement of the country, UCIL has continuously upgraded the technology and operating practices with regard to its core activities - uranium ore mining, processing and disposal of tailings. Jaduguda underground mine in Singhbhum east district of Jharkhand (Eastern India) was commissioned in 1968. Regular mining operations started with the sinking of a fully lined vertical shaft and equipping the same with two winders which support a cage and a skip. This was followed by commissioning of Bhatin mine in 1986, Narwapahar mine in 1995, Turamdih mine in 2003, and Bagjata mine in 2008. New mines adopt decline method of entry and use of track less equipment in cut-and fill method of stoping. Vertical shafts provide access to deeper levels for ore and men and material hoisting. Banduhurang, the first open cast uranium mine of the country was commissioned in Jan 2009. New mine at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh and underground mine at Mohuldih in Jharkhand are under construction. The mine at Tummalapalle has been planned with three declines along the apparent dip of the orebody and breast stoping method using trackless equipment. At Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh, room and pillar method of stoping is proposed for underground mines with deployment of low profile drilling and lo deployment of low profile drilling and loading-dumping equipment. The conventional way of processing of uranium ore in India is through hydro-metallurgical route followed by acid leaching and MDU precipitation. Jaduguda plant commissioned in 1968 has been expanded in two phases and 3rd phase expansion is underway. The plant at Turamdih encompasses new equipment and monitoring systems like apron feeder, horizontal belt filter, high rate thickener, particle size monitor etc. Both Jaduguda and Turamdih plants are designed to produce magnesium diuranate (MDU) as the final product. Through in-house research, precipitation of uranium peroxide (UO4, H2O) as final product is under implementation. Since 2007, the plant at Tummalapalle is under construction which will adopt alkali leaching (under pressure) route. The operating underground uranium mines of the country are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings. The finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is disposed in engineered impoundment facility, called tailings pond. The first two tailings ponds at Jaduguda are full and are under reclamation. The third pond is in use now. The tailings pond at Turamdih has been designed with some improved floor lining to prevent any downward movement of effluent. The proposed open cast mine at KPM in Meghalaya is also being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings and backfill material. At Lambapur uranium project, thickened tailings disposal system has been proposed where small dykes shall be built to contain tailings. The uranium ore mining and processing technology in India has come a long way in emulating global practices which has helped to develop the low grade deposits in cost effective and eco-friendly manner. This sector is now ready to acquire overseas uranium properties in order to expand the production base. (author)

  9. Casting large beryllium ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corle, R.R.; Krenzer, R.W.; Voiles, K.E.

    1978-06-05

    Beryllium casting is a relatively new technology with the successful cast of large ingots being developed during the last decade. In 1961, Rocky Flats initiated a beryllium ingot-sheet fabrication process that included the development of new techniques to consistently cast large sound beryllium ingots. This report reviews the casting technology that was developed to cast these beryllium ingots on a production basis along with some of the remaining technical problems requiring additional development work.

  10. Radioisotope investigation of continuous steel casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects are discussed of the design of the casting set, the system of the coupling of spray water cooling and the movement inside the liquid zone, on hardening, the macrostructure of ingots, the macrodistribution of non-metallic inclusions and the formation of surface cracks in cast ingots. It is demonstrated that with the use of a casting funnel with side openings and a system of support cylinders, with a total change in the system of cooling jets of the sprayer and after attaining continuous film boil in the spray tube of the water cooler, the output of the casting set may be increased by 50%, this with substantially improved quality of castings. (J.B.). 9 figs., 7 refs

  11. A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for source and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of automatic textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This paper describes is a multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morpho-Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence, cycling through all the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Once reduced to its Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form, referred to its language independent entry inside a sectorial multilingual dictionary, eade a sectorial multilingual dictionary, each tagged lemma is used as descriptor and possible seed of clustering. The automatic classification of results is made by Unsupervised Classification schema. By Multilingual Text Mining, analysts can get an overview of great volumes of textual data having a highly readable grid, which helps them discover meaningful similarities among documents and find any nuclear proliferation and safeguard related information. Multilingual Text Mining permits to overcome linguistic barriers, allowing the automatic indexation and classification of documents, whatever it might be their language, letting international agents cut through the information labyrinth. (author)

  12. Open pit blasting in uranium ore mining of SDAG Wismut. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports blasting work in the abandoned open pits at Culmitzsch and Lichtenberg, dealing primarily with the techniques of so-called detonation-wave-shielded blasting, blasting at elevated rock temperatures, and blasting at site with fractured rock. (orig./HP)

  13. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    OpenAIRE

    Deléne Visser; Bergh, Z. C.; Marikie Pelser

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administere...

  14. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, Marcos E.; Mura, Jose? C.; Paradella, Waldir R.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI) represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection an...

  15. Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID: protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiler Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabilization for six weeks is a simple, convenient, and ubiquitously available intervention. In contrast, ORIF requires hospitalization, but allows for functional rehabilitation. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials, it remains unclear whether ORIF leads to better functional outcomes one year after injury than closed reduction and casting. Methods/Design ORCHID (Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius is a pragmatic, randomized, multi-center, clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms. It is planned to include 504 patients in 15 participating centers throughout Germany over a three-year period. Patients are allocated by a central web-based randomization tool. The primary objective is to determine differences in the Short Form 36 (SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS between volar locked plating and closed reduction and casting of intraarticular, comminuted distal radius fractures in patients > 65 years of age one year after the fracture. Secondary outcomes include differences in other SF-36 dimensions, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH instrument. Also, the range of motion in the affected wrist, activities of daily living, complications (including secondary ORIF and revision surgery, as well as serious adverse events will be assessed. Data obtained during the trial will be used for later health-economic evaluations. The trial architecture involves a central statistical unit, an independent monitoring institute, and a data safety monitoring board. Following approval by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, conduct and reporting will strictly adhere to national and international rules, regulations, and recommendations (e.g., Good Clinical Practice, data safety laws, and EQUATOR/CONSORT proposals Discussion To our knowledge, ORCHID is the first multicenter RCT designed to assess quality of life and functional outcomes following operative treatment compared to conservative treatment of complex, intra-articular fractures of the distal radius in elderly patients. The results are expected to influence future treatment recommendations and policies on an international level. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN76120052 Registration date: 31.07.2008; Randomization of first patient: 15.09.2008

  16. Mining in New Caledonia: environmental stakes and restoration opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    New Caledonia is a widely recognised marine and terrestrial biodiversity hot spot. However, this unique environment is under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Major threats are related to land cover change and include fire, urban sprawling and mining. Resulting habitat loss and fragmentation end up in serious erosion of the local biodiversity. Mining is of particular concern due to its economic significance for the island. Open cast mines were exploited there since 1873, and scraping out soil to access ores wipes out flora. Resulting perturbations on water flows and dramatic soil erosion lead to metal-rich sediment transport downstream into rivers and the lagoon. Conflicting environmental and economic aspects of mining are discussed in this paper. However, mining practices are also improving, and where impacts are inescapable ecological restoration is now considered. Past and ongoing experiences in the restoration of New Caledonian terrestrial ecosystems are presented and discussed here. Economic use of the local floristic diversity could also promote conservation and restoration, while providing alternative incomes. In this regard, Ecocatalysis, an innovative approach to make use of metal hyperaccumulating plants, is of particular interest. PMID:25065482

  17. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  18. DYNAMIC MODELLING APPROACH FOR WEB USAGE MINING USING OPEN WEB RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Naveena Devi, B.; Sreevani, O.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting of users browsing behavior is an important technology of E-commerce application. The prediction results can be used for personalization. Building proper web site, improving marketing strategy , promotion, product supply, getting marketing information, forecasting market trends and increasing the competitive strength of enterprises etc., In this paper proposed system used open web resources practical e-business data sets for the development of innovative e-business applications with...

  19. Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Aliabadian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

  20. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  1. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  2. Casting heavy workpieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.; Heczko, F.

    1988-04-01

    The demands which turbine manufacturers place on cast steel are high. The problem is not easy and extends far beyond those connected with machine tool castings and armour castings. To be qualified in the production of steam turbines a company must apply more critical test criteria and provide respective documentation as verification of the strength properties demanded by the customer. Special castings for Francis, Pelton and Kaplan hydraulic turbine wheels have now raised the requirements on quality assurance yet another step higher.

  3. Canga biodiversity, a matter of mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirycz, Aleksandra; Castilho, Alexandre; Chaparro, Cristian; Carvalho, Nelson; Tzotzos, George; Siqueira, Jose O.

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian name canga refers to the ecosystems associated with superficial iron crusts typical for the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG) and some parts of Amazon (Flona de Carajas). Iron stone is associated with mountain plateaux and so, in addition to high metal concentrations (particularly iron and manganese), canga ecosystems, as other rock outcrops, are characterized by isolation and environmental harshness. Canga inselbergs, all together, occupy no more than 200 km2 of area spread over thousands of km2 of the Iron Quadrangle (MG) and the Flona de Carajas, resulting in considerable beta biodiversity. Moreover, the presence of different microhabitats within the iron crust is associated with high alpha biodiversity. Hundreds of angiosperm species have been reported so far across remote canga inselbergs and different micro-habitats. Among these are endemics such as the cactus Arthrocereus glaziovii and the medicinal plant Pilocarpus microphyllus. Canga is also home to iron and manganese metallophytes; species that evolved to tolerate high metal concentrations. These are particularly interesting to study metal homeostasis as both iron and manganese are essential plant micro-elements. Besides being models for metal metabolism, metallophytes can be used for bio-remediation of metal contaminated sites, and as such are considered among priority species for canga restoration. “Biodiversity mining” is not the only mining business attracted to canga. Open cast iron mining generates as much as 5–6% of Brazilian gross domestic product and dialog between mining companies, government, society, and ecologists, enforced by legal regulation, is ongoing to find compromise for canga protection, and where mining is unavoidable for ecosystem restoration. Environmental factors that shaped canga vegetation, canga biodiversity, physiological mechanisms to play a role, and ways to protect and restore canga will be reviewed. PMID:25505476

  4. Casting and Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins School for the Blind

    2012-06-26

    This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

  5. Japan-Australia `technology exchange workshop in coal mine productivity`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An account of papers at this workshop is given, with brief details of the attendees. An opening address covered coal production in Australia, demand in Asia, and opportunities for cooperation. Other papers covered: use of coal in the 21st century; underground mining in Australia; systems integration in mine roadways; mine roadway developments; shearers; other mining technologies; control systems; conveyors; mine communications; mine draining; mine planning and exploration; thick seam mining; and gas management. 3 photos.

  6. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage

  7. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes such kind of relationship of a well established course at the Technical University of Denmark using statistical methods. Keyphrase extraction tool was used to find the main topics of students' comments, based on which the qualitative feedback was transformed into quantitative data for further statistical analysis. Application of factor analysis helped to reveal the important issues and the structure of the data hidden in the students' written comments, while regression analysis showed that some of the revealed factors have a significant impact on how students rate a course.

  8. Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbate this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest (referred to as Spam in this document). This paper focuses on the identification and removal of duplicate, near-duplicate information and Spam in the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy. To that end, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modhis paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information. In this paper, these concepts are referred to as duplicate and near duplicate detection and irrelevant information (Spam) filtering. (author)

  9. Evaluation of electroslag castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Sikka, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of evaluations of electroslag castings of ferritic (2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo) and austenitic (CF8M or type 316) steels are presented. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical composition, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Pertinent data are compared with equivalent data for sand castings and wrought products of the same materials. Based on the results of these studies, the properties of electroslag castings compare favorably with those of sand castings and wrought materials.

  10. Methods and results of geological exploration and industrial processing or uranium mines of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter Two gives information about: exploration and processing of balance ore of Taboshar uranium mine using underground mining method; mining of poor and off-balance ores in Taboshar mine using open-cut mining method; uranium mining from poor and off-balance ores of Taboshar mine using the method of underground leaching; some practical outcomes from the results of complex processing of Taboshar mine; uranium mining in Kiik-Tal mine using the method of underground leaching

  11. High quality casting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper briefly presents results of the new developed high quality cast materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following materials are: hypereutectoid cast steel with various microstructure modular graphite obtained in as-cast condition (raw state, ductile cast iron of bainite-martensitic carbides structure obtained in a raw state, aluminum bronzes and silumins with additives of: chromium, molybdenum, wolfram, vanadium.Findings: These alloys are characterized primarily by significant mechanical properties and high wear resistance. It was also discussed getting of layer products by combination of steel or cast iron using alphinated layer with silumin.Practical implications: The paper discusses the high quality cast alloy, layer products and presents the high quality casting materials in the point of view principles of materials selection.Originality/value: The above problem is shown in the background of “Rules of material selection” as well as a model of production system in company.

  12. Solution mining economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of application of in-situ solution mining of uranium is described and areas of competition with open pit and underground mining identified. The influence of high interest rates and dollar inflation on present values and rate of return is shown to be minimized by low capitalization and short construction lead times typical of in-situ leaching ventures. A scheme of three major project account divisions is presented and basic parameters necessary for mine planning are listed. 1979 cost ranges and useful methods of estimation of capital and operating costs are given for the in-situ uranium mining method

  13. Image Mining with CBIR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Chidambaranathan?

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing this huge amount of multimedia data to discover useful knowledge is a challenging task. It has opened up opportunities for research in Multimedia Data Mining (MDM. Multimedia Data Mining can be defined as the process of finding interesting patterns from media data such as audio, video, image and text that are not ordinarily accessible by basic queries and associated results. This paper mainly focuses on Image Mining techniques and how Content-based Image Retrieval can be helpful for Image mining.

  14. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  15. Unmixing techniques for better segmentation of urban zones, roads, and open pit mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa; Petkov, Doyno

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the linear unmixing method has been applied in classification of manmade objects, namely urbanized zones, roads etc. The idea is to exploit to larger extent the possibilities offered by multispectral imagers having mid spatial resolution in this case TM/ETM+ instruments. In this research unmixing is used to find consistent regression dependencies between multispectral data and those gathered in-situ and airborne-based sensors. The correct identification of the mixed pixels is key element for the subsequent segmentation forming the shape of the artificial feature is determined much more reliable. This especially holds true for objects with relatively narrow structure for example two-lane roads for which the spatial resolution is larger that the object itself. We have combined ground spectrometry of asphalt, Landsat images of RoI, and in-situ measured asphalt in order to determine the narrow roads. The reflectance of paving stones made from granite is highest compared to another ones which is true for open and stone pits. The potential for mapping is not limited to the mid-spatial Landsat data, but also may be used if the data has higher spatial resolution (as fine as 0.5 m). In this research the spectral and directional reflection properties of asphalt and concrete surfaces compared to those of paving stone made from different rocks have been measured. The in-situ measurements, which plays key role have been obtained using the Thematically Oriented Multichannel Spectrometer (TOMS) - designed in STIL-BAS.

  16. A collection of open source applications for mass spectrometry data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Óscar; Ovelleiro, David; Gay, Marina; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2014-10-01

    We present several bioinformatics applications for the identification and quantification of phosphoproteome components by MS. These applications include a front-end graphical user interface that combines several Thermo RAW formats to MASCOT™ Generic Format extractors (EasierMgf), two graphical user interfaces for search engines OMSSA and SEQUEST (OmssaGui and SequestGui), and three applications, one for the management of databases in FASTA format (FastaTools), another for the integration of search results from up to three search engines (Integrator), and another one for the visualization of mass spectra and their corresponding database search results (JsonVisor). These applications were developed to solve some of the common problems found in proteomic and phosphoproteomic data analysis and were integrated in the workflow for data processing and feeding on our LymPHOS database. Applications were designed modularly and can be used standalone. These tools are written in Perl and Python programming languages and are supported on Windows platforms. They are all released under an Open Source Software license and can be freely downloaded from our software repository hosted at GoogleCode. PMID:25055762

  17. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Be?chatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

  18. Mine planning and equipment selection 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardygora, M.; Paszkowska, G.; Sikora, M. (eds.) [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following subject headings: open pit and underground mine planning, modelling and design; geomechanics; mining and processing methods; design, monitoring and maintenance of mine equipment; simulation, optimization and control of technological processes; management, mine economics and financial analysis; and health, safety and environmental protection.

  19. Deadly Conditions in Ukraine's Aging, Underfinanced Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Hilary C.

    2001-01-01

    August 24th is Ukraine's Independence day but a recent deadly mine explosion casts a shadow over the festivities. The death toll for August 19th's blast in the Zasyadko mine, eastern Ukraine, is now up to fifty. This latest explosion is one of many disasters at Ukraineâ??s aging, under-financed mines, which are considered to be the most dangerous in Europe. According to the World Socialist Website, five miners die for every million tonnes of coal extracted in Ukraine.

  20. A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Generally speaking, up to 80% of electronic data is textual and most valuable information is often hidden and encoded in pages which are neither structured, nor classified. The availability of huge amount of data available in the open sources leads to the well-identified nowadays paradox: an overload of information means no usable knowledge. Besides, open source texts are - and will be - written in various native languages, but these documents are relevant even to non-native IAEA speakers. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for type (scientific article, patent, free textual document), source (Internet/Intranet, database, etc), protocol (HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, GOPHER, IRC, NNTP, etc) and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of focused crawling, textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This task undoubtedly requires remarkable efforts. This poster describes is a multimedia content gathering, multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collectionsose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. Its focused crawling aims to crawl only the subset of the web pages related to a specific category, in order to find only information of interest and improve quality in documents gathering. The focused crawling algorithm builds a model for the context within which topically relevant pages occur on the web, typically capturing link hierarchies within which valuable pages occur, as well as model content on documents that frequently co-occur with relevant pages. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morphological, Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. The languages supported are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, but the system can be fully integrated on demand with other languages such as Arabic, Russian, simplified Chinese, etc. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence and, for each word, the Slot Grammar parser draws on the word's slot frames to cycle through the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Each slot structure can be partially or fully instantiated and it can be filled with representations from one or more statements to incrementally build the meaning of a statement. This includes most of the treatment of coordination, which uses a method of 'factoring out' unfilled slots from elliptical coordinated phrases. The parser - a bottom-up chart parser - employs a parse evaluation scheme used for pruning away unlikely analyses during parsing as well as for ranking final analyses. By including semantic information directly in the dependency grammar structures, the system relies on the lexical semantic information combined with functional application rules. The detected terms and phrases are then extracted, reduced to their Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form. Once referred to their language independent entry inside the sectorial multilingual dictionary, they are used as descriptors for documents and possible seeds of clustering. Then final system users can search document by keywords combined by boolean operators, or by typing their own query in Natural Language, expressed using normal conversational syntax. Traditional Boolean queries, while precise, require strict interpretation that can often

  1. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measur flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  2. Casting in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Decarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast constructio...

  3. Die casting plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful method of die casting plutonium is described. The method is an improvement over conventional pour-cast techniques in that the plutonium can be solidified more rapidly. One advantage of rapid solidification is that cast structures can be improved. Another advantage is that the plutonium has little time to react with its surroundings, so experimenters can choose from a larger selection of die construction materials

  4. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2014-04-29

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  5. Mining project of the Taja Margaritas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the study of a mining project designed to determine the feasibility of open-pit mining in uranium deposits along the Pena Blanca mountain ridges in Taja Margaritas, is presented. (author)

  6. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões / A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco César Rodrigues de, Araújo; Marcone Jamilson Freitas, Souza.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sort [...] e a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and qua [...] lity targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  7. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco César Rodrigues de Araújo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sorte a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática.This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and quality targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  8. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  9. Cast polymerization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A casting process by radiation polymerization in a supercooled state at low temperatures have been studied. Glass-forming monomeric system could be polymerized quickly by irradiation without large changes in dimension and homogeneity. Transparent polymer products without optical strain were prepared in a short time. It was found that radiation casting process can be applied to production of various organic glass articles. (author)

  10. Continuous casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steel to be cast is SUS 304 stainless steel containing 0.4 to 2.0mass% B boron to be used for cells of a spent fuel rack of a nuclear power plant. The conditions for casting are such that casting speed is from 0.4 to 0.8 m/min, the gap of support rolls in a secondary cooling region in the direction of casting is 300mm or less, and a ratio of solid phase in the central portion of the thickness of the cast piece passing through the final portion of the second cooling region is 0.2 or less. A desired lower limit between the support rolls is about 150mm. If the casting speed is less than 0.4m/min, the ratio of the solid phase at the central portion of the thickness of the cast piece at the final position of the secondary cooling region can not be reduced to 0.2. If the ratio of the solid phase exceeds 0.2, porosities are formed. The lower limit of the ratio of the solid phase is about 0.05. With such a constitution, cast pieces with no surface and internal defects can be manufactured without forming break out. (I.N.)

  11. Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto / Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lásara Fabrícia, Rodrigues; Luiz Ricardo, Pinto.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em [...] heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, hav [...] e been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

  12. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Written by leading experts in their respective fields, Solidification and Casting provides a comprehensive review of topics fundamental to metallurgy and materials science as well as indicates recent trends.From an industrial perspective, the book begins with chapters on the casting techniques most commonly used in industry today. It then describes the underlying science fundamental to solidification mechanisms, including fluid flow, the effects of cooling rates, modern simulation, and modelling methods in use and their application in various casting scenarios. Next, the authors consider the microstructure of cast materials and their defects, and explore how different casting processes can control these parameters. The book concludes with the most recent developments in the field and discusses new processes and materials, such as novel alloys and composites, metallic glasses, ceramics, and superconducting oxides.

  13. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  14. Enhancement of macrostructure in structural steel castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Number and type of defects which are formed in ingots during open-hearth steel casting by the bottom gate method are analyzed for a large number of structural steels. It is shown that the largest number of defects is detected in titanium-alloyed steel castings and in low-alloy chromium-molybdenum and chromium-nickel steels (18KhGT; 20KhN3A, 20N2M, 20Kh2NUA). Chromium steel ingots (40Kh) feature a satisfactory quality. Reasons for the formation of defects and remedies are discussed

  15. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  16. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  17. Clean Metal Casting; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical prng process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

  18. A new look at Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata of the East Midlands, UK: initial data from the Smalley open pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sian Davies-Vollum, K.; Guion, Paul; Satterfield, Dorothy; Suthren, Roger

    2010-05-01

    Outcrops of Pennsylvanian (Duckmantian) age coal-bearing strata in the East Midlands of England are rare and have become rarer as more of the surface environment has been developed. Much of the stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental interpretation of these strata have thus been based on subsurface data from deep mine workings and coal exploration boreholes. However, in 2009, coal mining commenced at an open pit mine near Smalley, east Derbyshire in the UK East Midlands. The mine provides a unique opportunity to carry out examination of a large-scale outcrop of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in order to undertake detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. The coals that will be exposed during working belong to the Waterloo group of seams of Duckmantian age. Initial examination of the workings has been concentrated on two successive intervals: from the basal Third Waterloo Seam to the Bottom Second Waterloo seam, and the from above the Bottom Second Waterloo seam to the Top Second Waterloo seam. The two inter-seam intervals are approximately 10-12 meters thick. Examination of the coal seams and inter-seam intervals will continue as new faces are exposed, supplemented by exploration drilling data. Initial field observations on the first sections exposed suggest that the two inter-seam intervals represent the infill of lakes formed on a fluvio-lacustrine plain, with negligible marine influence. The strata immediately above the Third Waterloo Seam consist of dark grey fissile shaly mudrocks overlain by an upward coarsening sequence of pale grey siltstones with sandy laminae and current ripples indicating unidirectional tractional flows. These pass upwards into rippled fine sandstones, cut by shallow channels towards the top. The overall inter-seam sequence is interpreted as the deposits of a lacustrine delta system that infilled a shallow lake that was initially anoxic. Once the lake had been infilled, a peat mire was able to form, now represented by the Bottom Second Waterloo Seam. The interval between the Bottom and Top Waterloo Seams contains an upward-coarsening sequence of laminated siltstones, overlain by a series of sharp-based rippled sandstones, each up to about 60 cm thick. The sharp based sandstones are interpreted as being crevasse splay deposits, which would have been fed by a nearby fluvial channel, which has not yet been located. As additional exposures are created during the lifetime of the mine, the temporal, spatial and environmental relationships of the coals and inter-seam strata will be investigated further by recording stratigraphic sections and directional data and producing photo panels. This should enable detailed paleoenvironmental reconstructions for each of the intervals investigated, which will be considered in the light of recent research on analogous ancient and recent environments. Data from adjacent former mines and coal exploration boreholes containing lateral continuations of the intervals examined will then allow the Smalley mine geology to be placed within the regional context of the East Midlands Coalfield, and enable us to consider broad scale paleoenvironmental variation across the area. It is anticipated that by enhancing our understanding of inter-seam deposits, prediction of geological conditions ahead of mining will be improved.

  19. Cooperation with emerging countries in advanced mining training programmes involving an industrial partner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources (CESMAT) is a Higher Education Institution in France to train and perform the upper management personnel working in mining, throughout the world. The program of study is comprised of seven separate year long study programs, a network of some 2 300 former students from a hundred countries with whom regular contact is maintained, and a permanent think tank unit that concentrates on the training of mining sector managers. The guiding principle for CESMAT is that cooperation and training hold a special position in French policy concerning relations with mineral producing countries. Seven programmes have been progressively developed on minerals prospecting and processing, resources evaluation, open cast mining techniques, mining economics, impact of mining on environment, management of closure of mining activities and the role of the State. These programmes bring together ten to twelve engineers or geologists who have already had professional experience. For non-French speakers, a language-training phase of three months may precede the programs. The following specializations are currently being offered: - Ore Prospecting and Mineral Processing - Nancy School of Geology - CESEV, - Treatment of Industrial Evolutions and Changes - CESTEMIN, - Geostatistical Analysis of Ore Deposits - Paris School of Mines - C.F.S.G., - Open Cut Mining Operations - Paris School of Mines - CESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining ProjCESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining Projects - Paris School of Mines - CESPROMIN, - Mine Safety and Environments - Ales School of Mines - CESSEM, - Mines Public Administration - Paris School of Mines - CESAM. Teaching is done both by Institute professors and by public and private sector industry experts. These instructors rely heavily on technical visits and on practical case studies. One specific example is the student research project mentored by specialists in the field, which is oriented directly to circumstances in the student's country. The participation of students in each program is attested to by means of an official certificate. In some cases, this may be accompanied by a diploma from the host school. Tuition for the courses, which runs (around 15 000 Euro/year) may be covered by CESMAT for students affiliated with public or private mining organizations from foreign, mineral producing countries. Scholarships are also available from French organizations, sources in the student's country of origin, or international organizations such as the EU, UNESCO, UNPD and others. CESMAT has also built partnerships with mining companies (VALE in Brazil, CODELCO in Chili and AREVA in France) which contribute to sponsor trainees for living cost during their studies in France. AREVA is developing uranium exploration and mining in many countries and has signed cooperation agreement with the government of these countries to provide them technical and financial support for capacity building in partnership with the French school of mines. (author)

  20. Casting thermal simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole of this study is concerned with process simulation in casting processes. This study describes the application of the finite element method as an aid to simulating the thermal design of a high pressure die casting die by analysing the cooling transients in the casting cycle. Two types of investigation were carried out to model the linear and non-linear cooling behavior with consideration of a thermal interface effect. The simulated cooling for different stages were presented in temperature contour form. These illustrate the successful application of the Finite Element Method to model the process and they illustrate the significance of the thermal interface at low pressure

  1. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  2. Identification of a Hidden Volcano in an Open-pit Coal Mine by Gravity Survey, NW Bohemia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2014, Tu PA2 03/1-Tu PA2 03/5. ISBN 978-94-6282-027-2. [Near Surface Geoscience 2014 - 20th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Athens (GR), 14.09.2014-18.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : hidden volcano * coal mine * gravity survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  3. ESTIMATION OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A SURFACE COAL MINE USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROSCOPY AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new measurements methodology has been developed which allows the rapid and efficient measurement of methane (CH4) emissions from surface coal mines. An initial field trial of this methodology has been completed, and results from the field trial revealed that emissions from one ...

  4. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    Wro?bel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer) is depending on accepted variant plat...

  5. Centrifugal casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centrifugal casting is not one of the most common metalforming techniques, but there are a few applications of great value, for example in gas cooled reactors. In this article a few examples of these applications are discussed

  6. Hair Casts or Pseudonits

    OpenAIRE

    Franc?a, Katlein; Villa, Ricardo Tadeu; Silva, Isabella Rezende; Carvalho, Cristine Almeida; Bedin, Valcinir

    2011-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common.

  7. Method of casting aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  8. ANÁLISIS DE EXCAVACIONES EN LA MINA SUBTERRÁNEA EL TORO POR MEDIO DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS / FINITE ELEMENTS ANALYSIS FOR UNDERGROUND OPENINGS AT EL TORO MINE.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ÁLVARO J., CASTRO CAICEDO.; JUAN E., MONSALVE OLIVEROS..

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En la mina subterránea El Toro se explota roca calcárea para la fabricación de cemento en la Planta El Cairo, de Cementos Argos S. A. El método de explotación es conocido como realce por subniveles o sublevel stoping , que consiste en la abertura de cámaras mediante perforación y voladura con explos [...] ivos, cada cámara excavada tiene dimensiones de 20m de ancho, 45m de altura y longitudes entre 80 y 120 m, separadas por pilares intermedios de 10 m de espesor, definiendo conjuntos denominados Bloques de explotación. Este artículo presenta el proceso realizado con el fin de modelar y evaluar la distribución de los desplazamientos y de los esfuerzos resultantes de la compleja interacción de los Bloques de explotación. La modelación numérica se realizó con fundamento en la mecánica del medio continuo y por medio de la técnica de los elementos finitos; inicialmente se obtuvo el modelo geomecánico del terreno rocoso y posteriormente el modelo numérico incluyendo las excavaciones. Se evaluaron varias configuraciones geométricas de los Bloques de explotación proyectados, y se concluyó con una propuesta de diseño que ofrece estabilidad del terreno intervenido y permite extraer el mayor volumen posible de reservas minerales. Abstract in english El Toro underground mine is located at Antioquia, Colombia and exploits a limestone deposit through sublevel stopping mining method. The mine was designed with five exploitation levels with 65m high, 20m wide and 120 m long stopes sets. In this work is presented the process to obtain the assessment [...] of the mechanical behavior of the rock mass under stoping effects, the geomechanical and numerical models were obtained and several stopes configurations were evaluated including existing and projected openings. The work concludes with geometrical modification that besides to offer stability of ground, allows to extract greater volume of mineral reserves.

  9. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia, Kvitko; Eliane, Bandinelli; João A.P., Henriques; Vanina D., Heuser; Paula, Rohr; Fernanda R. da, Silva; Naye Balzan, Schneider; Simone, Fernandes; Camile, Ancines; Juliana da, Silva.

    1060-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the footwear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of [...] workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p

  10. Piast black coal mine - a mining giant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelner, C.; Cudzik, W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses coal reserves of the Piast mine, mine design, construction and operation. Black coal from the mine has a calorific value of 2,500 kJ/kg, ash content is 10-15%, sulfur content is 0.9-1.4%. Water influx is high; in 1984 it amounted to 18 m/sup 3//min. Five coal seams were opened by a system of 5 shafts. Two mining levels at depths of 500 m and 650 m supply 24,000 t/d. Longwall mining with caving is used. The faces are from 1.5 to 3.0 m high and on the average 134 m long. Average coal output per face is 1,350 t/d. The faces are equipped with: KWB-3RDU or KWB-3RNS shearer loaders, Glinik or Fazos powered supports and Rybnik-73 and Rybnik-80 chain conveyors. Coal output increase from 1976 to 1984 is shown in 2 tables. Prospects for mine development are also discussed. 1 ref.

  11. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini; Siamak Haji Yakhchali

    2012-01-01

    Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropri...

  13. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  14. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique. [CF8M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-01-01

    ELectroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and sand castings.

  15. Mine Classification based on a Fuzzy Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Quidu, Isabelle; Malkasse, Jean-philippe; Vilbe?, Pierre; Burel, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    High resolution sonars provide high-quality acoustic images, allowing the classification of objects from their cast shadow. For a given ground mine except mine with radial symmetry, shadow appearance generally depends on the point of view. After a segmentation step performed on images acquired along a part of a circular trajectory of the sonar around the object, we can match and superimpose binary data. The resulting image displays a fuzzy shadow region whose pixels grey-levels depend on thei...

  16. Morenci Mine, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North America's leading producer of copper. In the 1860s, prospectors arrived looking for gold; instead they found copper. Underground mining began in the 1870s, and the first pit was opened in 1939. Phelps Dodge employs over 200 people in the mining and refining operations. Around-the-clock removal of 700,000 tons of rock per day results in production of 382 thousand tons of copper per year. Phelps Dodge is now developing the Safford Mine, about 12 km southwest of Morenci. It will be the first new copper mine in the US in more than 30 years. When production starts in 2008, the Safford Mine will produce 109 thousand tons of copper. This ASTER image uses shortwavelength infrared bands to highlight in bright pink the altered rocks in the Morenci pit associated with copper mineralization. The image covers an area of 21 x 16.9 km, was acquired on July 14, 2007, and is centered near 33.1 degrees north latitude, 109.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Liquidation of technological waste by mining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining activities are unfavourably influencing the environment. On the other hand known that it is possible to fill-in the mine spaces by waste material of non-mining origin, the technological waste coming from other processing plants. At present time some examples can be found in the coal mines where the inert technological waste is put to the open pit spaces. It is believed that the new legislation will open new possibilities for elimination of some of technological waste by its depositing into abandoned parts of the mine areas. (author)

  18. Educational data mining using jmp

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq Hussain; Hazarika, Prof G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Educational Data Mining is a growing trend in case of higher education. The quality of the Educational Institute may be enhanced through discovering hidden knowledge from the student databases/ data warehouses. Present paper is designed to carry out a comparative study with the TDC (Three Year Degree) Course students of different colleges affiliated to Dibrugarh University. The study is conducted with major subject wise, gender wise and category/caste wise. The experimental ...

  19. Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the 226Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, 222Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated 226Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced 222Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as 226Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on 222Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, 226Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence 222Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil possociated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on 222Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence 222Rn flux densities considerably

  20. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  1. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan

    2013-09-01

    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect. PMID:24289011

  2. Estimation of radiation exposure to the population of Arad, following the opening of the 'Sedeh-Zohar' phosphate mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a national survey of rock phosphate deposits in 1981, a large and rich field was discovered in the vicinity of Arad. This new deposit, known as 'Sedeh-Zohar', is spread over an area of some 100 km2 and has been estimated to contain about 200 million tons of high quality raw material. At the request of Negev Phosphate Ltd., an estimation of the radiation exposure dose to the population of Arad, was undertaken. Rock phosphates in the Negev contain several naturally occuring radioisotopes, mainly uranium (about 150 ppm) and traces of thorium and potassium. The mining operations of these phosphate deposits and their subsequent industrial use will no dout lead to the release of radioactivity into the atmosphere, and some of it may reach the city of Arad. The average annual exposure dose from natural radioactivity has been estimated as 2mSv (200 mrem/y). It was found that the natural background radiation in Arad is at least as high as the overall world average values of 2000 ?Sv/y (200 mrem/y), which includes all possible external and internal exposures. The overall addition of 70 ?Sv/y (7 mrem/y) to the population of Arad, due to the operation of the mining facility at Sede-Zohar, would constitute only about 3.5% more background radiation, within the range of regional fluctuations in the natural background

  3. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anesthesia . Casting Casts usually are made of either: plaster of paris: this heavy white powder forms a thick paste that hardens quickly when mixed with water. Plaster of paris casts are heavier than fiberglass casts and don' ...

  4. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 27.621 Section 27.621...Construction General § 27.621 Casting factors. (a) General. ...d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure...

  5. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 29.621 Section 29.621...Construction General § 29.621 Casting factors. (a) General. ...d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure...

  6. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 25.621 Section 25.621...Construction General § 25.621 Casting factors. (a) General. ...of this section apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure...

  7. Sealing micropores in thin castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

  8. Bulk metallic glass tube casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. ? Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. ? Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. ? Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, andsy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

  9. Scheduled Caste Women: Problems And Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumar Murthy; Jaikishan Thakur

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzed the Caste system based on Varnas during the ancient India. It also examined the demerits of caste attached to the present scheduled castes in general and scheduled caste women in particular. The scheduled caste women are disadvantaged by their caste and gender and as such they are subject to exploitation and discrimination by their family members, by their caste people and by forward castes. Hence, there is increase in exploitation, discrimination and violence against the s...

  10. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Wear resistance of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  12. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    Wro?bel, T.; Cholewa, M.; Tenerowicz, S.

    2011-01-01

    In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness betwe...

  13. Casting warpage study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, E.P.

    1976-08-01

    Because of a need to reduce warpage in investment castings, and because of reported success in the use of aqueous polyalkylene glycol solutions for reducing warpage in heat-treated sheet-metal parts, particularly for aluminum alloys, an experiment was designed to include these solutions along with polyethylene glycol solutions in a study of quenching parameters. At the time of the study, the cost of polyethylene glycol was approximately one-third that of polyalkylene glycol. A total of 1032 cast parts was produced from 13 cast-furnace heats for study. Conclusions concerning warpage and mechanical properties were based on 2064 tensile specimens and the cast parts. Warpage was reduced significantly in the two glycol-solution systems. Solutions of 20 and 40 percent, by weight, appeared to be more effective for both polyethylene glycol and polyalkylene glycol. Minimum warpage occurred at a quenching temperature of 210/sup 0/F (98.9/sup 0/C). Warpage in the glycol quenching solutions was less than that which occurred in water at all temperatures studied. The average warpage of the parts was affected by their attitude during quenching. This warpage was caused by differential cooling rates on the forward and rear surfaces of the parts produced by the turbulence created by the downward motion of the basket during the quenching operation. Parts which displayed thin edges upon approach to the quenching solution showed less tendency to warp than did those which displayed broad surfaces.

  14. Hair casts or pseudonits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Katlein; Villa, Ricardo Tadeu; Silva, Isabella Rezende; de Carvalho, Cristine Almeida; Bedin, Valcinir

    2011-07-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common. PMID:22223977

  15. Evaluation of an improved centrifugal casting machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, T E; White, L E

    1985-05-01

    A Type III gold alloy, a silver-palladium alloy, and a base metal alloy were cast in two different centrifugal casting machines. With the number of complete cast mesh squares as an indicator of castability, the Airspin casting machine produced superior castings with all three alloys. The base metal alloy produced the greatest number of complete squares with both casting machines. PMID:3889295

  16. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 ?m - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle concentrations are the highest in January and February, being the correlation between the TSP and PM10 measurements not as strong during this time period. This could be associated with the spatial and temporal variability of wet deposition as well as a larger mechanical and eolic resuspension of particles. We found that precipitation drastically reduces the levels of particulate matter. In order to describe the effect of wet deposition, a mathematical model was developed based on a first order relaxation proportional to the precipitation rate. Daily average concentrations and daily accumulated precipitation were used in this model, which showed high concentration reductions even for low precipitation levels essentially for all stations. Monthly precipitation values showed a better correlation with TSP concentrations. Finally, we found evidence of a significant decrease in global radiation due to particulate matter, particularly during the dry season, which could potentially affect farming and agricultural activities in the region.

  17. Fully mobile crawler-mounted crushing plant for large open pit mines; Vollmobile Brechanlage auf Raupen fuer Grosstagebaue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentges, Ulrich [ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany). BU Mining, Vertrieb und Bergbauplanung

    2008-11-15

    The newly developed concept of a fully mobile crawler-mounted crushing plant has already proven successful in worldwide surface mining. The innovative feature of this new concept is the facility for moving the crusher during operation, guaranteeing flexibility and mobility. In combination with a continuously operated conveyor, the entire truck transport that would otherwise be necessary is eliminated. A first reference plant has been successfully operating now for almost one year in China, working at full production rate since the first day. A second plant is soon set to go into operation at a Canadian oil sand producer. In addition to the cost savings to the customer, the fully mobile crushing system has huge potential for reducing operations related CO{sub 2} emissions providing a greener footprint. (orig.)

  18. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  19. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x108m3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

  20. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 108m3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.)

  1. Fisher Matrix Preloaded — FISHER4CAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Bruce A.; Fantaye, Yabebal; Hlozek, Renée; Kotze, Jacques

    The Fisher Matrix is the backbone of modern cosmological forecasting. We describe the Fisher4Cast software: A general-purpose, easy-to-use, Fisher Matrix framework. It is open source, rigorously designed and tested and includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with automated LATEX file creation capability and point-and-click Fisher ellipse generation. Fisher4Cast was designed for ease of extension and, although written in Matlab, is easily portable to open-source alternatives such as Octave and Scilab. Here we use Fisher4Cast to present new 3D and 4D visualizations of the forecasting landscape and to investigate the effects of growth and curvature on future cosmological surveys. Early releases have been available at since mid-2008. The current release of the code is Version 2.2 which is described here. For ease of reference a Quick Start guide and the code used to produce the figures in this paper are included, in the hope that it will be useful to the cosmology and wider scientific communities.

  2. Fisher Matrix Preloaded -- Fisher4Cast

    CERN Document Server

    Bassett, Bruce A; Hlozek, Renée; Kotze, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The Fisher Matrix is the backbone of modern cosmological forecasting. We describe the Fisher4Cast software: a general-purpose, easy-to-use, Fisher Matrix framework. It is open source, rigorously designed and tested and includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with automated LATEX file creation capability and point-and-click Fisher ellipse generation. Fisher4Cast was designed for ease of extension and, although written in Matlab, is easily portable to open-source alternatives such as Octave and Scilab. Here we use Fisher4Cast to present new 3-D and 4-D visualisations of the forecasting landscape and to investigate the effects of growth and curvature on future cosmological surveys. Early releases have been available at http://www.cosmology.org.za since May 2008 with 750 downloads in the first year. Version 2.0 is made public with this paper and includes a Quick Start guide and the code used to produce the figures in this paper, in the hope that it will be useful to the cosmology and wider scientific communitie...

  3. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The winning of uranium ore is the first stage of the fuel cycle. The whole complex of questions to be considered when evaluating the profitability of an ore mine is shortly outlined, and the possible mining techniques are described. Some data on uranium mining in the western world are also given. (RB)

  4. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  5. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps...slope, drift, and tunnel openings and auger...mined; (f) The location of all surface mine...coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location and description...entrance to drift and tunnel openings;...

  6. AMCC casting development, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

  7. Process Mining Versus Intention Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabandelou, Ghazaleh; Hug, Charlotte; Deneckere, Rebecca; Salinesi, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Process mining aims to discover, enhance or check the conformance of activity oriented process models from event logs. A new field of research, called intention mining, recently emerged. This new field has the same objectives than process mining but specifically addresses intentional process models. This paper aims to highlight the differences between these two fields of research and illustrates the use of mining techniques on a dataset of event logs, to discover an activity process model as ...

  8. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  9. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  10. A numerical solution to integrated water flows: Application to the flooding of an open pit mine at the Barcés river catchment - La Coruña, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J.-Horacio; Padilla, Francisco; Juncosa, Ricardo; Vellando, Pablo R.; Fernández, Álvaro

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThis research and practical application is concerned with the development of a physically-based numerical model that incorporates new approaches for a finite element solution to the steady/transient problems of the joint surface/groundwater flows of a particular region with the help of a Geographic Information Systems to store, represent, manage and take decisions on all the simulated conditions. The proposed surface-subsurface model considers surface and groundwater interactions to be depth-averaged through a novel interpretation of a linear river flood routing method. Infiltration rates and overland flows generation processes are assessed by a sub-model which accounts for this kind of surface-groundwater interactions. Surface-groundwater interactions consider also novel evaporation and evapotranspiration processes as a diffuse discharge from surface water, non-saturated subsoil and groundwater table. The practical application regards the present flooding of the Meirama open pit, a quite deep coal mining excavation, with freshwater coming from the upper Meirama sub-basin, in the context of the water resources fate and use at the Barcés river catchment (˜87.9 km2), Coruña, Spain. The developed model MELEF was applied to the complex geology of a pull-apart type sedimentary tertiary valley and the whole of the water resources of the Barcés River drainage basin, down to its outlet at the Cecebre Reservoir. Firstly, the model was adapted and calibrated during a simulation period of three and a half years (2006/2009) with the aid of the historically registered hydrological parameters and data. Secondly, the results predict the most likely forthcoming evolution of the present flooding of the Meirama open pit to reach therein a total depth level of almost 200 m, as regards the projected evolution of the water resources, climatology and usages.

  11. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hongtao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Finally, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

  12. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  13. Solution (in situ leach) mining of uranium: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in the demand for and price of uranium have made in-situ mining an attractive alternative to the open-pit and underground U mining methods. Up to 50% of the known ore-bearing sandstone in the western U.S. can be mined using the in-situ mining method. In-situ mining also offers a significant environmental advantage. Restoration of the contaminated groundwater is discussed

  14. Volume MLS ray casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

  15. DentalCast

    Science.gov (United States)

    DentalCast is a network of Internet radio and video that brings the latest information about dental technology and clinical techniques to your computer or MP3 Player. DentalCast offers both Audio and Video episodes that can be accessed directly from your PC or users can subscribe to either or both audio and video via iTunes. Episodes available include: recognizing sleep apnea patients in your practice; Discussion of how a new dental product comes to the market; video of denture waxup techniques; and Dental Anxiety: An Integrative Approach to Treatment â?? to name only a few. These video and audio podcasts will be useful to those studying to be in the dental fields as well as for those teaching or practicing.

  16. [Mathijsen and plaster casts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    In 1851, Antonius Mathijsen (1805-1878), a Dutch military surgeon, developed a practical method for immobilizing limb fractures with plaster casts. Previous attempts had been made by using soluble material for moulding casts to replace the traditional methods of traction or splinting. Disadvantages included the long drying-time required (e.g. with glue) or the requirement for hot water plus the resultant skin irritation (e.g. with gutta-percha). Plaster of Paris had occasionally been tried but proved unwieldy. Mathijsen used plaster of Paris in various different ways, the most successful being cotton bandages impregnated with plaster in powder form to which water had been added. His method was adopted worldwide within a decade. Mathijsen never married and spent his old age with relatives in the south of the Netherlands. PMID:22027466

  17. Characterisation of Organic Matter and Carbon Cycling in Rehabilitated Lignite-rich Mine Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-cast lignite mining in the Lusatian mining district resulted in rehabilitated mine soils containing up to four organic matter types: (1) recent plant litter, (2) lignite deposited by mining activity, (3) carbonaceous ash particles deposited during amelioration of the lignite-containing parent substrate and (4) airborne carbonaceous particles deposited during contamination. The influence of lignite-derived carbon types on the organic matter development and their role in the soil carbon cycle was unknown. This paper presents the findings obtained during a six year project concerning the impact of lignite on soil organic matter composition and the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem. The organic matter development after rehabilitation was followed in a chronosequence of rehabilitated mine soils afforested in 1966, 1981 and 1987. A differentiation of the organic matter types and an evaluation of their role within the ecosystem was achieved by the use of 14C activity measurements, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis of plant litter compounds. The results showed that the amount and degree of decomposition of the recent organic matter derived from plant material of the 30 year old mine soil was similar to natural uncontaminated forest soil which suggests complete rehabilitation of the ecosystem. The decomposition and humification processes were not influenced by the presence of lignite. On the other hand it was shown that lite. On the other hand it was shown that lignite, which was thought to be recalcitrant because of its chemical structure, was part of the carbon cycle in these soils. This demonstrates the need to elucidate further the stabilisation mechanisms of organic matter in soils

  18. [Casting faults and structural studies on bonded alloys comparing centrifugal castings and vacuum pressure castings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, P; Küfmann, W

    1978-07-01

    The casting processes in use today such as centrifugal casting and vacuum pressure casting were compared with one another. An effort was made to answer the question whether the occurrence of shrink cavities and the mean diameter of the grain of the alloy is dependent on the method of casting. 80 crowns were made by both processes from the baked alloys Degudent Universal, Degudent N and the trial alloy 4437 of the firm Degusa. Slice sections were examined for macro and micro-porosity and the structural appearance was evaluated by linear analysis. Statistical analysis showed that casting faults and casting structure is independent of the method used and their causes must be found in the conditions of casting and the composition of the alloy. PMID:352670

  19. Metal casting extended assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the Industrial Assessment Center program of the US Department of Energy initiated Extended Assessments as an option for some of their in-plant assessments. Intended for larger, more complex manufacturing facilities, the multi-day Extended Assessment allows the plant assessment team to explore more complex recommendations with the intent of encouraging major process and equipment changes. In this paper the authors describe the results of Extended Assessments at plants in the Metal Casting Industry, one of the DOE Industries of the Future. They visited five plants, two foundries and three die casting plants, with combined annual sales of $134 million and a combined annual production volume of 35,300 tons. The recommendations offered potential savings to each plant of an average $417,000 or 1.5% of average gross sales. A number of generalizations can be observed based on the assessments in the cast metals industry. First is that many of the smaller firms in this industry have been slow to adopt innovative technology. Off the shelf technologies are available that will help these firms reach the 21st Century. The concept of remelt of metal or scrap in the plant is an operation that can be improved. They found approximately two pounds of metal melted for every pound shipped. Finally, many opportunities exist outside of the core plant operations to reduce operating costs

  20. Contemporary art casting’s education in Guangdong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chunmiao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the practical experience of establishing three art casting laboratories in three different colleges of Guangdong, this paper focuses on the development of contemporary art casting’s education. By analyzing the reason for the shortage of professionals nowadays and the characteristics of modern foundry industry in the Pearl River Delta, the authors try to find out what kind of knowledge structures a modern foundry industry professional should have. Then, from the viewpoint of education, the authors introduce how to combine the art casting laboratory and the creative art casting course as a new teaching pattern, on the one hand, to attract more students to study casting technology, on the other hand, to train them to be qualified professionals for the modern foundry industry.

  1. Crinum coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Crinum project was given approval to proceed in January 1993. The mine is expected to produce its first coal in the second half of 1994, leading to full production by mid-1996, when total product coal from the Gregory Joint Venture leases is designed to reach 4.5 million tonnes per annum. Development work will be performed by continuous miner machines, progressing to a longwall underground mining operation. Crinum and Gregory coals will be processed in Gregory's recently modified preparation plant to produce three products - a low ash coking coal, a weak coking coal and a by-product thermal coal for world markets. Crinum coal will augment production from Gregory mine's remaining open cut coal reserves. 2 figs.

  2. Contemporary art casting’s education in Guangdong

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Chunmiao; Ji Qing

    2012-01-01

    Based on the practical experience of establishing three art casting laboratories in three different colleges of Guangdong, this paper focuses on the development of contemporary art casting’s education. By analyzing the reason for the shortage of professionals nowadays and the characteristics of modern foundry industry in the Pearl River Delta, the authors try to find out what kind of knowledge structures a modern foundry industry professional should have. Then, from the viewpoint of educat...

  3. Continuous roll casting of aluminium alloys – casting parameters analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Krsti? Vukelja

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper was to present the influence of casting parameters on casting conditions and interference of casting parameters on the final strip characteristics such as constant strip thickness, surface quality and roughness of aluminum alloys sheet 6,30 to 6,50 mm thick. The study shows that casting speed, roll force and roll gap should have the greatest influence on the final strip thickness, and that the examined parameters agree well with the theoretical standpoints.

  4. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Hongtao; Zhou Jianxin; Wang Lin

    2014-01-01

    A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for th...

  5. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  6. Predicting Hepatotoxicity Using ToxCast in Vitro Bioactivity and Chemical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Mansouri, Kamel; Judson, Richard S; Martin, Matthew T; Hong, Huixiao; Chen, Minjun; Xu, Xiaowei; Thomas, Russell S; Shah, Imran

    2015-04-20

    The U.S. Tox21 and EPA ToxCast program screen thousands of environmental chemicals for bioactivity using hundreds of high-throughput in vitro assays to build predictive models of toxicity. We represented chemicals based on bioactivity and chemical structure descriptors, then used supervised machine learning to predict in vivo hepatotoxic effects. A set of 677 chemicals was represented by 711 in vitro bioactivity descriptors (from ToxCast assays), 4,376 chemical structure descriptors (from QikProp, OpenBabel, PaDEL, and PubChem), and three hepatotoxicity categories (from animal studies). Hepatotoxicants were defined by rat liver histopathology observed after chronic chemical testing and grouped into hypertrophy (161), injury (101) and proliferative lesions (99). Classifiers were built using six machine learning algorithms: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Naïve Bayes (NB), support vector machines (SVM), classification and regression trees (CART), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), and an ensemble of these classifiers (ENSMB). Classifiers of hepatotoxicity were built using chemical structure descriptors, ToxCast bioactivity descriptors, and hybrid descriptors. Predictive performance was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation testing and in-loop, filter-based, feature subset selection. Hybrid classifiers had the best balanced accuracy for predicting hypertrophy (0.84 ± 0.08), injury (0.80 ± 0.09), and proliferative lesions (0.80 ± 0.10). Though chemical and bioactivity classifiers had a similar balanced accuracy, the former were more sensitive, and the latter were more specific. CART, ENSMB, and SVM classifiers performed the best, and nuclear receptor activation and mitochondrial functions were frequently found in highly predictive classifiers of hepatotoxicity. ToxCast and ToxRefDB provide the largest and richest publicly available data sets for mining linkages between the in vitro bioactivity of environmental chemicals and their adverse histopathological outcomes. Our findings demonstrate the utility of high-throughput assays for characterizing rodent hepatotoxicants, the benefit of using hybrid representations that integrate bioactivity and chemical structure, and the need for objective evaluation of classification performance. PMID:25697799

  7. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  8. Modeling tools for concrete casting

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Lien Huong

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to the recent advances in the cementitious materials rheology field, existing works allows for the physical quantification of workability of fresh concrete. The objective of this thesis is to develop techniques allowing for the prediction of casting according to these rheological measurements, the geometry of the element to be cast and the selected casting process. The methodology adopted is to isolate and treat each of the involved phenomena in a simpler configuration and then to grad...

  9. UNA APROXIMACIÓN A LA PLANEACIÓN MINERA A CIELO ABIERTO DESDE UN ENFOQUE BASADO EN DECISIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE / AN APPOXIMATION TO THE OPEN PIT MINE PLANNING APPROACH BASED ON DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GIOVANNI, FRANCO SEPÚLVEDA; JOHN WILLIAN, BRANCH BEDOYA; PATRICIA, JARAMILLO ÁLVAREZ.

    2010-11-30

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta en primer lugar una descripción del proceso de planeamiento minero desde un punto de vista clásico y su relación con los actuales procesos de planeamiento minero que tienen como base la optimización en sus diferentes etapas. Seguidamente, se realiza un acercamiento a los [...] procesos de planeación minera a cielo abierto desde un enfoque basado en decisiones bajo incertidumbre. Por último, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de los artículos encontrados clasificándolos en cinco categorías: Modelamiento geológico; Planeamiento minero; Evaluación financiera; Decisiones bajo incertidumbre y modelos de optimización. Abstract in english This article first presents a description of the mine planning process from a classical view and its relation to existing mine planning processes that are based on optimization in its various stages. Then be made an approach to planning processes open pit mining from an approach based on decisions u [...] nder uncertainty. Finally, it performs a critical analysis of the items found divided into five categories: geological models, mine planning, financial evaluation, decisions under uncertainty and optimization models.

  10. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer is depending on accepted variant plates of alloy steels sort X6Cr13, X12Cr13, X10CrNi18-8 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The verification of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches. Moreover was made computer simulation of solidification of bimetallic layered casting in NovaFlow&Solid software.Findings: The results of studies and their analysis show efficiency of new, innovative technology of corrosion and heat resisting layered castings.Research limitations: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of different material on bearing part of bimetallic layered casting.Practical implications: Prepared bimetallic layered castings according to work out technology can work in conditions, which require from working surface layer of element a high heat resistance and/or corrosion resistance in medium for example of industrial water.Originality/value: The value of this paper resides in new effective method of manufacture of heat resisting castings, mainly for lining of quenching car to coke production

  11. Skeleton castings dynamic load resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article is to show selected results of research in a field of new type of cast spatial composite reinforcements. This article shows skeleton casting case as a particular approach to continuous, spatial composite reinforcement.Design/methodology/approach: The research is concerning properties of cast spatial microlattice structures called skeleton castings. In this paper results of impact test of skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell were shown. The selection of internal topology of skeleton casting was based on numerical simulations of stress distribution.Findings: The possibility of manufacturing of geometrically complex skeleton castings without use of advanced techniques was confirmed.Research limitations/implications: With use of computer tomography, analysis of deformation mechanisms was carried out. Different levels of impact energies were usedPractical implications: Spatial skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell confirmed their usefulness as impact energy absorbers.Originality/value: The overall aim of presented research was to determine the mechanisms of skeleton castings deformation processes. Thanks to CT data next step will be to create accurate numerical model for further simulation and design optimization.

  12. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    OpenAIRE

    Stradomski, Z.; Stachura, S.; Stradomski, G.

    2013-01-01

    The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is ...

  13. Evolution of cultural landscape in the Northern Bohemian coal mining region on the background of socio-economic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NW part of Bohemia belongs to the most intensely exploited territories, both from the functional and ecological standpoints. In a sense, it is an open air laboratory, offering many topics to be discussed, researched and solved. The author strives to give a sociogeographical outline of the current state, with respect to the landscape evolution. This picture focuses on historical developments in recent decades as well. Rapid economic expansion of the examined territory started in the second half of the 19th century, having followed the pre-industrial period. A similar abrupt change of social and economic structures occurred 100 years later, in the post-war period. It was the growth of open-cast brown coal mining and corresponding activities (especially coal-fired plants) which resulted in large scale environmental disturbances and affected the settlement system and health of the population. Thus, further economic and ecological development should be based on a reclamation of the previous state. 4 refs

  14. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A

    1998-02-01

    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  15. Groundwater impacts of solution mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some cases the mining of certain minerals can be achieved without the large-scale excavations involved in open pit or shaft mining. Instead, water is used to liquify the desired mineral so that it can be readily removed without disturbing the host medium or intervening deposits. In Texas this solution mining technique is used in the mining of brines, sodium sulfate, sulfur, and uranium. The advantages stem from the nondisturbing nature of the method that leaves the surface and subsurface physically intact. This is advantageous not only during mining, but also upon its termination when there is a minimum restoration requirement of the terrain. However, in some cases these advantages may be somewhat offset when a considerable chemical restoration of a host aquifer is required. The situation is considerably different with the solution (in situ) mining of uranium since these deposits often occur in usable quality groundwater aquifers. There are twenty-eight permitted sites in Texas. Eight have not yet been mined. This paper discusses the solution mining of uranium in Texas

  16. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings.

    Opsomming
    Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat onderliggend aan die leerpotensiaal en verskeie psigomotoriese metings is, redelik oortuigend gestaaf. ’n Algemene psigomotoriese faktor is nie in die huidige ondersoek gevind nie. Voorstelle is gemaak om die ontwerp- en kriteriumtekortkominge te verbeter.

  17. Protocols for the remediation of lands impacted by former coal mining operations, Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgeron, S. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Abandoned underground coal mines can pose health and safety risks to persons working in close proximity to the former mining operations. This paper described protocols used to address potential coal mining hazards at the Sydney coal field in Nova Scotia (NS). The protocols document was developed by a mine workings group consisting of government agencies, consultants, and the owners of the mine site. Hazards at the mine included unstable ground caused by the collapse of abandoned coal mine workings; unsecured abandoned mine openings; potential accidental discharges of untreated mine waters; and the potential release of hazardous mine gases. A 5 remediation protocol process was established to include (1) information gathering, (2) an initial mine site investigation, (3) a mine workings report, (4) a detailed mine site investigation, and (5) a mine openings remediation. The protocols can be used to identify the potential hazards posed during investigations and remediation activities. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Mining's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a view of the future of the mining industry as it relates to environmental issues. Topics discussed include: solid waste disposal, acid mine drainage, subsidence, management of mineral resources, including coal resources, and management of water, energy, and financial resources

  19. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  20. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  1. Continuous casting of hollow billets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous casting technology of hollow billets has been developed for near-net-shape casting of pipe. A cylindrical water cooled copper mould was used as a core to make a hole at the center of the round billet, while the hot-top casting technique was applied in order to provide space for the submerged entry nozzle and to cast tube blanks of thin wall thickness. A pilot scale casting of a 160mm-diameter billet, which has a 100mm-diameter hole, was conducted and the metallurgical investigation of the billet quality and the numerical analysis were performed to determine the optimum casting conditions. The hot-top casting technique, in which the induction heating (IH) of the oscillating ceramic mould stabilizes the solidification start level, enables both the smooth surface and the thin wall thickness of the hollow billet. The combination of the IH type hot-top casting technique and a water cooled copper mould, create a favourable condition at the shell exterior for generating equiaxed crystal as both fluid flow and thermal conditions, promote high equiaxed structure ratio and elimination of macrosegregation in hollow billets. (author)

  2. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

  3. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. It is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to nue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  4. Process lines in mining equipment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienias, A.; Dziubinski, B.

    1986-12-01

    Programs are discussed of the KOMAG Mining Mechanization Center for automation of process lines in mining equipment plants in Poland and for new technologies. The following projects are evaluated: lines for welding and assembling elements for hydraulic cylinders (FAZOS, GLINIK), an assembling and welding line for mine cars (MONTANA), plasma cutting of steel sheets for chain conveyors (RYFAMA), a department for vacuum casting of aluminium alloys (WIROMET), a molding unit characterized by high molding quality (POWEN), a department for manufacturing tubes for hydraulic cylinders (FAZOS), a line for manufacturing idlers (MIFAMA). Flexible systems for manufacturing elements of mining equipment are characterized. Two pilot flexible systems being developed by KOMAG (1986-1990) are discussed: the ASO-K125 DUPLEX and the ISP-T35. Development programs for computer integrated manufacturing are evaluated.

  5. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

  6. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP)

  7. Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A total of 32 electroslag castings of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, type 316, and nickel aluminide were procured from four facilities for evaluation (Table 1). The most complex castings procured during this program were the valve bodies shown in Figure 2. The castings were subjected to various heat treatments (Table 2), checked for chemical composition uniformity from top to bottom, and subjected to macrostructural evaluation and mechanical properties testing. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Permanent aluminium foam cores in castings: casting processes and fabrication conditions of foam filled parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretz, R. [ARC Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum GmbH Ranshofen (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Powder metallurgical aluminium foams can be employed as cores in composite castings. In order to improve particular properties of castings aluminium foam parts were surrounded by cast metal. For encasing the foam cores, squeeze casting, high pressure die casting and low pressure die casting were applied. The casting conditions and the interaction between the aluminium foam cores and the incoming cast metal melt were investigated. Foam cores can be protected against infiltration by the cast metal melt, the rough surface leads to mechanical bonding between core and casting. If required, metallic bonding can be achieved by flux treatment of the core. (orig.)

  9. Al - BASED CAST COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Yadav

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The economy is very important feature nowadays in themarket. The researches are playing an important role inengineering field to increase the life of machine parts /components and decrease the cost. The compositematerials have the potential to replace widely used steeland aluminium due to their good characteristics withbetter performance. The Al-based composites have foundextensive applications in automobile industries andaerospace industries due to their increased stiffness,strength, thermal conductivity and wear resistanceproperties. A number of particulate phases have beenemployed in the Al-alloy matrix. The cast aluminiumceramicparticulate composites are finding applications inpistons, connecting rods, cylinder liner, engine cylinderblock, electrical contacts etc.The present investigation isbased on study of the effect of particulate phase on theSEM study, micro-hardness, elastic modulus, tensilestrength and the wear behaviour of Al-5 % SiC-7 % Fe,Al-10 % SiC-6 % Fe and Al-15 % SiC-5 % Fe composites.

  10. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: area strip coal mining, Peabody Universal Mine, Universal, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernsey, J L; Tiller, M E; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    An integrated surface mining and reclamation program typical of those found at large scale surface coal mining operations in the Midwest and West is examined in this case study, which focuses on Peabody Coal Co.'s Universal Mine in west central Indiana. A high volatile, bituminous coal is extracted and processed at the Universal site, which opened in 1969 and is now one of the largest producing surface mines in the state. Careful planning for effluent control during mining has resulted in a nearly ''pollution-free'' area stripping operation at Universal, and most of the mined land has been graded for and seeded as pasture. The mine is about 10 miles from the city of Terre Haute; this proximity offers opportunities for developing reclaimed surface mines for higher land uses than those required by the state (forestry, rangeland, pasture, or cropland), due to high demand for housing and recreation sites. Surveys of area residents show such development would be well-received; however, there is no public planning effort underway to promote these types of land use. This situation is representative of many mines, where progressive companies have generated land use strategies without seeking or being offered much input from public planners. While mining companies may be capable of good reclamation planning, public benefit could be maximized by a concerted effort by planners and mining companies to work together in integrating reclamation and land use planning.

  11. Incline caving as a massive mining method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.D., Munro.

    Full Text Available Finsch Mine is a kimberlite diamond mine located at Lime Acres in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The mine was founded in 1961 and started surface mining in 1964. Underground production commenced in 1990 using a modified blast-hole open stoping method for the mining of Blocks 1, 2 and 3. [...] Block 4 is currently being mined as a block cave. The process of identifying and optimizing a method to mine the Block 5 orebody started in 1991, and in 2006 incline caving was identified as being technically feasible. This paper aims to document the process employed in developing this method by the Block 5 pre-feasibility team as well as discuss the technical challenges encountered during this process. The paper commences with a history of Finsch Mine and highlights the complex geology and threat of sidewall failure that prompted the decision to use block caving as the mining method for Block 4. A literature study of mines that implemented mining methods upon which the incline cave was conceptualized is then presented. These practices were then used to form the basis for the designs on which the initial geotechnical modelling was done and built upon through an iterative process of modelling and design changes. The ventilation of the mining area, initial productivity simulation results, and the applicability of automation and comminution processes in the incline cave are also presented. The paper concludes with an investigation into some of the challenges of the mining method, and shows that that incline caving is a technical option available for further investigation in determining the optimal mining method to be employed at Block 5, Finsch Diamond Mine.

  12. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  13. Centrifugally cast for top performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centrifugally cast nickel-chromium alloy components, supplied by Fahralloy-Wisconsin Ltd. are being used for the lattice tubes in CANDU reactors. Horizontal centrifugal casting facilities enable tubular shapes to be made with outside diameters of 3 to 23 in.; lengths of up to 162 in. A unique feature of horizontal casting is that the mechanical properties are the same in all directions. The structure is also completely homogeneous and combines characteristically high resistance to heat and corrosion with enhanced physical and mechanical properties. (R.A.)

  14. CAST results and Axion review

    OpenAIRE

    Geralis, T.; Collaboration, For The Cast

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), together with a brief review on prospects on Axion searches with a variety of experimental techniques. CAST has explored masses up to 0.64 eV setting the most stringent limit on the axion-photon coupling, apart for the micro-eV region where ADMX is the most competitive experiment. CAST is aiming at surpassing the 1eV WMAP upper limit and possibly revisiting the operatio...

  15. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  16. Rapid Manufacturing Via Metal Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Robert

    The metal casting industry in undergoing significant changes and it is necessary for manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering and design students to recognize these changes. Rapid manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the metal casting industry by greatly reducing the tooling requirements necessary to produce components. The lead times to produce complex components are being reduced from months to days. A large reduction in the traditional labor requirements for molders, coremakers, patternmakers, and toolmakers will occur. The numerous advantages of the process are discussed and the major limitations are also presented. The "Third Wave" has arrived in the metal casting industry.

  17. Solidification process and infrared image characteristics of permanent mold castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, Roman; Breuer, Markus; Haferkamp, Heinz; Kruessel, Thomas; Niemeyer, Matthias

    1999-03-01

    Interdependence between the development of temperature gradients at the solid-liquid interface during solidification of metals and the formation of local defects demands for thermal investigation. In foundry practice thermocouples are used to control the die's overall cooling-rate, but fluctuations in product quality still occur. Capturing FIR- thermograms after opening the die visualizes the state, when most thermal throughput has already flattened the temperature gradients in the mold. Rapid dissipation of heat from liquid metal to the mold during solidification forces further approach of the process investigation by slowing down the heat flux or the use of transparent mold material. Aluminum gravity casting experiments under technical vacuum conditions lead to decelerated solidification by suppression of convection and image sequences containing explicit characteristics that could be assigned to local shrinkage of the casting. Hence relevant clusters are extracted and thermal profiles are drawn from image series, pointing out correlations between feeding performance from the sink heads and the appearance of local defects. Tracing thermal processes in vacuum casting can scarcely be transferred to image data in foundry practice, since only little analogies exist between atmospheric and vacuum casting. The diagnosis of the casting process requires detection of the still closed mold using a transparent silica- aerogel sheet as part of the die. Hereby thermograms of the initial heat input are recorded by adapting a NIR-camera in addition to the FIR-unit. Thus the entire thermal compensation at the joint face for each casting is visualized. This experimental set-up is used for image sequence analysis related to the intermediate casting phases of mold filling, body formation and solidification shrinkage.

  18. Occupational health and safety of workers in Saskatchewan uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, 1400 workers are employed directly by the uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan, where there are diverse mining conditions ranging from the underground mine of Eldorado Nuclear Limited to the shallow open pit of Cluff Mining. These different operating conditions present varied problems associated with occupational health and safety and concomitant solutions to reducing worker exposure to radiation. This paper examines legislation and regulatory procedures that assure the health and safety of the worker

  19. Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

  20. BOUNDS ON SUBSURFACE MERCURY FLUX FROM THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE, LAKE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) in Lake County, California has been identified as a significant source of mercury to Clear Lake. The mine was operated from the 1860s through the 1950's. Mining started with surface operations, progressed to shaft mining, and later to open p...

  1. Investigating MOOCs through Blog Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    MOOCs (massive open online course) is a disruptive innovation and a current buzzword in higher education. However, the discussion of MOOCs is disparate, fragmented, and distributed among different outlets. Systematic, extensively published research on MOOCs is unavailable. This paper adopts a novel method called blog mining to analyze MOOCs. The…

  2. Casting technique for light metal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light metal alloys such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc and etc. can be produced in the various forms by casting technique. The casting technique for aluminum is classified as mold casting either using a sand mold or permanent mold; or both. Aluminum alloys casting are the most versatile of all common foundry alloys and generally have the highest castability ratings. Aluminum is adaptable to many of the commonly used casting methods and can be readily cast in metal molds. This work is attempted to investigate the availability and reliability of casting technique in obtaining of finish product. (Author)

  3. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at ? = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Wwww of... - Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams 1 Table 1 to Subpart WWWW of...HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams ER25AU05.020...

  5. Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

    1993-01-01

    New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

  6. Niobium in gray cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for utilization of niobium in gray cast iron is appraised and reviewed. Experiments described in literature indicate that niobium provides structural refinement of the eutectic cells and also promotes pearlite formation. (Author)

  7. Copper alloys in investment casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz, S.; Zych, J.; Garbacz-klempka, A.; Kranc, M.; Kozana, J.; Pie?kos?, M.; Kolczyk, J.; Jamrozowicz, ?.; Stolarczyk, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents research results in the field of casting technology of copper and copper alloys using the investment casting technology, both from historical as well as modern technology perspective. The analysis of exemplary elements of the old casting moulds is included, as well as the Bronze Age casts. The chemical content of various copper alloys was determined and the application of lost wax method was confirmed in the Bronze Age workshop. At present, investment casting method is use...

  8. Low-alloy constructional cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    Bartocha, D.; Kilarski, J.; Suchon?, J.; Baron, C.; Szajnar, J.; Janerka, K.

    2011-01-01

    Production of constructional casting competitive for welded structure of high-strength steel first of all required high metallurgical quality of cast steel. Assumptions, methodology and results of investigation which the aim was determination of the most advantageous: configuration and parameters of metallurgical treatments and ways to modify, in aspects of reach the low-alloy cast steel of the highest quality as possible, are presented. A series of low-alloy cast steel melts modeled on cast ...

  9. Selected properties of new „duplex” cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrowski, S.; Gumienny, G.; Masalski, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper selected properties of new „duplex” cast steel are presented. The new cast steel was devised in HYDRO-VACUUM company in Grudzi?dz, where “duplex” cast steel for pump elements is smelted. The goal was to devise a new grade of “duplex” cast steel of better physicochemical properties and cheaper than now applied. It was demonstrated, that there is the possibility of devising the new grade of “duplex” cast steel. It is characterized by higher mechanical properties, ...

  10. Manufacturing synthetic cast iron for NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of producing synthetic cast iron grade SCH30-SCH40 to manufacture cast parts for NPPs with the use of melting in commercial frequency induction furnaces has been developed and introduced. Strict observation of the manufacturing procedure permits to obtain high-quality cast iron with flake graphite for NPP main castings without using expensive modifiers. Cast iron smelted according to the suggested technology is characterized by high strength indices at tension (400 MPa) and bending (540 MPa)

  11. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    Kopycin?ski, D.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  12. Virtualisation of casting engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Suchy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fast response to an enquiry, minimization of costs of identification of best-suited process solution, as well as a capacity to tackle new challenges is the shortest description of the requirements posed by the contemporary market of machines and equipment. These, in consequence, called for making use of mathematical models and their solution by means of simulation algorithms.Design/methodology/approach: The notable effectiveness of numerical methods streamlined the production preparation process. Maintaining competitiveness, even more tough because of economic factors, is only possible due to cost-effective operation, high quality and well-timed order completion. These, on the other hand, can be facilitated by a broad application of IT tools aiding production management and preparation.Findings: Integration of systems aiding design processes, systems used for simulating selected elements of technologies, as well as of systems supporting instrumentation manufacturing calls for a need to solve a number of complex problems related to IT, mathematical modelling, logistics and knowledge management. Software packages for a simulation of processes that are indispensable in order to achieve the designed distribution of matter structures and condition are of particular importance.Research limitations/implications: Despite the fact that there is a wide range of software for these purposes available on the market, there is a need to build and integrate into IT systems new purpose-developed solutions customised to technologies applied and non-standard problems.Originality/value: Virtualization of casting engineering

  13. Moldless casting by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-09-01

    The principle of laser cladding involves the use of high power carbon-dioxide lasers and powder deposition technology to provide wear and corrosion resistant surface coatings to engineering components. By injecting metal powder into a laser generated melt pool on a moving substrate a solidified metal track can be produced. Deposition of successive tracks produces a multi-layer build. Laser direct casting (LDC) utilizes a coaxial nozzle enabling consistent omnidirectional deposition to produce 3D components from a selection of metal powders. The influence of the principal process parameters over the process features namely, powder catchment efficiency, beam shape and build rates are presented with several successfully generated 3D components. Nickel, stainless steel and satellite powders were deposited at laser powders of 0.4 to 1.4 kW and speeds of 500 to 1000 mm/min achieving build rates of 3 to 9 mm3/s. Fully dense metallurgical structures have been produced with no cracking or porosity and powder catchment efficiencies up to 85% have been achieved.

  14. Quantitative measurement from vascular casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, R G; Zeindler, C M; Lo, D K; Roach, M R

    1989-09-01

    A review of quantitative measurements show casting materials shrink from 0.2 - 20% and have viscosities ranging from 1.4 - 100,000 centipoise. Blood vessels have highly variable mechanical properties. Some microvessels are very stiff having little change in dimensions with pressure. Larger vessels generally change diameter significantly but show highly variable changes in length with pressure. Perfusion fixation does not fix the dimensions of blood vessels. Dog carotid arteries well fixed with glutaraldehyde at physiologic dimensions retain approximately 20% of their elastic recoil circumferentially and approximately 30% longitudinally. We recommend vascular casting as a method of accurately measuring the vasculature if care is taken to use low shrinkage casting resins and maintain physiologic transmural pressures for the duration of any casting procedure, even if prefixation is used. We measured a approximately 10% error in our method of measuring both the size and location of periorificial atherosclerotic lesions from aortic casts. Little is known about how vascular smooth muscle tone changes during casting. PMID:2694360

  15. The issue of shut-down of uranium mines in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: Characteristics of uranium deposits (System of uranium deposit opening, preparation and mining; Overview of exploitation of the individual deposits); Mine shut-down and remediation of consequences of uranium ore mining and processing (Shut-down and safeguarding of mines and underground void spaces; Mine water management; Development of mine water chemistry; Mine flooding; Water removal from the underground and purification; Shut-down of surface mines; Land reclamation; Shut-down of chemical treatment plants and remediation of lagoons). (P.A.)

  16. Effect of Feeder Configuration on the Microstructure of Ductile Cast Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2014-01-01

    Feeding and microstructure of a test casting rigged with different feeder combinations was studied. Castings were examined and classified by soundness and microstructure. Subsequently the casting macro- and microstructure was analyzed to study how differences in solidification and segregation influence the soundness of different sections of the castings. Moreover, the microstructural changes due to variations in thermal gradients are classified, and the variations in the mushy zone described. The paper discusses how solidification and segregation influence porosity and microstructure of ductile iron castings. The goal is to enable metallurgists and foundry engineers to more directly target mushy zone development to prolong the possibility to feed through this section. Keeping smaller section open for an extended period will make it possible to use fewer or smaller feeders, with reduced energy consumption and cheaper products as a result.

  17. Coastal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  18. La hydrogeology en la traditional mining of hydrocarbons, mining new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is presented from the point of view of Geosciences, an approach torelations between hydrogeology and mining activities, including those of traditional non - metal deposits of ores and rocks application (underground or open pit), the so-called ''modern mining'' (pickles) and hydrocarbons. Within the traditional mining, hydrogeology participates decisively several aspects, both those related to the feasibility of the projects, water supply for the stage of exploration and exploitation, mineraloductos ácueosand mine operations, such as environmental protection of water resources. In the ''modern mining'' groundwater acquires true character mena when it comes to the use of natural brines, and subject when they are generated by injecting water into an aquifer medium. In the case of hydrocarbons, the spectrum is broader participation at the stage of exploration and exploitation, where the hydrogeology is critical to providing water to camps and processes as well as operations secondary recovery, consumers strongly. From the perspective of environmental protection, are the main protagonists of groundwater the impacts of production, but also the phases are transportation, processing and marketing. They are used in the presentation of case examples of Argentina and Chile, some reflections on the need for an appropriate regulatory framework, especially addressed to Uruguay, and information to protect the population activity production of an unfair detriment, when mining is done responsibly

  19. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  20. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  1. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  2. Mining in Austria in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral production of Austria, in 1992 - as far as under the supervision of the Austrian Mine Inspectorate, run up to about 50 million t of solid minerals, 1.2 million t of oil and 1.4 billion m3 of natural gas. 88% of the solid minerals comprised industrial minerals, 4% metals, 4% salt and 4% coal. The solid minerals were produced by 352 open pits and 15 underground mines. 3 of the operations worked both on surface and underground and one mine is a well field operation. In total around 8000 people were employed in the field of mining and mineral processing. The minerals produced represent a value of about 15 billion Austrian Schillings (about 1.25 billion US $), the major part being the industrial minerals sector with a share of 7 billion Austrian Schillings and oil and gas with around 4 billion Austrian Schillings. The industrial minerals sector does not play only in Austrian an important role, but contributes also remarkably to the world production. This comprises mainly magnesite, talc, kaolin and graphite where Austria produces more than 1% of the world production. Summarizing, it can be said that the future of the Austrian mining sector is quite prosperous, perhaps better than in some other traditional mining countries in Europe, where the change from the coal and base metals sector towards the industrial sector has not come so far. (orig.)

  3. Residual stresses in castings produced by press die casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Novoselovi?

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technological parameters on residual stresses in pressure die castings is analysed in this paper. In order for the residual stresses to be as low as possible the optimization of technological parameters is necessary. The centrally composed plan of experiment 24cs is used in the investigation. Technologically influencing parameters are changed according to the mentioned plan of experiment and they are: temperature of pouring, rate of die cavity filling with the melt, post pressure in already filled die and the casting cooling time along with the pouring system.

  4. Casting Castings: A Classroom Hands-on Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig

    This learning activity will provide a useful technique for students to learn casting concepts. The class will be allowed a hands-on experience with casting. Students will make their own fishing sinkers. The lesson plan document includes step by step instructions for the lesson along with photographs.This activity would be appropriate for high school and college level students. The lesson should take about one hour of class time. This document will serve as a framework for instructors and may be downloaded in PDF format.

  5. Research progress on squeeze casting in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Squeeze casting is a technology with short route, high efficiency and precise forming, possessing features of casting and plastic processing. It is widely used to produce high performance metallic structural parts. As energy conservation and environmental protection concerns have risen, lightweight and high performance metal parts are urgently needed, which accelerated the development of squeeze casting technology over the past two decades in China. In this paper, research progress on squeeze casting alloys, typical parts manufacturing and development of squeeze casting equipment in China are introduced. The future trend and development priorities of squeeze casting are discussed.

  6. Hydraulic mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshi, M.

    1981-02-01

    The possibility of hydraulic mining in the Jharia coalfields and the Makum coalfields of Assam is discussed. The Jharia coalfields have thick seams which have already been developed in one or more slices and where coal pillars have been standing for a long time locking large reserves of coal.

  7. Influence of Sungun copper mine on groundwater quality, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, T.; Nabi Bidhendi, G. R.; Karbassi, A. R.; Hoveidi, H.; Nasrabadi, I.; Pezeshk, H.; Rashidinejad, F.

    2009-08-01

    Sungun mine is the largest open-cast copper mine in northwest of Iran and is in the primary stages of extraction. The influence of mining activity on the quality of regional groundwater has been taken in to consideration in this study. Accordingly, sampling was done from 22 springs in the study area. The concentrations of major anions and cations as well as Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined for all 22 spring samples in mid-August 2005. The results showed that the concentrations of most of these elements were below the USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits; however, Al and Fe concentrations are considered to be more than limits in a couple of samples. Despite the fact that geological formations are highly weathered and fractured, the dissolution of minerals within the study area is low. This may be justified by the relatively high alkalinity of local underground water which keeps metals in solid phase and does not let them enter dissolved phase. Additionally, this may be attributed to the high velocity of groundwater flows, which do not give enough time for minerals to dissolve. Correlation coefficients among water chemistry components were determined and the weighted-pair group method was chosen for cluster analysis. Accordingly, high correlation among Al, Fe and Cr, Cd ,and Cu, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and Na as well as total hardness (TH), Ca, and Mg were observed. The chemical characteristics of water compositions on the basis of major ion concentrations were evaluated on a Schoeller and Piper diagram. Accordingly, the dominant type of water in the region is considered to be Ca-HCO3 (calcium-bicarbonate type). However, this type of water is also rich in Na, K, and especially Mg. Regarding Schoeller diagram, the current status of local underground water is good for drinking purposes. By commencing mining excavation with designed capacity in near future, the minerals will come into contact with air and water resulting in dissolution, especially in ponds, which, in turn, will increase the concentration of toxic metals in groundwater. Considering future uses of this water including for drinking, irrigation, industrial purposes, etc., precautions must be taken in to consideration.

  8. Magnesium-lithium casting alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

  9. Centrifugal slip casting of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in layered and functionally gradient materials has emerged because of the increasing demand for high-performance engineering materials. Many techniques have been used to produce layered and functionally gradient components. Common examples include thermal spray processing, powder processing, chemical and physical vapor deposition, high-temperature or combustion synthesis, diffusion treatments, microwave processing and infiltration. Of these techniques, powder processing routes offer excellent microstructural control and product quality, and they are capable of producing large components. Centrifugal slip casting is a powder-processing technique combining the effects of slip casting and centrifugation. In slip casting, consolidation takes place as fluid is removed by the porous mold. Particles within the slip move with the suspending fluid until reaching the mold wall, at which point they are consolidated. In centrifugation, particles within the slip move through the fluid at a rate dependent upon the gravitational force and particle drag

  10. CAST results and Axion review

    CERN Document Server

    Geralis, T

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), together with a brief review on prospects on Axion searches with a variety of experimental techniques. CAST has explored masses up to 0.64 eV setting the most stringent limit on the axion-photon coupling, apart for the micro-eV region where ADMX is the most competitive experiment. CAST is aiming at surpassing the 1eV WMAP upper limit and possibly revisiting the operation in vacuum with extra sensitive X-ray detectors, while ADMX, using improved extra sensitive SQUID amplifiers will explore the micro-eV mass range.

  11. Design and Implementation Of Centrifugal Casting Locking Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Jamulwar,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Generally in centrifugal casting process, when the molten metal is poured into the mold, the other end of the mould from where the pipe is taken out remains open .This end requires to be closed tightly so that due to centrifugal force, the molten metal does not sprinkle out. The other end of the mould which remains open is closed by a metal covering. This is fixed tightly to the frame by nut and bolt arrangement. The fixation of this covering is done manually.

  12. Design and Implementation Of Centrifugal Casting Locking Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh Jamulwar,; Kedar Chimote, Ashtashil Bhambulkar

    2012-01-01

    Generally in centrifugal casting process, when the molten metal is poured into the mold, the other end of the mould from where the pipe is taken out remains open .This end requires to be closed tightly so that due to centrifugal force, the molten metal does not sprinkle out. The other end of the mould which remains open is closed by a metal covering. This is fixed tightly to the frame by nut and bolt arrangement. The fixation of this covering is done manually.

  13. Forecasting the Ocean's Optical Environment Using the BioCast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Keith Jolliff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast system is a model that provides the US Navy with short-term forecasts of the ocean's optical environment. The forecasts are required to support a broad spectrum of naval operations, including mine countermeasure, anti-submarine, and expeditionary warfare operations. The BioCast system works by treating any geo-referenced surface ocean optical property provided via the US Navy's satellite data processing systems as a prognostic state variable. BioCast will then ingest operational ocean model velocity forecasts and calculate the three-dimensional optical property (pseudo-tracer transport. BioCast verification statistics generated via forecast comparison to "next-day" satellite images show superior performance over 24-hour persistence of composite satellite data. Future operational modifications to BioCast, such as complex internal transformation submodels, must demonstrate superior performance to the established benchmark metrics and/or persistence over the operational forecast time horizon. Future BioCast applications will expand to include an interface with three-dimensional system performance simulation techniques that will predict how specific US Navy sensors will perform in the ocean's optical environment.

  14. Proposal of an environmental sustainability index for open-pit mines using landscape fragmentation indicators / Proposta de um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental para minas a céu aberto com o uso de indicadores de fragmentação de paisagem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Vargas E, Silva; Rodrigo, Peroni.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A percepção dos impactos ambientais das atividades econômicas pela sociedade é subjetiva e muitas vezes afeta negativamente a imagem de certos setores econômicos como a mineração. Para não ser subjetiva, a avaliação de impactos ambientais deve se embasar em indicadores ambientais claros e criteriosa [...] mente selecionados. Para demonstrar que a sustentabilidade da mineração a céu aberto é comparável a outras atividades econômicas, foi criado um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental composto do consumo de água e energia combinado com um indicador de fragmentação de paisagem construído com o uso de sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento. Para ilustrar a metodologia, foi realizado um estudo comparativo em um período de 10 anos entre a maior mina de minério de ferro brasileira, N5W, com o maior município produtor de soja, Sorriso, no Mato Grosso. Abstract in english The perception of the environmental impacts caused by economic activities is subjective and usually negatively affects the image of an extractive sector such as mining. In order to avoid this, the environmental impact assessment must be supported by clear and well-selected environmental indicators. [...] An index of sustainability was created to demonstrate that open-pit mining is comparable to other economic activities. The index is composed by of environmental indicators like water and energy consumption combined with an indicator of landscape fragmentation, using remote sensing data and geoprocessing. A comparative study considering a ten-year period was carried out with the biggest iron ore mine in Brazil, N5W, and the largest Brazilian soybean producer, the Sorriso County, in the Mato Grosso State to illustrate the methodology.

  15. Development of a New Membrane Casting Apparatus for Studying Macrovoid Defects in Low-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanyong; Hwang, Sun-Tak; Krantz, William B.; Greenberg, Alan R.; Khare, Vivek; Zartman, Jeremiah; Todd, Paul W.

    2002-01-01

    A new membrane-casting apparatus is developed for studying macrovoid defects in polymeric membranes made by the wet- and dry-casting process in low-gravity. Macrovoids are large (10-50 micron), open cavities interspersed among the smaller pores in the substructure under the gelled skin surface layer of the cast membrane. Although their occurrence is considered endemic to the wet- and dry-casting process since they can lead to compaction or skin rupture in the membrane process, recent studies suggest several useful applications such as transdermal and osmotic drug delivery systems, miniature bioreactors, etc. However, lack of knowledge about the macrovoid formation mechanism is an obstacle to further development of applications using them. An on-going debate is the role of the surface-tension-driven solutocapillary convection during macrovoid formation. The rapid growth of macrovoids within 1-5 seconds and the high polymer concentration in and near macrovoids make it difficult to explain the mechanism of macrovoid growth by diffusion alone, which is the widely accepted hypothesis proposed by Reuvers et al. The hypothesis advanced by our research group can explain this rapid growth via a mechanism that involves diffusion from the casting solution in the meta-stable region to the macrovoid enhanced by solutocapillary convection induced by the steep nonsolvent concentration gradient in the vicinity of the macrovoid. Since macrovoid growth is hypothesized to be the interplay of a solutocapillary-induced driving force counteracted by viscous drag and buoyancy, eliminate the latter provides a means for testing this hypothesis. Moreover, free convection mass transfer in the nonsolvent immersion bath used to cause phase-separation in membrane casting complicates developing a model for both the wet-casting process and macrovoid growth. The low-g environment minimizes gravitationally induced free convection thereby permitting a tractable solution to the ternary diffusion equations that characterize membrane formation. NASA's Parabolic Flight Research Aircraft provides a small window of low-g (approximately 25 s) that can be used to study macrovoid development in both wet- and dry-cast membranes if an appropriate casting apparatus is used. This casting apparatus should be able to cast the membrane in both low- and high-g in a manner so that essential one-dimensional mass transfer conditions are achieved to insure lateral uniformity in the membrane. The apparatus used in previous research on membrane casting in low-gravity was operated with the plunger driven mechanism. The spring-loaded plunger pushes the bottom block containing the polymer casting solution well directly under the absorbent chamber located in the upper stationary block. However, membranes made via this casting apparatus often displayed lateral nonuniformities that precluded obtaining quantitative information on the macrovoid growth process. Thus, it was necessary to determine the reason for these structural irregularities observed in the low-g casting apparatus. Both experimental as well as computer simulation studies of the low-g casting apparatus established that the impulsive action of the plunger caused the undesired structural nonuniformities. The simulation results showed that the width-to-depth aspect ratio of the shallow well that contains the casting solution in this apparatus was not an important factor in minimizing this problem. Even for a 40:1 (width : depth) aspect ratio, any convection induced by the horizontal motion of the interface of the casting solution will be damped out within 6.25x10(exp 4) seconds. However, the experimental studies revealed that the impulsive motion of the plunger caused a 'sloshing' of the casting solution that had to be eliminated. Therefore, the plungerdriven mechanism was changed to a cam-driven mechanism that did not cause any impulsive motion of the casting solution. Other refinements to this new membrane-casting apparatus include provision for removing the membranes from the casting wells in a less destructive manner.

  16. Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2003-05-01

    Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity. PMID:12593955

  17. Cast-a-Box: Casting Conditions and Macroporosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam C., IV

    2004-08-24

    An illustration of three-dimensional finite difference simulation of heat conduction with phase change and complex boundary conditions, this requires students to adjust boundary conditions to make the top surface of a regular hexahedral "casting" to freeze last, eliminating macroporosity.

  18. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Kvitko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the footwear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p < 0.001. In addition, some effects of genetic polymorphisms in the modulation of MN results were observed in this group. Tobacco farmers were also evaluated at different crop times. The results showed a significant increase in the Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all crop times. The results for footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001 group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05. For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001. We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work.

  19. Assessing aluminium toxicity in streams affected by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, A S; Webster-Brown, J G

    2013-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has degraded water quality and ecology in streams on the Stockton Plateau, the site of New Zealand's largest open-cast coal mining operation. This has previously been attributed largely to the effects of acidity and elevated aluminium (Al) concentrations. However, the toxicity of dissolved Al is dependent on speciation, which is influenced by pH which affects Al hydrolysis, as well as the concentrations of organic carbon and sulphate which complex Al. Methods for the assessment of the toxic fraction of Al, by chemical analysis and geochemical modelling, have been investigated in selected streams on the Stockton Plateau, where dissolved Al concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 27 mg L(-1). Modelling using PHREEQC indicated that between 0.2 and 85% of the dissolved Al was present as the free ion Al(3+), the most toxic Al species, which dominated in waters of pH = 3.8-4.8. Al-sulphate complexation reduced the Al(3+) concentration at lower pH, while Al-organic and -hydroxide complexes dominated at higher pH. Macroinvertebrate richness in the streams identified an Al(3+) 'threshold' of approximately 0.42 mg/L, above which taxa declined rapidly. Colorimetric 'Aluminon' analysis on unpreserved, unfiltered waters provided a better estimation of Al(3+) concentrations than inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on filtered, acidified waters. The Aluminon method does not react with particulate Al or strong Al complexes, often registering as little as 53% of the dissolved Al concentration determined by ICP-MS. PMID:23579831

  20. Smoke spread calculations for fires in underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Rickard

    2010-01-01

    This report is part of the research project “Concept for fire and smoke spread prevention in mines”, conducted by a research group at Mälardalen University.The project is aimed at improving fire safety in mines in order to obtain a safer working environment for the people working for the mining companies in Sweden or for visitors in mines open to the public.This report deals with the issue on smoke spread calculations for fires in underground mines.The main purposes of the report are:- U...

  1. Properties of electroslag castings: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1984-11-01

    This part of several reports to be published on the properties of electroslag castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and type 316 stainless steel describes the properties of three electroslag-cast valve bodies of type 316 stainless steel. These castings were electroslag cast at the University of British Columbia in Canada from ORNL-supplied electrodes. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical analysis, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Tensile data on these castings were compared with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code minimum values for sand castings. The creep data were compared with the data on sand castings and the ASME code minimum curve for wrought material. 29 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Standard digital reference images for inspection of aluminum castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These digital reference images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in aluminum-alloy castings. The castings illustrated are in thicknesses of 1/ 4 in. [6.35 mm] and 3/4 in. [19.1mm]. 1.2 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aluminum-alloy castings when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of aluminum-alloy castings, refer to Reference Radiographs E 155. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and he...

  3. Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Alan A.; Sachdev, Anil K.; Powell, Bob R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being pr...

  4. Titanium investiment casting defects: A metallographic overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J. D.; Clark, L. P.; Phelps, H. R.

    2006-06-01

    Although titanium castings have been used in aerospace structures for decades, those uses have largely been in secondary applications. Expanding the use of titanium castings in critical applications would be encouraged by a better understanding of investment casting defects in titanium alloy systems. This paper describes several types of casting-related defects that are identified as potentially affecting the design life of a structure: inclusions, voids, and weld repair defects.

  5. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  6. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Drotlew, A.; Piekarski, B.

    2010-01-01

    The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for th...

  7. Net primary productivity and rainfall use efficiency of pastures on reconstructed land following open-cut coal mining in central Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisrat, S.A.; Mullen, B.F.; Grigg, A.H.; Shelton, H.M. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia). School Land & Food Science

    2004-03-01

    The development of improved pastures for cattle grazing is a logical post-mining land-use option for the Bowen Basin coalfields of central Queensland, but little is known of the potential productivity or livestock carrying capacity of these systems. A research program was instigated to determine key indicators of grazing capacity, viz. above-ground net primary productivity (NPP) and rainfall use efficiency (RUE), at 18 plots across 3 mines. NPP ranged from 3000-11 000 kg/ha/yr and RUE ranged from 4-21 kg/ha/mm. These results are comparable with those for buffel grass pastures on unmined lands in the region. Multivariate linear regression was used to develop a model for prediction of RUE from plot topographic and edaphic characteristics. The variables of slope, magnesium concentration and exchangeable sodium percentage most effectively predicted RUE (cumulative r{sup 2} = 0.77). Predicted RUE and average seasonal rainfall were then used to predict NPP for the 3 mines. Safe stocking rates were calculated based on 30% utilisation of seasonal NPP.

  8. Results of application of some non-traditional al restoration methods on north bohemian mines locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of brown coal implies from the growing need of energy in the Czech Republic. It is nowadays a single significant fossil raw material, without which our state would become fully dependent on the import of energetic sources. More than 70 % of mined brown coal comes from the North Bohemian Basin these days. Open cast brown coal mining has led to large damage on the landscape. That is why the reclamation work has become important on principle recently. The difficulty of reclamation of North Bohemian localities consists in extremely unfavorable properties of rock strewn to the most of dump bodies. These rocks are mechanically unstable in the wind and water erosion and it gets undesirable, acidic characteristics as SO3 and Al ions influence by weathering. Limitation of the influence of weathering, amendment of chemistry and physical composition of top rocks strata, and definition of the required amount of fertilizable rock have been successful in recent years as suitable methods have been used. The presented article includes the characteristics of the important phytotoxic areas and the methodology of their reclamation mainly based on the application of suitable fertilizable rocks. Some tentatively used non-traditional methods were evaluated e. g. the application power plant stabilizer and ash. The paper assesses the success rate of the reclamation methods. The results are documented with the long term monitoring of physical, mineralogical, chemicaloring of physical, mineralogical, chemical and pedological parameters of rocks in the testing areas.

  9. Data mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

  10. Moon Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this activity, students will investigate how to find and mine valuable resources from a simulated lunar surface. They will gather data by spectroscopically locating simulated ilmenite (an iron-titanium oxide mineral), and collect the 'ilmenite' by mining the simulated lunar surface. They will then gather data by using observations while extracting oxygen from the mineral, develop a conclusion based upon their results, and compare individual results to class results to look for patterns. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'Why Return to the Moon Before Going to Mars?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

  11. Pressure distribution in centrifugal dental casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J P

    1978-02-01

    Equations are developed for liquid metal pressure in centrifugal dental casting, given the instantaneous rotational velocity, density, and certain dimensions of the casting machine and casting pattern. A "reference parabola" is introduced making the fluid pressure concept more understandable. A specially designed specimen demonstrates experimentally the reference parabola at freezing. PMID:355283

  12. High quality steel casting for energy technics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The casting of several chromium-molybdenum steels for steam and hydraulic turbines is discussed. Non-destructive testing of the castings is performed demonstrating the safety for use in nuclear technology. The effect of metallurgical parameters on steel casting quality, the heat treatment, and the effect of construction design on costs for fettling and repair weldings are considered. (Auth.)

  13. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Sharjeel

    2003-12-01

    Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa. PMID:14768649

  14. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  15. Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Solar Axion Telescope, CAST, aims to shed light on a 30-year-old riddle of particle physics by detecting axions originating from the 15 million degree plasma in the Sun 's core. Axions were proposed as an extension to the Standard Model of particle physics to explain why CP violation is observed in weak but not strong interactions.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

  17. Data mining and business analytics with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ledolter, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Collecting, analyzing, and extracting valuable information from a large amount of data requires easily accessible, robust, computational and analytical tools. Data Mining and Business Analytics with R utilizes the open source software R for the analysis, exploration, and simplification of large high-dimensional data sets. As a result, readers are provided with the needed guidance to model and interpret complicated data and become adept at building powerful models for prediction and classification. Highlighting both underlying concepts and practical computational skills, Data Mining

  18. The effect of equipment efficiency on occurrence of non-conforming products in die casting

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, S.; Czajkowska, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on determination of the relationships between equipment efficiency in casting machines and the level of quality. The determination was made based on coefficients of Total Productive Maintenance and r correlation coefficient. The degree at which break-downs and downtime affect the occurrence of non-conforming products was also evaluated. The goal of further investigations is to deter-mine the structure of downtime and finding which downtime types have greatest impact on the ...

  19. Investment Casting of Near-gamma TiAl intermetallic alloys.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zem?ík, L.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Do?ekalová, Kate?ina

    Nancy : Ecole de Mine de Nancy, 2007 - (Lee, P.; Mitchell, A.; Bellot, J.; Jardy, A.), s. 1-6 ISBN N. [LMPC 2007. Nancy (FR), 02.09.2007-05.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA106/07/0762; GA ?R(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : titanium aluminides * investment casting * refractory crucible Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  20. Sentinel Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This thesis introduces the novel concept of sentinel rules (sentinels). Sentinels are intended to represent the relationships between the data originating from the external environment and the data representing the critical organizational performance. The intention with sentinels is to warn business users about potential changes to Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and thereby facilitate corrective action before such a change becomes a reality. Specifically, sentinels are rule relationships at the schema level in a multidimensional data cube. These relationships represent changes over time in certain measures that are followed by a change in a user defined critical measure, typically a KPI. An important property of a sentinel is bi-directionality, which means that the change relationship holds in the complement direction, since a sentinel with the bi-directional property has a higher chance of being causal rather than coincidental. Sentinels can vary in complexity depending on the number of measures thatare included in the rule: Regular sentinels represent relationships where changes in one measure lead to changes in another within a given time frame. Generalized sentinels represent relationships between changes in multiple measures leading to changes in a given measure within a given time frame. Multidimensional sentinels combine the schema and the data levels, meaning that each measure change in the rule can hold for either subsets or the entire cube. A generalized sentinel could for example notify users that revenue might drop within two months if an increase in customer problems combined with a decrease in website traffic is observed, whereas a multidimensional sentinel could warn users that revenue might drop within two months if an increase in customer complaints in USA (drilldown into geography dimension) combined with a decrease in the money invested in customer support for laptop computers (drilldown into product dimension) is observed. The work leading to this thesis progressed from algorithms for regular sentinel mining with only one source and one target measure, into algorithms for mining generalized and multidimensional sentinels with multiple source measures. Furthermore, the mining algorithms became capable of automatically fitting the best warning periods for a given sentinel. Aside from expanding the capabilities of the algorithms, the work demonstrates a significant progression in the efficiency of sentinel mining, where the latest bitmap-based algorithms, that also take advantage of modern CPUs, are 3–4 orders of magnitude faster than the first SQL-based sentinel mining algorithm. This work also led to the industrial implementation of sentinel mining in the commercial software TARGIT BI Suite, which attracted the attention of leading industry analysts. In short, the work in this thesis has turned sentinel mining from a theoretical idea into concrete, highly efficient algorithms, and in addition it has demonstrated sentinels to be useful and unique.

  1. Thin steel section casting on a near-horizontal twin-belt caster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, S.S.; Hamill, P.E.; Vassilicos, A. (USX Corp., Monroeville, PA (USA). USS Technical Center); Baker, J.H. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (USA). Research Dept.); Lewis, T.W. (Harbison-Walker Refractories, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Dykes, C.D. (Hazelett Strip Casting Corp., Colchester, VT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop a high productivity casting process for thin steel sections for direct hot rolling into high quality sheet, a process was devised where a closed-pool injection feeding system was coupled with a Hazelett twin-belt casting machine. Pilot facilities were built to determine the feasibility of closed-pool feeding. The facility was designed to cast up to 13.5 tonnes of steel into 25-mm thick and 430-mm wide steel sections at rates ranging from 4 to 15 m/min. Closed-pool feeding was attained in parts of seven casts. Under certain casting conditions, closed-pool feeding resulted in improvement in strand surface quality over open-pool feeding. However in nearly all cases of closed-pool feeding, the casts had to be terminated prematurely due to feeding nozzle breakage. This failure appears to be caused by frequent steel skull formation on, and subsequent detachment from the nozzle tip. In general, horizontal thin sections casting of steel with closed-pool feeding is a very complicated technology which is extremely labor and and material intensive, and not deemed economically viable. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Investigating MOOCs Through Blog Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    MOOCs (massive open online course) is a disruptive innovation and a current buzzword in higher education. However, the discussion of MOOCs is disparate, fragmented, and distributed among different outlets. Systematic, extensively published research on MOOCs is unavailable. This paper adopts a novel method called blog mining to analyze MOOCs. The findings indicate, while MOOCs have benefitted learners, providers, and faculty who develop and teach MOOCs, challenges still exist, such as question...

  3. Behaviour of oxygen in cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elbel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cast irons are the basic structural material and they form 75% of the world production of castings. The crystallization of cast iron and the formation of graphite are a complex process influencing by oxygen. The aim of our study is to identify the role of oxygen in Fe-C-Si melts.Design/methodology/approach: Continuous comparison of changes in metal composition and oxygen activity during melting, pouring, and solidification of experimental castings, using metallographic methods and microanalysis. Determination of total oxygen content in cast iron by the high temperature extraction method.Findings: Oxygen activity in graphitic cast irons is determined during manufacture of liquid metal and its pouring mainly by carbon and silicon activities. Silicon deoxidates cast irons at lower temperatures, at higher temperatures this function is taken over by carbon. Logarithmic dependences of oxygen activity on temperature for individual graphite forms (lamellar, vermicular, and spheroidal ones have been obtained. Determination of total oxygen content in cast iron on the other hand gives valuable information for controlling surface and internal quality of cast irons.Practical implications: Possibility of control the cast iron structure and graphitization during crystallization by monitoring the oxygen content with an indirect method of oxygen activity measurement in the melt before metal pouring the mould.Originality/value: The used method gives reproducible results which are comparable under different conditions of metal melting and pouring. Obtained knowledge extends the understanding in the field of cast irons crystallization by less known influence of oxygen.

  4. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  5. Papers of the CIM Toronto 2005 mining industry conference and exhibition : Mining rocks. Online ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference highlighted technical innovations and best business practices within Canada's mining industry. It provided an opportunity for geologists, engineers and mine operators to exchange the latest information concerning innovations, challenges and discoveries in the mining industry in Canada and internationally. A session on mine management focused on underground mining operations, maintenance engineering, open-pit operations and geotechnical engineering. A session on current projects focused on the activities involved with developing properties from the exploration phase through to production. Mine economics, geology, mine design and management practices were highlighted along with technology and advanced systems, underground technologies, open-pit technologies, metallurgy, and developments in mineral processing. The presentations also addressed the issue of how to ensure the development of mineral resources so they continue to be integrally important to Canada's economic prosperity. Some of the challenges facing the industry include environmental, community, human resource and automation issues. The trade show allowed leading equipment and service providers to exhibit the latest tools and equipment driving mine production. The exhibition included technology that has contributed to environmental, geotechnical, production, maintenance and processing performance and safety. More than 43 technical papers were presented at the conference, of which 5 have been inat the conference, of which 5 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Rapid casting and new technologies in investment casting

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Marcela Sánchez R; Carlos Julio Cortés Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a manufacturing process which is different to traditional methods as material is not removed or formed but added to obtain the designed pieces. It is not lust used for manufacturing finished products but in manufacturing tooling for speeding up other manufacturing processes. This paper introduces rapid prototyping as a support technique for the lost wax process (investment casting). It gives a brief description of the different techniques implemented to date and materials...

  7. Residual stresses in castings produced by press die casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Novoselovic?, D.; Budic?, I.; Samardz?ic?, I.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of technological parameters on residual stresses in pressure die castings is analysed in this paper. In order for the residual stresses to be as low as possible the optimization of technological parameters is necessary. The centrally composed plan of experiment 24cs is used in the investigation. Technologically influencing parameters are changed according to the mentioned plan of experiment and they are: temperature of pouring, rate of die cavity filling with the melt, post pres...

  8. Horizontal and vertical twin-belt casting of 1-inch-thin sections of sheet steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.R.; Daniel, S.S.; Ozgu, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Innovative horizontal and vertical twin-belt casting systems were developed and tested in casting trials to provide alternative approaches to solving the crux technical problem of feeding liquid steel into the thin mold gap so as to achieve the excellent as-cast surface quality necessary to allow subsequent direct rolling of top-quality sheet. The horizontal approach involved an innovative feeding system to feed the 1-inch-thick caster entry, but the twin-belt Hazelett machine itself was largely conventional. In contrast, the opened-up entry of the vertical twin-belt machine allowed the use of conventional lathe tube and flux pouring systems, but the machine itself was complex and deformed the casting down to the 1-inch thickness. Extensive modeling work was done to support both approaches. 15 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Copper alloys in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research results in the field of casting technology of copper and copper alloys using the investment casting technology, both from historical as well as modern technology perspective. The analysis of exemplary elements of the old casting moulds is included, as well as the Bronze Age casts. The chemical content of various copper alloys was determined and the application of lost wax method was confirmed in the Bronze Age workshop. At present, investment casting method is used for manufacturing high-quality casts, especially products for power engineering that is why it demands respecting very rigorous technological requirements. The casts were characterised based on microstructure research, chemical composition and conductivity in relation to oxygen content.

  10. Mining directory 1997: mining and mine-equipment companies worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The directory covers all aspects of the mining industry worldwide, including the principal operating and financial mining companies and the equipment, service and consultancy companies. The main reference section of the book presents mines and mining equipment and service companies in alphabetical order listing address, a business outline and subsidiary companies. The products and services which these companies supply are classified in the equipment, services and products guide. The geographical index lists companies by the location of their headquarters. A statistical section includes production and company statistics, and a glossary gives definitions of mining terms.

  11. Mining directory 1999: mining and mine-equipment companies worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The directory covers all aspects of the mining industry worldwide, including the principal operating and financial mining companies and the equipment, service and consultancy companies. The main reference section of the book presents mines and mining equipment and service companies in alphabetical order listing address, a business outline and subsidiary companies. The products and services which these companies supply are classified in the equipment services and products guide. The geographical index lists companies by the location of their headquarters. A statistical section includes production and company statistics, and a glossary gives definitions of mining terms.

  12. Calibration of Numerical Model Applied to a Shear Zone Located on a Slope in an Open Pit Mine—Case History

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Moraes da Gama; Da Silva, Bruno C. R.

    2012-01-01

    The instability of a pit mine slope diagnostic caused by the slipping of a localized deep shear zone is described. The slope was designed on ultra basic, serpentine and metabasite rock formations with an angle varying from 40 to 45 de- grees. The perturbed slope zone was classified as RMR 12 and the non-perturbed zone as RMR 75. The boundary of these zones is defined as the shear zone. The pit slope was field mapped in detail and the mechanical properties of the rock were obtained through a l...

  13. Consequences of coal mining and burning in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (2). Territorial consequences of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the 1450 km2 of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, the area of the coal-bearing territory is 850 km2. The area occupied by the open pits, spoil banks and mines is nearly 27O km2, out of which over 90 km2 have already been recultivated. Predicted mining development scenarios for the region till 2035 are outlined. The extent of mining will decrease gradually, and land will be reclaimed. The abandoned pits will be filled with water and employed for recreation purposes. The specific features of the individual open pit mines are given. The ways to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of mining are outlined; these include, in particular, desulfurization of existing power plants on the one hand, and energy savings associated with a reduction in mining and power generation activities on the other hand. (J.B.)

  14. Biological and chemical development of mining lakes. Status report 1998/1999. Data acquisition, methods, trends; Biologische und chemische Entwicklung von Bergbaurestseen. Statusbericht 1998/1999. Bestandsaufnahme, Methoden und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, K.; Tuempling, W. von (eds.)

    2000-07-01

    Acidification of mining lakes in central Germany and the Lausitz was investigated for three aspects: 1.) biological dynamics and material effects on plancton abundance and variety; 2.) Chemical and microbiological interactions between sediments influenced by mining (authochthone, allochthone) and water phase 3. 3.) Limnological and hydrochemical development of water systems in abandoned mining areas with a view to environmental quality and/or utilisation. The following objects were investigated. a) Goitsche open-cast mine (Bitterfeld district); b) Lake 111 (Koyne/Pllessa district), - Lakes 107, 117 (Koyne/Plessa district), Lake b (Schlabendorf-Nord district). [German] Kernproblem in den Braunkohlengebieten der neuen Bundeslaender ist die Versauerung von Bergbauseen. Die Bearbeitung des Verbundprojektes konzentriert sich in den Bergbaufolgelandschaften der Regionen Mitteldeutschland und Lausitz auf bergbaulich gestoerte und in Veraenderung befindliche Oberflaechenwasser-Systeme. Arbeitziele sind 1.) die Vertiefung der Kenntnisse zur biologischen Dynamik und zum stofflichen Einfluss auf die Diversitaet und Abundanz von Plankton in sauren Bergbauseen 2) Untersuchungen zu spezifischen Wechselwirkungen (chemisch, mikrobiologisch) zwischen bergbaulich beeinflussten Sedimenten (autochthon, allochthon) und der Wasserphase 3. Betrachtungen der limnologischen und hydrochemischen Entwicklung der Wassersysteme in Bergbaufolgelandschaften hinsichtlich Umweltqualitaetszielen und/oder Nutzungszielen. Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes werden von den Sektionen Gewaesserforschung, Hydrogeologie, Analytik, Bodenforschung und Umweltmikrobiologie in Mitteldeutschland und der Lausitz folgende Objekte bearbeitet: a) Tagebaukomplex Goitsche (Bitterfelder Revier) und b) Restloch 111 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch 107, 117 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch B (Revier Schlabendorf-Nord). (orig.)

  15. Staging and design features of mine-metal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to staging and design features of Priargunsky industrial mine-chemical association, being at present the unique uranium-mining enterprise of Russia. Advanced design solutions, made during designing of open and underground mining works in Streltsovsky uranium deposit are described. Specific features of technology of uranium ore processing and cutfit the process, provided by the design and successfully used up to the present, are noted

  16. The project of the mining method for the exploatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Viliam

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This part of monography in a short form deals with the project of the block stoping mining - Open chamber stoping from sublevel drifts. In the paper is described the needs of mining method for tetrahedrite ores in Rož?ava – Strieborná vein. The proposal block mining method is a very efficient, because use the LHD –system mechanization. The putting of this mechanization in the block enable relative high stope output achieve.

  17. The project of the mining method for the exploatation

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer Viliam

    1998-01-01

    This part of monography in a short form deals with the project of the block stoping mining - Open chamber stoping from sublevel drifts. In the paper is described the needs of mining method for tetrahedrite ores in Rož?ava – Strieborná vein. The proposal block mining method is a very efficient, because use the LHD –system mechanization. The putting of this mechanization in the block enable relative high stope output achieve.

  18. [Studies on the contract of the casting. (I). Influence of casting condition (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, N; Nasu, T; Hikichi, H; Noguchi, H

    1976-09-01

    A study was made of the contraction of the Silver-Indium alloy due to the difference of the casting condition, by mean of the quartz pipe, whose thermal-expansion coefficient was very small. The results were as follows. 1) The higher the mold temperature, the smaller the casting shrinkage. 2) When the casting pressure was extremely low the casting shrinkage was great. But if the casting pressure was over 0.16 kg/cm2, the casting shrinkage didn't change. 3) The bigger the sprue size, the smaller the casting shrinkage. 4) The casting temperature of the alloy, the cooling system, the amount of the metal and the form of the wax pattern showed that the casting shrinkage remain the same. PMID:792363

  19. Inner surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by centrifugal casting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, H; Raptis, C N; Asgar, K

    1981-05-01

    Six variables that could affect the surface roughness of a casting were investigated. The variables were (1) type of alloy, (2) mold temperature, (3) metal casting temperature, (4) casting machine, (5) sandblasting, and (6) location of each section. It was determined that the training portion of a complete cast crown had rougher surfaces than the leading portion. Higher mold and casting temperatures produced rougher castings, and this effect was more pronounced in the case of the base metal alloy. Sandblasting reduced the roughness, but produced scratched surfaces. Sandblasting had a more pronounced affect on the surface roughness of the base metal alloy cast either at a higher mold temperature or metal casting temperature. The morphology and the roughness profile of the original cast surface differed considerably with the type of alloy used. PMID:7012322

  20. Uranium mining: present indian scenario and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining industry has long been considered a high risk investment, tied down with long gestation periods. Large manpower deployment as also health and safety are other concerns associated with mining. Greater focus on sustainable development has seen metal prices falling worldwide. This has been largely due to greater recycling as well as development of alternate manmade material. Growing social concerns of the working environment as well as the impact of mining activity on ecology in its neighborhood are other areas drawing attention of the mining community. Uranium mining shares all these concerns besides issues related to its radioactive aspects. Technology continues to evolve in order to meet these challenges and make mining an attractive investment destination. Development of cleaner fuels, greater use of hydraulic power, microprocessor based fuel injection systems, flow of information, its efficient processing and a host of technology enabled systems are driving this evolution. These have influenced the entire gamut of mining activities from mine entries, mine layouts, mining methods to rock breakage and hoisting. Social concerns have prompted mine closure and related costs being factored in, at the mine opening stage itself. This paper describes some of these evolutions in India while looking at the emerging technologies and practices worldwide. (author)

  1. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  2. Search for chameleons with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakov?i?, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Kr?mar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Laki?, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubi?i?, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  3. Skin holes of titanium casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, O; Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Nakano, S; Honma, H; Kobayashi, M; Shiokawa, N

    1993-12-01

    The present study describes refractories which contribute to formation of skin holes of Ti casting. Plates consisting of quartz (Qu) and cristobalite (Cr) powders and Qu- and Cr-MgO mixtures were fired at high temperatures and used as phosphate-free molds. The cross-section of the castings was investigated using an optical microscope and an electron probe microanalyzer. Whereas the castings into the Qu molds were almost complete, those into the Cr molds were incomplete. The surface reaction zone of the Qu molds formed a typical layered structure with fewer skin holes. That of the latter extended deeply into the interior with a net-shaped Ti-Si phase, cracks, and holes. Addition of MgO to Cr effectively improved the castability and changed the reaction zone to the typical layered structure. However, slender holes occurred along the mold wall. The overall area around the holes was contaminated by Si and Mg. Probably, this resulted from a reaction of forsterite with Ti. The reactivity difference between Qu and Cr was not related to the fired strength of mold. PMID:8004911

  4. Cast shadows in wide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Sylvia C; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Oomes, Augustinus H J; van Doom, Andrea; van Nierop, Onno; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the apparent spatial layout of cast shadows up to very wide fields of view. We presented up to 130 degrees wide images in which two 'flat poles' were standing on a green lawn under a cloudless blue sky on a sunny day. The poles threw sharp cast shadows on the green, of which one was fixed. The observer's task was to adjust the azimuth of the shadow of the other pole such that it fitted the scene. The source elevation was kept constant. The two cast shadows are, of course, parallel in physical space, but generically not in the picture plane because of the wide perspective. We found that observers made huge systematic errors, indicating that, generically, they fail to account for these perspective effects. The systematic deviations could be well described by a weighted linear combination of the directions in the picture plane and in the physical space, with weights that depended on the positions of, and distance between, the poles. PMID:22132508

  5. Wikipedia Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kotaro; Ito, Masahiro; Erdmann, Maike; Shirakawa, Masumi; Michishita, Tomoyuki; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    Wikipedia, a collaborative Wiki-based encyclopedia, has become a huge phenomenon among Internet users. It covers a huge number of concepts of various fields such as arts, geography, history, science, sports and games. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, Wikipedia's impressive characteristics are not limited to the scale, but also include the dense link structure, URL based word sense disambiguation, and brief anchor texts. Because of these characteristics, Wikipedia has become a promising corpus and a new frontier for research. In the past few years, a considerable number of researches have been conducted in various areas such as semantic relatedness measurement, bilingual dictionary construction, and ontology construction. Extracting machine understandable knowledge from Wikipedia to enhance the intelligence on computational systems is the main goal of "Wikipedia Mining," a project on CREP (Challenge for Realizing Early Profits) in JSAI. In this paper, we take a comprehensive, panoramic view of Wikipedia Mining research and the current status of our challenge. After that, we will discuss about the future vision of this challenge.

  6. Computer precision simulation for titanium casting centrifugal mold filling of prescision titanium castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming XU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation codes were developed based on proposed mathematical model for centrifugal mold filling processes and previous computer software for 3D mold filling and solidification of castings. Sample simulations were implemented for mold filling processes of precision titanium castings under gravity and different centrifugal casting techniques. The computation results show that the alloy melt has a much stronger mold filling ability for thin section castings unde a centrifugal force field than that only under the gravity. A "return back" mold filling manner is showed to be a reasonable technique for centrifugal casting processes, especially for thin section prcision castings.

  7. Strategic plans of the German mining industry; Die strategische Ausrichtung der Bergbauspezialgesellschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerdes, G. [Vereinigung der Bergbauspezialgesellschaften (VBS), Essen (Germany); Heitkamp-Deilmann-Haniel GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The contribution discusses the political adaptation processes required in the wake of new European legislation and globalisation. Concentration of the industry, reduction of jobs, improved technologies, internationalisation and other measures so far have not been sufficient to compensate the adaptation process and the reduction of mining activities in the Germany coal sector. New activities and tasks may be found in coal and brown coal open-cast mining at an international level. A basic production volume should be defined and supported by state funds in order to enable the coal industry to maintain and improve its technological status and to continue working on its global activities as a provider of mining-related services world-wide. [German] Wie in der Vergangenheit wird auch in der Zukunft die Entwicklung der deutschen Bergbauspezialgesellschaften mit dem Wohl des deutschen Bergbaus, insbesondere dem Steinkohlenbergbau und seiner Entwicklung eng verbunden sein. Der auf europaeisch-politischer Ebene vorgegebene Anpassungsprozess schliesst auch die Bergbauspezialgesellschaften mit ein. Firmenkonzentration, Belegschaftsabbau, Verbesserung von Technologien, Internationalisierung und sonstige Massnahmen sind bisher noch nicht in der Lage, den Anpassungsprozess und den Taetigkeitsrueckgang in der deutschen Steinkohle ausreichend zu kompensieren. Neue Taetigkeitsfelder und Aufgabenbereiche fuer die Bergbauspezialgesellschaften koennten international im Bereich der Tagebautaetigkeiten der Braun- und Steinkohle gefunden werden. Auf der Grundlage eines definierten Energiesockels, dessen Subventionierung nicht alle paar Monate erneut politisch in Frage gestellt wird, wird es moeglich sein, die Technologien zu erhalten und weiter zu entwickeln sowie den begonnenen Weg der Internationalisierung und der Ausweitung der Taetigkeit als internationaler Bergbaudienstleister in allen Bergbauzweigen erfolgreich weiter zu beschreiten. (orig.)

  8. Arsenic, copper and zinc occurrence at the Wangaloa coal mine, southeast Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste piles, created from open cast coal mining activities at the abandoned Wangaloa mine in SE Otago, have exposed pyrite (FeS2) to atmospheric conditions. This has led to the acidification of the surface tailings and nearby drainage waters (acid mine drainage, AMD). Mobilisation of trace metals arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) has occurred, partly as a result of the low pH levels (ca. pH 2-4), leading to elevated concentrations of these metals in receiving waters. Authigenic pyrite deposited in a marginal marine coal-forming environment is enriched in As with levels reaching up to 100 ppm. Copper and Zn in solid solution are not elevated above background levels in either coal measures or associated pyrite. Water discharges, sediments, waste rock and background samples were sampled and analysed during the driest (summer) and wettest (winter) seasons of 1998 and 1999. During the winter season, water discharging from the waste piles contained up to 0.7 ppm (mg/kg) As, as measured in 1998. During the 1999 wettest season, no such levels of As were observed, with the highest level attaining 0.07 ppm As. Copper and Zn were locally elevated in waters, with Zn concentrations reaching 1 ppm. During the summer season of 1999, only one sampling site recorded elevated metal concentrations. Adverse effects from the remnant waste piles appear to be highly localised due to downstream natural remediation processes occurring in a wetland area. The absence of strongg in a wetland area. The absence of strongly elevated metal concentrations during the drier season is a result of strongly depressed water levels within the waste piles. Flushing of acid and metals occurs when the water levels increase with the onset of the winter season. During the summer season, pyrite within the waste piles has been readily decomposing from the increased availability and transport of atmospheric oxygen

  9. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings. Equipment and procedure for real time X-Ray radiography of molten aluminum flow into permanent molds have been developed. Other studies have been conducted using water flow and behavior of liquid aluminum in sand mold using real time photography. This investigation utilizes graphite molds transparent to X-Rays making it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented grating systems. These have included systems that are choked at the base of a rounded vertical sprue and vertical gating systems with a variety of different ingates into the bottom of a mold cavity. These systems have also been changed to include gating systems with vertical and horizontal gate configurations. Several conclusions can be derived from this study. A sprue-well, as designed in these experiments, does not eliminate the vena contracta. Because of the swirling at the sprue-base, the circulating metal begins to push the entering metal stream toward the open runner mitigating the intended effect of the sprue-well. Improved designs of sprue-wells should be evaluated. In order for a runner extension to operate efficiently, it must have a small squared cross-section. If it is tapered, the first metal to enter the first metal to enter the system is not effectively trapped. If the cross section is large, there is less turbulence when the aluminum enters the mold cavity in comparison to the smaller cross sectioned, squared runner. However, a large runner reduces yield. In bottom-feeding gating systems, a filter can significantly improve the filling of the casting. The filter helps to slow the metal flow rate enough to reduce jetting into the mold cavity. In top feeding gating systems, a filter can initially slow the metal flow rate, but because the metal drops after passing the filter, high velocities are achieved during free fall when a filter is in place. Side feeding gating systems provide less turbulent flow into the mold cavity. The flow is comparable to a bottom-feeding gating system with a filter. Using properly designed side-gating system instead of a bottom-feeding system with a filter can potentially save the cost of the filter. Rough coatings promote better fill than smooth coatings. This conclusion seems at first counter intuitive. One tends to assume a rough coating creates more friction resistance to the flow of molten metal. In actuality the molten aluminum stream flows inside an oxide film envelope. When this film rests on top of the ridges of a rough coating the microscopic air pockets between the coating and the oxide film provide more thermal insulation than in a smooth coating. This insulation promotes longer feeding distances in the mold as demonstrated in the experiments. Much of this work is applicable to vertically parted sand molds as well, although the heat transfer conditions do vary from a metal mold generally used in permanent molding of aluminum. The flow measurements were conducted using graphite molds and real time X-Ray radiography recorded at a rate of 30 images per second through those molds. The facilities at Arrow Aluminum Foundry were used in the study. The resu

  10. The feasibility of underground pumped storage plants in the active coal mines in the Ruhr district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the expiration of the coal mining in 2018, the mining is leaving an extensive infrastructure. Shaft depths of up to 1200 m, numerous linings at depth and a large area drainage open perspectives for subsequent use as a subsurface pump storage plant. This could be at the current mining locations a contribution to the energy storage problem.

  11. Coal mining in the Canadian province of Alberta. Der Kohlenbergbau in der kanadischen Provinz Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecke, K.; Clasen, J.H.

    1989-10-01

    The article describes the coal deposits and coal reserves in the Mountain, Foothill, and Plains regions of the Canadian province of Alberta. Subsequently, open pits typical of Alberta such as the Smoky River mines, the Obed project, and the Montgomery mine are dealt with. In the Smoky River mines, coal is also produced underground. (MOS).

  12. SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF DISSOLVED MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS AT THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE, CLEAR LAKE, CALIFORNIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR MINE DRAINAGE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine in Lake County, California (SBMM) was operated from the 1860s through the 1950s. Mining for sulfur started with surface operations and then progressed to shaft and later open pit techniques to obtain mercury. SBMM is located adjacent to the shore o...

  13. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathi Babu, K.; Komali, A.; Mythry, V.; Ratnam, A. S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

  14. Automation and process monitoring in the mining industry by infra-red sensor technology and industrial image processing; Automatisierung und Prozessueberwachung im Bergbau mittels Infrarotsensorik und industrieller Bildverarbeitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienhaus, Karl; Mavroudis, Fiona [RWTH Aachen (DE). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Betriebsmittel fuer die Gewinnung mineralischer Rohstoffe (BGMR)

    2009-04-28

    Infra-rad technology has made significant advances and proved to be highly advantageous in many new applications in recent years. In conjunction with industrial image processing systems there are many possible applications of infra-red sensor technology in many areas in the raw material sector. Infra-red sensor systems are suitable, for example, as environmental and process monitoring systems and for geological environmental surveys by detection of types of material and boundary layers. This contribution gives an insight into the principles and state of the art of infra-red technology and the methods for automated image processing. Furthermore, already tested examples of application of infra-red sensor systems in underground and open-cast mining are explained in more detail. (orig.)

  15. [The cast structure after vacuum-pressure casting and centrifugal casting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W; Jung, T; Quast, U

    1975-02-01

    Evaluation of polished sections revealed the following: 1. Grain size in marginal areas of the crown is, in general, smaller than it is in the occlusal region. 2. Grain size varies depending on the casting method applied. Differences in hardness were found only to a limited extent. They were not always in line with the grain structure. This phenomenon deviating from the rule cannot satisfactorily be explained. The piping distribution was in accordance with observations made so far. PMID:1091455

  16. Effects of manufacturing technology on quality, service life and economic aspects of manufacturing machines and equipment for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giemza, H.

    1984-02-01

    Equipment for underground coal mining in Poland is manufactured by about 20 large machine plants, members of the POLMAG association: the FAMUR plant manufactures shearer loaders, the RYFAMA plant chain conveyors, the MIFAMA plant belt conveyors and selected types of equipment for coal preparation, the SiNG Swierczewski plant produces chains, tools and some elements for mining equipment. Powered supports are produced by 6 plants: FAZOS, TAGOR, DEHAK, GEORYT, GLINIK and PIOMA. About 90% of equipment for underground mining is developed by the KOMAG Center for Mechanization of Mining in Katowice. Development of methods and equipment for welding, cutting and casting elements of mining equipment and equipment assembling in member plants of the POLMAG association is discussed (e.g. semiautomatic submerged arc welding, use of numerically controlled machine tools, vacuum casting). Effects of technology development on manufacturing cost and equipment quality are evaluated with some examples. 4 references.

  17. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saagement is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity

  18. Robust nonlinear model predictive control of a run-of-mine ore milling circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Loutjie C.; Craig, Ian K.; Kerrigan, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    This brief investigates the feasibility of applying a robust nonlinear model predictive controller to a run-of-mine ore milling circuit, and the conditions under which such a controller might be worthwhile implementing. The run-of-mine ore milling circuit model used consists of nonlinear modules for the individual components of the milling circuit, allowing for arbitrary milling circuit configurations to be modeled. The model is cast into a robust nonlinear model predictive control framework,...

  19. Properties of electroslag castings. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1985-08-01

    The quality, response to heat treatment, and mechanical properties of electroslag-cast step blocks from Cameron Iron Works and from Selectrotech, Inc., are described. The mechanical properties include Charpy impact, tensile, and creep. Properties of the electroslag castings were compared to determine the differences between casters, between wrought and electroslag cast properties, and between sand and electroslag castings. Results are presented to show that the electroslag casting process has a potential for producing properties similar to those of wrought material for 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo steel and similar to those of sand-cast material for type 316 stainless steel. 5 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  1. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  2. Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Luo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being produced by low-pressure die casting processes for structural applications. Overcasting technology is gaining traction and has enabled mixed material designs for automotive sub-systems such as engine cradles and instrument panel beams. Simulation tools developed to predict the interfacial interactions of the dissimilar components and the structural integrity of the overcast systems are being validated in the casting trials.

  3. Rapid casting and new technologies in investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Sánchez R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping is a manufacturing process which is different to traditional methods as material is not removed or formed but added to obtain the designed pieces. It is not lust used for manufacturing finished products but in manufacturing tooling for speeding up other manufacturing processes. This paper introduces rapid prototyping as a support technique for the lost wax process (investment casting. It gives a brief description of the different techniques implemented to date and materials used for making articles as part of the lost wax process.

  4. New developments in uranium mining in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining is so far restricted to underground mines only. Uranium mining is similar to other non-coal (metalliferous) mining. Mode of entries has been adits, inclines and vertical shafts. Decline have been constructed at Narwapahar and Turamdih. Access decline (7 deg) at Narwapahar has been driven to about 900 m length and reached depth of about 100 m. Stoping methods are mainly with filling, open stopes supported with adequate pillars with or without post filling to prevent surface subsidence are also being adopted. Appreciable degree of mechanization has been adopted in Jaduguda mines however, Narwapahar mine has been made highly mechanized. Face mechanization in the present operations is by way of air leg mounted jack hammers and stope wagons for drilling and small capacity (upto 1 cu. yd) rail mounted/trackless loaders for loading. Alimak raise climber has been used for raising work. For horizontal transport in mines, Hunselet diesel locomotives (4 tonne size) with Granby car, 3.5 tonne capacity, are being used, vertical transport is by means of drum winders and tower mounted friction winders. At Narwapahar mine twin boom drill jumobs, LHDs-1.78 m3 and 2.8 m3 capacity, PLDTs-15 tonner and 23 tonner capacity and relevant service equipment like passenger carriers, supply trucks, service cum lube truck, motor grader, etc. are being used. These rubber tyrred trackless equipment enter the mine directly from the surface through the service/accy from the surface through the service/access decline entry. These new developments in mining are detailed hereinafter. (author). 11 figs., 4 photos

  5. Design and computational analysis of compound castings and other multi-material structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitsche, Robert D.

    2009-07-01

    The multi-material lightweight design concept strives to use the ''best'' material and manufacturing process for each part of a structure in order to combine the advantages of different materials. Obviously, joining techniques play a major role in the manufacturing of these structures. The compound casting process allows for the joining of a casting to other parts during the casting process. That is, the casting process serves both as a production and a joining process. The aim of this thesis is to develop computational methods for the analysis and design of compound castings and other multi-material structures. Both finite element methods and asymptotic analysis techniques are used. During the quenching (or cooling) of a compound casting residual stresses develop due to the inhomogeneous transient temperature field and the dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials involved. As these stresses determine the frictional connection and other important characterisitcs (e.g. the fatigue like) of the structure, the simulation of the quenching process is of central importance. In the case of purely contacting interfaces, i.e., if no metallurgical bonding exists, the heat transfer at the interface is either by contact or through the gap, and the thermal contact conductance at the bimaterial interface of the compound casting depends on contact pressure and gap opening. A major finding of this thesis is that, in general, the consideration of this dependence is crucial to the simulation of the quenching process of compound castings. During the quenching process gaps can open up at the bimaterial interface even if the structure is geometrically simple. The opening of the gap severely reduces the thermal contact conductance and forces heat to flow mainly parallel to the open gap. Practical examples of steel-aluminium compound castings with form-looking and/or frictional connection are presented. In general, the strength of these connections could be well predicted by the finite element simulations. Local stress concentrations can occur due to the abrupt change in material properties at the interface of a multi-material structure. Under the assumptions of linear elasticity theory, these stress concentrations can manifest themselves as stress singularities. The dependence of the order of these singularities on geometrical and material parameters is examined in a systematic way and ''design charts'' are developed by which the order of the stress singularity can be directly registered. Using these charts, geometry modifications can be determined that either minimize the order of the stress singularity or lead to a regular stress field. Often, great improvements can be achieved through comparatively small and local modifications of the geometry. (orig.)

  6. Mechanical properties of homogenized twin-roll cast and conventionally cast AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Zimina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of mechanical properties of magnesium alloys nowadays is very important, because of the variety of industrial applications. For this goal, the number of casting techniques and further treatments were developed. Among the continuous casting techniques, which allow producing long strips of the alloys, is twin-roll casting. Using this process one can get the magnesium alloy with finest microstructure and higher specific strength. In this paper the comparison of tensile properties of conventionally cast and twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloys was made. Tensile tests were carried out with constant strain rate 10-3 s-1 at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 °C. Both materials were tested in as-cast state and after homogenization treatment at 450 °C for 10 hours. The investigation showed that there are no significant changes in ductility of AZ31 conventionally cast alloy even after heat treatment, while the ductility of twin-roll cast alloy increases.

  7. Influence of Technological Parameters of Furane Mixtures on Shrinkage Creation in Ductile Cast Iron Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasková I.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ductile cast iron (GS has noticed great development in last decades and its boom has no analogue in history humankind. Ductile iron has broaden the use of castings from cast iron into areas, which where exclusively domains for steel castings. Mainly by castings, which weight is very high, is the propensity to shrinkage creation even higher. Shrinkage creation influences mainly material, construction of casting, gating system and mould. Therefore, the main realized experiment was to ascertain the influence of technological parameters of furane mixture on shrinkage creation in castings from ductile iron. Together was poured 12 testing items in 3 moulds forto determine and compare the impact of various technological parameters forms the propensity for shrinkage in the casting of LGG.

  8. Optimization of Castings by using Surrogate Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis structural optimization of castings and thermomechanical analysis of castings are studied. In paper I an optimization algorithm is created by using Matlab. The algorithm is linked to the commercial FE solver Abaqus by using Python script. The optimization algorithm uses the successive response surfaces methodology (SRSM) to create global response surfaces. It is shown that including residual stresses in structural optimization of castings yields an optimal shape that differs si...

  9. Ferritic-austenitic cast steel - selected problems

    OpenAIRE

    Stradomski, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The author has been involved in the problems occurring in the manufacture of ferritic-austenitic cast steel castings for many years. The author’s remarks and investigation results reported in this article will enable potential manufacturers to determine their own technical capabilities and structural determinants related to the chemical composition of material, which are crucial to the good quality of a casting. Particular emphasis should be laid on the role of enhanced carbon content, the ...

  10. Creep-resistant austenitic cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarski, B.; Kubicki, J.

    2008-01-01

    The study reviews the reference literature and gives some results of own investigations concerning changes of phase composition that take place in creep-resistant austenitic cast steel of two generations due to an ageing treatment. The cast steel of the first generation contains in its chemical composition only the alloying additives like nickel, chromium and silicon. Compared with the first group, the chemical composition of the second generation cast steel has been enriched with additions o...

  11. Quality control of cast brake discs

    OpenAIRE

    Stawarz, M.

    2008-01-01

    The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in pa...

  12. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

  13. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hai; Xie, Cheng-mu; Zhao, Jia-qi

    2005-01-01

    The development and research of casting titanium alloy and its casting technology, especially its application in aeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of moulding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problem and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  14. Computer precision simulation for titanium casting centrifugal mold filling of prescision titanium castings

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Daming; Li, Xin; An, Geving

    2004-01-01

    Computer simulation codes were developed based on proposed mathematical model for centrifugal mold filling processes and previous computer software for 3D mold filling and solidification of castings. Sample simulations were implemented for mold filling processes of precision titanium castings under gravity and different centrifugal casting techniques. The computation results show that the alloy melt has a much stronger mold filling ability for thin section castings unde a centrifugal force fi...

  15. The structure of abrasion-resisting castings made of chromium cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    Kopycin?ski, D.; Guzik, E.; Piasny, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study presents the analyse of chrome iron cast structure (as-cast condition) which are used in rugged conditions abrasion-percussive and high temperature. While producing the casts of chrome iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technologi cal process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Cr alloy Ni, Mo or Cu and then proper heat treatment leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. Then it is possible to develop high mechanical properties which...

  16. Reversing design methodology of investment casting die profile based on ProCAST

    OpenAIRE

    Dou Yangqing; Bu Kun; Dou Yangliu

    2010-01-01

    Turbine blade is one of the critical components of aircraft engine. The performance of the engine depends on the shape and dimensions of components, but superalloy blade material cannot be easily machined. Although investment casting is an ideal process for such net-shape components, it requires an accurate determination of the casting-die profile. In this paper, a reversing design methodology for investment casting die using ProCAST is proposed. By combining the methods of simplifying grid f...

  17. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  18. Microstructured metal molds fabricated via investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an investment casting process to produce aluminum molds having integrated microstructures. Unlike conventional micromolding tools, the aluminum mold was large and had complex curved surfaces. The aluminum was cast from curved microstructured ceramic molds which were themselves cast from curved microstructured rubber. The aluminum microstructures had an aspect ratio of 1:1 and sizes ranging from 25 to 50 µm. Many structures were successfully cast into the aluminum with excellent replication fidelity, including circular, square and triangular holes. We demonstrate molding of large, curved surfaces having surface microstructures using the aluminum mold.

  19. REDUCING DEFECTS ON STONE CRUSHER CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Subrahmanyam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal casting involves pouring molten metal into a mould containing a cavity of the desired shape to produce a molten product. Foundry industry suffers from poor quality and productivity due to the large number of process parameters, combined with lower penetration of manufacturing automation and shortage of skilled workers compared to other industries. Global buyers demand defect-free castings and strict delivery schedule, which foundries are finding it very difficult to meet. The casting is then removed from the mould and excesses material is removed, often using shot blasting, grinding or welding processes. The product may then undergo a range of processes such as heat treatment, polishing and surface coating or finishing. Unfortunately, this is not an easy task, since casting process involves complex interactions among various parameters and operations For achieving the defect free casting, Design of Casting process is very necessary. By fallowing the sequence of designed steps, the designed casting will be prepared. In this work, we present a 3-step approach to casting defect identification, analysis and rectification. Casting the defects will be identified Visual inspection, MPI (magnetic particle inspection, U.T (ultrasonic testing, R.T (Radiographic testing, and Final inspection. By all these inspections defects need to be diagnosed such as correctly for appropriate remedial measures, otherwise new defects may be introduced. Some defects diagnosed as cracks, Undersurface cracks, External slag inclusions, shrinkages, gas generated defects. These defects will be analyzed and rectification processes fallowed, so finally defects will reduced.

  20. Aluminium Alloy Cast Shell Development for Torpedoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sand-cast aluminium alloy cylindrical shells were developed for the advanced experimental torpedo applications. The components had intricate geometry, thin-walled sections, and stringent property requirements. The casting defects, such as shrinkage, porosity, incomplete filling of thin sections, cold shuts, inclusions and dimensional eccentricity, etc were found inthe initial castings trials. improvements in casting quality were achieved through modified methodology, selective chilling, risering, and by introducing ceramic-foam filters in the gatingsystem. The heat-treated and machined components met radiographic class I grade C/E standards, mechanical properties to BS1490 specifications, and leakage and hydraulic pressure testrequirements relevant for such applications.

  1. Enrichment of Casting Surface in Founding Process

    OpenAIRE

    Szajnar, J.; Wro?bel, P.; Wro?bel, T.

    2007-01-01

    A lot of cast steel and cast iron properties, also usable, depend on physical and chemical properties of surface layer, such as: hardness, corrosion resistance, abrasive wear resistance. The paper presents directly method of surface enrichment on casting in founding process. Layer in form of high-speed steel HS 18–0–1plate was placed on G25CrSiMnMoNi 4–4–4–2,5–4 cast steel hammer of crusher. To investigations it was used light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Microanal...

  2. Microstructured metal molds fabricated via investment casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Andrew H.; King, William P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes an investment casting process to produce aluminum molds having integrated microstructures. Unlike conventional micromolding tools, the aluminum mold was large and had complex curved surfaces. The aluminum was cast from curved microstructured ceramic molds which were themselves cast from curved microstructured rubber. The aluminum microstructures had an aspect ratio of 1:1 and sizes ranging from 25 to 50 µm. Many structures were successfully cast into the aluminum with excellent replication fidelity, including circular, square and triangular holes. We demonstrate molding of large, curved surfaces having surface microstructures using the aluminum mold.

  3. Mining industry and US government cooperative research: Lessons learned and benefits to mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Phillips, W.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.; Martin, R. [Thunder Basin Coal Co. (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-09-01

    Since 1994, various mines in the US have cooperated with research scientists at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to address issues related to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The CTBT requires that no country may conduct any nuclear explosion in the future. While the CTBT is a significant step toward reducing the global nuclear danger, verifying compliance with the treat requires that the monitoring system be able to detect, locate and identify much larger numbers of smaller amplitude seismic events than had been required previously. Large mining blasts conducted world-wide will be of sufficient amplitude to trigger the monitoring system at the lower threshold. It is therefore imperative that research into the range various blasting practices employed, the relationship of yield to seismic magnitude, and identification of anomalous blasting results be performed. This paper will describe a suite of experiments funded by the Department of Energy and conducted by the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in cooperation with the US mining industry. Observations of cast blasting, underground long wall generated coal bumps, stoping, and explosively induced collapse of room and pillar panels will be presented. Results of these dual use experiments which are of interest to the mining community will be discussed. These include (1) variation of amplitude of seismic energy at various azimuths from cast blasts, (2) identification of the extent of back failure following explosive removal of pillars, and (3) the use of single fired shots for calibration of the monitoring system. The wealth of information and discovery described in this paper is a direct result of mutual cooperation between the US Government and the US Mining Industry.

  4. Coal mine helps endangered wallaby survive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    A central Queensland coal mine is being used to help save one of Australia`s most endangered species from extinction. BHP`s Gregory open-cut coal mine near Emerald has been chosen as a site to undertake a breeding programme for the Bridled Nailtail Wallaby. The Gregory/Crinum mine is an ideal location for the recovery programme because it has a considerable area of nature mixed brigalow and grassland south of mining operations that provide a suitable habitat for the wallabies. 16 nailtails were transferred to a half-acre enclosure at Gregory in early 1997; numbers had doubled to 32 by November 1998. The small wallaby is so named after its distinctive `bridal` marking on its shoulders and the horny projection at the tip of its tail. 2 photos.

  5. Bright future for Grootegeluk coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raats, H.

    2001-10-01

    Boasting the world's largest coal beneficiation plant and the largest open pit coal operation in the southern hemisphere, Kumba Coal's Grootegeluk Mine in the Northern Province of South Africa has embarked on several initiatives to sustain it as an economical coal mine for the next 100 years. The articles describes its operational mining equipment used and its four main products - semi-soft coking coal, PCI coal, power station coal and metallurgical coal. A research project, dubbed COL713 is in progress to assess the best sealing method for the mines waste material to minimise the risk of spontaneous combustion. An Environmental Management system will be implemented in January 2002 with the aim of achieving ISO 14001 accredition by January 2003. 3 photos.

  6. Similarity measure to identify users' profiles in web usage mining

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Latif, Firas; Delestre, Nicolas; Malandain, Nicolas; Pe?cuchet, Jean-pierre

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, content available on the Internet is continuously growing. Websites aregathering more and more information. It makes the website browsing process even harder. This paper addresses the web usage mining problem. We try to use a characteristic patterns algorithm to identify users' profiles. Our experiment shows that this algorithm is not suitable for our encyclopedic hypermedia. Therefore, we present an alternative approach through casting a user trace (set of transitions) as a graph. ...

  7. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  8. Spray casting project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  9. Release of ToxCastDB and ExpoCastDB databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released two databases - the Toxicity Forecaster database (ToxCastDB) and a database of chemical exposure studies (ExpoCastDB) - that scientists and the public can use to access chemical toxicity and exposure data. ToxCastDB users can search and download data from over 50...

  10. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  11. Influence of the casting processing route on the corrosion behavior of dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galo, Rodrigo; Rocha, Luis Augusto; Faria, Adriana Claudia; Silveira, Renata Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello

    2014-12-01

    Casting in the presence of oxygen may result in an improvement of the corrosion performance of most alloys. However, the effect of corrosion on the casting without oxygen for dental materials remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the casting technique and atmosphere (argon or oxygen) on the corrosion behavior response of six different dental casting alloys. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical measurements performed in artificial saliva for the different alloys cast in two different conditions: arc melting in argon and oxygen-gas flame centrifugal casting. A slight decrease in open-circuit potential for most alloys was observed during immersion, meaning that the corrosion tendency of the materials increases due to the contact with the solution. Exceptions were the Co-based alloys prepared by plasma, and the Co-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-4Ti alloys processed by oxidized flame, in which an increase in potential was observed. The amount of metallic ions released into the artificial saliva solution during immersion was similar for all specimens. Considering the pitting potential, a parameter of high importance when considering the fluctuating conditions of the oral environment, Co-based alloys show the best performance in comparison with the Ni-based alloys, independent of the processing route. PMID:25491859

  12. Corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Marie; Cai, Zhuo; Oda, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Toru

    2005-05-01

    It has recently been found that alloying with copper improved the inherently poor grindability and wear resistance of titanium. This study characterized the corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. Alloys (0.9 or 3.5 mass % Cu) were cast with the use of a magnesia-based investment in a centrifugal casting machine. Three specimen surfaces were tested: ground, sandblasted, and as cast. Commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V served as controls. Open-circuit potential measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air + 10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium deaerated by N(2) + 10% CO(2). Polarization resistance (R(p)), Tafel slopes, and corrosion current density (I(corr)) were determined. A passive region occurred for the alloy specimens with ground and sandblasted surfaces, as for CP Ti. However, no passivation was observed on the as-cast alloys or on CP Ti. There were significant differences among all metals tested for R(p) and I(corr) and significantly higher R(p) and lower I(corr) values for CP Ti compared to Ti-6Al-4V or the alloys with Cu. Alloying up to 3.5 mass % Cu to Ti-6Al-4V did not change the corrosion behavior. Specimens with ground or sandblasted surfaces were superior to specimens with as-cast surfaces. PMID:15744719

  13. Titanium and titanium alloy castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification covers ten grades of unalloyed titanium and titanium alloy castings as follows: Grade C-1, C-2, C-3, and C-4 (unalloyed titanium, Grade C-5 (Ti-6Al-4V), Grade C-6 (Ti-5Al-2.5Sn), Grade C-7A, C-7B, C-8A, and C-8B (Ti-Pd). The specification includes ordering information, manufacture, chemical composition, sampling and methods of chemical analysis, tensile properties, hardness, nondestructive inspection, workmanship, finish, marking, and certification

  14. Extremely acidic mine lake ecosystems in Lusatia (Germany) : characterisation and development of sustainable, biology-based acidity removal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are approximately 500 infilled open-cast lignite pits in Germany that are extremely acidic because of high concentrations of dissolved metals, mostly iron and aluminium. The mining lakes have pH values of 2.4 to 3.4 and also have high sulphate concentrations. Efforts are being made to neutralize the lakes for recreational purposes. The acidity can be removed from the lakes in an economical and environmentally sustainable manner by flooding through diversion of neutral, nutrient-rich river water. This paper described the living conditions of the acidic mining lakes in the Lausitz region of Germany and summarized the benefits of the controlled eutrophication approach to enhance natural, self-sustaining processes for acid neutralization. Compared to infilling with river water, eutrophication increases lake productivity and removes acidity through sediment bound and water column biologically-mediated processes. The study involved basic research on particle transport in streams and lakes, pelagic food web interactions and submerged macrophyte metabolism. It also looked at the role of wetlands, bacterial interactions at the water-sediment interface, and modelling. It was shown that the addition of phosphorus and carbon to the water column can enhance primary production. Future studies will examine environmentally acceptable treatment strategies that offer an alternative to chemical treatment. 20 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  15. Preliminary assessment of the zooplankton community composition in a region under the influence of a uranium mine (Caldas, Southeastern Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit consists of an open cast mine (CM), its mining waste areas, facilities for the physical treatment of the ore, and a chemical treatment plant for uranium extraction. At CM, the processes of acid drainage create effluents, which are treated by chemical processes and, thereafter, disposed of in Antas dam. The objective of the present study was to make an inventory of zooplanktonic and describe the physicochemical characteristics of site CM and at the site of treated effluents disposal (site 41), located at Antas dam. Water samples were collected in October/08 and January/09, in order to describe the abiotic variables and the zooplankton community. The average values of conductivity at sites CM and 41 were 2415 and 422 ?/cm2, respectively. Values of pH at site CM remained acid, whereas, at site 41 we recorded values near neutrality. The concentrations of total nutrients at both sampling sites were higher in the rainy season. Zooplankton species richness present at site CM was lower than at site 41, and there were only two identified species Bosmina sp and Keratella americana. At site 41 we recorded more species, mainly of the Rotifera. Among Cladocera, we identified two species, regarding Copepoda, the orders Cyclopoida and Calanoida were present. At site CM the density values were lower compared to site 41. The preliminary assessment of the zooplankton community showed lower values of species richness and density at site CM, what may be probably explained by the adverse environmental conditions for zooplankton community. (author)

  16. Effects of vegetation on chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils developed on a decantation bank from a copper mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Beatriz; Vega, Flora A; Silva, Luis F O; Andrade, Luisa

    2012-04-01

    Open cast mining has a strong impact on the environment, the intensity depending on the morphology of the deposit and on the nature of the minerals. At Touro mine (NW Spain) there is a large area covered by tailings, one of which, called the "sedimentation bank", was used to deposit sludge resulting from the extraction of copper in the flotation plant. Three zones were selected and the soils were sampled to analyse the changes brought about by vegetation on the chemical and mineralogical properties of the soils developed over the sedimentation bank and its development over time. The vegetation increased the pH, contents of organic material, nitrogen, clay and free oxides of Fe and Al, and the cationic exchange capacity of the soils. The decrease in the sulphide content, benefited by the vegetation process, led to a reduction in the total content of Cr and Cu. The vegetation also contributed towards the alteration of the primary minerals. The transformation of jarosite, the formation of nanocrystals of hematite, goethite, hydroxypolymers, and amorphous minerals that contained Cu, Cr and Pb were observed. Nevertheless the high Cu and Cr contents indicate that it is advisable to change the restoration process. PMID:22356872

  17. Continuous monitoring of barometric pressure in deep mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trutwin, W.; Mironowicz, W.; Wasilewski, S.; Krawczyk, J. [Research and Development Centre for Electrical Engineering and Automation in Mining EMAG, Katowice (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    Barometric pressure and its variation in deep underground workings have a considerable effect on ventilation conditions. Pressure changes which create transient states of air flow and air parameters in workings are especially significant. Experiments have shown that pressure changes have a remarkable effect on air parameters at mine workings. Continuous monitoring of the barometric pressure on the surface of mines allows for the detection of changes in pressure which influence alternations of pressure in the underground areas of mines. Important factors are the internal disturbances of pressure within a mine ventilation system due to variable conditions of fan operation and the operation of a winding machine where a mine cage moving in a shaft causes piston like disturbances. Local transient disturbances caused by temporary opening/closing of air stoppings due to personnel or underground transport traffic are of importance. The results of over two years of observations of barometric pressure and its influence on pressure variation in underground mine workings are presented. The observations were possible through the installation of pressure sensors at selected points of the downcast shaft in a mine. Of interest are the observations of the transient states of pressure and other air parameters caused by emergency fan stoppage, movement of a mine cage and changes due to the opening of air stoppings. Data acquired during experiments of opening and closing air stoppings were used for the validation of a flow model in a long working. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Desert towns for Niger's uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An illustrated report gives information on uranium mining carried out since 1968 at Arlil in the Niger Republic, where there are appreciable uranium deposits. The discovery of these and other deposits in the vicinity caused the opening up of a distant part of the Sahara. The problems which arise from the industrial structure for the settlement and development of the country are described. (UA)

  19. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  20. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  1. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task C. Hydro-mechanical response of the Tournemire argillite to the underground openings excavation: unsaturated zones and mine-by-test experiment. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the final results of Task C of the international DECOVALEX-THMC project devoted to Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) in argillaceous rock at the Tounemire site in France. Task C is aimed to develop adequate numerical models for interpretation of observed damaged zones around three openings excavated at different times. The research teams are asked to model the evolution of the EDZ with time and to compare their results with measurements that were performed at the site. The main objective of this work is to investigate the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Tounemire argillite around the three openings (1881 tunnel, 1996 gallery, 2003 gallery) of Tournemire site. The work was divided into three parts: 1. Modelling of the unsaturated zones around the three openings; 2. Modelling of the mine-by-test experiment around the 2003 gallery; 3. EDZ modeling around the three openings. Each research team has performed its own HM numerical calculations based on the principal following considerations: The hydraulic time dependent boundary condition at each opening wall was calculated by the Kelvin equation using the provided humidities and temperatures; The effective stress approach of partially saturated medium was used; The swelling-shrinkage of Tournemire argillite was taken into account; The capillary pressure curve was assumed to be given by the Van Genuchten relation and calibrated from the provided data of the two successful laboratory tests; The influence of thsful laboratory tests; The influence of the degree of saturation on liquid water permeability was modelled using a relative permeability function which is based also on the Van Genuchten model; The intrinsic permeability was calibrated in order to get a better fit with experimental data. To achieve the first objective, the three research teams act as follows: - 2D HM coupled simulations have been undertaken by ISEB-BGR team. Hydraulic and mechanical anisotropies were considered; - 2D HM coupled simulations have been also undertaken by CEA-IRSN team. Only mechanical anisotropy was considered; - 2D H simulations have been undertaken by KU-JAEA team. Anisotropy was not considered. The comparison between the different predicted results with the measured data was based on 1D approach: The three opening were considered as cylindrical excavation with circular cross-section in infinite medium. Only one variable was used to describe the hydric problem (the saturation degree or the liquid water pore pressure). Satisfactory results have been obtained when comparing the three codes predictions. However, codes predictions were incompatible with in situ observations in terms of the thickness of the unsaturated zones. On the other hand, important results have been obtained when considering the sensitivity analysis undertaken by the different teams. In fact, it was shown that the HM coupling process, the mechanical damaged zone as well as the masonry around the 1881 tunnel have no influence on the desaturation process. To achieve the second objective, the three research teams act as follows: - 2D and 3D HM coupled simulations have been undertaken by ISEB-BGR team. Only Mechanical anisotropy was considered. In 2D simulations, the excavation was modeled by a spontaneous change in the boundary condition at the opening, whereas it was simulated by a time dependent deactivation of elements in the 3D model; - 2D HM coupled simulations have been undertaken by CEA-IRSN team. Hydraulic (in terms of the permeability and the Biot's coefficient) and mechanical anisotropies were considered. The excavation process was taken into account by using a deconfinement function approach for the mechanical problem and a spontaneous change in the pore pressure, when the excavation reaches the considered cross-section, for the hydraulics problem; - 2D HM simulations have been undertaken by KU-JAEA team. Only mechanical anisotropy was considered. The excavation process was taken into account similarly to CEA-IRSN team. The comparison between the different predicted results with the measured data hav

  2. Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Rebecca C.; Bayley, Suzanne E.; Schindler, David W.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release betwe...

  3. Mining Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, Vincent; Herzen, Julien; Grossglauser, Matthias; Thiran, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland has a long tradition of direct democracy, which makes it an ideal laboratory for research on real-world politics. Similar to recent open government initiatives launched worldwide, the Swiss government regularly releases datasets related to state affairs and politics. In this paper, we propose an exploratory, data-driven study of the political landscape of Switzerland, in which we use opinions expressed by candidates and citizens on a web platform during the recent Swiss parliament...

  4. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST) y Partículas Respirables (PM 10) producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto / Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10) generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis C, Angulo; José I, Huertas; Gloria M, Restrepo.

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST) y partículas respirables (PM10) producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (dis [...] tribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad) y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios). Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación. Abstract in english This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP) and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10) generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distr [...] ibution, morphology and density) and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants). These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  5. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  6. Study of formation of aluminium billet in casting mold during continuous casting and forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium billet formation and solidified skin thickness distribution along casting mold walls at different levels of liquid metal were investigated. The casting mold consisted of two rotating inclined walls in its upper part and two reciprocating vertical walls. The reduction of skin of casting proceeded in the upper part of mold. Based on the experimental results obtained the influence of metal level in a casting mold on billet formation is determined> The reduction degree needed for continuous process of casting and forging is also defined. The change in skin thickness with billet length under various crystallization conditions is established

  7. Laboratory grey cast iron continuous casting line with electromagnetic forced convection support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the construction of a 20 mm diameter grey cast iron ingots continuous casting laboratory line. This line is made ofthree main units: melting unit (induction furnace, casting unit and the pulling unit. In order to improve the homogeneity of themicrostructure of ingots (by applying forced convection of liquid metal during the crystallization process in this case a crystallizer system generating the forced movement of liquid metal based on a system of electrical power windings of the AC specific frequency. Thissolution allowed to obtain a homogeneous microstructure of the continuous casting of cast iron EN-GJL-200 species.

  8. Low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast

    OpenAIRE

    Che Xin; Wang Di; Chen Lijia

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue failure is one of the main failure forms of Al-Si-Cu-Mg aluminum alloys. To feature their mechanical aspect of fatigue behavior, the low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys at room temperature was investigated. The experimental results show that both permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys mainly exhibit cyclic strain hardening. At the same total strain amplitude, the die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy shows higher cyclic deformation resis...

  9. Casting defects in low-pressure die-cast aluminum alloy wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Cockcroft, S. L.; Maijer, D. M.; Zhu, J. D.; Phillion, A. B.

    2005-11-01

    Defects in automotive aluminum alloy casting continue to challenge metallurgists and production engineers as greater emphasis is placed on product quality and production cost. A range of casting-related defects found in low-pressure die-cast aluminum wheels were examined metallographically in samples taken from several industrial wheel-casting facilities. The defects examined include macro- and micro- porosity, entrained oxide films, and exogenous oxide inclusions. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of these defects with respect to the three main casting-related criteria by which automotive wheel quality are judged: wheel cosmetics, air-tightness, and wheel mechanical performance.

  10. Selection and heat treatments of materials for caterpillar links of brown coal mining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajczyk, A.; Pekalska, L.; Pekalski, G. (Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland))

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the L35GSM alloy cast steel developed and patented in Poland (patent No 50346, 1966). Steel composition is the following: carbon content 0.32-0.40%, manganese content 1.20-1.40%, silicon content 0.60-0.80%, molybdenum content 0.30-0.40%, maximum phosphorus content to 0.030%, maximum sulfur content to 0.030%. Laboratory tests of the alloy cast steel and records of wear and service life of machine parts of bucket wheel excavators used in brown coal surface mines in Poland show that the L35GSM alloy cast steel could replace Hadfield manganese cast steel used for manufacturing caterpillar links. The L35GSM alloy cast steel is less expensive and is characterized by mechanical properties similar to the Hadfield cast steel. The L35GSM steel is characterized by a higher resistance to wear on soft ground than that of the Hadfield cast steel. The L35GSM alloy cast steel is also characterized by better machinability and better welding properties. Its properties are easily controlled by surface hardening or by heat treatments. 19 refs.

  11. Structural examinations of selected copper castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken to examine the copper metallurgy and casting, taking into account both the historical problems of copper fab-rication as well as modern technology. Examinations were carried out on copper from archaeological sites and on copper produced nowa-days as cast parts for the power engineering industry.

  12. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  13. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  14. Structural examinations of selected copper castings

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz, S.; Garbacz-klempka, A.; Kranc, M.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine the copper metallurgy and casting, taking into account both the historical problems of copper fab-rication as well as modern technology. Examinations were carried out on copper from archaeological sites and on copper produced nowa-days as cast parts for the power engineering industry.

  15. Iron/Phosphorus Alloys for Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous casting becomes practicable because of reduced eutectic temperature. Experimental ferrous alloy has melting point about 350 degrees C lower than conventional steels, making possible to cast structural members and eliminating need for hot rolling. Product has normal metal structure and good physical properties. Process used to make rails, beams, slabs, channels, and pipes.

  16. Low-alloy constructional cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bartocha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of constructional casting competitive for welded structure of high-strength steel first of all required high metallurgical quality of cast steel. Assumptions, methodology and results of investigation which the aim was determination of the most advantageous: configuration and parameters of metallurgical treatments and ways to modify, in aspects of reach the low-alloy cast steel of the highest quality as possible, are presented. A series of low-alloy cast steel melts modeled on cast steel L20HGSNM was performed, the way of argoning in laboratory induction furnace with a capacity of 50kg was worked out, modifications with additions of FeNb, FeV and master alloy MgCe were performed. During each melts samples of cast steel direct from metal bath were get and series of experimental casting was made. Chemical compositions of melted cast steel, contents of O, N and H were determined as well as influence of additions on structure and nature of impact strength samples fracture were estimated.

  17. Heat resistant cast aluminium alloys with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the base of structural approach principal possibility of development of cheaper high-iron cast heat resisting aluminium alloys is proved. Perspective Al-Fe-Ce-Zr-Cr and Al-Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr compositions are proposed. The alloys proposed have high heat resistance, mechanical and casting properties

  18. Impeller casting for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a multi-stage pump wherein each stage of the impellor comprises radially inner and outer regions. The inner regions are produced from investment castings whilst the outer regions are produced from sand castings. (author)

  19. Casting of Titanium and its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titaniuni and its alloys have many applications in aerospace, marine and other engineering industries. Titanium requires special melting techniques because of its high reactivity at elevated temperatures and needs special mould materials and methods for castings. This paper reviews the development of titanium casting technology.

  20. Casting Shadows in the Science Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Uses the metaphor of shadows in a critical exploration of what it means to know and how the cultures of classrooms have shaped these images of knowing. Directs attention to objects that cast shadows on the learning and knowing of mathematics and science through the voices of preservice teachers. Discusses shadow casting toward textbooks, teachers,…

  1. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.

  2. Recent developments of InteCAST software and its applications on special castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin ZHOU

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of computer technology, foundry CAE technology has made rapid progress. Commercial software packages of casting process simulation, therefore, have become more and more practical. This paper introduces both the recent developments and some applications of InteCAST software, a commercial numerical simulation software package for foundry industry, with more than 120 customers all over the world. The function modules of InteCAST8.0 and some new techniques, such as uneven mesh technology for mold filling simulation and numerical mouse technology for data visulization, were introduced. Several applications on special castings such as investment casting, low pressure die optimize casting process by forecasting casting defect.

  3. Possible segregation caused by centrifugal titanium casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Kanatani, M; Nakano, S; Miyakawa, O; Kobayashi, M

    1996-12-01

    The possibility of the segregation under solidification process using a centrifugal casting machine was investigated using an electron probe microanalyzer with elemental distribution map, line analysis and quantitative analysis. When a very small quantity of platinum was added to local molten titanium during the casting process, macroscopic segregation was observed under conditions of density difference of 0.1 g/cm3 at the most, confirming that the centrifugal force of the casting machine is extremely strong. When a Ti-6Al-4V alloy was cast, however, no macroscopic segregation was observed. The centrifugal force of the casting machine examined in the present study hardly results in the body-force segregation in this titanium alloy. PMID:9550020

  4. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  5. Ferritic-austenitic cast steel - selected problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The author has been involved in the problems occurring in the manufacture of ferritic-austenitic cast steel castings for many years. The author’s remarks and investigation results reported in this article will enable potential manufacturers to determine their own technical capabilities and structural determinants related to the chemical composition of material, which are crucial to the good quality of a casting. Particular emphasis should be laid on the role of enhanced carbon content, the presence of copper, the precipitates of the ? phase, and the nature of solidification structure in the tendency of duplex-type cast steel to cracking. It seems that in view of the pro-ecological activities undertaken, including flue gas desulphurization in coal-fired power plants, efforts should be made in steel foundries to introduce selected grades of ferritic-austenitic cast steel to production.

  6. The role of water in slip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  7. Cast iron repair method of stitching pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many cast iron parts are welded and suffer from improper pre-heating and poor welding skills which destroy the casting due to new cracks, deformations etc. This is due mainly to the lack of understanding of the properties of cast iron. Welding, however impractical, was the only alternative for many years. Locks are used to add strength across a crack. Special drilling jigs are used to create a precise hole pattern that locks are driven into. Our locks have a unique ability to pull the sides of a crack together. Bottom locks are stacked or laminated to a depth of 80% of the casting thickness. Thicker surface locks finish off lock installation, allowing repairs in irregular shapes and contours. Installing products can be done quickly with pneumatic tools. Up to one inch of repair can be done in 5 minutes in 1/4 inches thick cast iron.

  8. Cast iron repair method of stitching pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many cast iron parts are welded and suffer from improper pre-heating and poor welding skills which destroy the castings due to new cracks, deformations etc. This is due mainly to the lack of understanding of the properties of cast iron. Welding, however impractical, was the only alternative for many years. Locks are used to add strength across a crack. Special drilling jigs are used to create a precise hole pattern that locks are driven into. Our locks have a unique ability to pull the sides of a crack together. Bottom locks are stacked or laminated to a depth of 80% of the casting thickness. Thicker surface locks finish off lock installation, allowing repairs in irregular shapes and contours. Installing products can be done quickly with pneumatic tools. Up to one inch of repair can be done in 5 minutes in 1/4 inch thick cast iron.

  9. A Simple Method for Making Diagnostic Casts for Dental Implants Using Acrylic Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Siadat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple implants in the same jaw requires a detailed knowledge of abutment angulation. The position and angulation of the abutments play an important role in treatment planning and fabrication of the custom tray. Therefore diagnostic casts thatcontain cover screws may cause problems during implant therapy.The current article describes a technique for making a preliminary cast with acrylic custom abutments in order to help the clinician select an appropriate impression technique and evaluate the location and angulations of the implant bodies. This method can also aid the technician to provide adequate and proper space for the fabrication of an open custom tray.

  10. Exploration on feasibility of using in-situ leaching after explosion on the bottom of Huangfengling open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the situation of mining and the faced problems in Huangfengling open pit, it was proposed to use in-situ leaching after explosion to recover uranium in order to overcome the difficulties with open mining of the deposit and high mining cost. The feasibility and necessity of using in-situ leaching after explosion in Huangfengling open pit was explored

  11. Countermeasures for increasing sequence continuous casting; Renchu kinosei taikabutsu zaishitsu, kozo kaizen ni yoru renrenchusu kojosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Masato; Shinagawa, Hiroaki; Kamada, Ryuji; Hiraga, Yutaka; Hara, Takayasu [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    In the second continuous casting line of Kure Iron Works, Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. improvement of the continuous casting counts per tundish was attempted for a target of max. 20. The results are as follows: (1) Non-SiO{sub 2} conversion of material for the long nozzle immersed part: About 20% improvement of durability compared with a conventional material to clear 0.059 mm/min of the targeted erosion speed when 20 CCC/TD is realized, (2) Durability improvement of SN plate: About 20% durability improvement was attained compared with a conventional material by the adoption of a non-SiO{sub 2} material, (3) Erosion resistance improvement of the immersed nozzle slug line part: Castable period was extended to 1 ch life improvement by increasing zirconia content, (4) Rise of stopper full open position: The rise of the full open position produced less variation of melt level than the conventional structure without increase of the SN opening, enabling plugging prevention between the stopper head and the upper nozzle which was an objective of this improvement, (5) Structure improvement of the upper nozzle: This improvement successfully prevented leaks from damage of the casting stop nozzle metal case and enabled casting under low gas flow even in TD nozzle plugging. These improvements gave a possibility to achieve max. 20 CCC/TD. (NEDO)

  12. Background gamma radiation monitoring of three clusters of villages surrounding Mohuldih, Banduhurang and Bagjata villages, the proposed uranium mining areas in Singhbhum, Jharkhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generation of power is a fundamental catalyst to the social and economic development of a country. India needs more power in order to have a strong industrial base and for infrastructure development. With this in view, there has been an emphasis on nuclear power as an alternative source in the field of electricity generation as the nuclear power can be an effective tool in reducing stress on the environment. The Singhbhum district in the state of Jharkhand in India has been known to have deposits of uranium and uranium mines like Jaduguda, Narwapahar, Bhatin etc have been operating in the region. With the increased requirement of electricity and hence suitable fuel, few more sites are proposed to mine uranium in the region. The sites proposed are near the villages of Mohuldih, Banduhurang and Bagjata and are proposed to be open cast mines. These areas of Singhbhum are not economically advanced areas. By and large, the population is poor and there are existing problems like malnutrition and poor health. The activities of mining and the associated developments in the region are expected to improve the economic condition of the residents either through direct employment in the mining facilities, or by indirect gains due to infrastructural developments in the region. In order to assess the impact of the mining operations on the environment and the population as well, it is necessary that the pre-operational survey be carried out in the regions in question. As is the practn the regions in question. As is the practice, a complete pre-operational survey of the physical, chemical and environmental parameters has been carried out in the region. Background gamma radiation survey was also carried out, using the thermo luminescent dosimetry technique, to obtain the preoperational levels prevalent in the regions. This paper gives the results of the baseline background gamma radiation survey in the region. It was observed that the general gamma background levels of the areas, as measured using TLDs, was 1.36 ± 0.41 mGy/a while that as measured using the survey meter was found to be 1.42± 0.39 mGy/a. Considering that all the measurements were carried out in open areas, the agreement indicates that the gamma radiation levels in the region are quite steady. (author)

  13. South African mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper covers six of the many mining and associated developments in South Africa. These are: (1) Deep level gold mining at Western Deep Levels Limited (2) - Palabora Mining Company Limited - SA's unique copper mine - (3) Production of steel and vanadium-rich slag at Highveld Steel and Vanadium Corporation - (4) Coal mining at Kriel and Kleinkopje Collieries - (5) A mass mining system for use below the Gabbro Sill at Premier Diamond Mine - (6) Uranium production - joint metallurgical scheme- Orange Free State Gold Mines. For publication in this journal the original paper has been summarised. Should any reader wish to have the full text in English he should write to the author.

  14. Mining Ostrava '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of the Proceedings contains 55 contributions, out of which 2 deal with environmental impacts of undermining during coal mining, and of shocks and vibrations during underground coal mining. (Z.S.)

  15. Patrones de sucesión vegetal sobre los depósitos de material residual en minas de gravas - Santa Fe de Bogotá Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Goyes Ricardo A.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Con Base en el estudio de la composicion y estructura de las comunidades vegetales y el analisis de las caracteristicas fisicoquimicas de los desechos, se determinaron los patrones iniciales de sucesion primaria, presentes en tres depositos de material residual de 18, 36, 120 meses de abandono, provenientes de la explotacion minera de gravas a cielo abierto al sur de Santafe de Bogota. La composicion, riqueza y diversidad floristica fueron maximas a los 36 meses de abandono del deposito. La dominancia alcanzo los maximos valores en el deposito de 120 meses. Los dos primeros parches de vegetacion presentaron un mejor ajuste al modelo de distribucion especie-abundancia logaritmico, y el tercero a un normal logaritimico. El azar es el patron de distribucion espacial-horizontal que mas abunda entre todas las especies,. seguido por patrones de micro y macroheterogeneidad. Las formas de crecimiento dominantes pasan de hierbas acaulirrosulas y postradas, en la comunidad pionera, a hierbas rastreras y arbustos, en el parche de 120 meses de edad. Las estrategias de historias de vida y las relaciones intraespecificas propuestas por Grime (1989, permitieron determinar que las plantas en la colonizacion de los primeros ambientes, se comportan como ruderales tolerantes a restricciones, y hacia el final del periodo sucesionall, como competidoras tolerantes a restricciones. Los modelos establecidos por Connell y Slatyer (1977 y Noble y Slatyer (1980, y los mecanimos de sucesion vegetal: arribo, establecimiento, facilitacion, tolerancia, inhibicion, extincion y maximo dominio, explican claramente los patrones de sucesion vegetal establecidos a traves de la dinamica de colonizacion y establecimiento de las especies vegetales sobre estos depositos. Cambios a traves del tiempo en la disponibilidad de condiciones y recursos en los sustratos expuestos a la colonizacion vegetal, medidos a partir de la caracterizacion de N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, porcentaje de arcillas, textura, pH, cBased on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  16. MONITORING OF MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebe?i?

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The way mining was monitored in the past depended on knowledge, interest and the existing legal regulations. Documentary evidence about this work can be found in archives, libraries and museums. In particular, there is the rich archival material (papers and books concerning the work of the one-time Imperial and Royal Mining Captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar, Klagenfurt and Split, A minor part of the documentation has not yet been transferred to Croatia.From mining handbooks and books we can also find out about mining in Croatia. In the context of Austro-Hungary. For example, we can find out that the first governorships in Zagreb and Zadar headed the Ban, Count Jelacic and Baron Mamula were also the top mining authorities, though this, probably from political motives, was suppressed in the guides and inventories or the Mining Captaincies. At the end of the 1850s, Croatia produced 92-94% of sea salt, up to 8.5% of sulphur, 19.5% of asphalt and 100% of oil for the Austro-Hungarian empire. From data about mining in the Split Mining Captaincy, prepared for the Philadephia Exhibition, it can be seen that in the exploratory mining operations in which there were 33,372 independent mines declared in 1925 they were looking mainly for bauxite (60,0%, then dark coal (19,0%, asphalts (10.3% and lignites (62%. In 1931, within the area covered by the same captaincy, of 74 declared mines, only 9 were working. There were five coal mines, three bauxite mines and one for asphalt. I suggest that within state institution, the Mining Captaincy or Authority be renewed, or that a Mining and Geological Authority be set ap, which would lead to the more complete affirmation of Croatian mining.

  17. Optimization Based Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Kou, Gang; Peng, Yi; Li, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Optimization techniques have been widely adopted to implement various data mining algorithms. In addition to well-known Support Vector Machines (SVMs) (which are based on quadratic programming), different versions of Multiple Criteria Programming (MCP) have been extensively used in data separations. Since optimization based data mining methods differ from statistics, decision tree induction, and neural networks, their theoretical inspiration has attracted many researchers who are interested in algorithm development of data mining. Optimization based Data Mining: Theory and Applications, mainly

  18. Energy requirements in mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the following items are discussed: 1) A forecast of energy demand by the mining industry to the year 2008. 2) A breakdown by mining sectors and fuel types. 3) The effect on mining operations of fuel availability and fuel cost. 4) The potential for energy conservation. 5) The possible use of discard coal. 6) Potential developments in mining techniques which could affect energy use

  19. [Acute silicosis in jewelry casting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, F; Lievore, F; Zanon, P; Piz, C

    1999-01-01

    An accelerated silicosis case made our Occupational Health Unit focus on a pathology thought dropping so far to die out. Furthermore this event occurred in a manufacturing (lost-wax process in jewelry casting) regarded as a low-risk exposure. Besides unsuitable procedures, the user had underestimated the specific risk of that raw material (talcum-like powder at 60-80% silica crystalline level), commonly called "gypsum", inappropriately labelled since not yet adequately classified by the hazardous substances list. The widespreading of this manufacture in our area (Vicenza district) and the recent inclusion of Silica Crystalline in the Class 1 made by IARC (Jan 1997) have urged this Unit to take action in industrial hygiene investigations, instructions to the workers, mandatory directions to dealers concerning the proper hazard labelling for products containing silica crystalline and circulation of information among other Occupational Health Units involved. PMID:10771739

  20. Porosity inside a metal casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pores and voids often form in metal castings on Earth (above) making them useless. A transparent material that behaves at a large scale in microgravity the way that metals behave at the microscopic scale on Earth, will help show how voids form and learn how to prevent them. Scientists are using the microgravity environment on the International Space Station to study how these bubbles form, move and interact. The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox aboard the International Space Station uses a transparent material called succinonitrile that behaves like a metal to study this problem. Video images sent to the ground allow scientists to watch the behavior of the bubbles as they control the melting and freezing of the material. The bubbles do not float to the top of the material in microgravity, so they can study their interactions.