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1

Spreader equipment for open cast mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In open cast mining in unconsolidated rock, continuous excavation and dumping has asserted itself throughout the world. A milestone of this development was the use of the first overburden conveyor bridge in the Lusatian open cast mine Plessa in 1924. Handling capacities of 36.000 m{sup 3}/h of loose overburden and discharge boom lengths of approx. 200 m were the highlights of the TAKRAF spreading equipment technology in unconsolidated rock. The past decade has shown that spreader equipment technology of medium-size dominated the industry. The described case studies in unconsolidated rock in Yuan Bao Shan in China and Mae Moh and Lampang in Thailand confirm this just as much as further cases in which TAKRAF spreaders are used, for example in Oslomej/Macedonia, which we have not described here. With the application of in-pit crushers, spreaders also found use in hard rock open cast mining; initially used to transport the crushed waste rock. However, with the development of the heap leach technology, they were soon also used for dumping the leached ore residues. The possibility of achieving large dumping depths with short discharge booms, makes the compact spreader the predominant spreader type for hard rock. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Im uebertaegigen Bergbau im Lockergestein hat sich weltweit die kontinuierliche Foerderung und Verkippung durchgesetzt. Ein Meilenstein dieser Entwicklung war 1924 der Einsatz der ersten Abraumfoerderbruecke im Lausitzer Tagebau Plessa. Foerderleistungen von 36.000 m{sup 3}/h geschuettetem Abraum und Abwurfauslegerlaengen von ca. 200 m waren Hoehenpunkte der Absetzergeraetetechnik von TAKRAF im Lockergestein. Das vergangene Jahrzehnt hat gezeigt, dass Absetzergeraetetechnik der mittleren Groessenordnung bestimmend war. Die erlaeuterten Einsatzfaelle im Lockergestein in Yuan Bao Shan in China sowie Mae Moh und Lampang in Thailand bestaetigen das ebenso wie weitere Einsatzfaelle von TAKRAF-Absetzern, wie zum Beispiel Oslomej in Mazedonien, die hier nicht naeher erlaeutert werden konnten. Mit der Anwendung des in-pit-crushing fand der Absetzer auch Eingang in den Festgesteinstagebau, zunaechst fuer den Transport des gebrochenen Abraums, mit der Entwicklung der Heap-Leach-Technologie auch fuer das Verstuerzen des ausgelaugten Erzes. Die Moeglichkeit, mit kurzen Abwurfauslegern grosse Versturztiefen zu realisieren, macht den Kompaktabsetzer zum dominierenden Absetzertyp im Festgestein. (orig./MSK)

Nies, G.; Jurisch, H. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Lauchhammer (Germany)

1999-03-01

2

Exploitation of by-products in open cast mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spoil from open cast mines frequently contains raw materials such as gravel usable for building and construction, quartz for the glass industry, clay and china-clay for the ceramic industry, usable soil to recultivate the spoil dump etc. Efforts are being made to achieve co-operation between the coal industry and other industries. The supply of raw materials to the glass and ceramic industry from the open cast mines is guaranteed until 1990, usable gravel from the spoil of coal mines for the concrete industry is, however, projected to account for no more than 10% of the concrete industry supplies by 1985. Greater efforts in co-ordination are planned in the future between the different industries, because of the advantages in terms of the GDR economy. The exploitation of by- products is hampered by the change in modern technology to larger excavation machinery, the advancing use of conveyor belt systems, the problem of transportation and transitional storage of by-products to the consuming industry and problems of distance between factories and mines.

Schuppan, U.

1978-03-01

3

Land degradation due to open cast mines-a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of open cast mines is increasing day by day in coal production. These open cast mines have direct and visible impacts on land surface. During mining stage, land is damaged and degraded. Excavation of coal and overburden dumping along with other infrastructural development is responsible for this damage and degradation. Impact of land degradation is observed as loss of forest cover, reduction and extinction of wildlife, reduction of agricultural land, destruction of geologic column, soil erosion, hydrological imbalance, socioeconomic problems, etc. in active mining areas. The present paper discusses the extent and impact of land degradation by open cast mining activity in Singrauli coal field. The paper also highlights the extent of land degradation particularly in one of the open cast mining projects of Singrauli coal field. It also suggests certain control measures to minimise the problem. (author)

1998-02-01

4

Teleservice for hydraulic excavators operating in open-cast mines; Teleservice bei Tagebau-Hydraulikbaggern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydraulic excavators in open-cast mines are cost-intensive capital assets, which must be constantly observed during production in order to ensure availability. Teleservice is one way of reducing the service costs. As open-cast mines are generally developed in areas with a poor infrastructure, the excavators can be reliably reached only via satelite. Several network operators with different data transmission rates are suitable according to the required purpose. Satellite communication is expensive compared to the fixed network. New intelligent network topologies (MANET) are currently undergoing the first field tests. (orig.)

Poettker, A. [Terex Germany GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany)

2005-04-01

5

AutoDESPATCH: real-time production monitoring system for open cast mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the AutoDESPATCH is to record production of open-cast mines, track movements of field equipment, monitor performance of equipment and operators, help in increasing the productivity and reduce the cost of operation by optimising the use of equipment and manpower. It has got an excellent reporting module, which can be configured to generate reports on all mining related processes. 3 refs., 6 figs.

Verma, R.K.; Srivastava, P.; Kumar, J.; Singh, R.P.; Gopinath, A. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

2005-07-01

6

Road planning, construction and maintenance in open cast lignite mining; Strassenplanung, Strassenbau und -instandhaltung in Braunkohletagebauen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intra-corporate mass transportation is an important factor regarding the efficiency of open cast mines. The factors influencing the transportation efficiency are discussed, while taking into account safety requirements. (orig.) [German] Der innerbetriebliche Massentransport ist ein wichtiger Faktor bei der Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtung in Tagebauen. Unter Beruecksichtigung der sicherheitlichen Anforderungen werden die die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Transportes beeinflusenden Faktoren diskutiert. (orig.)

Redlich, R. [Zeppelin Baumaschinen GmbH, Straubing (Germany)

2001-07-01

7

Energy turnaround in an open-cast mine; Energiewende im Tagebau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Meuro in the German state of Brandenburg, a vast terrain of a former open-cast mine is currently being converted into a 70 MW solar farm. The power plant will supply electric power to nearly 17,500 households.

Klempert, Oliver

2011-08-31

8

Digital mining plans - a pilot project for brown coal open-cast mines. Digitales Bergmaennisches Risswerk - ein Pilotprojekt fuer Braunkohlentagebaue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mine plans have been drawn up since the early days of brown coal mining in the Rhenish district. Updates have at times been weekly, depending on the terrestrial and aerophotogrammetric data. Since 1976, the data have been exclusively in digital form but they were processed in analog form. In a pilot project lasting half a year, it was shown that the surveying departments of Rheinbraun AG can be rationalized by a digital mine plan based on an efficient CAD system by Intergraph Rationalisierungen. Once the basic graphic data of Bergheim open-cast mine had been established, digital updates of the mine plans were possible. User-friendly commands and masks were developed. The efficiency of the linking of graphical and factual data was tested in a real database. The mine plan is not only a useful catographic system; it may also serve as a basis for a regional soil information system. (orig.).

Duddek, H.; Klemmer, W.

1991-02-01

9

Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

1998-02-01

10

Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In laboratory experiments, we tested reactive materials that may speed up the process of bacterial sulfate reduction. In in-situ experiments, we quantified nitrification rates. Based on the results, we are able to suggest promising technical measures that enhance natural attenuation processes at mine dump site and in mining lakes. The natural water cycle in lignite mining landscapes is heavily impacted by human activities. Basically, nature is capable of cleaning itself to a certain extent after mining activities stopped. However, it is our responsibility to support biogeochemical processes to make them more efficient and more sustainable. Isotopic monitoring proved to be an excellent tool for assessing the relevance and performance of different re-cultivation measures for a positive long-term development of the water quality in large-scale aquatic systems affected by the impact of lignite mining.

Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

2014-05-01

11

Approach to minimize the haul road dust in open-cast coal-mining sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The frequent movement of heavy vehicles in open-cast mechanized coal mining disperses a huge amount of dust, which pollutes the working places and the neighboring areas and reduces visibility. Besides creating a nuisance, the dust carries pneumoconioses diseases to the exposed population. It is necessary to consolidate dust on the haul road, which requires a more effective wetting agent than water. The authors describe the effect of a chemical solution containing two percent of the chemical in five percent wetting agent combined with water. Cost analyses suggest that this will be more economical because rewetting can be extended to once in 24 hours. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Adhikari, J.P.; Tewarey, B.K.; Mukherjee, R.N.

1985-06-01

12

Environmental compatibility investigation of the Garzweiler II open cast mine project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on an EEC directive, the law on the investigation of ecological compatibility came into force in 1990. With the application of these European directives in national law, investigations to determine the ecological compatibility must now be carried out for projects to exploit brown coal. In this connection and in conjunction with the licensing procedure for Garzweiler II, Rheinbraun in 1992 for the first time compiled data on the investigations carried out to determine the ecological compatibility of an open cast mine. The data on these investigations include information on the necessity of the open cast mine and on alternative projects that have been examined, as well as a description of the project in question as regards its nature and extent. As far as the legally specified protected objects are concerned, i.e. people, water, air, nature (animals and plants, soil, climate and landscape) as well as cultural and other material objects, itemized data are furnished on the development and effects of the project and on countermeasures and the planned traffic and transport concept. (orig.)

1994-02-01

13

THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL, PETROGRAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE SLOPE STABILITY IN THE OPEN CAST MINE OF GRADNA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining techn...

1992-01-01

14

Calorific value and amounts of oil shale delivered to power plants from mines and open casts in 1968-1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper provides the information about the fuel supply of Estonian oil shale fired power plants over the years 1968-1997. The data about the amounts and calorific value (as determined in the calorific bomb) of oil shale delivered to Estonian power plants by mines and open-casts are presented. (author)

2000-01-01

15

Determination of heat production zones at open-cast mine dump  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical processes and their thermal effects taking place inside a dump of an open-cast mine (Cospuden) during a reclamation process were investigated. Fiber-optic-distributed-temperature sensing (DTS) was applied together with a soil ground water monitoring system (SGM-System). An optical fiber was mounted at the entire length of a double-pipe SGM-System. The temperature was measured monthly, along the depth of 50 m, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m. The system was utilized for the localization of heat production zones in the subsurface, for the determination of the temperature variation's penetration depth from the surface into the soil of the dump and for the determination of the influence of the SGM-System on the subsurface temperature balance. The results were compared with a heat transport model and then interpreted

1998-07-01

16

Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

2011-01-01

17

New construction of the motorway A44 on a fresh open-cast mining dump; Neubau der A 44 auf einer frischen Tagebaukippe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the extensive mass movement, the open-cast mining Garzweiler migrates continuously from east to west. Beginning in 2006, the area of the original route of the A44 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Holz was integrated in the open-cast mining. The section between these two autobahn junctions was closed to the traffic. The flows of traffic were redirected onto the A61 autobahn. In 2017 the open-cast mining Garzweiler will approach the eastern side of the A61 autobahn. A further movement of this open-cast mining to the west in 2017 will make the section of the A61 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Wanlo unusable. The A44 autobahn will need to be expanded to six lanes. This is associated with the new construction or the reconstruction of the autobahn junctions Jackerath and Holz. Within the autobahn junction Jackerath the new A44 autobahn crosses the route of the autobahn A61 nearly perpendicular and goes ahead to a 7 km long left turn in the current working area of the open-cast mining Garzweiler. From this perspective, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the construction of the A44 autobahn on a fresh open-cast mining dump.

Vogt, N.; Heyer, D.; Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik; Dahmen, D.; Karcher, C.; Vinzelberg, G. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Gebirgs- und Bodenmechanik

2012-11-01

18

A unified relocatable SVC for open-cast lignite mining in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design and implementation of a unified, relocatable static var compensator (SVC) meeting the reactive power compensation needs of various coal enterprises of Turkey for open-cast lignite mining are presented. Design and sizing of SVCs are based on mains data for all possible connection points, load bus data recorded in the field, monthly electric bills, and simulations carried out on PSCAD/EMTDC, SPICE, and MATLAB. In addition to standard ac/dc converter and motor tools used in the modeling of electric excavators, actual load characteristics obtained from data collected in the field by means of a data acquisition system have been processed in PSCAD/EMTDC to find out reactive power demand of each load bus, and to optimize sizing of the SVC within the power-factor penalty limits imposed by electricity authorities. The SVC component ratings have been based upon the suitability to all possible loads under worst operating conditions, thus making sure that they can be operated for different loading conditions, minimizing stock requirements, and inspection and maintenance costs. The implemented systems are flexible and extendable in order to meet the future needs of coal enterprises.

Mutlur, B.; Cadirci, I.; Ermis, M.; Cetin, A.; Ozay, N.; Gultekin, B.; Kose, N.; Ermis, C.; Terciyanli, A.; Unver, O.; Unal, V. [Science & Technology Research Council of Turkey, Ankara (Turkey)

2004-04-19

19

Numerical simulation of pyrite oxidation in a lignite open cast mine; Abschaetzung der Pyritoxidation in einem Braunkohletagebau mithilfe numerischer Modellrechnungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lignite mining leads to the oxidation of pyrite minerals in the sediments of the overburden dumps. The resulting acid mine drainage problem can lead to high concentration of heavy metals in percolating soil water and in groundwater. To estimate the degree of pyrite oxidation in the untreated overburden dump many field observations, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations were conducted at the Chair of Applied Geology (Ruhr University of Bochum). To calculate the amount of oxidised pyrite at the winning and dumping side of an open cast mine, the numerical model gw-chem.f was used. The amount of oxidised pyrite is to be known to estimate the amount of alkaline substances like crushed limestone, which is necessary to neutralise the sulphuric acid produced by the pyrite oxidation. The aim is to improve groundwater quality after mine closure and filling of the overburden dump with groundwater. (orig.)

Wisotzky, F. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie; Zimmer, U.; Obermann, P.

2005-06-15

20

Exposure of miners' to ore dust and its long-lived ?-emitters in Banduhurang open cast uranium mine, Jharkhand, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of airborne respirable particulate and its long-lived a -emitters (LLa) of the natural uranium decay series in a highly mechanised open cast uranium mine at Banduhurang is carried out for quantifying the hazard potentials associated with it. Respirable dust in the mine assumes geometric mean (cg) of 0.71 mg m-3 (AM =0.78 mg m-3) and geometric standard deviation (Sg) of 1.5 (A.S.D.=0.30) whereas those for the LLa are 15.97mBq m-3(A.M. =19.67 mBq m-3) and 1.97 (A.S.D.= 12.52) respectively. The specific activity of LLa of respirable dust assumes cg of 22.5 Bq g-1 which is ?1.9 times higher compared to theoretically computed value for this low ore grade (0.026 U3O8 %) mine. However, the internal radiation exposures attributable to airborne LLa in this mine would constitute merely a small fraction (<1.5%) of annual effective dose limit for mine workers. (author)

2008-11-19

 
 
 
 
21

THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL, PETROGRAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE SLOPE STABILITY IN THE OPEN CAST MINE OF GRADNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining technology was observed in the area. The local control of hydrogeologic properties, as well as climatic fluctuations of temperature and precipitation on the slope stability, was also recognized. It turned out that the structural relationships, characteristic of the manifold cataclased dolomite, stimulated the development of local instabilities, particularly during the period of low temperatures affecting the process of ground-water accumulation. When the temperatures are worm, the ground-water circulation is slow, exerting only the small-scale influence on the local instabilities.

Ivan Tomaši?

1992-12-01

22

Low cost mini coal beneficiation: screening of sand and fines from open cast coal mine coal - a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal supplied to thermal power stations comprises extraneous material like stone, shales, sand, fines, overburden, etc. which get mixed in the process of mining. It is generally known that to eliminate them completely is not possible. Although many thermal power stations have been successful in screening out large size stones and shales from raw coal in the past, there still remains one of the major constituents of coal, i.e., sand or fines and overburden carried over from mines to power stations. The presence of sand in the coal is found highly detrimental, specifically to the 210 MW boilers with high flue-gas velocities and also to the coal mills. An attempt was made at one of the thermal power stations for screening out sand from raw coal received, particularly from Mazri and Ballarpur open-cast mines in India with high content of sand, and it proved successful. The report of a case study incorporated in this paper gives details of screening sand and fines from coal. The benefits achieved are many and the modifications are made with less resources. 2 tabs.

Dalal, G.G. [Maharashtra State Electricity Board, Mumbai (India). Environmental Unit

1997-05-01

23

Giving back the land - a look at open-cast mining. [South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining industry, particularly the gold mining industry, has, since 1886, dominated the economic life of South Africa. Revenues from mining have provided the impetus which led to the development of this country from subsistence agriculture to one of industrial power. Coal is South Africa's second largest foreign exchange earner after gold, but opencast mining necessitates the alienation of agricultural land, albeit temporarily. The coal industry is improving the speed, and standards, of land reclamation.

Thompson, G.C.

1983-01-01

24

Evaluation of genetic damage in open-cast coal mine workers using the buccal micronucleus cytome assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal is the largest fossil fuel source used for the generation of energy. However, coal extraction and its use constitute important pollution factors; thus, risk characterization and estimation are extremely important for the safety of coal workers and the environment. Candiota is located to the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and has the largest coal reserves in Brazil, and the largest thermal power complex in the state. In the open-cast mines, the coal miners are constantly exposed to coal dust. The human buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay has been used widely to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death, and basal cell frequency in buccal cells. The aim of this study was to assess whether prolonged exposure to coal dust could lead to an increase in genomic instability, cell death, and frequency of basal cells using the BMCyt assay. In the analysis of epithelial cells, the exposed group (n = 41) presented with a significantly higher frequency of basal cells, micronuclei in basal and differentiated cells, and binucleated cells compared to the non-exposed group (n = 29). The exposed group showed a significantly lower frequency of condensed chromatin cells than the non-exposed group. However, we found no correlation between DNA damage and metal concentration in the blood of mine workers. DNA damage observed in the mine workers may be a consequence of oxidative damage resulting from exposure to coal residue mixtures. In addition, our findings confirm that the BMCyt assay can be used to identify occupational risk. PMID:23055270

Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda R; Sarmento, Merielen; Porto, Carem; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dos Santos, Carla E I; Dias, Johnny F; Kvitko, Kátia

2013-01-01

25

Ecological restoration and land reclamation in open-cast mines in Shanxi Province, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining industry in China produces a large amount of derelict land, and causes pollution of water and soil erosion as well as other environmental damage. As land is under short supply in China, exacerbated by the rapidly expanding population, it now the policy to restore or reclaim land degraded by mining. The aim is to develop sustainable and healthy arable-land ecosystems. This paper outlines the principles and approaches to ecological restoration, which have been adopted in Shanxi Province with reference to three typical surface mines.

Miao, Z.; Marrs, R. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Ecoenvironmental Science Research Centre, Dept. of Systems Ecology

2000-07-01

26

Assessment of DNA damage in coal open-cast mining workers using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test and the comet assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal mining is one of the most important causes of environmental pollution, as large quantities of coal dust particles are emitted. Colombia-South America has large natural coal reserves and "El Cerrejón" is the world's largest open-cast mine located in the northern department of Guajira. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genotoxic effects in a population exposed to coal residues from the open-cast mine "El Cerrejón". 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. The exposed group was divided according to different mining area activities: (i). Transport of extracted coal, (ii). Equipment field maintenance, (iii). Coal stripping and, (iv). Coal embarking. Blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers of genotoxicity, specifically, primary DNA damage as damage index (DI), tail length and% of tail DNA using the Comet assay (alkaline version) and chromosome damage as micronucleus (MN) frequency in lymphocytes. Both biomarkers showed statistically significantly higher values in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed control group. No difference was observed between the exposed groups executing different mining activities. These results indicate that exposure to coal mining residues may result in an increased genotoxic exposure in coal mining workers. We did not find a correlation between age, alcohol consumption and service time with the biomarkers of genotoxicity. Our results are the first data of genotoxic effects induced by coal mining exposure in Colombia, and thus, contribute to the exploration of test batteries use for monitoring of exposed populations and may stimulate designing control, hygiene and prevention strategies for occupational health risk assessment in developing countries. PMID:21215992

León-Mejía, Grethel; Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; Da Silva, Juliana; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Quintana, Milton

2011-01-15

27

Construction of the new material distribution point in the open-cast mining. Inden from a geotechnical point of view; Bau des neuen Bandsammelpunktes im Tagebau. Inden aus geotechnischer Sicht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rhenish lignite mining area with the three open-cast minings Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden is located between the three cities Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach. Here, up to 100 million tons of brown coal is produced annually. The stocks of lignite amount to 3.24 billion tons. 20-25 million tons of lignite is produced annually in the open-cast mining Inden. In order to explore the further activities of the open-cast mine Inden with respect to the coal mining, the material distribution point had to be moved to a site in the north of the location Lamersdorf. The commissioning of the material distribution point took place in June 2008.

Weuffel, Michael; Wilden, Ulrich [RWE Power AG, Abteilung PCS-GE, Bergheim (Germany); Nendza, Matthias [Geotechnisches Buero Prof. Dr.-Ing. H. Duellmann, Aachen (Germany)

2013-05-15

28

Casting materials in manufacturing pumps for mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of casting is discussed at the POWEN Mining Equipment Plant in Zabrze. Types of mining equipment manufactured by the Plant, types of iron and steels and casting house development are evaluated. Types of casting metals used for manufacturing elements of pumps for underground coal mines are analyzed. The following metal types are comparatively evaluated: copper cast iron (ZlCu1,6), spheroidal copper cast iron (ZsCu1,0), 4 types of alloy cast steel (LH18S2, L21OH21, LH14N, LH18N9). Chemical composition, physical properties and mechanical properties of the casting alloys are analyzed. Methods for heat treatments and machining are discussed. Effects of alloy type on friction and wear are investigated. Two types of bronze also used for manufacturing pumps are comparatively evaluated: tin bronze, also containing zinc and lead, and silicon-manganese-zinc bronze. 4 refs.

Borek, K.; Gorniok, J.

1986-11-01

29

In situ preservation and paleoenvironmental assessment of Taxodiacea fossil trees in the Buekkalja Lignite Formation, Buekkabrany open cast mine, Hungary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In summer 2007 sixteen Taxodium tree trunks were found in situ standing position in the Buekkabrany open cast mine. The fossil trees were exposed during the excavation of the overburden layers of the Buekkalja Lignite Formation (BL). The Buekkabrany discovery is a global novum because the trees are very well preserved but not fossilized that makes the most detailed and direct analysis feasible. In spite of the 7-8 million years passed, the actual site and the host formation is rather intact, lacking tectonic deformations, deeper burial and/or dewatering during uplift. Organic petrology of tree trunks and sedimentology of the overburden sands are the subjects of this study. The extremely good preservation of fossil trunk tissues, presence of high amount of cellulose and moisture content along with the slightly gelified state of the wood and the lack of deformation indicate that there was only limited alteration during the early diagenesis. Chemical investigation of standing trunks fossil driftwood nearby the Late Miocene trees, and the fossil woods in the underlying lignite have revealed that their cellulose and total phenol concentrations were significantly lower than in intact recent trees, applied for reference. Yet their preservation levels were quite high, also proving that the chemical degradation of the fossil wood tissues had not been taken place extensively in the mire and the trees remained exceptionally well preserved. Sudden burial of the trees by strand plain sand beds indicates flooding by heavy storms or tsunamis, which interrupted and terminated the peat formation and preserved the trunks from later oxidation and biodegradation. (author)

Hamor-Vido, Maria [Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Kolumbusz st. 17-23 Budapest, H-1145 (Hungary); Hofmann, Tamas; Albert, Levente [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Forestry, University of West Hungary, Ady Endre st. 5 Sopron, H-9400 (Hungary)

2010-04-01

30

Development of raw brown coal qualities under the specific conditions of GDR open-cast mines and the fluctuations in quality to be expected for boiler coals used in power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With increasingly complex deposits being worked, higher ash contents are to be expected. To prevent excessive ash contents, measures must be taken such as: selection of suitable mining and conveying equipment; enhanced post-exploration to determine the local seam structure; computer-aided short-term planning and control of coal transport and storage system; quality control of the unwashed coal leaving the open-cast mine. In spite of the higher organizational and planning expenditure in open-cast mining, excessive ash contents of the boiler coal cannot always be avoided. In consequence, stockpiles and coal bunkers should be designed so as to ensure uniform coal quality.

Ciesielski, R.; Hille, R.; Richter, S.

1981-09-01

31

Observation and auscultation of the geotechnical behaviour of a slope in an open cast mine influenced by old underground mining (South-western part of France)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The final slopes of a French open pit mine of the "Charbonnage de France" Company which final depth will be 300 metres, have been designed after a Standard geotechnical survey. This one has taken into account the geomechanical, hydrogeological, structural parameters äs well äs the" decohesion", induced by former mining subsidence. However some slopes can locally present risks of slipping (increasing with the depth of the pit) induced by old Underground mining. A methodology has been defined...

Soukatchoff, Ve?ronique; Hadadou, Rafik; Driancourt, Didier; Paquette, Yves

1993-01-01

32

Assessment of radioactivity associated with a low ore grade open cast mine at Banduhurang, Jharkhand, India and estimation of occupational exposure to the miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative behavior of 222Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha (LL?) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in 2006-2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (?g) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m-3 with respective geometric standard deviations (?g) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m-3 and ?g of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 ?Gy h-1 with respective ?g were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 ?Gy h-1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively. The ?g of LL? activity was observed to be 16 mBq m-3 with ?g of 1.9 mBq m-3. The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to 1.41 mSv y-1, which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y-1. (author)

2010-07-01

33

Impact of erosion-transported overburden dump materials on water quality in Lake Cospuden evolved from a former open cast lignite mine south of Leipzig, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acidification is the most common water quality problem in lakes created from previous open cast lignite mines. Aeration of aquifers and dump materials from mining activities causes pyrite oxidation. Pyrite oxidation products are stored in pore water, minerals and at the exchange complexes of the aquifers and dump sediments. Rainfall runoff transports sediments on the dump slope into the lakes. Elutriation of these sediments within the lakes releases either acid-producing or acid-neutralizing agents. At a test site south of Leipzig, the annual erosion rates were quantified by water erosion models (RUSLE, EROSION 2D, PEPP) and field measurements. They ranged from 300 up to 900 tons per hectare. Hydrogen ion equivalent release or binding at the sediment elutriation was computed from laboratory analysis of the pore-water quality, ion exchange complex and mineral composition of the sediment. Two of the three investigated sediments contained 3 mmol (eq) acidity per 100 g dry sediment and revealed saturation with respect to jarosite, jurbanite and gypsum. In the third sediment, 6 mmol (eq) alkalinity per 100 g dry sediment was obtained. The annual net acidity influx was calculated to be about 0.5 million mol (eq) for the lake of the test site. (orig.)

Abel, A.; Michael, A. [Dresdner Grundwasserforschungszentrum e.V., Dresden (Germany); Zartl, A. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Geowissenschaften, Geotechnik und Bergbau; Werner, F. [Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Hydraulics and Rural Water Management

2000-04-01

34

Chair in open-cast and international mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University; Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The range of activities of the Chair in Open-cast and International Mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University currently comprises the field of teaching and further scientific training, research and development as well as transfer of knowledge and technology. In addition to these legally sanctioned activities PR work concerning the necessity for the mining of mineral raw materials and the associated training of mining engineers plays a central role. In accordance with the fundamental idea that a prerequisite for good training in the field of engineering science is a close link between university and industry the contents of the courses are always adapted to the state of the art in the mining industry and the main areas of research based on practical requirements. In accordance with this process current aspects of the safeguarding of raw materials, sustenance and management of knowledge in the mining industry are integrated in these courses. The current research work is interdisciplinary and deals with quality management, deposit protection, recultivation and rehabilitation as well as reduction of emissions. (orig.) [German] Das Aufgabenspektrum des Lehrstuhls fuer Tagebau und Internationalen Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal umfasst die Gebiete Lehre und wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung, Forschung und Entwicklung sowie Wissens- und Technologietransfer. Ueber diese gesetzlich verankerten Aufgaben hinaus nimmt die PR-Arbeit ueber die Notwendigkeit bergmaennischer Gewinnung mineralischer Rohstoffe und der damit einhergehenden Ausbildung von Bergbauingenieuren eine zentrale Stellung ein. Dem Leitgedanken folgend, dass eine gute Ausbildung im ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Bereich eine enge Verbindung zwischen Hochschule und Industrie voraussetzt, werden die Lehrinhalte stets dem Stand der Technik im Bergbau angepasst und die Forschungsschwerpunkte praxisbezogen abgeleitet. Diesem Prozess folgend wurden aktuell Aspekte der Rohstoffsicherung, Nachhaltigkeit und Wissensmanagement im Bergbau in die Lehre integriert. Die derzeitigen Forschungsarbeiten sind interdisziplinaer angelegt und befassen sich mit Qualitaetsmanagement, Lagerstaettenschutz, Rekultivierung und Sanierung sowie Reduzierung von Emissionen. (orig.)

Tudeshki, H.; Hardebusch, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau, TU Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2002-12-05

35

Assessment of heavy metal content and DNA damage in Hypsiboas faber (anuran amphibian) in coal open-casting mine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the study were to determine the heavy metal content in the tissues of Hypsiboas faber from a coal mining area and to compare the DNA damage in the blood cells of these animals with that of animals living in an unpolluted area. The heavy metal content was detected according to the technique of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and the DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay. Our results reveal that the specimens of H. faber collected from the coal mining area exhibited elements of order Fe>Cu>Al>Zn>Rb>Mn>Br, independently of the organ. The values of Comet assay parameters (DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency) were significantly higher in specimens collected from the coal mining area than in the reference animals. Our study concludes that the coal mining residues are genotoxic to amphibians and may have adverse effects on soil, water, vegetation and wild animals. PMID:23619523

Zocche, Jairo José; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Hainzenreder, Giana; Mendonça, Rodrigo Ávila; Peres, Poliana Bernardo; Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de

2013-07-01

36

Selection of diagnosis objects and diagnostic strategies for machine diagnosis in open-cast lignite mining; Auswahl von Diagnoseobjekten und -strategien fuer die Maschinendiagnose im Braunkohlentagebau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The condition-oriented anticipated maintenance on the basis of a modern machine diagnosis is discussed with increasing frequency in technical journals, leaflets and at conferences as a reliable possibility of reducing the costs of maintenance, increasing the availability of plants and minimising down times. This is a general statement, which should not induce companies to make large investments in this technology without a cost/benefit analysis for their own plants. With the aid of some examples from open-cast mining technology the technical possibilities, the benefit of machine diagnosis, a critical selection of the plants to be monitored and monitoring strategies are described. Special emphasis is placed on the aspect that not all modern technological possibilities should be applied without criticism and on a wide scale, but machine diagnosis carried out with special consideration of the benefits for management, operating experience, realisability in practice and the boundary conditions, which change increasingly quickly. (orig.) [German] Die zustandsorientierte vorausschauende Instandhaltung auf der Basis einer modernen Maschinendiagnose wird in Fachzeitschriften, Fachprospekten und auf Fachtagungen immer haeufiger angesprochen als sichere Moeglichkeit, die Kosten fuer die Instandhaltung zu reduzieren, die Verfuegbarkeit von Anlagen zu steigern und die Ausfallzeiten zu minimieren. Hierbei handelt es sich um eine pauschale Aussage, die nicht dazu verleiten sollte, ohne eine Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse fuer die eigenen Anlagen grosse Investitionen in diese Technik zu taetigen. Anhand einiger Beispiele aus dem Bereich der Tagebauanlagentechnik wird ueber die technischen Moeglichkeiten, den Nutzen der Maschinendiagnose, ueber eine kritische Auswahl der zu ueberwachenden Anlagen und Ueberwachungsstrategien berichtet. Besonders betont wird dabei der Aspekt, nicht alle modernen technologischen Moeglichkeiten kritiklos und flaechendeckend anzuwenden, sondern Maschinendiagnose unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des betriebswirtschaftlichen Nutzens, der betrieblichen Erfahrung, der betrieblichen Umsetzbarkeit und der sich immer schneller und kurzfristiger aendernden Rahmen- und Randbedingungen zu betreiben. (orig.)

Heuvel, B. van den [Rheinbraun AG, Frechen (Germany). Hauptwerkstatt Grefrath

2000-08-10

37

Overburden conveyor system at the Yallourn open-cast mine of the State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV), Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ever increasing demands for energy from the brown coal resources of the Latrobe Valley will necessitate increased production from Yallourn Open Cut. To meet this an overburden conveyor system of 7.5 M m/sup 3/ (solid) nominal annual capacity has been installed. Conveyor plant features suited to Latrobe Valley conditions are described.

Mitchell, D.H. (State Electricity Commission of Victoria, Melbourne (Australia))

1978-06-01

38

Open pit mining of uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Jackpile--Paquate Mines of the Anaconda Company are on the Laguna Indian Reservation midway between Grants and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The open pit mining of uranium ore at those mines is conducted in three separate operations (stripping, mining, and ore haul)

1977-10-01

39

Problems of environmental geotechniques in the utilisation and flooding of Berzdorf open cast mine, Upper Lusitania; Umweltgeotechnische Problemstellung bei der Nutzung und Flutung des Braunkohletagebaues Berzdorf/Oberlausitz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lignite mining and processing are characteristic industries and landscaping factors in the Lusitanian region. Land reclamation measures have been going on for several decades, with good results. This is a very complex task which makes great demands on all parties concerned. Mining geotechnics has an important part here if a harmonious landscape is to be achieved. The complexity of the task is illustrated by the Berzdorf mining lake south of Goerlitz, directly on the Polish border. (orig.)

Griessl, D.; Tynior, R. [G.U.B. Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH Zwickau (Germany); Lucke, B. [LMBV GmbH, Hoyerswerda (Germany)

2005-07-01

40

Laboratory studies on the grindability of coal from the Kolubara, Pljevlja and Suvodol open-cast mines for selecting grinding plants for the 'Nikola Tesla' 305 MW, Pljevlja 200 MW, and Suvodol 200 MW thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of some important factors on the grindability of coal was investigated. These factors are 1) mineral content, 2) influence of origin and properties resp. of the petrographic composition, 3) influence of the characteristic features of open-cast mines, and 4) influence of the water content. The findings of these investigations influence the selection and operation of grinding plants when installing new thermal power plant units.

Novakovic, L.

1977-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Modern mining technologies used in lignite open-pit mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A world wide analysis is given of existing directions in the field of the open pit mining of lignite fields. A number of engineering achievements relating to production technology are discussed. Recommendations are given on the technology of lignite mining in the open pit mines of Romania.

Fodor, D.; Rotunjanu, I.

1979-01-01

42

Role of Glutathione S Transferase Polymorphism in COPD with Special Reference to Peoples Living in the Vicinity of the Open Cast Coal Mine of Assam  

Science.gov (United States)

Background COPD may develop due to variation in the functioning of antioxidants along with smoking and environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Since there are different views about the antioxidants responsible for detoxifying xenobiotic compound in the human body whose functional variation may lead to obstructive disease, this associative study has been taken up between GST gene polymorphism and COPD in populations exposed to coal dusts. Methods Genotypes of the 70 COPD patients and 85 non COPD patients were determined by PCR based methods followed by multiplex PCR of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes taking albumin gene as a control. Suspended particulate analyses were determined through the Respirable Dust sampler along with the FTIR analysis of the dust samples from the glass microfiber filters. Results Dust sampling analysis reveals higher level of respirable suspended particulate matter, non respirable particulate matter, SO2 and NO2 present in air of the study site. FTIR analysis also suggests a higher concentration of organic silicone and aliphatic C-F compounds present in air of the study site and when spirometry was done, low lung function was observed among most of the subjects. GSTM1 null type was significantly associated with low lung function in smoker groups and the presence of at least one active allele (either GSTM1/GSTT1) seemed to have a protective role in the development of COPD. Conclusions GSTM1 (null genotype) appeared to be a risk factor for lower lung function in smokers living in the vicinity of coal mines. Apart from polluted environment and genetic susceptibility, mixed coal dust exposure rich in organic silicone and aliphatic C-F compounds also appears to be a factor for the low lung function.

Dey, Tapan; Gogoi, Kabita; Unni, Bala Gopalan; Kalita, Munmi; Bharadwaz, Moonmee; Bhattacharjee, Minakshi; Boruah, Pranab Kumar; Bora, Thaneswar; Ozah, Dibyajyoti; Kalita, Manoj

2014-01-01

43

Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

Lucai WANG

2005-02-01

44

Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

2005-11-16

45

Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

Hadj-Hassen, F. [Ecole des Mines de Paris - CGES, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Bienvenu, Y. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CM, 91 - Evry (France); Noirel, J.F. [Charbonnages de France, DTN, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France); Metz, M. [charbonnages de France, ESA, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France)

2005-07-01

46

Remnant mining at Liddell Open Cut  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining of remnant coal reserves at the Liddell Open Cut is subject to a number of risks. These risks are of both a technical and financial nature. Liddell Open Cut is principally a conventional truck and shovel/loader operation, supplemented by a highwall coal auguring operation. There are significant areas of divergence from more conventional operations including working in close proximity to a major dam, working up dip from an operating underground mine, and working through areas where there has previously been underground extraction. In addition the site has major long-term rehabilitation requirements. This paper, rather than concentrating on specific detail of areas of risk, presents the spectrum of geological, design, operational and post-mining risks that accrue to the various area of activity in this open cut operation. The balance of this paper then provides an outline of the strategies employed by Liddell Coal to manage their potential impact. 5 figs.

Pankhurst, I.A. [Liddell Coal, Singleton, NSW (Australia)

1994-12-31

47

Treatment of old disused mine openings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to French regulations, the main objectives for the treatment of old abandoned mines consist of preventing collapses and dangerous subsidence, controlling mine gas emissions and closing old abandoned mine openings. In the Herault coal basin, there are more than 600 adits but a lot of them have not yet been precisely located. Charbonnages de France and INERIS have analyzed all risks generated by these old openings and have established a methodology able to determine the closure procedure which can guarantee the safety of the opening. This methodology can be adapted to an adit (size, state of) and to the physical characteristics of the site (gas, water, location etc.). In order to limit the number of configurations, two of the above factors have been retained: the state and the location of the gallery. After analyzing all the possible configurations, closure principles have been determined for each of them. The treatment of an adit in the Saint-Joseph mine is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Didier, C.; Wojkowjak, F.; Salmon, R.; Barriere, J.P.; Gaget, P. [INERIS, Verneul-en-Halatte (France)

1998-12-01

48

Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

49

Improved process for casting supporting anchors in mining and engineering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of grouting supporting anchors in mining and engineering is described. It consists of an unsaturated polyester resin, a catalyst, an inhibitor and fillers with a certain composition. As a special feature, soot with a proportion of between 0.5 and 5%, preferably 2.15% by weight of the resin is added to the grout. The soot should have a special surface of 30 m/sup 2//g according to BET and a mean particle diameter of 51 nm. This gives a good compromise between viscosity and reactivity (binding time).

Benichou, A.; Perraud, R.

1979-11-21

50

Official opening of new mine in Northern Saskatchewan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cluff Mining's uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan was officially opened 1981 April 2. General information is provided, with emphasis on worker safety and environmental protection. (N.D.H.)

1981-01-01

51

Strategies for monitoring and predicting spoil characteristics in the abandoned open-cast lignite mines of the LAUBAG; Strategien zu Monitoring und Prognose der Kippenwasserbeschaffenheit in den Braunkohlentagebauen der LAUBAG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acidification of mining lakes has been an issue since 1990/'91 when many brown coal mines in the Lausitz district were shut down. The LAUBAG was required by law to work on the improvement of water quality. Land recultivation and brown coal mining are closely linked in the Lausitz. There are contracts between LMBV and LAUBAG to assure that water quality gets fulll-scale attention by all parties concerned. [German] Obwohl seit mehreren Jahrzehnten im Bergbau bekannt, erlangte erst mit dem drastischen Wegbrechen der ehemals ueberdimensionierten Braunkohlenfoerderung ab ca. 1990/91 das Problem der Kippenwasserversauerung die ihm zustehende Bedeutung. Der LAUBAG wurden durch die zustaendigen Berg- und Wasserbehoerden umfangreiche Nebenbestimmungen zur Kippenwasserguete im Rahmen der Zulassung von Betriebsplaenen und Wasserrechtlichen Erlaubnissen aufgegeben. Eine Besonderheit in der Lausitz besteht in der engen raeumlichen Naehe und wasserwirtschaftlichen Verflechtung von Sanierungsbergbau und Langfristbergbau. Klare vertragliche Regelungen zwischen LMBV und LAUBAG sichern eine unternehmensuebergreifende Bearbeitung auch des Themas Kippenwasserguete. (orig.)

Arnold, I.; Mietzsch, M.

2000-07-01

52

Improving bulldozer operations in open pit mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bulldozers are widely used at open pit mines in the USSR and abroad. Experience shows that the basic trends for increasing the effectiveness of bulldozer operations is a change in the design of the operational equipment, the basic tractor, the control system and the selection of a rational technology. Recommendations are cited for using a tractive operational mode of the base tractor for ensuring a constant productivity of a tractor and bulldozer unit during its operation in a complex with other mining transport and enrichment equipment. A technique is proposed for determining the fields of rational use of bulldozers with fixed and turning blades during movement of loosened rocks. The issues of using radio controlled and paired bulldozer units are examined.

Poskotinov, O.V.; Grossov, L.F.

1983-01-01

53

Open-pit mining of hard coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The district of Angara-Jenissej in East Siberia is supported to contain the most promising coal supplies of the Soviet Union. They are stocked in a way that they can mainly be extracted in open-pit mining, as was communicated by the first representative of the Minister for the Coal Industry, Wladimir Bely. Complex large-scale plants shall be built under the extreme climatic conditions, in which the coal shall not only be extracted but also processed on the spot which means liquefied and turned to gas and electricity.

Bely, W.

1982-10-08

54

Mining in central Canada. Report on a scientific excursion to several mining districts in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario. Der Bergbau im mittleren Kanada. Bericht ueber eine Studienreise zu einigen Bergbaurevieren in Manitoba, Saskatchewan und Ontario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a general outline of mining in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the following mines and open-cast mines are described in detail: Flin Flouchine (zinc-copper ore); Rod Mine (copper-zinc ore); Ruttan Mine (copper-zinc ore); MacLellan Mine (gold); Tanco Mine (pegmatite); Allan Mine (potassium); Rocanville Mine (potassium); K1 Mine (potassium); Utility Mine (brown coal); Costello Mine (brown coal); Brienfait Mine (brown coal); Campbell Mine (gold); Arthur White Mine (gold); Mattabi Mine (zinc-copper ore); Lyon Lake Mine (zinc-copper ore). (HS).

Helms, W.

1986-01-01

55

Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both of the mines. (author). 10 refs.

Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

1998-12-01

56

THE PROCESS OF PEDOGENESIS ON MINE DUMPS (A CASE STUDY: AGHIRE? MINING AREA, ROMANIA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of pedogenesis on mine dumps (a case study: Aghire? mining area, Romania). The presence of mining, with all its specific activities carried on for decades, leads to an inevitable change in the evolution of environmental factors. Among these, and especially in the conditions of open-cast mining, the soil is definitely affected. The present study examines the soils developed on mine dumps in Aghire? mining area. It is noted that depending on how the mine dumps were managed, a diff...

2013-01-01

57

CAST  

Science.gov (United States)

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-03

58

Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

Amankwah, Henry

2011-01-01

59

Open cut mining and environment protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In addition to general rehabilitation technologies for open-cut mines, it seems possible that carbon dioxide absorption might be increased by developing technology for restoring or reinforcing the microbial colonies in the soil and for the rapid growth of highly productive (ie high carbon-fixing) plants. CSIRO and Idemitsu is carrying out research in this with encouraging results. Idemitsu has shown that the fungus VA mycorrhizae (endo-mycorrhizae) may be effective in afforestation with eucalyptus. CSIRO is studying the symbiotic associations formed between ectomycorrhizae and the surface of plant roots, as opposed to the penetration of the plant root as is the case with endomycorrhizae. Such CO{sub 2} fixing technology could make a contribution towards the mitigation of global warming. 21 plates.

Yonifuzi, T.; Inoue, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

2000-03-01

60

The prevention of mine accident and utilization of abandoned mine openings.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report consists of 2 subjects. (1) Research on the prevention of mine accident (V): This research has been conducted to investigate 11 major operating coal mines in respect to mine safety. The safety inspection on 9 coal mines has already been done until 1998. In this year, two coal mines, Sangduck and Maro, were inspected and desirable counter measures were recommended. (2) Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings: The final goal of this study is to establish the model of utilization of abandoned mine openings, to design the utilization model, and to develop the utilization techniques. For these research targets, literature surveys, determination of major factors, and field surveys for candidate mines were performed during first research year. Now in this second year, the candidate mines were deeply surveyed, and finally conceptual design was made for one of these abandoned mines. The Gahak mine which is located in Kwangmyung city, Kyunggido, can be utilized as a bio-park and a cave land. (author). 33 refs., 104 tabs., 21 figs.

Cho, Won-Jai; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Chung, So-Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

1999-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

2009-07-01

62

Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is 'deepened' in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level. (authors)

2007-01-01

63

Equipment size effects on open pit mining performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the exploitation of economies of scale in open pit mining through the use of increasingly larger equipment. It presents a method adopted to evaluate the impact of increased scale on operational performance factors. The work identifies equipment size sensitive variables (ESSVs) in the mine design process that affect the performance of the production process. Data from a set of case studies show that the ESSV influence extends beyond mine production to encompass milling performance, environmental footprint and community impacts. Some ESSVs (such as reliability, tyre costs and productivity) are shown to be related to the current state of equipment technology and their effects are therefore comparable for different mines. Other ESSVs relate to the mine and deposit characteristics; their effects therefore vary from mine to mine. A detailed analytical approach, developed to model the impact of ESSVs, suggests that for truck/shovel operations, the industry may be approaching a situation of diseconomies of scale.

A. Bozorgebrahimi; R.A. Hall; M.A. Morin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

2005-03-01

64

Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is “deepened” in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level.

Ivana Cehlárová

2007-10-01

65

Satellite Monitoring of Open Pit Mining Operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anticipating the availability of space-altitude imagery from the Earth Resource Technology Satellites (ERTS), the Bureau of Mines investigated the possibilities of using such imagery in this activities in solid waste disposal, reclamation of mine workings...

W. C. Henkes

1971-01-01

66

The slope stability under underground mining of Anjialing open-pit mine on Pingshuo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the Anjialing open-pit mine in Pingshuo for research, limit equilibrium theory and geo-slope software for slope stability analysis were used to consider the influence of the external environment such as ground water and underground mining on slope stability. The study included studying water pressure and a slope damage model under underground mining, carrying out slope stability calculations and providing prevention and control measures. Results show that the water pressure and underground mining are the important factors affecting slope stability. Some upper slopes are seriously affected and sliding is possible. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Chen Shi-kuo; Yang Tian-hong; Zhang Hua-xing [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China). Center for Rock Instability and Seismic Research

2008-02-15

67

Perils of project development on public land open to mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conducting a government project on public land open to the general mining laws can result in added costs, legal entanglements, schedule uncertainties, and the potential for unanticipated safety issues and concerns due to interactions with mining claimants. Planning for such projects must include a careful assessment of not only land access needs and restrictions, but also possible scenarios for conflict with activities authorized under the general mining laws throughout the life of the project. It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the applicable mining laws and how they are currently being interpreted and applied by the responsible regulatory authorities and land managers. The Yucca Mountain Project approach to land access, problems encountered with mining claims filed under the Mining Law of 1872, and the lessons learned from these experiences are discussed in this paper

1991-05-03

68

Robotization of coal harvesting in open cut lignite mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents a summary of research which is currently being conducted at Monash University-Gippsland Campus on the automation of coal harvesting at a major Australian open cut mine. This mine is located at Morwell, Victoria and produces brown coal (lignite). The research aims to provide a computer assisted remote operation of mining machines and services. In addition it is developing an intelligent unmanned mining system using robotics technology. Also discusses the method of robotizing such a mine for maximum economic efficiency and the proposed control configuration for the system. Describes the current automation project, which is to achieve the required alignment between the rototized mining machine and the hopper by employing a reactive/adaptive fuzzy control system for maximum economic efficiency.

Ibrahim, M.Y.; Barfoot, C. [Monash University, Churchill, Vic. (Australia). School of Engineering

1997-12-31

69

Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and dewatering measures were designed with the help of a numerical mathematical model. A combination of dewatering wells installed from the surface around the perimeter of the pit and horizontal drains in areas of high slope failure potential substantially improved the mining conditions and slope stability. This procedure consequently led to the successful ore recovery from the highly saturated sandstone strata. The development of drawdown during the dewatering of two separated aquifers in the overburden was close to that predicted by the model

1984-12-01

70

Open Pit Mining Extraction and Ore Transportation Methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Open pit transportation has an important role in the open pit mining business. In some cases, the transportation has a 50% slice of total operating costs. Therefore, it is important to carefully calculate the most economic transportation method for the sp...

P. Pitkaenen

1998-01-01

71

Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

1982-01-01

72

Planning of open pit mines on a risk basis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the methodology of introducing risk into the development of mine plans for open pit mines. Recommendations are put forward for achieving a risk balance between mineral resource estimates and slope design. A design process identifying criteria for different stages of planning is presented. Business risk is separated from geological/geotechnical risk and procedures to address these within the development of mine plans are suggested. It is concluded that a formal design process improves communication between key decision makers and adds value to shareholders, investments. 14 refs., 11 figs.

Steffen, O.K.H. [Steffen, Robertson & Kirsten, Northlands (South Africa)

1997-03-01

73

Some considerations concerning the classification and choosing of mining methods to be used in open pits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article presents the mining, handling and stockpiling systems for open pits, a detailed classification of mining methods used in open pits sites as well as the choosing of the most suitable mining method, taking into consideration both the geological mining factors and the technico-economic ones. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

Fodor, D.; Georgescu, M.

1991-01-01

74

Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

1986-01-01

75

Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes to open several pits of coal with aim to prolongate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in thi paper. (Author)

2005-06-01

76

Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

77

The role of coal geologists in open cut mine planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geologists have an important responsibility in the planning of open cut coal mining operations. To be effective, they should have strong teamwork and communications skills as well as technical and professional ability. They should also be skilled in the handling of large amounts of data by the application of computer techniques and the use of geostatistics.

Goscombe, P.W.

1987-01-01

78

Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

79

Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

Hartley, Larry

80

Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

Savilow, Bill

 
 
 
 
81

Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

McColman, Don

82

Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

Savilow, Bill

83

Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

Savilow, Bill

84

Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

85

Mine openings: stability and supports. Stabilita a vyztuzovani dlouhych dulnich del  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are reviewed used for the solution of problems of stability and support of mine workings based on the study and analysis of the validity conditions of individual theoretical computing procedures. Topics covered are: theoretical foundations of the stability of mine openings; classification of methods for computing the stability of mine openings; classification of computing methods; statistical solutions of supporting structures; dimensioning of supporting structures; supporting structures of longitudinal mine openings; technology of the installation (placing) of supporting structures. 258 references.

Aldorf, J.; Exner, K.

1986-01-01

86

Measurement of fugitive seam gas emissions from open cut mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project goal was to develop a method for estimating fugitive emissions such that an individual mine could estimate its own emissions based on data related to coal gas properties and mining method. In the proposal for this work it was intended that the method would be based on: gas content of the mined coal; gas content of uneconomic seams and neighbouring strata sent to spoil piles and; coal production and mining method used. Measurements were made at seven open-cut mines in the Hunter Valley and three in the Bowen Basin where measurements of surface emission and gas content of coal were made. Numerous direct measurements of emissions from uncovered coal seams as well as gas released in coal blast holes and exploration surface holes were made. Fresh coal samples from blasted coal seams were also collected and measured for their gas content and composition. Some samples were allowed to release their gas over periods up to 2 months to investigate the kinetics of gas release. Based on the results of the current study it is clear that sampling coal from open cut operations on an opportunistic basis as attempted during this project is insufficient to allow the appropriate data to be obtained for a Tier 3 methodology to be determined. A dedicated borehole is required so that detailed gas content data can be obtained. These data could then be used, along with data from an extension of the exploration drilling program to include a limited number of gas content measurements, in order to develop a Tier 3 methodology. In addition further work on the emission rates from boreholes could see this approach developed into a method for estimating emissions from final highwalls after mining has ceased.

Abouna Saghafi; S. Day; David Williams; D. Roberts; A. Quintanar; John Carras

2003-02-01

87

Benchmarking the energy consumption of Canadian open-pit mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An energy efficiency analysis of the Mining Association of Canada (MAC) open-pit mines was presented. Nine mining and milling operations were involved in the project, including gold, oil sands and iron ore establishments. The project involved a detailed inter-facility comparison of the energy consumed in drilling and transport as well as concentration processes such as crushing and tailings disposal. Approximately 25 categories of energy cost and usage information were evaluated, split into costs per unit of energy, and energy consumed per kilotonne for open-pit mining processes. Aggregates of all production stages beyond grinding to loadout, process water and support services were provided. Energy consumption was based on kilowatt hour equivalents. Comparative unit costs per energy type were presented, for both total and mining operations. General estimates of potential energy savings from attaining energy efficiency optimization were presented. It was noted that there were significant opportunities for improvement in the lowest-cost most efficient facilities, and the fact that different firms were more efficient in different stages of production gave evidence of the potential for further savings. Potential energy savings with the most efficient operation for each production stage for mining operations were presented. The sum of the total savings was in the region of $74 million, which represented one third of total energy costs as applied to the 9 study participants. However, it was suggested that the potential savings identified may not be realizable for a range of practical reasons, such as economies of scale or the nature of the ore body. tabs., figs.

NONE

2005-07-01

88

Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

2004-01-01

89

Spontaneous combustion in open cut coal mines - recent Australian research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control of spontaneous combustion in spoil piles is an area of concern for a number of open cut coal mines. Spontaneous combustion in spoil may occur when carbonaceous waste materials are exposed to air. In large piles, the relatively high voidage within the pile may allow sufficient movement of air through the pile to sustain oxidation and heat generation. Over the past decade, ACARP and CSIRO have funded a number of projects aimed at providing a better understanding of the causes of spontaneous combustion in spoil piles and the development of control strategies. Work has focussed on prevention measures but has also considered measures available to deal with well-developed fires. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling methods have been brought to bear on the issues. This paper provides a description of the work carried out to date with an emphasis on the major findings of the research and its application to open cut mines. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Carras, J.N.; Day, S.; Saghafi, A.; Roberts, O.C. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Bangor, NSW (Australia)

2005-07-01

90

Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reclaimed mine soils (RMS) which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe) reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L). Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control p...

Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski

2010-01-01

91

Mining chemical information from open patents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Linked Open Data presents an opportunity to vastly improve the quality of science in all fields by increasing the availability and usability of the data upon which it is based. In the chemical field, there is a huge amount of information available in the published literature, the vast majority of which is not available in machine-understandable formats. PatentEye, a prototype system for the extraction and semantification of chemical reactions from the patent literature has been implemented and is discussed. A total of 4444 reactions were extracted from 667 patent documents that comprised 10 weeks' worth of publications from the European Patent Office (EPO, with a precision of 78% and recall of 64% with regards to determining the identity and amount of reactants employed and an accuracy of 92% with regards to product identification. NMR spectra reported as product characterisation data are additionally captured.

Jessop David M

2011-10-01

92

Study on the Law of the Movement and Damage to Slope with the Combination of Underground Mining and Open-Pit Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under circumstances in which both underground mining and open-pit mining are employed, the mining effects of two approaches will be superposed and the mining slope will receive several induced stress fields, which makes the sliding mechanism and deformation law of slope rock mass more complicated. This paper, targeting at the east slope of Antaibao Mine with the joint employment of underground mining and open-pit mining, aims to study the moving law of the slope rock mass and the damage mecha...

Gaofeng Ren; Xingkui Fang

2010-01-01

93

Space-time relationship between end-slope coal extraction and dumping and mining of open-pits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the analysis of the space-time relationship between end-slope coal extraction and dumping and mining of open-pit in Anjialing Surface Mine, the effect of mining, stripping and dumping of open-pit on the main technical parameters of end-slope coal extraction in time and space, such as mining intensity and recovery coefficient, was investigated. The research result is of general significance to the surface mines which are mining flat seams. 5 figs.

Shang, T.; Shu, J.; Cai, Q.; Che, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Energy Science and Engineering

2001-01-01

94

Preparation of big size open-cell aluminum foam board using infiltration casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an infi ltration casting technique for manufacturing big size open-cell aluminum foam boards. The principle and key technologies of infi ltration casting are also analyzed. Based on the previous practice of the small size aluminum foam production, the die for preparing big size aluminum foam boards is designed and manufactured. The experiments on aluminum boards of 300 mm × 300 mm × (20-75 mm, with the pore size ranging from 1.0 to 3.2 mm and average porosity of 60%, have been performed. The experimental results show that a reliable infi ltration process depends critically on the pouring temperature of the molten Al-alloy, the preheated temperature of the mould and salt particles and vacuum. Current research explores the possibility of large-scale manufacturing and application of the aluminum foams.

Wang Lucai

2008-11-01

95

Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

2007-01-15

96

Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

2004-10-07

97

Special characteristics of an evaluation of the efficacy of investing in open pit mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of distributing investments to obtain a productive effective increase and to maintain it is examined. The methodology is to be used to determine the absolute efficacy of investing in open-pit mining. The dynamics of the absolute efficacy of investing in a Kuzbas open-pit mine for a 20-year period are presented.

Kalinina, A.F.

1980-01-01

98

Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

Kisieleski, W.E.

1980-06-01

99

A Moessbauer spectroscopy study of the corrosion of nodular cast iron in mine waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of ductile cast iron in water containing different amounts of chloride ions was investigated under both static and dynamic conditions. Corrosion/time relationships were established for exposure times of up to 30 days. Post-corrosion investigations were performed, employing Moessbauer spectroscopy, optical microscopy and electrochemical techniques. It was found that the nature of the surface corrosion product formed under static conditions differed morphologically and chemically from that formed under dynamic conditions. The latter was a hard layer consisting of a mixture of ?- and ?-FeOOH (situated on an underlying cementite layer), whereas the static tests resulted in a soft, spongy corrosion product, identified as ?-FeOOH. (orig.)

1994-11-01

100

Measurement of fugitive seam gas emissions from open cut mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work was carried out at seven open-cut mines in the Hunter Valley and three in the Bowen Basin where measurements of surface emission and gas content of coal were made. Direct measurements of emissions from uncovered coal seams as well as gas released in coal blast holes and exploration surface holes were made. Fresh coal samples from blasted coal seams were also measured for their gas content and composition. Some samples were allowed to release their gas over periods up to 2 months to investigate the kinetics of gas release. Measurements of the gas contents in the pit for coal collected from blasted seams in the Hunter Valley mines showed seam gas content of about0.1 m{sup 3}/t to more than 1.6 m{sup 3}/t. Seam gas compositions for these samples varied from almost pure CO{sub 2} to 30% CO{sub 2}, with the remaining gas being CH{sub 4}. For one coal with lump size of 100 mm 50% of the gas was still present after a time period of 6 weeks and 10% still present after about 4.5 months, suggesting there may be significant amounts of seam gas in the coal leaving the mine. Further work is required to determine the full significance of this observation. For the Bowen Basin results, measurements of the gas contents of coal seams in pit for the three mines studied varied from almost unmeasurable quantities to 1.5 m{sup 3}/t. The higher gas contents corresponded to the seams with higher methane composition. The results demonstrated the significance of water in the boreholes and the necessity to dewater these holes in order to measure gas emission rates. Based on the results of the current study it is clear that sampling coal from open cut operations on an opportunistic basis as attempted during this project is insufficient to allow the appropriate data to be obtained for a Tier 3 methodology to be determined. A dedicated borehole if required so that detailed gas content data can be obtained.

Abouna Saghafi; S. Day; David Williams; D. Roberts; A. Quintanar; John Carras [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

2003-02-15

 
 
 
 
101

Risk management of the mining authority of North Rhine-Westphalia for left daily openings of the mining; Risikomanagement der Bergbehoerde NRW fuer verlassene Tagesoeffnungen des Bergbaus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A perpetual danger proceeds from the unsecured daily openings of the mining industry. Many pits only are filled with bulk materials. Regarding to the use of budgetary means at preventive investigation measures and protection measures, the mining industry authority North-Rhine Westphalia operates a risk management for abandoned daily openings for which no mine companies or mine owner are at hand. For this, daily openings are classified and evaluated according to certain factors. From this, a list of priority results for preventive investigation measures and safety measurements being processed by the mining industry authority in the next years.

Neumann, Heinz Roland [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW

2010-02-15

102

A contribution to open pit hard coal mine waste rock management : comparing sidehill fill with layered dumping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal mining is an important economic activity as it covers the energy demands, generates export revenues and creates employment opportunities. Mining can, however, impact the local environment. Different mining operations produce several types of waste materials and one of the major wastes produced by open-pit mines is waste rock, which is dumped at waste rock dumps. The waste rock dumps can impact the environment in several ways. For instance, in Vietnam open-pit mines have disturbed the bea...

Ahmad, Shakeel

2013-01-01

103

Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju

2009-01-01

104

Cost analysis of open-pit mining by heap leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The costs of producing uranium by an open-pit mining using a heap leaching beneficiation operation are analyzed. The selection of a heap leaching operation is dictated largely by the small size of the orebody. The uranium minerals present respond readily to the lixiviant employed permitting some 75 to 80 per cent of the 1200 to 1500 ppm of U3O8 present in the heap to be recovered. Manpower and transportation account for a large proportion of the operating costs. The capital investment employed is equivalent to $ 5 000 000 and the production cost is equivalent to a value in the range $ 10 to $ 15 per pound on U3O8. Of interest is the 11.5 per cent of the overhead costs spent on security

1983-01-01

105

Erosive Wear Behavior of Nickel-Based High Alloy White Cast Iron Under Mining Conditions Using Orthogonal Array  

Science.gov (United States)

Nihard Grade-4, a nickel-bearing cast iron widely used in slurry pumps and hydrodynamic components, is evaluated for its erosive wear response under mining conditions using a statistical approach. Experiments were conducted by varying the factors namely velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH in three levels, using L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance was used to rank the factors influencing erosive wear. The results indicate that velocity is the most influencing factor followed by the angle of impingement, slurry concentration, and pH. Interaction effects of velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH on erosion rate have been discussed. Wear morphology was also studied using SEM characterization technique. At lower angle (30°) of impingement, the erosion of material is by micro fracture and shallow ploughing with the plastic deformation of the ductile austenitic matrix. At the normal angle (90°) of impingement, the material loss from the surface is found because of deep indentation, forming protruded lips which are removed by means of repeated impact of the erodent.

Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh

2013-09-01

106

High-quality welds in heavy-duty mining modules. Productive robot welding of preheated fine-grained steel structures; Qualitaetsnaehte fuer hoch belastete Bergbaumodule. Produktives Roboterschweissen von vorgewaermten Feinkorn-Stahlbauten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bucyrus is a global leader in design and construction of heavy-duty equipment for open-cast mining and deep mining. Bucyrus mining equipment is used for production of coal, copper, iron ore, oil sands and other minerals and especially for coal production in the underground mining industry. (orig.)

Anon.

2008-04-15

107

Model study on dynamics of open fire in underground coal mines under varied air flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small scale model representing mine gallery has been designed, constructed and installed at Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad, India. The basic purpose of the mode gallery was to study the complex phenomenon of open fires in simulated underground mine condition. The paper highlights the salient features of the model, instrumentation system, experimental procedure, important observations, results of the experiment and correlation of findings with particular reference to gas concentration, temperature and fire size. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Singh, R.P.; Ray, S.K.; Sahay, N. [Central Mining Research Inst., Dhanbad (India)

2004-06-01

108

Study on the Law of the Movement and Damage to Slope with the Combination of Underground Mining and Open-Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under circumstances in which both underground mining and open-pit mining are employed, the mining effects of two approaches will be superposed and the mining slope will receive several induced stress fields, which makes the sliding mechanism and deformation law of slope rock mass more complicated. This paper, targeting at the east slope of Antaibao Mine with the joint employment of underground mining and open-pit mining, aims to study the moving law of the slope rock mass and the damage mechanism to the overburden of the goaf by numerical simulation. It is supposed that models of possible damage to the slope could be explored for guidance to safety-production of the mine.

Xingkui Fang

2010-04-01

109

28. international trade fair for construction machinery, building material machines, mining machines, construction vehicles and construction equipment - bauma + mining 2007; 28. internationale Fachmesse fuer Bau-, Baustoff- und Bergbaumaschinen, Baufahrzeuge und Baugeraete - bauma + mining 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 23. and 29. April 2007 the latest technologies from the fields of open-cast mining, deep mining, tunnel construction, preparation and conveying technology, geology, geophysics, exploration and consulting were introduced to the international public of 'bauma + mining 2007'. The fair was thus the international meeting point for the entire mining and construction industry above and below ground for the second time. (orig.)

Gutberlet, K. [VGE Verlag GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2007-05-29

110

Problem of the necessity of cutting narrow beds in the open-pit mines of Kuzbas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present state of development of narrow beds is presented, and the basic directions to be taken to solve the problem of the necessity of cutting them in the open-pit mines of Kuzbas are determined.

Kukhar, V.S.

1980-01-01

111

GPS based checking survey and precise DEM development in open mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The checking survey in Open mine is one of the most frequent and important work. It plays the role of forming a connecting link between open mine planning and production. Traditional checking method has such disadvantages as long time consumption, heavy workload, complicated calculating process, and lower automation. The author used GPS and GIS technologies to systematically study the core issues of checking survey in open mine. A detail GPS data acquisition coding scheme was presented. Based on the scheme an algorithm used for computer semiautomatic cartography was made. Three methods used for eliminating gross errors from raw data which were needed for creating OEM was discussed. Two algorithms were researched and realized which can be used to create open mine fine OEM model with constrained conditions and to dynamically update the model. The precision analysis and evaluation of the created model were carried out. 5 refs.

Xu, Ai-gong [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics

2008-06-15

112

The use of steel fibre reinforced shotcrete for the support of mine openings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

What separates the support of mining openings from the support of similar civil engineering structures is the fact that mine openings have to survive large deformations as a result of changing stress conditions induced by progressive mining. Steel fibres impart to concrete and shotcrete a high degree of ductility which not only allows the shotcrete and concrete linings to absorb important rock movements but also to increase its bearing capacity by a redistribution of the loads. A range of applications is discussed technically and economically. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Vandewalle, M. [N.V. Bekaert S.A. (Belgium)

1998-05-01

113

An analysis of storage technology and coal-loading at the Kuzbas open-pit mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uneven output of open-pit mines and the uneven delivery of empty rock wagons used for loading resulted in the fact that coal storage areas appeared at all the Kuzbas open-pit mines. The areas were being converted from emergency to continuously active areas. The amount of coal being stored in recent years has been continuously increasingly, and, in 1980, attained 5 mil., according to the ''Kemerovougol'' industrial association--or that representing 38 24-hr. production days. The open-pit mines are characterized by an uneven output. The output of the mine varied from 1/5 of a month's production in the first decade to 2/3 of a month's production in the third decade. Given these conditions, the technology and mechanization of loading and unloading operations at the coal storage areas of the Kuzbas open-pit mines which have not undergone any changes in the last 20-30 years do not satisfy contemporary requirements. Cyclic-operation equipment with low production is used, causing significant overgrinding of the coal (of as much as 28% or more) and a significant decrease in the output of sorted coal. The analysis made underlines the need for the rapid development of operations related to improving and developing new technological systems and specialized ways of mechanizing the loading and storing systems of the Kuzbas open-pit mines.

Protasov, S.I.; Shvydkin, A.V.

1981-01-01

114

Determining a life of mine truck requirement model for Isibonelo Colliery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the key elements that set mining apart from most industries is the level of capital intensity. Mining requires high levels of capital investment at both mine construction and operation stages. As the world economic climate continues to show patterns of uncertainty the manner in which capital is deployed comes into question. Isibonelo Colliery an open cast operation of Anglo American Thermal Coal has asked the question of how capital should be deployed until the end of its life of mine....

Manchest, Carlyn

2012-01-01

115

Towards the Application of Augmented Reality in the Mining Sector: Open-Pit Mines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article put augmented reality technology, and its application in the mining sector, in perspective. The current vitality in the mining sector in Canada, and particularly in the province of Quebec, is leading decision-makers to use new technologies in a sector which is nevertheless quite traditionalist. An exploration of the different activities connected to mining operations in order to identify the potential relevance of the use of augmented reality in this sector is shown. This analysi...

Hugues, Olivier; Gbodossou, Andre?; Cieutat, Jean-marc

2012-01-01

116

Surface coal mining machinery and equipment. Open file report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface coal mining equipment was studied to determine existing equipment practices and technology and its compatibility with mining techniques and reclamation requirements. In addition, the availability and economics of alternative equipment types were documented as well as the identification of needed research in earth-handling technology to increase coal production and productivity. (GRA)

Habeck, W.J.

1975-12-01

117

The need and place for research in the open cut coal mining industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

What is 'Research' and how can it help the open cut industry. Research has been defined elsewhere as 'the creative activity that provides solutions, hitherto unavailable, to problems'. If we concede that our open cut mines do have some problems to solve then it seems reasonable to conclude that we need to pursue research within the open cut industry.

Oldroyd, G.C.

1988-01-01

118

Aspects of slope stability in opencast coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis deals with methods of obtaining adequate slope stability data for open cast mines. Preliminary mine planning and geotechnical data collection are discussed. Shear strength measurements carried out on rocks from the Low Close opencast mine are described as are investigations into the effect of moisture on the compressive strength, tensile strength, scleroscope hardness and Schmidt rebound hardness of rock. The factors that need to be taken into account in opencast mine design in order to ensure stability and economical mining are highlighted. These include stripping ratio, cut face orientation, angle of slope and bench height.

Ojo, O.

1988-07-01

119

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/reha...

Duka, Ykateryna D.; Ilchenko, Svetlana I.; Kharytonov, Mykola M.; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.

2011-01-01

120

Occupational Exposure to Dust in Open Pit Mining. A Short Review.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A literature review concerning the scientific knowledge of all the key factors related to respirable crystalline silica dust exposure was conducted and a chronological evolution of the state-of-the-art knowledge that can respond to questions raised by the development of the work done in quarries and opencast mines is presented, based on bibliographic research. Findings assert that exposure to silica dust is the most frequent and dangerous hazard in open pit mining. Some aspects me...

Maria Matos; João Santos Baptista; Miguel Tato Diogo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new app...

Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

2011-01-01

122

Drug discovery applications for KNIME: an open source data mining platform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technological advances in high-throughput screening methods, combinatorial chemistry and the design of virtual libraries have evolved in the pursuit of challenging drug targets. Over the last two decades a vast amount of data has been generated within these fields and as a consequence data mining methods have been developed to extract key pieces of information from these large data pools. Much of this data is now available in the public domain. This has been helpful in the arena of drug discovery for both academic groups and for small to medium sized enterprises which previously would not have had access to such data resources. Commercial data mining software is sometimes prohibitively expensive and the alternate open source data mining software is gaining momentum in both academia and in industrial applications as the costs of research and development continue to rise. KNIME, the Konstanz Information Miner, has emerged as a leader in open source data mining tools. KNIME provides an integrated solution for the data mining requirements across the drug discovery pipeline through a visual assembly of data workflows drawing from an extensive repository of tools. This review will examine KNIME as an open source data mining tool and its applications in drug discovery. PMID:23110532

Mazanetz, Michael P; Marmon, Robert J; Reisser, Catherine B T; Morao, Inaki

2012-01-01

123

Cast iron - a predictable material  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI) or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process s...

2011-01-01

124

4th large open pit mining conference, managing risk. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 45 papers were presented at the conference, with the theme of management of risk associated with environmental issues surrounding any mine or mine development proposal. The subject is covered from the point of view of a company`s legal obligations, discussing systems available for helping with the task of environmental management. Other papers cover the financial exposures involved, and the practical aspects of the topic. 4 papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

NONE

1994-12-31

125

Robust models for simultaneous open pit and underground mines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mining planning is a central problem in the mining business with the goal of setting high revenued exploitation agendas. However, current models lack robustness: they do not consider uncertainty of the future, so the plans are, indeed, recalculated every year according to the new information. This work presents some approaches to solve the above-mentioned problem: at first the current models are exposed, stochastic programming is used then to set up new models considering uncertainity. As a s...

Morales, Nelson

2003-01-01

126

Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers. Calibration of the hydrodynamic model is the starting point for making prognosis calculation in order to create the most optimal system of open-pit mine protection from groundwater. The results of model calibration indicated that the rivers Gomjenica and Bistrica, precipitation and inflow from karstified rocks are the primary sources of recharge of the limonite ore body “Buva?”.

Papi? Petar

2013-09-01

127

Mining principles in the situation of Dolni Rozinka Uranium Mines deposit with respect to protection of open pits and mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three surface and a network of underground monitoring points were established for assessing the impact of extracting oblique and steep ore zones and veins in the uranium ore deposit at Dolni Rozinka on the surrounding massif and on the earth surface. On the basis of these in-situ measurements and the results of modelling using equivalent materials and mathematical modelling and the evaluation of practical experience in the excavation of mines in this deposit new techniques were designed for protecting installations and buildings from the impacts of mining activities. The distance and size of limit angles of the mining effect were determined which allowed to considerably limit the range of existing safety pillars and thereby to reduce the volume of utility minerals whose excavation had previously been restricted. (B.S.)

1984-10-15

128

Emissions reduction by means of continuous open pit mining technology; Emissionsreduzierung durch Einsatz kontinuierlicher Tagebautechnik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A change of system in open pit mining worldwide to continuous open pit mining technology not only leads to a reduction in running operating costs, but in particular to potential savings in CO{sub 2} emissions as well. These savings are being studied in a current research project. In the growing market for raw materials, the combination of newly designed, fully mobile crushing plants with innovative belt conveyor system technology in particular can achieve reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions of the order of up to 150,000 tons per year and per installed system for raw materials extraction, compared to conventional truck transport. (orig.)

Raaz, V. [ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany). Abt. Business Development; Mentges, U. [ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany). Vertrieb/Bergbauplanung

2007-07-01

129

Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

2014-05-01

130

Casting methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

131

Estimation of resuspension of radioactive aerosols in equipment cab of open-pit uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In open-pit mining of high grade ores, operators of mining equipment in a pressurized cab are protected from inhaling radioactive aerosols by the use of filtered air through a pre-impactor and a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. At present, a limited amount of scientific information is available on the worker exposure to airborne alpha emitters in the mining of high-grade ores. Four series of field samplings were conducted during the fall of 1980 and the summer of 1981 at a mining site in northern Saskatchewan to investigate the extent of protection an equipment operator has against cab internal exposure to airborne alpha emitters with short and long half-life radionuclides. The variation in the breathing zone concentration of aerosols as a result of resuspension is discussed, however no attempt was made to isolate and investigate the factors and the associated parameters of the aerosol resuspension phenomenon

1981-10-09

132

GPSS system applied to optimization of technological process of open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The queuing sub-system and the stored sub-system are abstracted as a composed dynamic system from the technological process of open-pit mining. Using the GPSS system the simulation models were established, and by changing the parameters of the models the optimization of the technological process was carried out

1993-02-01

133

Development of an improved methodology for estimation of fugitive seam gas emissions from open cut mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Greenhouse Gas Inventory for the year 2002 (Australian Greenhouse Office) estimated the total fugitive emissions from both underground and open-cut mining to be 17,456 ktonne CO{sub 2} equivalent which represents 3.2 percent of the total national emissions for that year. Of these emissions, about 40% were considered to have arisen from open cut coal mining. Based on an earlier project it was decided to pursue a reservoir approach to seam gas emissions estimation and to explore the possibility of using gas analyses from borecores to estimate overall greenhouse gas emissions for a particular mine. It was envisaged that this approach would provide key data toward developing an improved methodology for use by individual coal mines. A preliminary concept for estimation of potential gas emission was developed which could serve as the basis for a full Tier 3 methodology for fugitive emissions. The method is based on geological information, the in situ gas content of coal and rock strata and operational issues such as the method of mining.

Abou Saghafi; S.J. Day; R. Fry; A. Quintanar; D. Roberts; D.J. Williams; John Carras

2005-07-01

134

Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

135

Recultivation plan for the abandoned Altenburg 4 open-cast mine. Landschaftsplan Tagebau Altenburg 4, Borken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To begin with, the initial situation is described, i.e. geology, soil and vegetation. Possible uses are mentioned along with the necessary recultivation measures. The report gives hints for recultivation and maintenance and presents a detailed, coloured plan of the future landscape.

Sollmann, A.; Vogt, S.; Schulz, V.; Schmal, G.; Heidenreich, W.; Siegfried, L.; Appel, I.

1981-02-01

136

A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

1991-09-17

137

Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 ± 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. (authors)

2010-01-01

138

Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

2008-01-01

139

Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 ± 0.32 ?m and ?(ln d) = 0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 ± 0.38 ?m and ?(ln d) = 0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: ? Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. ? SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles ? Particle size distributions of TSP and PM10 are lognormal ? Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar ? Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health

2012-04-15

140

Special features of cutting coal beds of complex composition in open-pit mine areas and a procedure of finishing them off  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of the process of cutting out the open-pit mines areas of the existing and future open-pit mines of Kuzbas is presented, and the advantages of finishing them off using individual operating concerns which ensure the best mining system and savings for state facilities are pointed out.

Bereznik, M.M.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

2011-02-15

142

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: ? Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. ? Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. ? Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. ? Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

2011-02-15

143

The experience of dealing with hydrogen sulphide during the underground and open mining of coal and ore fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experience of dealing with hydrogen sulphide in mining coal and ore fields is analyzed. Results are given from laboratory and experimental-industrial tests on neutralizing hydrogen sulphide for the conditions of open and underground kimberlite ore mining. Recommendations are given on dealing with hydrogen sulphide for the specific conditions of the Yakutsk diamond field.

Khavova, V.I.; Aksenova, E.M.; Lindenau, I.N.; Orekhovskii, A.A.

1980-01-01

144

Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

Kryl Václav

1998-06-01

145

Simulation of the casting process - a powerful tool for enhanced design of the cutting teeth in surface mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent development in the computer simulation technology caused a tremendous influence on a rapid prototyping in casting process. These computational tools facilitate engineering work and urge moulding verification in foundries. Among dedicated software packages the MAGMASoft is selected for availability reasons. Its effectiveness is proved with the simulation of moulding process of the cutting teeth for a bucket wheel excavator Use of MAGMASoft enables a shortcut to a forceful and durable product, without internal cavities and micro-porosity. Such advancement of the moulding process is described in this paper.

R. Slavkovic

2013-07-01

146

Mining method and grade control practices at Baghalchur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of surface exploratory drilling in the Baghalchur area, the occurrence of significant uranium mineralization in two sandstone-filled paleo-stream channels has been proved. The ore in one of the channels is above the water table and is oxidized, while in the other, which is below the water table, it is unoxidized. The oxidized ore-body near the surface is being mined on an experimental basis by open-cast mining while the unoxidized deposit, being deeper, is to be mined by underground mining methods. It is planned to use the short-wall retreating mining method. (author)

1979-10-04

147

Proceedings of the Indo-British workshop on remote sensing of environment in mining field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

16 papers are presented covering: remote sensing - an aid to environment management; remote sensing application; monitoring environmental changes over iron ore mining areas; monitoring and management of environmental degradation due to geological factors; use of Landsat multispectral scanner data in environmental monitoring; geotechnical engineering problems with abandoned limestone mines; photogrammetric monitoring of mining environment; slope monitoring in open cast mines using close range remote sensing method; geobotanical remote sensing and mineral prospecting; geographical information in study of geo-environment through remote sensing; and alteration mapping in cuprite mining district.

Srivastava, V.K. (ed.)

1993-01-01

148

Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 {+-} 0.32 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.61 {+-} 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 {+-} 0.38 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.55 {+-} 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle size distributions of TSP and PM{sub 10} are lognormal Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health.

Huertas, Jose I., E-mail: jhuertas@itesm.mx [Tecnologico de Monterrey, Eduardo Monroy Cardenas No 2000, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico); Huertas, Maria E. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Solis, Dora A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carrera Toluca - Atlacomulco km 14.5. Tlachaloya, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico)

2012-04-15

149

NOx emissions from blasting operations in open-cut coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Australian coal mining industry, as with other industries is coming under greater constraints with respect to their environmental impacts. Emissions of acid gases such as NOx and SOx to the atmosphere have been regulated for many years because of their adverse health effects. Although NOx from blasting in open-cut coal mining may represent only a very small proportion of mining operations' total NOx emissions, the rapid release and high concentration associated with such activities may pose a health risk. This paper presents the results of a new approach to measure these gas emissions by scanning the resulting plume from an open-cut mine blast with a miniaturised ultraviolet spectrometer. The work presented here was undertaken in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia during 2006. Overall this technique was found to be simpler, safer and more successful than other approaches that in the past have proved to be ineffective in monitoring these short lived plumes. The average emission flux of NOx from the blasts studied was about 0.9 kt t{sup -1} of explosive. Numerical modelling indicated that NOx concentrations resulting from the blast would be indistinguishable from background levels at distances greater than about 5 km from the source.

Attalla, M.I.; Day, S.J.; Lange, T.; Lilley, W.; Morgan, S. [CSIRO Energy Technol, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

2008-11-15

150

Predicting spontaneous combustion in spoil piles from open cut coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spoil piles are produced routinely in open cut coal mines. Spoil piles may contain waste coal and other carbonaceous horizons. Coal and carbonaceous materials react with oxygen in the atmosphere, producing heat. If the rate at which heat is generated is greater than the rate at which heat can be dissipated, the temperature or the spoil pile rises. If the heating remains unchecked, spontaneous combustion can occur. Spontaneous combustion poses significant safety, environmental and economic problems if it should become established in spoil piles. Using the basic features of self heating in spoil, the use of modelling is directed toward developing quantitative prediction of spontaneous combustion in open cut coal mine spoil piles. 17 refs., 7 figs.

Carres, J.N.; Saghafi, A. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Coal and Energy Technology

1998-12-31

151

Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

1983-09-01

152

CLUO: Web-Scale Text Mining System for Open Source Intelligence Purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT) system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof...

Przemyslaw Maciolek; Grzegorz Dobrowolski

2013-01-01

153

Slope Design and Implementation in Open Pit Mines: Geological and Geomechanical Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Slopes in open pit mines must be considered as geotechnical structures. Therefore their design and implementation must be conducted with all consideration including technical, economical, environmental and safety issues. But these structures are above all natural geological and geomechanical features and the geological structures as well as the petrographical nature of the rock material control the deformation and failure mechanisms. It is therefore important to implement a well-defined metho...

Fleurisson, Jean-alain

2012-01-01

154

Radiation safety aspects of occupational areas at a Brazilian open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the radiation safety aspects of open-pit mining in Brazil and presents results of exposure rate measurements at points located at different work-front sites, primary crushing, static leaching sites and ore storage patio. Results of surface contamination and air monitoring in the hauling trucks and area control cabs are presented. Routine difficulties in trying to comply with the radiation safety procedures required is discussed and suggestions presented

1984-10-14

155

The mining industry in Turkey. Der Bergbau in der Tuerkei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Turkey has rich mineral resources and new deposits are continuously being developed, some by exploration by foreign mining companies. As the outputs of some raw materials are too low due to the deposits or reserves (e.g. in the case of caking coal and steel processors) the missing raw materials have to be imported. In addition to the large state mining undertakings such as Etibank (ore mines and processing plants), TKI Turkish Coal Undertaking (open-cast and deep lignite mines and coal preparation plants), TTK Turkish Collieries (bituminous coal mines and preparation plants in Zonguldak, the only bituminous coal district in the country) and the semi-state KBI Black Sea Copper Mines (open cast copper mines, processing and smelting plants) there are many small and medium-sized mining companies. One of the major problems of the Turkish mining industry is inadequate investment, which is attributable to the high inflation rate. This in turn entails a low degree of mechanisation and thus labour-intensive processes and high production costs. (orig.).

Koese, H.; Simsir, F.; Yenice, H. (Dokuz-Eyluel-Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Bornova-Izmir (Turkey))

1992-02-13

156

Study of fire size, gas concentration and temperature correlation of open fire in a small tunnel representing mine gallery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small scale tunnel representing a mine gallery was designed, fabricated and installed at Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad, India. The basic purpose of installation of the tunnel was to study different aspects of a coal mine fire when it breaks out in open gallery/tunnel of a mine under normal air flow condition. The paper highlights the salient features of the tunnel, instrumentation, experimental procedure, important observations during the experiment and correlation of findings with special reference to gas, temperature and fire size by critical analysis of data. 5 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Singh, R.P.; Verma, S.M.; Sahay, N.; Ahmad, I.; Singh, A.K.; Ray, S.K.; Bhowmick, B.C. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

2001-07-01

157

Design of ventilation in open pit mines. Proyektirovaniye ventilyatsii v karyerakh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book systematizes materials and design of ventilation of open pit mines, cites theoretical formulas of the efficiency of natural ventilation and artificial ventilation of open pits of the coal and chemical industry, ores of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, the building material industry and other branches which design and carry out development of mineral deposits. Recommendations are given on selection of principal equipment and means of ventilation, substantiation of the ventilation service and other practical questions, source data and reference materials for forecast and projection of the composition of the atmosphere, and examples of solution of specific problems.

Nikitin, V.S.; Bitkolov, N.Z.

1980-01-01

158

CLUO: Web-Scale Text Mining System for Open Source Intelligence Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof openly available information.

Przemyslaw Maciolek

2013-01-01

159

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. PMID:21195454

Bendell, L I

2011-02-15

160

Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region.  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d=5.46 ± 0.32 ?m and ?(ln d)=0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM(10)) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d=3.6 ± 0.38 ?m and ?(ln d)=0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. PMID:22405562

Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Solís, Dora A

2012-04-15

 
 
 
 
161

Assessment of the possible reuse of MSW coming from landfill mining of old open dumpsites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study addresses the theme of recycling potential of old open dumpsites by using landfill mining. Attention is focused on the possible reuse of the residual finer fraction (<4 mm), which constitutes more than 60% of the total mined material, sampled in the old open dumpsite of Lavello (Southern Italy). We propose a protocol of analysis of the landfill material that links chemical analyses and environmental bioassays. This protocol is used to evaluate the compatibility of the residual matrix for the disposal in temporary storages and the formation of "bio-soils" to be used in geo-environmental applications, such as the construction of barrier layers of landfills, or in environmental remediation activities. Attention is mainly focused on the presence of heavy metals and on the possible interaction with test organisms. Chemical analyses of the residual matrix and leaching tests showed that the concentration of heavy metals is always below the legislation limits. Biological acute tests (with Lepidum sativum, Vicia faba and Lactuca sativa) do not emphasize adverse effects to the growth of the plant species, except the bioassay with V. faba, which showed a dose-response effect. The new developed chronic bioassay test with Spartium junceum showed a good adaptation to stress conditions induced by the presence of the mined landfill material. In conclusion, the conducted experimental activities demonstrated the suitability of the material to be used for different purposes. PMID:24412012

Masi, S; Caniani, D; Grieco, E; Lioi, D S; Mancini, I M

2014-03-01

162

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

Adel Badri

2011-09-01

163

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka

2011-05-01

164

Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ?70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m (PM??) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM?? emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. PMID:22054578

Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

2012-01-01

165

Interoperability Using Lightweight Metadata Standards: Service & Data Casting, OpenSearch, OPM Provenance, and Shared SciFlo Workflows  

Science.gov (United States)

Under several NASA grants, we are generating multi-sensor merged atmospheric datasets to enable the detection of instrument biases and studies of climate trends over decades of data. For example, under a NASA MEASURES grant we are producing a water vapor climatology from the A-Train instruments, stratified by the Cloudsat cloud classification for each geophysical scene. The generation and proper use of such multi-sensor climate data records (CDR's) requires a high level of openness, transparency, and traceability. To make the datasets self-documenting and provide access to full metadata and traceability, we have implemented a set of capabilities and services using known, interoperable protocols. These protocols include OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, Open Provenance Model, service & data casting technologies using Atom feeds, and REST-callable analysis workflows implemented as SciFlo (XML) documents. We advocate that our approach can serve as a blueprint for how to openly "document and serve" complex, multi-sensor CDR's with full traceability. The capabilities and services provided include: - Discovery of the collections by keyword search, exposed using OpenSearch protocol; - Space/time query across the CDR's granules and all of the input datasets via OpenSearch; - User-level configuration of the production workflows so that scientists can select additional physical variables from the A-Train to add to the next iteration of the merged datasets; - Efficient data merging using on-the-fly OPeNDAP variable slicing & spatial subsetting of data out of input netCDF and HDF files (without moving the entire files); - Self-documenting CDR's published in a highly usable netCDF4 format with groups used to organize the variables, CF-style attributes for each variable, numeric array compression, & links to OPM provenance; - Recording of processing provenance and data lineage into a query-able provenance trail in Open Provenance Model (OPM) format, auto-captured by the workflow engine; - Open Publishing of all of the workflows used to generate products as machine-callable REST web services, using the capabilities of the SciFlo workflow engine; - Advertising of the metadata (e.g. physical variables provided, space/time bounding box, etc.) for our prepared datasets as "datacasts" using the Atom feed format; - Publishing of all datasets via our "DataDrop" service, which exploits the WebDAV protocol to enable scientists to access remote data directories as local files on their laptops; - Rich "web browse" of the CDR's with full metadata and the provenance trail one click away; - Advertising of all services as Google-discoverable "service casts" using the Atom format. The presentation will describe our use of the interoperable protocols and demonstrate the capabilities and service GUI's.

Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E.

2011-12-01

166

The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. PMID:23324038

Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

2014-01-01

167

Analysis of some technological problems for large surface coal mines in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some production-technical problems in Chinese large surface coal mines were analyzed. The integration of mining and reclamation operations can shorten the period for land rehabilitation and increase the reclamation ratio of the land, being a key factor for reclamation work in large surface coal mining areas. To recover the remaining coal in the side slope walls of surface mine by use of underground coal mining method can increase coal recovery rate and mine economic effect. Open cast method by dragline stripping technology is suitable for a number of large coal fields which are favorable for surface mining. Therefore, great attention should be taken in design and construction work for future surface mine development. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Shang, T.; Cia, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Li, K. [China University of Mining and Technoloyg, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral and Safety Engineering

2005-03-01

168

Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia  

Science.gov (United States)

Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event: rainfall depth, rainfall intensity in fifteen minutes and in two hours, peak discharge, runoff coefficient, dry time duration before the event and flood duration. The calculation of suspended sediment yield (SSY) at different time scales gives an evaluation of the pollution delivered to the creeks and lagoon and of the water management and sediment trap efficiency. An extreme rainfall event (December 25th, 2011) of 500 mm in 26 hours yielded downstream more suspended sediment than all the floods of the previous monitored period. This highlights the threshold effects in runoff and erosion response in these open mining areas.

Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

2014-05-01

169

An application of the analytic hierarchy process in equipment selection at Orhaneli open pit coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equipment selection is one of the most important factors in open pit design and production planning. Equipment selection also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, equipment selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by a systematic and logical approach to assess priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) can be used by decision-makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of a loading-haulings system using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open pit coal mine located Orhaneli, in western Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve group decision making in selecting equipment that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and that using the proposed AHP model can reduce the time taken to select optimal equipment.

Bascetin, A. [Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining and Engineering Dept.

2004-09-01

170

Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines "Kolubara", Serbia - risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and (40)K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines "Kolubara" and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. PMID:24360863

Duraševi?, M; Kandi?, A; Stefanovi?, P; Vukanac, I; Sešlak, B; Miloševi?, Z; Markovi?, T

2014-05-01

171

Landslide phenomena in Dashkesan open pit mines and a rational blasting technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reasons for the occurrence of landslides are examined, based on the stability of the surrounding rocks in the presence of a round, cylindrical slip surface. It is recommended that surveying be done to establish the boundaries of dangerous zones and to determine the locations of fracture systems. Finishing off the body of a landslide by exploding a lateral fixing is described, as is finishing off in stages, using lateral progress cycles from the top downwards. Stage blasting of a group of benches with decelaration from the top downwards is also described. A description of preventive measures taken to prevent landslide phenomena in open pit mines is given.

Shrubko, S.A.; Kasumov, F.K.

1980-01-01

172

Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lat...

Nosek S.; Janour Z.; Jurcakova K.; Kellnerova R.; Kukacka L.

2013-01-01

173

Simulation of water recovery and its effect on settlement of open-cut coal mine back-fill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open-cut coal mine back-fill usually undergoes significant settlement due to inundation by surface water infiltration and groundwater rise. The rate and magnitude of inundation settlement is difficult to predict and quantify due to the large number of contributing factors. Consequently, none of the available settlement models and theories has been able to successfully describe the inundation settlement occurring in back-filled open-cut coal mines. A combination of laboratory and numerical simulation of settlement is a valuable means of estimating the inundation settlement of back-fill. The settlements predicted by this simulation are in good agreement with previous observations of inundation settlement in open-cut coal mine back-fill. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

1996-01-01

174

A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

1982-01-01

175

Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad

2014-03-01

176

A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes), but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the might and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. PMID:6293999

Leach, V A; Lokan, K H; Martin, L J

1982-09-01

177

Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

2012-11-01

178

Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas  

Science.gov (United States)

In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and allows an easy exploration of the data to assess its quality and suitability for a specific task. More complex remote sensing image analysis is performed through 3rd party software, which is dynamically integrated into a Web Processing Service (WPS). With an increasing data volume the transmission becomes a key problem for a WPS processing this raster data. Here the Moving Code principle embedded in the 52North WPS implementation (MÜLLER et al. 2013) is applied to engage this problem by flexibly sending processes to the WPS which is directly coupled with the data on a server. The required parameters to control the processing are entered via an interface within the web portal. The Moving Code approach not only contributes to improving web processing for big data sets but it also makes it easier to integrate external executable programs into a WPS. As a result the proposed framework of web services and a web portal successfully combines various open source technologies to integrate all of the gathered vector and raster data as well as the analysis methods developed during the GMES4Mining project into a spatial data infrastructure and to enable access to them through a web browser. References: BENECKE, N., ZIMMERMANN, K., MÜTERTHIES, A., PAKZAD, K., TEUWSEN, S., GARCÍA MILLÁN, V., KATELOE, J., PREUßE, A., PEBESMA, E. & T. PRINZ (2013): GMES4Mining: GMES-based geoservices for mining areas. In: Proceedings of the XV International ISM Congress, September 2013, Aachen, Germany. MÜLLER, M., BERNARD, L. & D. KADNER (2013): Moving code - Sharing geoprocessing logic on the Web. In: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 83: 193-203.

Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

2014-05-01

179

Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of Daxin uranium mine of China - 59073  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Daxin Uranium Mine is an small open pit mine. Its contaminated facilities include open pit 87620 m2, East waste rock pile 71710 m2, west waste rock pile 57828 m2, ore transfer station and industrial fields 9370 m2, building and structure 26600 m2, equipment 246 pieces, plastic conduit 3000 m. steel conduit 2500 m2 and road for transporting ores 1020 m. The integrated decommissioning programmes are presented: uranium extraction, slope stabilization, clear-up, backfill, reshape, covering, re-vegetation, dismantlement/ demolishment, decontamination, re-smelting, waste water treatment. (authors)

2011-09-25

180

An open data mining framework for the analysis of medical images: application on obstructive nephropathy microscopy images.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an open image-mining framework that provides access to tools and methods for the characterization of medical images. Several image processing and feature extraction operators have been implemented and exposed through Web Services. Rapid-Miner, an open source data mining system has been utilized for applying classification operators and creating the essential processing workflows. The proposed framework has been applied for the detection of salient objects in Obstructive Nephropathy microscopy images. Initial classification results are quite promising demonstrating the feasibility of automated characterization of kidney biopsy images. PMID:21096629

Doukas, Charalampos; Goudas, Theodosis; Fischer, Simon; Mierswa, Ingo; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Maglogiannis, Ilias

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Opening up lower levels in deep mines in the central area of the Donbass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A proposal is described to open up lower levels in the V.I. Lenin mine by means of blind shafts sunk from the deepest existing level instead of new shafts sunk from the surface. There are currently 26 mines in the central Donbass producing 18 Mt of coking coal per annum. Seam thicknesses are 0.6-1.7 m, inclinations are 45-70, maximum working depth 980 m and temperature at 1000-1100 m is 36-39 C. In 1982 plans were put forward to open up the 1080 m level involving deepening 2 shafts and constructing new winding gear, during which time 65% of production would be lost. It was alternatively proposed to sink a new shaft from the surface, but this would take 10 years and cost 22.4 million rubles and would also weaken existing shafts. The new proposal of sinking a blind shaft from the deepest existing level would cost 6.4 million rubles, take 5 years, would require no new surface buildings and would not disturb existing shafts.

1985-12-01

182

Empirical valuation of a process to homogenize brown coal properties at storage yards of the Belchatow open pit mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method of investigating the process of homogenizing brown coal properties at storage yards of the Belchatow open pit mine are described and the results are discussed in detail. The estimated values of the degrees of inhomogeneity and homogeneity of the brown coal are given, the latter being the quality coefficient of the investigated process.

Lazowski, A.

1986-08-01

183

29{sup th} international trade fair for construction machinery, building material machines, mining machines construction vehicles and construction equipment - bauma; 29. Internationale Fachmesse fuer Baumaschinen, Baustoffmaschinen, Bergbaumaschinen, Baufahrzeuge und Baugeraete - bauma 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 19. and 25. April 2010 the latest technologies from the fields of open-cast mining, deep mining, tunnel construction, preparation and conveying technology, geology, geophysics, exploration and consulting were introduced to the international public of ''bauma 2010''. The fair was thus the international meeting point for the entire mining and construction industry above and below ground for the third time. (orig.)

Gutberlet, Karsten [VGE Verlag GmbH - Verlag Glueckauf, Essen (Germany); Ipp, Benjamin [Inst. fuer Maschinentechnik der Rohstoffindustrie (IMR), RWTH Aachen (Germany)

2010-06-15

184

Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

1982-01-01

185

Air quality status of an open pit mining area in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation presents the assessment of ambient air quality carried out at an open pit coal mining area in Orissa state of India. The 24-h average concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM, particles of less than 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were determined at regular interval throughout one year at 13 monitoring stations in residential area and four stations in mining/industrial area. During the study period, the 24-h and annual average SPM and RPM concentrations exceeded the respective standards set in the Indian ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) protocol in most of the residential and industrial areas. However, the 24-h and annual average concentrations of SO2 and NO(x) were well within the prescribed limit of the NAAQS in both residential and industrial areas. A management strategy is formulated for effective control of particulate matter at source and other mitigative measures are recommended including implementation of green belts around the sensitive areas. PMID:15952529

Chaulya, S K

2005-06-01

186

Environmental management of large scale open pit mining operations with special reference to Northern Coalfields Limited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India`s coal production from open pit mines rose to 202.2 mt in 1995-96 and is forecast to rise further. Northern Coalfields Ltd., has developed the production of coal from the Singrauli coalfield but had to implement strict environmental control to minimise damage to an area where the population is largely tribal and economically and socially weak. The paper describes the successful environmental and social mitigation measures implemented in and around the area. Those include reclamation of spoil dumps for afforestation, measures to minimise emissions and noise emitted from heavy vehicles and to control coal dusts, treatment of water pollution, and rehabilitation of families within core activity areas. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs., 9 photos.

Sen, S.K. [Northern Coalfields Limited (India)

1997-12-31

187

Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

188

Recovery of Zircon from Investment Casting Molds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bureau of Mines conducted physical and chemical beneficiation studies on three samples of waste investment casting molds to devise a method to liberate and recover zircon. Rod mill grinding, autogenous attrition grinding, and caustic leaching were lib...

C. W. Smith T. O. Llewellyn

1985-01-01

189

Data Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

Data Mining, also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases, is a process used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. This first website (1) provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki (2). This website from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (3) describes a project involving the development of new algorithms that will be applied to the creation of two large-scale databases to be used to "enable insight into government efficiency and the flow of scientific ideas." This white paper (4) provides a nice educational resource for Data Mining. If you are inspired to try your the process, the Weka Machine Learning Project from Waikato University (5) offers open source software that can be used for data mining tasks. KD Nuggets (6) posts articles on Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Genomic Mining, Web Mining that range from the serious to the silly, along with other resources. For a brief history of data mining and related fields, visit this website (7). Finally, The Data Mine website (8) is an excellent place to venture into further explorations on Data Mining.

190

Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Kukacka, L.

2013-04-01

191

Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

Jurcakova K.

2013-04-01

192

Cast iron - a predictable material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer? world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

Jorg C. Sturm

2011-02-01

193

Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An article of manufacture is described comprising a cast iron container having an opening at one end and a cast iron plug; a first nickel-carbon alloy fusion weldable insert surrounding the opening and metallurgically bonded to the cast iron container at the one end of the container; a second nickel-carbon alloy insert metallurgically bonded to the cast iron plug located within the opening and surrounded by the first insert the inserts being jointed by a fusion bond in the opening without heating the cast iron container to an austenite formation temperature thereby sealing the interior of the container from the exterior ambient outside the opening; the nickel-carbon alloy containing about 2 to 5 w% carbon; and both the nickel-carbon alloy insert and the cast iron container have a microstructure containing a graphite phase

1987-01-01

194

The most acidified Austrian lake in comparison to a neutralized mining lake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated two mining lakes located in the north of Lower Austria. These lakes arose 45 years ago when open cast lignite mining ceased. The lakes are separated by a 7-m wide dam. Due to the oxidation of pyrite, both lakes have been acidified and exhibit iron, sulphate, and heavy metal concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in circumneutral lakes. The water column of both lakes is divided into two layers by a pronounced chemocline. The smaller mining lake (AML), wi...

Moser, Michael; Weisse, Thomas

2011-01-01

195

Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor. PMID:24310366

Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson

2014-03-01

196

Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from spontaneous combustion and low temperature oxidation in open cut coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion at open cut coal mines are potential sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There are, however, few measurements on which estimates of these sources can be based. Consequently their contribution to the total GHG emissions for open cut coal mining is only poorly quantified. This paper describes, briefly, low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion in coal and presents recent field measurements, at coal fields in the Hunter Valley and Bowen Basin in Australia, of the emission rates of carbon dioxide, methane and total non-methane hydrocarbons. The paper also describes an attempt to develop a methodology for GHG emission estimation, based on the field measurements. 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Carras, J.N.; Day, S.; Saghafi, A.; Williams, D.J. [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology. North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

2001-07-01

197

Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

1996-02-01

198

A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

2005-01-01

199

A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality.

Castendyk, Devin N. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)]. E-mail: d.castendyk@auckland.ac.nz; Mauk, Jeffrey L. [Geology Department, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Webster, Jenny G. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

2005-01-01

200

Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64°?N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine. PMID:23315154

Søndergaard, Jens

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Casting Titanium and Zirconium in Zircon Sand Molds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A zircon sand molding process was developed by the Bureau of Mines for static casting small titanium or zirconium shapes. Castings with unfinished weights up to 3.5 kg (7.7 lb) were produced in an inductoslag furnace and castings up to 7 kg (15.4 lb) were...

J. L. Hoffman M. L. Transue R. A. Beall R. K. Koch

1977-01-01

202

The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate [...] highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

van Rensburg, D.; Melis, L..

203

Environmental protection of uranium mines and mills in India: regulator's perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mining and milling involves mining of the uranium ore from underground or open cast mine and chemically processing of the mined out ore to recover the uranium values. The storage of excavated waste rock, the disposal of radium containing mine water to water bodies, the venting out of radon containing mine exhaust to the open atmosphere constitute the environmental radiological hazards from a uranium mine. After chemical processing of the ore in a mill, the bulk of the radioactivity originally present in the ore along with the added chemicals finds its way in the mill tailings. Therefore, it warrants adequate safety measures for protection of the environment from the adverse effects of chemicals and radioactivity. These safety aspects of the uranium mines and mills and the impact on the environment are reviewed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), the national regulatory body of India. This paper discusses the regulatory framework, regulatory issues associated with uranium mines and mills and the safety stipulations laid down during the consenting process of the new projects so that the environment around uranium mine and mill is adequately protected. (author)

2010-05-13

204

Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

2009-01-01

205

Multi-temporal analysis and mapping of coastal erosion caused by open-mining areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coastal zones are exposed to erosion due to natural and human-induced activities around the world. The land use of the coastal zone in the northern part of Istanbul, Turkey, has been changing due to open-pit coal mining begun in 1980. The objective of this study is to determine the changes that occurred in a selected coastal zone by utilizing interpretations of multi-temporal LANDSAT satellite data. Satellite images of the zone taken during the years 1984, 1992, and 2001 were transformed to the universal transverse mercator (UTM) coordinate system, and 17 bands of images for each of these years were interpreted using layer-stack method. A new red, green, and blue (RGB) image including infrared band of each year was created. These findings show that 304.7 ha area of sea was filled with soil between years 1984 and 1992. However, the total area filled between 1984 and 2001 was only 67.7 ha, due to the fact that 237.0 ha was removed by coastal erosion after year 1992.

Kaya, S.; Sertel, E.; Seker, D.Z.; Tanik, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty for Civil Engineering

2008-07-01

206

?Relation of loess units and prehistoric find density in the Garzweiler open-cast mine, Lower Rhine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Auf der Basis einer detaillierten Lössstratigraphie wurden auf dem Lössplateau des westlichen Niederrheins von einer Abbauwandgesamtfläche von 11.000qm die Anteile der wichtigsten Lösseinheiten berechnet. Darin nimmt der Brabant-Löss (spätes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS 2) 45% Anteil ein, also nahezu die Hälfte des vorhandenen Lösses, der Hesbaye-Löss (frühes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS2) etwa 5%. Ein Viertel des Lösses (25%) geht an den Keldach-Löss (Älteres Hochwürm, MIS4), nur wenig...

Holger Kels; Wolfgang Schirmer

2011-01-01

207

?Relation of loess units and prehistoric find density in the Garzweiler open-cast mine, Lower Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Auf der Basis einer detaillierten Lössstratigraphie wurden auf dem Lössplateau des westlichen Niederrheins von einer Abbauwandgesamtfläche von 11.000qm die Anteile der wichtigsten Lösseinheiten berechnet. Darin nimmt der Brabant-Löss (spätes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS 2 45% Anteil ein, also nahezu die Hälfte des vorhandenen Lösses, der Hesbaye-Löss (frühes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS2 etwa 5%. Ein Viertel des Lösses (25% geht an den Keldach-Löss (Älteres Hochwürm, MIS4, nur wenig (1,5% an den Rheingau-Löss (MIS 5. Dem Prä-Eem-Löss gehört das letzte Viertel (24% desgesamten Lösses. Eine statistische Suche nach prähistorischen Funden erbrachte 131 paläolithische Knochen und Artefakte, die stratigraphisch genau zugeordnet werden konnten. Die Hauptmasse der Funde gehört den beiden Stadien MIS4 und MIS2 an – bemerkenswerterweise zwei kalten Perioden. Das Fehlen interglazialer Funde – solche sind vom übrigen Lössplateau durchaus bekannt – wird der starken periglazialen Abtragung und Einebnung in Plateauposition zugeschrieben. Die vorliegenden Funde belegen erstmals lokale Jagdaktivität während feuchter Perioden im Stadium MIS4. Ob die Funde aus dem MIS2 autochthon sind oder aus älteren Schichten aufgearbeitet wurden, muss offen bleiben.

Holger Kels

2011-02-01

208

How to get more cast per blast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is no clearcut agreement on what values to assign to the various blasting factors to make a cast successful. The experiences of mines which have used blast casting profitably, however, provides some conclusions that improve an operator's efficiency. A series of recommendations has been produced by comparing the generally poor results of a number of mines with calculated results. It was found that mines were using powder factors that were too low, and that angled blast holes and sequential triggering of blasts would improve results. 16 references.

Grippo, A.P.

1984-12-01

209

Tasks and mode of action of the mining office of the city of Karl Marx Stadt to guarantee the public safety around residual open mines in respect of engineering geological aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author refers to the value of residual open mines as ecological refuges in our intensively utilized and cultivated landscape as well as to the structural and administrative attachment of the State Mining Inspection Office. The legal fundamentals of the work of the Mining Offices are presented. Moreover the author describes the engineer-geological work for the detection of hazards and for their limitation. The management of these problems in terms of effective and economical steps to guarantee public safety is and will be problematical. 4 refs.

Juelich, R.

1989-01-01

210

Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

2002-01-01

211

Mine waste location by satellite imagery. Open file report 30 May 80-18 Dec 82  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the potential for utilization of satellite observations for remote sensing of mine waste disposal areas. Four study sites consisting of metal and nonmetal mining areas in different climatic and physiographic regions of the contigous United States were used in the investigation. The mine waste disposal sites consisted of mining of phosphates in Florida, copper in Arizona, silver in Idaho, and coal in West Virginia. Landsat satellite multispectral scanner observations were used together with aerial photographs, ground surveys, U.S. Geological Survey maps, and other ancillary information. Landsat digital data were categorized using automated supervised classification algorithms and an image analysis system.

Anuta, M.A.; Bahethi, O.P.

1982-12-01

212

The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

1984-04-09

213

A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks  

Science.gov (United States)

Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.

2009-01-01

214

Various effects of mining on groundwater quality and resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining excavations intercept groundwater flow, often down to considerable depth. Indeed groundwater frequently causes serious difficulties during the development and operation of mines, particularly where the style of the permeability is such that sudden high rates of inflow occur in an apparently random fashion. While the effects are quite evident on the mining environment, the effects of the large distortions on the natural pattern of groundwater flow orientation and chemical quality, on the environment at large, are often longer term and more suitable. Measurable effects, and sometimes contamination, may take some time to appear. While deep-mining of most types usually has the most noticeable involvement with groundwater, quarrying and open cast mining can also cause conspicuous effects on groundwater level and quality as observed in the Tobago mineral sand mining area of New South Wales Australia. In this case the main problem was elevated concentrations of dissolved iron. In Germany, opencast mining of lignite causes extreme drawdown of surrounding groundwater levels, one effect of which is to make the abstraction of public groundwater supplies significantly more expensive. More exotic developments such as solution mining have effects on both groundwater and aquifer, but luckily such operations are few at the moment. The most serious and widespread environmental effects of mining however emanate from the disposal or storage of spoil and groundwater tends to be especially badly effected. Geotechnical problems such as subsidence may be a further effect of groundwater abstraction for mine dewatering, and there is much evidence that the lesser degrees of deformation due to mining on the surrounding rocks can enhance permeability. This note briefly reviews the interaction of mining and groundwater with reference to case history data. 6 refs., 2 refs., 1 tab

1994-01-11

215

The coal mining industry in Vietnam and its challenges; Steinkohlenbergbau in Vietnam und seine Herausforderungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The province of Quang Ninh in the north of Vietnam is the most important coal mining region in the country. The NBCC (Nui Beo Coal Company) operates several open-cast mines. Large quantities of overburden have to be removed and dumped in the immediate environment. The creation of these heaps up to 300 m high is accompanied by many environmental problems. In particular ground and surface waters are contaminated by ''acid mine drainage''. Furthermore, large emissions chiefly in the form of dust occur as a result of the working and dumping depending on the season. In addition the stability of the heaps is sometimes greatly endangered. In the German-Vietnamese Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam (RAME) the aspects of coal mining with an effect on the environment are dealt with in various sub-associations and protective measures worked out jointly. (orig.)

Martens, Per Nicolai; Pateiro Fernandez, Jose B.; Ahmad, Shakeel [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I; Cramer, Thomas; Deissmann, Guido [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Fuchsschwanz, Marcus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geotechnik

2010-04-15

216

The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment da...

Fox, D. K.; Hopkins, B. L.; Anger, W. K.

1987-01-01

217

77 FR 16863 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Mapping and Records of Opening...  

Science.gov (United States)

...critical mine infrastructure, such as water, power, transportation, ventilation...taken refuge and identify sites of explosion or inundation potential; they can...explosion or inundations of gas or water. The information is essential...

2012-03-22

218

Water resources modeling for decision support in open-pit lignite mining areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on an introduction to the water problems in the Lusatian lignite region the paper presents different types of models, which have been developed and/or used for the Lusatian lignite mining region. Such models include groundwater flow and transport models (FEFLOW), long-term water resources planning models (GRM) and decision-support model (DSS MINE). The applicability of such models, their advantages, disadvantages, and their role in practical planning and decision making is discussed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Kaden, S. [WASY Institute for Water Resources, Planning and Systems Research Ltd., Berlin (Germany)

1997-08-01

219

Electromagnetic casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electromagnetic casting (EMC) is a technology that is used extensively in the aluminum industry to cast ingots with good surface finish for subsequent rolling into consumer product. The paper reviews briefly some investigations from the eighties wherein models for EMC were developed. Then more recent work is examined wherein more realistic 3D models have been developed, the traditional studies of electromagnetic and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena have been supplemented with research on heat transport, and the stability of the metal free surface has been examined. The paper concludes with three generalizations concerning modeling that may have wider applicability than EMC.

Evans, J.W.; Kageyama, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deepak [Motorola Corp., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Cook, D.P. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States); Prasso, D.C. [Intel Corp., Aloha, OR (United States); Nishioka, S. [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1995-12-31

220

Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured, and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbates this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest. The paper documents the process of conducting a comprehensive literature search for work that has been done in duplicate checking/filtering, narrowing the information to a workable subset, then mining the subset for the techniques, trials, and errors that have been documented. In the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure that was developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information; the paper also provides metrics on results that have been studied in controlled trials and relates that to analyst productivity. Duplicate and Near Duplicate Detection - The AKDS system provides duplicate assessment based in part on the IMatch algorithm devised by Abdur Chowdhury. The algorithm operates by taking a series of normalized 'slices' of terms from a frequency ordered bag of words document and applying the SHA1 hashing function. The process then evaluates the document hashes to identify documents that have similar content and for which subsequent documents do not have any new or unique information. Both the size and offset of the frequency 'slice' that is hashed determine the level of discrimination that is applied. Based on a system's requirements, the identical or nearly identical information (near duplicates) can be kept in the system and clustered; these document clusters can be used as an effective way to minimize how much information is presented to system users. When a user's query returns documents that are members of such a cluster, the most representative or 'best' document may be displayed to the user and the near duplicates would be initially hidden from the user. Conversely, if there is no perceived value in maintaining all of the documents, the near duplicates can also be deleted from the system. This can be accomplished in an automated manner by comparing the number of coinciding hashes while accounting for their slice size and offset in the term frequency based representation from which they were derived. The user may then specify a threshold-based degree of hash matching, above which documents may be automatically rejected. This module is particularly useful for systems that are evaluating large volumes of unstructured textual data such as Internet search engine queries that have a tendency to return the same or similar documents from multiple sources; this module has also proven to be effective in identifying documents where multiple versions have only slight modifications for which the end user would gain little utility beyond the initial document reviewed. Irrelevant Information (Spam) Filtering - The system evaluates document features to identify documents that contain little, if any, utility. This process utilizes the See5 decision tree algorithm developed by Ross Quinlan to determine whether the prevale nt f

2006-10-16

 
 
 
 
221

Subterranean clover enhances production of [open quote]Coastal[close quote] bermudagrass in the revegetation of lignite mine spoil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lignite mine spoils in Texas are commonly revegetated with [open quote]Coastal[close quote] bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Legumes have been overseeded in bermudagrass in reclamation programs in Texas, but information regarding establishment and persistence in mine spoil is limited. A field study investigated the effects of fertilization and inoculation with Rhizobium spp. on subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.; subclover) establishment and production in mine spoil and to assess the effect of subclover on Coastal bermudagrass. Subclover seed was broadcast into a 6-mo-old bermudagrass sod in October 1986. Individual plots were fertilized, or left unfertilized at the beginning of each clover season (Sept.-Oct.); however, all plots were fertilized at the start of each grass season (April-May). Although native rhizobia was present in plots, inoculation with a commercial, multi-strain inoculant increases subclover forage production (100%) and total N and P yields of subclover. The overseeding of subclover into the bermuda grass sod increased grass production and total N and P yields later in the first year and in the second season. However, inoculation of subclover had little effect on subsequent grass production. There was an apparent positive benefit of P fertilization on subclover and bermudagrass production. The effect of subclover on grass production was apparent by the end of the first grass season, and it became even more evident in the second year. The results showed that subclover was established and maintained for at least two seasons in a bermudagrass sod on reclaimed lignite spoil, and that the clover benefited the subsequent grass crop when fertilized with P and K, apparently by providing extra [open quotes]fixed[close quotes] N for grass production. 22 refs., 5 tabs.

Harris, P.A. (Kansas Agriculture Experimental Station, Hays (United States)); Zuberer, D.A. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

222

Conceptual investigation of a management information system for underground coal mines. Open file report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The final report presents the results of an investigation into the development of a Management Information System (MIS) for underground coal mines. The intent of the project was to examine the information issues, various design aspects, and associated application concerns of an integrated monitoring MIS, such as the impact of this technology on safety. The work performed on the contract used mine ventilation as a prototypical example and concludes that a KBES formulation of an integrated monitoring MIS for coal-mine management is feasible and desirable. The report is presented in five chapters and six appendices and describes ventilation MIS system requirements, the formulation of a knowledge-based expert system (KBES) structure to implement the integrated ventilation monitoring MIS system, and the health and safety implications of the system.

Kohler, J.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Koharchik, G.; Bhaskar, R.

1986-12-01

223

Safety and health in underground mine waste disposal. Open file report Oct 81-Dec 82  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of a comprehensive investigation of the impact of underground mine waste disposal on the health and safety of miners are presented. Information was gathered through an extensive search of U.S. and foreign literature and personal communication with professionals in private industry and government. All conceivable health and safety hazards directly or indirectly related to underground mine waste disposal are analyzed, catagorized, and ranked on an industrywide basis. Positive health and safety effects are analyzed and ranked in a similar way. Both potential and known hazards and positive impacts are included.

Schmid, J.P.; Schmidt, M.R.; Colaizzi, G.J.; Whiate, R.H.

1982-12-01

224

[An occupational physiology study at the Asarel Mining and Milling Works. The evaluation of the work load in the basic jobs in an open-pit mine].  

Science.gov (United States)

This occupational physiology study was undertaken within a wider applied-research framework designed to evaluate the occupational environment and its impact on workers at "Asarel" Mining and Milling Works. Analysis of activities showed physical effort (dynamic and static) to be the major problem at the open pit, though varying in extent between jobs (most prominent for blasters and bulldozerists). Nervous/emotional strain, while not leading, was sustained mostly by diggers and blasters, followed by drivers. Organization of work (shift regimen, no regulated breaks, stepwise schedule of days off work) was hardly appropriate and did not allow for recovery. Interviewed workers qualified working conditions as extremely unfavorable; they disapproved with the physical factors of the occupational environment, the workplace, the state of machines and devices, and remuneration for work performed. Exertion from work, assessed by pulse rate and energy expended, was moderate for most activities of diggers, drivers, and drillers. The burden of physical effort was great for blasters at the open pit and for diggers and drillers performing extra repair operations (pulse rate, 100-110 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.2-5.5 Kcal/min). Hardest and least attractive was the work of blasters at stores for explosive materials (pulse rate, 120-141 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.5-6.5 Kcal/min). These adverse factors of labor activities might produce a negative impact on worker health and performance, leading to occupational impairment of their musculoskeletal system, to labor-related disorders of their cardiovascular and nervous systems, etc. Preventive measures are thus necessary to limit physical exertion, optimize the work-and-rest regimen; also, there is a need for conducting pertinent preventive medical examinations, providing social measures (conditions for transportation, rest, nutrition, sports), etc. PMID:8524750

Mincheva, L; Khadzhiolova, I; Deianov, Kh

1995-01-01

225

Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

226

Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single large blocks of coal vary widely. Although the strengths of coal cores increase slowly at high levels of confining stress, the coal in Sunnyside No. 1 Mine is slightly stronger in laboratory tests than coal in Sunnyside No.3 Mine. The coal in No.1 Mine probably can store larger amounts of stress than coal in the No.3 Mine, which may account for the apparently greater number of violent bumps in No.1 Mine. The strength of coal, and its ability to store stress before failure, may correlate in part with chemical composition, particularly with the amounts of benzene ring compounds in vitrain; coal with relatively large amounts of benzene ring compounds is stronger than coal with lesser amounts of these compounds. Alternatively, the chemical composition of coal may affect its response to stress. Increasing contents of kaolinite in coal appear to reduce its compressive strength at low confining stresses, resulting in easy failures of pillars and ribs in mine openings. Applications of the geologic factors outlined in this report, carefully coupled with advanced modern engineering methods, have markedly reduced the hazards from coal mine bumps and related failures of mine openings at Sunnyside. Similar studies probably could aid in reducing bump-related hazards in other coal mining areas.

Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

1993-01-01

227

Production begins at Pecket, Chile's first large scale, open-pit coal operation and world's southernmost mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes Chile's first large-scale, open-pit subbituminous steam coal mine and mechanized bulk loading marine terminal. The Pecket coal project will save money in energy production and oil imports. The mine is a classic truck and shovel operation and it will be possible to dump the overburden into mined out sections of the pit, although initially it will be used to form windbreaks and a pad in the coal stockpile area. Crushed coal is carried by conveyor to the radial ship loader. Dust accumulation and excessive coal drying is avoided by crushing only when a ship is docked. The mine was begun after feasibility studies, market considerations and characterization of deposits. Investment and financing organizations are listed. The Pecket operation should be just the beginning of development of coal reserves in the Magellan area. 3 figs.

O' Neil, T.

1988-01-01

228

Cooperation with emerging countries in advanced mining training programmes involving an industrial partner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources (CESMAT) is a Higher Education Institution in France to train and perform the upper management personnel working in mining, throughout the world. The program of study is comprised of seven separate year long study programs, a network of some 2 300 former students from a hundred countries with whom regular contact is maintained, and a permanent think tank unit that concentrates on the training of mining sector managers. The guiding principle for CESMAT is that cooperation and training hold a special position in French policy concerning relations with mineral producing countries. Seven programmes have been progressively developed on minerals prospecting and processing, resources evaluation, open cast mining techniques, mining economics, impact of mining on environment, management of closure of mining activities and the role of the State. These programmes bring together ten to twelve engineers or geologists who have already had professional experience. For non-French speakers, a language-training phase of three months may precede the programs. The following specializations are currently being offered: - Ore Prospecting and Mineral Processing - Nancy School of Geology - CESEV, - Treatment of Industrial Evolutions and Changes - CESTEMIN, - Geostatistical Analysis of Ore Deposits - Paris School of Mines - C.F.S.G., - Open Cut Mining Operations - Paris School of Mines - CESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining Projects - Paris School of Mines - CESPROMIN, - Mine Safety and Environments - Ales School of Mines - CESSEM, - Mines Public Administration - Paris School of Mines - CESAM. Teaching is done both by Institute professors and by public and private sector industry experts. These instructors rely heavily on technical visits and on practical case studies. One specific example is the student research project mentored by specialists in the field, which is oriented directly to circumstances in the student's country. The participation of students in each program is attested to by means of an official certificate. In some cases, this may be accompanied by a diploma from the host school. Tuition for the courses, which runs (around 15 000 Euro/year) may be covered by CESMAT for students affiliated with public or private mining organizations from foreign, mineral producing countries. Scholarships are also available from French organizations, sources in the student's country of origin, or international organizations such as the EU, UNESCO, UNPD and others. CESMAT has also built partnerships with mining companies (VALE in Brazil, CODELCO in Chili and AREVA in France) which contribute to sponsor trainees for living cost during their studies in France. AREVA is developing uranium exploration and mining in many countries and has signed cooperation agreement with the government of these countries to provide them technical and financial support for capacity building in partnership with the French school of mines. (author)

2009-06-22

229

Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

1978-01-01

230

Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

S. Pietrowski

2008-10-01

231

An overview of some geological and hydrological studies conducted by the SECV for open cut brown coal mining in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of a selection of geological investigations, with an emphasis on the hydrogeological studies which are conducted by the State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV) for the planning and operation of brown coal open cut mines in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria. 29 refs., 4 figs.

Brumley, J.C.

1987-01-01

232

Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github.com and stackoverflow.com. These popular, developer-centric websites have powerful application-programmer interfaces, and follow an open-data policy. In this regard, these sites offer a web-accessible reservoir of information that can be tapped to study questions such as: which open source software projects are eminent in the various geoscience fields? What are the most popular programming languages? How are they trending? Are there any interesting temporal patterns in committer activities? How large are programming teams and how do they change over time? What free software packages exist in the vast realms of related fields? Does the software from these fields have capabilities that might still be useful to me as a researcher, or can help me perform my work better? Are there any open-source projects that might be commercially interesting? This evaluation strategy reveals programming projects that tend to be new. As many important legacy codes are not hosted on open-source code-repositories, the presented search method might overlook some older projects.

Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

2013-04-01

233

Landscaping and ecology in the lignite mining area of Maritza-East, Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study on the future mining concept of the open-cast mine Trojovano-North, Bulgaria which is presented in this paper was prepared in close cooperation with Bulgarian specialists. It particularly takes into account ecological aspects. The mining concept clearly shows that economy and ecology can be combined usefully. The advantages are, among others, reduced occupation of land, avoiding of river and village translocation and the efficient use of chernozems for topsoil. Various landscape elements are used for the improvement of the ecological conditions in this intensively agricultural area. The illustrated measures show that the mining impacts on nature can be limited, minimized and balanced. It is possible to win the required public acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1996-09-01

234

Bacterial community composition in the water column of a lake formed by a former uranium open pit mine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining of pyrite minerals is a major environmental issue involving both biological and geochemical processes. Here we present a study of an artificial lake of a former uranium open pit mine with the aim to connect the chemistry and bacterial community composition (454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes) in the stratified water column. A shift in the water chemistry from oxic conditions in the epilimnion to anoxic, alkaline, and metal and sulfide-rich conditions in the hypolimnion was corresponded by a strong shift in the bacterial community, with few shared operational taxonomic units (OTU) between the water layers. The epilimnetic bacterial community of the lake (~20 years old) showed similarities to other temperate freshwater lakes, while the hypolimnetic bacterial community showed similarity to extreme chemical environments. The epilimnetic bacterial community had dominance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The hypolimnion displayed a higher bacterial diversity and was dominated by the phototrophic green sulphur bacterium of the genus Chlorobium (ca. 40 % of the total community). Deltaproteobacteria were only represented in the hypolimnion and the most abundant OTUs were affiliated with ferric iron and sulfate reducers of the genus Geobacter and Desulfobulbus, respectively. The chemistry is clearly controlling, especially the hypolimnetic, bacterial community but the community composition also indicates that the bacteria are involved in metal cycling in the lake. PMID:22622763

Edberg, Frida; Andersson, Anders F; Holmström, Sara J M

2012-11-01

235

Greenhouse gas emissions from low-temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion at open-cut coal mines in Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation of waste coal in open-cut coal mines represents a potentially large source of greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, emission fluxes of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from spoil piles and waste coal dumps measured at 11 mines in the Hunter Valley and Bowen Basin in Australia are presented. The data displayed considerable scatter, which is consistent with the inhomogeneous nature of spoil pile material and permeability of surfaces. Despite the scatter, emissions were able to be classified into three broad categories according to the intensity of the spontaneous combustion present in the material. Average emissions ranged from about 12 kg CO{sub 2}-e yr{sup -} {sup 1} m{sup -} {sup 2} to 8200 kg CO{sub 2}-e yr{sup -} {sup 1} m{sup -} {sup 2}, depending on the intensity of the spontaneous combustion. There was also, within the scatter of the data, an approximately linear trend of increasing emission flux with increasing surface temperature. A key finding of the research is that the emission rates of greenhouse gases from spoil piles where there is no spontaneous combustion, but only low-temperature oxidation of coal and coal waste, are similar to the emission rates due to biological activity from vegetated surfaces. However, further research is required to quantify the degree to which spoil piles that have no spontaneous combustion contribute to the anthropogenic atmospheric CO{sub 2} burden. (author)

Carras, John N.; Day, Stuart J.; Saghafi, Abou; Williams, David J. [CSIRO Energy Technology, PO Box 330, Newcastle NSW 2300 (Australia)

2009-04-01

236

Coal dust explosion in opencast coal mine attached with underground opening - a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a case study for finding the causes of coal dust explosion that occurred during the blasting of coal by large diameter slurry explosive with detonating cord and detonators in the top section of the KOCP mine of Bharat Coking Coal Ltd. It also deals with the investigations carried out into various safety aspects associated with the usage of non-permitted explosives for blasting in coal. It is concluded that all the three large diameter explosive - Aviprime, NCN-500 and NCN-600 studied were of incendiary nature, even at a low charge weight level, towards coal dust atmosphere. When opencast coal mines are worked in multi-sections, stipulated safety norms should be meticulously observed e.g. stone dusting, precautions to see that there arises no situation of blown through shot while blasting in upper or overlaying coal seams. 10 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Singh, R.R.; Paul, R.K.; Roy, S.K.; Ram, P.; Bhattacharyya, M.M. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

2001-07-01

237

Using sensitivity analysis and visualization techniques to open black box data mining models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we propose a new visualization approach based on a Sen- sitivity Analysis (SA) to extract human understandable knowledge from su- pervised learning black box data mining models, such as Neural Networks (NN), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and ensembles, including Random Forests (RF). Five SA methods (three of which are purely new) and four mea- sures of input importance (one novel) are presented. Also, the SA approach is adapted to handle discrete variables and to aggregate mult...

Cortez, Paulo; Embrechts, Mark

2013-01-01

238

SONDY : An Open Source Platform for Social Dynamics Mining and Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes SONDY, a tool for analysis of trends and dynamics in online social network data. SONDY addresses two audiences: (i) end-users who want to explore social activity and (ii) researchers who want to experiment and compare mining techniques on social data. SONDY helps end-users like media analysts or journalists understand social network users interests and activity by providing emerging topics and events detection as well as network analysis functionalities. To this end, the ...

Guille, Adrien; Favre, Ce?cile; Hacid, Hakim; Zighed, Djamel Abdelkader

2013-01-01

239

Engineering application of thrust block analysis in slope stability problems in open pit mines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The classical limit equilibrium methods are suspected to be ineffective in predicting the potential for highwall failure in many instances in coal mines around the world. Slope engineers have for many years recognized a block thrust failure mechanism for slope failures, but little work had been done before 2000 to explain the actual mechanisms which must be responsible for the failure. The main reason for this is that limit equilibrium methods implicitly assume rigid blocks, and the result...

Karparov, K. N.; Handley, M. F.

2009-01-01

240

Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote Sensing Systems Department at Space Research and Technology Institute thematically oriented spectrometric system TOMS working in the 0.4-0.9 ?m range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). For proper comparison between the data obtained from the different sources mentioned spectral transformations such as normalized difference and rationing data for two wavelengths were applied in order to avoid misinterpretation. Statistically significant dependence between the various spectral transformations and the quantitative content of the iron in the different type of compounds was established. The achieved results provided evidence that methodology used could be extended to other regions of the country polluted by the mining activities and should be also tested in the region of the copper and zinc extraction. In the next step of our research we intend to use the results obtained by the multitemporal analysis of the satellite and ground-based multispectral data for the same and the similar regions of interest.

Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Mining technology, economics and policy 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented under the following headings: opening session; cooperation in developing mining technology; delivering mining's message; dynamics of minerals supply; management/employees-speaking together; mining and the environment; mining and trade; mining law - what now ; money matters for mining; people, products and profitability; safety and health - perceptions and promotion; technology needs for mining for the 21st century and the future of Western coal.

1993-01-01

242

Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the footwear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticide...

Katia Kvitko; Eliane Bandinelli; Henriques, Joa?o A. P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Paula Rohr; Da Silva, Fernanda R.; Naye Balzan Schneider; Simone Fernandes; Camile Ancines; Juliana da Silva

2012-01-01

243

The application of data mining methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining.

Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

244

Geologic conditions affecting coal-mine ground control in the western United States. Open file report, October 1984-December 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive investigation was conducted into geologic features affecting coal-mine ground control in western underground coal mines. The study involved a literature search for data on geologic features affecting coal-mine ground control, western coal geology associated with specific geologic features, and MSHA roof-fall information. Data on mining operations were collected through interviews with mining and research personnel. Selected mines were toured within 10 coal fields in Utah and Colorado. This final report summarizes western coal depositional environments and geological structures and describes mining and geology for the coalfields studied. All observed geologic features and conditions related to coal-mine ground control are described in terms of their depositional or structural origin, morphology, diagnostic characteristics, associated adverse mining conditions, and roof-control methods. Photographic documentation of these geologic features is included.

Laird, R.B.; Amundson, A.L.; Colaizzi, G.J.; Bithell, L.M.

1985-12-01

245

Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

2007-12-01

246

Open pit mine planning and design. Volume 2 - CSMine software package  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CSMine, a user-friendly mine planning and design software developed for use in illustrating the principles involved, forms the basis for volume 2 of the textbook and reference book. It includes a program disk, a description of an actual property (a copper prospect in the Globe-Miama District of Arizona) with the corresponding drillhole and topography data set, a tutorial and users guide for CSMine, and a tutorial, users guide and reference manual for the related vario C geostatics package. (The two-volume set has an ISBN: 90-5410-183-0).

Hustrulid, W.; Kuchta, M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

247

Pattern-Based Web Mining Using Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, many data mining techniques have been proposed for fulfilling various knowledge discovery tasks in order to achieve the goal of retrieving useful information for users. Data mining techniques include association rule mining, frequent itemset mining, sequential pattern mining, maximum pattern mining and closed pattern mining. However, how to effectively exploit the discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of Web mining. In this study, we compare these data mining methods based on the use of several types of discovered patterns. The performance of the pattern mining algorithms is investigated on the Reuters dataset RCV1 for completing Web mining tasks. The experimental results show that the closed pattern methods, such as SCPM and NSCPM, have better performance due to the use of pruning mechanism in the pattern discovery stage.

Sheng-Tang Wu

2013-04-01

248

Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

Nichiporuk, A.

2007-09-15

249

Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

1997-07-01

250

Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

1997-01-01

251

Emerging trend of uranium mining: The Indian scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Singhbhum Thrust Belt of Jharkhnad, a low-grade large tonnage deposit at Banduhurang is being planned for exploitation soon. After the initial evaluation and computerised orebody modeling, open-pit mining method has been considered as the most favourable option. Uranium orebody explored at Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh have been planned for development by both open cast and underground mining methods. A large sandstone hosted uranium deposit at Domiasiat, spread over two distinct blocks has been found within a depth of about 45m. Pre-mining activities are also set to begin in a few more deposits where the exploration is in advance stage and some reserves have already been identified. A large uranium reserve has already been established within the carbonate host rock at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh. New mining technologies are emerging where all the strenuous mining activities are automated. Development of cutting technology in place of conventional drilling and blasting, use of electronic detonators, environment friendly explosives etc are some the areas of future development. New mines have been planned with deployment of energy efficient electro-hydraulic equipment. The only uranium ore processing plant of the country at Jaduguda, in operation since 1968 is based on acid leaching technology. The final product of this plant is magnesium diuranate or yellow cake. Jaduguda plant has been expanded twice to treat the ore of Bhatin and Narwapahar mines. In the coming years, ore of Bagjata mine will also be fed to this plant. A new plant at Turamdih is being set-up to treat the ore planned to be produced from Turamdih and Banduhurang mines. The flowsheet of this plant is similar to that of Jaduguda. Another new plant at Seripalli has been planned in Andhra Pradesh to treat the ore of Lambapur-Peddagattu mine. A plant near the mine site at Domiasiat in Meghalya will be constructed with some modified process technology because of different ore characteristics. Followed by conventional grinding, the thickened slurry of sandstone will undergo two stages of leaching - weak acid (WAL) and strong acid (SAL). Resulting filtrate will be clarified, concentrated in ion exchange and precipitated along with magnesia as magnesium diuranate. A plant based on alkali-leaching technology is being proposed at Tummalapalle to treat the carbonate bearing host rock. Resolving the process know-how for alkaline leaching of Tummalapalle ore is now the emerging area for research and development. The uranium ore in India are generally of low grade, which necessitates production and processing of large quantity of ore. This results in generation of large volume of solid waste and effluent. The operating underground uranium mines of the area are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings generated during the ore processing. As the mining work progresses, the void created are sequentially backfilled utilizing about 50% of the deslimed neutralized tailings. Only the finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is stored in tailings pond separating it from the public domain. The only tailings pond of the country at Jaduguda with natural high hills on three sides and a very sound impoundment arrangement, has been progressively expanded to accommodate the tailings generated from Jaduguda plant. Tailings management at new sites: New underground mines in Singhbhum will have provisions of backfilling utilizing coarser fraction of tailings. The tailings pond proposed at Turamdih will be designed in line with Jaduguda tailings pond. The tailings pond at Seripalli is being envisaged with thickened tailings disposal system. The proposed open cast mine at Domiasiat is being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings as backfill material after artificial lining at the pit bottom. The finer fraction of the tailings will be impounded in the tailings pond to be constructed adjacent to the plant. The new tailings ponds are being envisaged with sound impermeable artificial liner at the floor to pr even

2005-06-20

252

A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for source and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of automatic textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This paper describes is a multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morpho-Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence, cycling through all the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Once reduced to its Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form, referred to its language independent entry inside a sectorial multilingual dictionary, each tagged lemma is used as descriptor and possible seed of clustering. The automatic classification of results is made by Unsupervised Classification schema. By Multilingual Text Mining, analysts can get an overview of great volumes of textual data having a highly readable grid, which helps them discover meaningful similarities among documents and find any nuclear proliferation and safeguard related information. Multilingual Text Mining permits to overcome linguistic barriers, allowing the automatic indexation and classification of documents, whatever it might be their language, letting international agents cut through the information labyrinth. (author)

2007-08-01

253

Open pit blasting in uranium ore mining of SDAG Wismut. Pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reports blasting work in the abandoned open pits at Culmitzsch and Lichtenberg, dealing primarily with the techniques of so-called detonation-wave-shielded blasting, blasting at elevated rock temperatures, and blasting at site with fractured rock. (orig./HP)

1994-10-01

254

Special thermite cast irons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

2008-01-01

255

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

256

Mining technology and policy issues 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

1983-09-12

257

Bench stability in open pit mines : a methodology for jointed rock masses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The methods used to determine the overall gradients of the slopes in open pit workings aim to sufficiently eliminate all risk of failure on a scale comparable wich the pit walls. For this the slopes musc be made shallow gradual and reinforcing measures must generally be applied. Most often these consist of ensuring the drainage of the slopes and in limiting the effects of blasting (reinforcement is generally too costly in the case of very high slopes and deep planes of failure).

1992-01-01

258

The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

1998-01-01

259

Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

Zeinab Aliabadian

2013-07-01

260

Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

Marcos E. Hartwig

2013-09-01

262

Quaternary biostratigraphical, geological and prehistorical evidence of the open mine 'Schoeningen' near Helmstedt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glaciofluvial sand is overlain by sediments of the Elsterian moraine, extending to about 28 m. Late Elsterian silty layers derive from three interstadial phases. Offleben I- and II-Interstadial, Esbeck-Interstadial, which have been unknown until now. They are separated one from another by coarse grained sediments, which are sterile. Limnic-telmatic deposits, reaching about 6 m of depth, comprise vegetational zones of late Holsteinian age. The following silty layers, which contain partly more organic material, show first subarctic conditions (Buschhaus-Stadial), followed by an interstadial climatic improvement (Missaue-Interstadial). Both newly discovered units are directly connectable with the Late Holsteinian deposits and are overlain by sediments of an Early Saalian morain, solifluidal transported material and alluvial loess. The Eemian integlacial sediments consist of a loose kind of Travertine, organic silts and peat. Silty layers alternating with peaty horizons are characteristic elements of the Early Weichselian. The Late Weichselian is represented by a peat of Alleroed age and alluvial loess of the Younger Dryas. The Holocene sequence in the investigated are comprises alluvial loess layers with meadow chernozems of Boreal age, marl and peat horizons, which are finally overlain by a river clay in which the recent soil is developed. Since 1983 still it has been possible to excavate aproximately 250 000 m/sup 2/ of prehistoric settlement area in the forefront of the opencast mining operation. During the course of these excavations the outlines of many houses and graves documenting the periods from the beginning of the Neolithic up until the early Iron Age were investigated.

Urban, B.; Thieme, H.; Elsner, H.

1988-01-01

263

Coal mining industry on the Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 1973 and 1985, coal production in the Philippines increased from 39 000 tpa to 1.26 million tpa. Private investors were attracted by changes in the concession procedure; this helped to lower the country's dependence on imported petroleum. Nearly half the annual production comes from a modern open-cast mine on Semirara Island. The next in productivity is the Malangas Coal Corp. mine on Mindanao Island of the Philippine National Oil Company, which is worked by longwall caving. 40% of the country's production is from small mines worked by simple methods and with high productivity losses. 2.4 million tonnes of coal were consumed in 1985, 50% of which were imported. By 1995, coal consumption is expected to equal 4.8 million tpa, with a domestic production of 3.75 million tpa. With the government's decision of abandoning the 620 MW nuclear power plant project on Batan Island, coal will become a still more important factor in Philippine power supply. (orig./MOS).

Bomasang, R.B.; Bandelow, F.K.; Casupang, D.M.

1987-07-23

264

Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbate this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest (referred to as Spam in this document). This paper focuses on the identification and removal of duplicate, near-duplicate information and Spam in the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy. To that end, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information. In this paper, these concepts are referred to as duplicate and near duplicate detection and irrelevant information (Spam) filtering. (author)

2007-08-01

265

Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage

1991-01-01

266

Design procedures for coal mine tunnels. Open file report 1 Oct 79-31 Dec 82 (final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although coal mine tunnels such as the main haulageways or roadways are the lifelines of coal mines, little attention has been paid to them in the United States in terms of preconstruction planning and design. This report summarizes the results of a 3-year research project aimed at improving the design procedures for coal mine tunnels. A new design approach was developed for this purpose and roof-support design charts were prepared for mine tunnels and their intersections. Analytical studies, 'base friction' model experiments, and in situ rock stress measurements were performed during this research.

Bieniawski, Z.T.

1983-03-31

267

Solution mining economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field of application of in-situ solution mining of uranium is described and areas of competition with open pit and underground mining identified. The influence of high interest rates and dollar inflation on present values and rate of return is shown to be minimized by low capitalization and short construction lead times typical of in-situ leaching ventures. A scheme of three major project account divisions is presented and basic parameters necessary for mine planning are listed. 1979 cost ranges and useful methods of estimation of capital and operating costs are given for the in-situ uranium mining method

1980-03-12

268

Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes such kind of relationship of a well established course at the Technical University of Denmark using statistical methods. Keyphrase extraction tool was used to find the main topics of students' comments, based on which the qualitative feedback was transformed into quantitative data for further statistical analysis. Application of factor analysis helped to reveal the important issues and the structure of the data hidden in the students' written comments, while regression analysis showed that some of the revealed factors have a significant impact on how students rate a course.

Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

2013-01-01

269

Deep mining at Coal Cliff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the NSW mines facing increasing difficulties is Coal Cliff, Australia's deepest and oldest underground coal mine. The owners have implemented a strategy that gives the mine a chance to stay open for up to three years, provided productivity targets are met; however, production problems are compounded by geotechnical difficulties resulting from the working depth of 520 m. The Wongawilli method which is a variant of room and pillar mining is implemented.

1988-01-01

270

Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war es, die durch spektrometrische Erfassungsmethoden der Fernerkundung erhaltenen Ueberfliegungsdaten mittels konventioneller petrographischer, mineralogischer und geochemischer Analytik zu kalibrieren, um der Bergbauindustrie eine wirkungsvolle Methode zu liefern, welche es ermoeglicht, die riesigen Kippenareale des Tagebaubergbaus mit geringem zeitlichen und personellen Aufwand aussagesicher zu klassifizieren, die Sachverhalte mit hoher Genauigkeit raeumlich zuzuordnen und so einer geeigneten Nutzung zuzufuehren. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag dabei in der Charakterisierung der hydro- und geochemischen Veraenderungen in den Kippensedimenten des im mitteldeutschen Raum suedlich von Leipzig aufgeschlossenen Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau. Die Erfassung dieser Daten spielt in Hinblick auf eine Rekultivierung und Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials der Tagebaulandschaft eine entscheidende Rolle. (orig.)

Wiegand, U.

2002-07-01

271

Methane emissions from coal mining - a perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane is one of the significant ingredients in the greenhouse phenomenon. This paper presents an outline of the current evaluation of methane emissions from coal mining in Australia for both underground and open cut mines and also post-mining emissions. The magnitude of the methane emissions from coal mining is compared to other significant sources.

Williams, D.; Saghafi, A.

1993-01-01

272

Fatigue Assessment of Cast Components : Influence of Cast Defects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 This thesis is on the fatigue assessment of cast components with special attention to defects. The primary material in view is nodular cast iron, but also cast steel is considered. However, the fatigue behaviour is in principle valid for general use on other cast metals.The first two papers is about general cast material behaviour in fatigue loading. The materials considered are a high strength alloyed cast steel and a medium strength nodular cast iron. It is concluded that cast defects is ...

2008-01-01

273

Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

1994-04-24

274

Graphite formation in cast iron  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

Stefanescu, D. M.

1985-01-01

275

Special thermite cast irons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

Yu. Zhiguts

2008-07-01

276

Solidification of heavy castings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality of the casting material is influenced by great numbers of material properties, metallurgical treatment, and particular solidification conditions too. In the case of solidification of heavy castings the properties and quality of the casting material are considerably changed in consequence of running segregation phenomena, worsen metal feeding conditions, and microporosity formation etc. It can even result in defaulting the required strengths and plasticity of the casting material. The ...

2011-01-01

277

A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Generally speaking, up to 80% of electronic data is textual and most valuable information is often hidden and encoded in pages which are neither structured, nor classified. The availability of huge amount of data available in the open sources leads to the well-identified nowadays paradox: an overload of information means no usable knowledge. Besides, open source texts are - and will be - written in various native languages, but these documents are relevant even to non-native IAEA speakers. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for type (scientific article, patent, free textual document), source (Internet/Intranet, database, etc), protocol (HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, GOPHER, IRC, NNTP, etc) and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of focused crawling, textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This task undoubtedly requires remarkable efforts. This poster describes is a multimedia content gathering, multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. Its focused crawling aims to crawl only the subset of the web pages related to a specific category, in order to find only information of interest and improve quality in documents gathering. The focused crawling algorithm builds a model for the context within which topically relevant pages occur on the web, typically capturing link hierarchies within which valuable pages occur, as well as model content on documents that frequently co-occur with relevant pages. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morphological, Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. The languages supported are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, but the system can be fully integrated on demand with other languages such as Arabic, Russian, simplified Chinese, etc. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence and, for each word, the Slot Grammar parser draws on the word's slot frames to cycle through the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Each slot structure can be partially or fully instantiated and it can be filled with representations from one or more statements to incrementally build the meaning of a statement. This includes most of the treatment of coordination, which uses a method of 'factoring out' unfilled slots from elliptical coordinated phrases. The parser - a bottom-up chart parser - employs a parse evaluation scheme used for pruning away unlikely analyses during parsing as well as for ranking final analyses. By including semantic information directly in the dependency grammar structures, the system relies on the lexical semantic information combined with functional application rules. The detected terms and phrases are then extracted, reduced to their Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form. Once referred to their language independent entry inside the sectorial multilingual dictionary, they are used as descriptors for documents and possible seeds of clustering. Then final system users can search document by keywords combined by boolean operators, or by typing their own query in Natural Language, expressed using normal conversational syntax. Traditional Boolean queries, while precise, require strict interpretation that can often exclude information that is relevant to u

2006-10-16

278

Casting and Molding  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

279

Coal mine gas utilisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses the current status of coal mine gas utilisation in Germany. The Renewable Energy Law pays 6.6-7.7 euros per kWh for electricity generated from gas from coal mines. Coal mine gas such as has to be removed for safety reasons from open mines and coal mine gas from shutdown mines is well suited for use within engine-operated cogeneration plants. The gas engine feeds a generator and the electric energy created is fed into a public network. G.A.S. Energietechnik has developed a membrane system that enables use of gas from active mines with a methane concentration of up to 25%. Coal mine gas from the abandoned Minister Achenbach is being used for cogeneration; Minegas GmbH has been formed as a joint venture for the realisation of Germany's coal mine gas project. In May 2001 Minegas GmbH started operation of its first three cogeneration plants at the former Greisenau mine in Luenen, feeding electricity into the town's network. 2 tabs.

Schieke, N. [G.A.S. Energietechnik GmbH (Germany)

2001-12-01

280

Evaluation and monitoring an on-going landslide in volcanic sediments - a case study for an open pit mine, Turkey: Part 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TKI (Turkish Coal Enterprises) has been operating an open pit lignite mine since late 1970s in a town called Can which is situated in the north-west of Turkey. There is a ceramic factory, which is one of the biggest in Europe as far as capacity is concerned, operating very close to the lignite open pit mine. In 1999, a catastrophic earthquake demolished not only the cities and towns located on the Northern Anatolian fault zone but also triggered a landslide on the ceramic factory site benches of the Can lignite open pit. The susceptibility of artificial slopes to failure during earthquakes is a well-known event. This paper summarises geological, geomorphological and hydrological surveys of the area and the work done to define the slip surface by means of inclinometer surveys. Geotechnical parameters collected from all local geological formations were used later in the slope stability analysis. Details of the studies undertaken since the beginning of the landslide are given in this paper.

Onur, A.H.; Konak, G.; Koca, Y.; Yenice, H.; Kose, H.; Karakus, D. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mineral Engineering

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Cast blasting pay dividends for Spring Creek coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spring Creek Coal is a low-sulfur, high-btu subbituminous coal mine located in southeastern Montana. Currently, operating at an annual rate of 11 million tons per year, Spring Creek has an accumulated production of more than 130 million tons of coal during its mine life. Faced with increasing stripping ratios, limited overburden loading capacity, and intense competition, in 1998 Spring Creek began investigating the viability of cast blasting. A considerable amount of time and effort had been invested in designing and preparing the first blasts at Spring Creek. Cast blasting was demonstrated as an efficient and economical system to move overburden and uncover coal at a faster rate. Spring Creek foresees a bright future for cast blasting at the mine. Casting will continue in areas where overburden depths derive the economics needed to justify the extra initial investment, but the Spring Creek team is not content with the status quo - they are now exploring casting low strip-ratio overburden in the 100 ft range, believing there is a positive risk to return even at low overburden depths. With the existing geology, pit geometry, and continuous improvement philosophy, cast blasting will continue to be an integral part of Spring Creek's continued success. 1 tab. 2 photos.

Wachendorf, J. [Kennecott Energy Co. (USA)

2002-02-01

282

Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P_2O_5 and K_2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

1989-01-01

283

Mining project of the Taja Margaritas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of the study of a mining project designed to determine the feasibility of open-pit mining in uranium deposits along the Pena Blanca mountain ridges in Taja Margaritas, is presented. (author)

1980-01-01

284

High quality casting materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The paper briefly presents results of the new developed high quality cast materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following materials are: hypereutectoid cast steel with various microstructure modular graphite obtained in as-cast condition (raw state, ductile cast iron of bainite-martensitic carbides structure obtained in a raw state, aluminum bronzes and silumins with additives of: chromium, molybdenum, wolfram, vanadium.Findings: These alloys are characterized primarily by significant mechanical properties and high wear resistance. It was also discussed getting of layer products by combination of steel or cast iron using alphinated layer with silumin.Practical implications: The paper discusses the high quality cast alloy, layer products and presents the high quality casting materials in the point of view principles of materials selection.Originality/value: The above problem is shown in the background of “Rules of material selection” as well as a model of production system in company.

S. Pietrowski

2010-11-01

285

International mining news  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These columns report on news from the mining industry activities: discovery and identification of ore deposits, technological research and development studies, projects and development of ore exploitations, expansion of existing mines, rehabilitation and re-opening of sites, production stopping, environmental regulation, metal industry developments, and economical and political news. This issue reports on some news about the project of exploitation of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit (Saskatchewan, Canada) and about the re-opening of the Stepnogorsk uranium processing plant in Kazakhstan. Two short news deal with the project of exploitation of lignite deposits in Barsingsar (Rajasthan, India) and in Garzweiler (Germany). Several short notes deal with coal mining: start up of the exploitation of the Bontang mine in Indonesia (Kalimantan), expansion of Goedehoop mine in South Africa, of the Burton mine in Australia (Queensland), common development of the neighboring deposits of Oreganal and Correjon Centrale in Colombia, revival of the coal production at Moatize (Mozambique) and closure of the oldest Japanese mine of Miike, and denial of subsidies for the exploitation of Spanish and German coal mines. (J.S.)

1997-09-01

286

Case studies and analysis of mine shafts incidents in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Entry to mine workings is normally gained by means of vertical shafts or horizontal or inclined tunnels called adits. Other mining objects such as fan drifts and wheel pits are often associated with mine shafts. Such mining objects may or may not have been filled, wholly or partially, or otherwise sealed to prevent entry when the mine was abandoned. Nowadays mine entries are usually adequately protected on abandonment to prevent accidental ingress. Many earlier mine entries remain open, howev...

Lecomte, Ame?lie; Salmon, Romuald; Yang, W.; Marshall, Alec; Purvis, M.; Prusek, S.; Bock, Slawomir; Gajda, L.; Dziura, J.; Munos Niharra, Agustin

2012-01-01

287

Web Mining Functions in an Academic Search Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with Web mining and the different categories of Web mining like content, structure and usage mining. The application of Web mining in an academic search application has been discussed. The paper concludes with open problems related to Web mining. The present work can be a useful input to Web users, Web Administrators in a university environment.

Sivaramakrishnan, Jeyalatha; Balakrishnan, Vijayakumar

2009-01-01

288

Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclaimed mine soils (RMS which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control plots were arrang- ed in managed pine forests on natural sites in the surrounding area. The results shows high Carbon accumulation in RMS, estimated on 16.77 Mg?ha-1 in poor (oligotrofic soils on Quaternary sands on sand quarry and up to 65.03 Mg?ha-1 on external waste heap after Sulfur sur- face mining exploitation on Quaternary sands mixed with Tertiary clays. These results were very similar to natural forest soils on control plots. Potential rate of Carbon sequestration in RMS was estimated on 0.73 (on the poorest sa- ndy soils on quarry to 2.17 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on potentially abundant sandy-clayish soils on Sulfur waste heap, and 5.26 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on Tertiary sands substrate soils on lignite mining waste heap. In conslusion the average Carbon accu- mulation in RMS was estimated on 41 Mg?ha-1 and Carbon sequestration rate was 1.45 Mg? ha-1?yr-1. According to the result of this study and range of post-mining areas reclaimed to forestry in Poland (ca 15000 ha total Carbon accumulation in RMS was estimated on 615 × 103 Mg and potential Carbon sequestration rate in new ecosystems on 21.75 × 103 Mg?ha-1?yr-1. However, the main factors affecting Carbon sequestration and protection in RMS under tree stand were substrate, percentage of clay and silt sized fraction, in order to formulate guidelines for sustainable management of post-mining ec- osystem, further study must be continue for be- tter understanding.

Wojciech Krzaklewski

2010-10-01

289

Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões / A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sort [...] e a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and qua [...] lity targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

Francisco César Rodrigues de, Araújo; Marcone Jamilson Freitas, Souza.

290

Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sorte a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática.This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and quality targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

Francisco César Rodrigues de Araújo

2011-03-01

291

Questions of geological mine surveying services at shale mines. Voprosy geologo-marksheyderskoy sluzhby na slantsevykh shakhtakh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This collection contains materials on problems and the state of scientific research work at mines and open pits of the Baltic shale basin in the field of geology and mine surveying services. It is intended for mine surveying geologist at shale mines, and will be useful to workers in the coal industry and at nonferrous metallurgy mines.

Allik, A.M.; Kozhukhov, M.P.

1981-01-01

292

Forest ecosystem development in post-mining landscapes: a case study of the Lusatian lignite district  

Science.gov (United States)

The restoration of surface mining landscapes requires the (re)creation of ecosystems. In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generated spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Amelioration and rehabilitation measures have been developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. However, it is still not clear whether these approaches are sustainable. This paper reports on collaborative research work into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 35 years did not show differences when compared with stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development. For example, soil organism abundance and activity at minesites had already reached levels typical of non-mined sites after about 20-30 years. In contrast, mine soils are very different from non-mined soils of the test region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil organic carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for forest ecosystem development starting at "point zero" on " terra nova".

Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Weber, Edwin

2001-08-01

293

Exploitation study of the ore-body ''Tigre III''. Open-cut design and study of high-recovery underground mining method for the Tigre III ore-body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper first carries out an analysis for the purpose of determining the limiting sterile/ore ratio for open-cut and underground mining in the specific filling case of Tigre III. In this connection it considers a high-recovery method of underground mining (involving the use of cemented hydropneumatic chambers), a general mine plan covering access, transport, ventilation and removal of ore as well as auxiliary services relating to the Tigre III ore body as a whole. The costs of this method of mining are determined for purposes of comparison with the open-cut method. Similarly, the limiting sterile/ore ratio is taken as the basis for an analysis of different types of pit and a design suited to the limiting ratio is adopted. As a final solution the paper favours a method which combines open-cut and underground mining. It proposes the use of the open-cut method up to the limiting ratio (in accordance with the pit design chosen) and of underground method (by the filling chamber method) for the rest of the area. (author)

1979-10-04

294

Farco Mining makes productivity gains using emulsion-Anfo blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes the use of a 40:60 emulsion: Auto blend for overburden removal at Farco Minings surface coal mine near Laredo, Texas. The use of this explosives mixture maximized the explosive per foot of blasthole, increasing overburden removal to 925,000 buy per month and improving mine productivity. Increases in powder factors produced further increases in cast yardage and mine production. 2 figs.

Lewis, N. [Nelson Brothers, Inc., Parrish, AL (United States)

1995-02-01

295

Determination of box-cut area of the Collolar open pit of Afsin-Elbistan lignite mine (TEAS); Afsin-Elbistan linyit isletmesi (TEAS) Collolar acik isletmesi ilk kazi noktasinin belirlenmesi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the optimum box-cut area of the Collolar open pit of Afsin Elbistan Lignite Mine that would supply the lignite demand of the B-power station, which will have a future capacity of 4 x 340 MW, was determined by means of computer programming. 305 drill logs recovered at Collolar were evaluated and the coal body analysed using geostatistical modelling. In addition, the boundary of the optimum open pit mine that would supply the lignite demand for 30 years was determined. 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Dag, A.; Anil, M.

1996-12-31

296

Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas.In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, have been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

Lásara Fabrícia Rodrigues

2012-09-01

297

Exploitation of coal deposits inaccessible by conventional mining techniques. 38. annual meeting on May 11, 1988. Die Nutzung von Kohlelagerstaetten, die sich den bekannten bergmaennischen Gewinnungsverfahren verschliessen. 38. Jahresfeier am 11. Mai 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Throughout the world, including West Germany, there are large coal reserves that are inaccessible by the conventional techniques of underground or open-cast mining, e.g. because of their great depth. The economic feasibility of exploiting these deposits must be assessed by scientific studies in the most diverse fields, e.g. geology, exploration geophysics, coal petrography, coal chemistry, deep drilling technology, microbiology, mining law, environmental protection, and regional planning. The general aspects of utilizing these reserves are gone into, and initial success in in-situ coal gasification is reported.

Batzel, S.

1988-01-01

298

Measurement of methane emissions in the plume of a large surface coal mine using open-path FTIR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives results of a portion of an overall study to: (1) develop a methane measurements methodology and protocol that can be used at large surface mining operations, (2) conduct a field trial of this methodology and protocol and identify methodology modifications that are warranted based on field trial results, and (3) estimate the total emissions from the mine where the field trial was conducted. Specifically, the paper describes results of a study to develop a measurements methodology for surface mines and to field test the methodology at an actual surface mine. The research conducted to examine alternative measurements approaches and to develop the methodology and protocol is described first. A brief discussion of the preliminary results from the field trial is also presented. Emissions from a variety of human activities may be contributing to the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and other trace gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons are among the greenhouse gases that have been identified as contributing to global climate change phenomena. The significance of methane as a greenhouse gas is a relatively recent concern. Current global emission estimates indicate that coal mining contributes 25-45 Tg of methane per year, or about 10% of total global anthropogenic methane emissions

1991-01-01

299

High integrity automotive castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

2007-07-01

300

Die casting plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A successful method of die casting plutonium is described. The method is an improvement over conventional pour-cast techniques in that the plutonium can be solidified more rapidly. One advantage of rapid solidification is that cast structures can be improved. Another advantage is that the plutonium has little time to react with its surroundings, so experimenters can choose from a larger selection of die construction materials

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

New casting coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this project the results of the researches about the influence of the four types of ceramic coatings of the evaporating patterns (on the basis of talc, mullite, zircon and cordierite) on the talc of the Lost Foam process and the castings quality are presented. For the valid evaluation of the results, some parallel examinations of the quality of castings obtained by casting in sand were carried out. (Original)

2003-09-24

302

Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S. [Inst. of Crystal Growth Berlin (Germany)

1995-08-01

303

Mining in low coal. Volume 1. Biomechanics and work physiology. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the job demands associated with low coal mining, (2) to survey the anthropometry, strength, and aerobic capacity of low coal miners to determine if they differ from the U.S. population, and (3) to recommend, on the basis of available information, optimal job and work station design for low coal mining. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. Back strength for male and female miners was significantly lower than the industrial worker population. This can be one of the contributing factors of low back problems in mining. Shoveling, timbering, and helpers tasks were physiologically demanding activities. However, because of the frequent stoppage of work, adequate rest was usually available. If work stoppage is corrected, then better work and rest schedules are essential.

Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.; Caddel, D.K.

1981-11-01

304

Low glare luminaire for thin seam mining. Open file report 29 Sep 78-28 Feb 82  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work places of an underground coal mine are required (30 CFR 1719) to be illuminated while self-propelled equipment is used. Permissible machine-mounted systems have been developed and applied satisfactorily to many mining operations. However, some low-seam and thin-seam equipment has been difficult to illuminate because reliable, direct current (dc) systems and compact, low output, low-glare luminaires were not available. This program resulted in the design and prototype construction of compact, low-glare luminaires and alternate current (ac) power systems, particularly suited to resolving illumination problems on low- and thin-seam mining equipment. Design objectives were based on enhancing the prospects for thin-seam illumination solutions through definition of a product that could challenge markets enjoyed by higher glare luminaires and through reduction of technical risks associated with any new product development as well as the MSHA certification process.

Parker, J.R.; Hahn, W.F.

1982-10-01

305

Research to determine the feasibility of utilizing employee-assistance programs for the mining industry. Open File Report (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report examines the feasibility of employee-assistance plans for the coal industry. Three issues are examined in detail. First, the prevalence of off-the-job factors such as alcoholism, drug abuse, and marital problems are examined in a sample of miners from the eastern, midwestern, and western underground coalfields. Then, data are presented from examination of the link between these off-the-job factors and behaviors critical to the mines such as absenteeism and turnover. Lastly, the effectiveness of the major employee-assistance program in underground coal mining - the HELP Program was examined. The report contains recommendations on whether coal-mining companies should implement these programs and how these programs should be designed.

Goodman, P.S.

1986-01-01

306

Multi-layers castings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and...

2010-01-01

307

Solidification of heavy castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quality of the casting material is influenced by great numbers of material properties, metallurgical treatment, and particular solidification conditions too. In the case of solidification of heavy castings the properties and quality of the casting material are considerably changed in consequence of running segregation phenomena, worsen metal feeding conditions, and microporosity formation etc. It can even result in defaulting the required strengths and plasticity of the casting material. The work deals with changes of chemical composition and changes of mechanical properties in places with a long solidification time corresponding to them.

A. Zadera

2011-01-01

308

Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

2001-03-01

309

Psychophysical investigations of discomfort and disability glare from underground coal mine illumination systems. Open File Report, May 1980-July 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature search was conducted to identify current light-control technology and hardware that may be applicable on underground lighting systems to minimize disability and discomfort glare. No research dealing specifically with mine lighting was found, but abstracts on research considered potentially applicable are included in the report. Information on several commercial light-control products for use in controlling glare are also included. Vision tests conducted on 137 mine personnel to determine their discomfort and disability glare sensitivity indicate their sensitivity to disability glare is about the same as the general population.

Whitehead, K.L.; Lindahl, P.; Vincent, R.; Crouch, C.

1983-10-01

310

78 FR 23782 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gibellini Mine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...tons of ore and waste rock would be mined annually and extracted using conventional open pit mining methods of drilling and blasting over the approximately seven-year production phase of the mine life. The proposed project includes mining...

2013-04-22

311

Method and mold for casting thin metal objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

2014-04-29

312

Real -time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozów ci??arówek o ró?nej ?adowno?ci w kopalni odkrywkowej  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world's open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck's travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine's conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.

Ahangaran, Daryoush Kaveh; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andy; Foster, Patrick

2012-10-01

313

ESTIMATION OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A SURFACE COAL MINE USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROSCOPY AND MODELING TECHNIQUES  

Science.gov (United States)

A new measurements methodology has been developed which allows the rapid and efficient measurement of methane (CH4) emissions from surface coal mines. An initial field trial of this methodology has been completed, and results from the field trial revealed that emissions from one ...

314

Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues related to uranium fuel cycle should contact the Technical Cooperation Department of the Agency. Member States interested in knowing more about the Agency's programme on uranium and thorium fuel cycle technologies including mining, milling, purification and environmental issues should contact: Mr. Chaitanyamoy Ganguly

2006-01-01

315

Extensibility in data mining systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The successful application of data mining techniques ideally requires both system support for the entire knowledge discovery process and the right analysis algorithms for the particular task at hand. While there are a number of successful data mining systems that support the entire mining process, they usually are limited to a fixed selection of analysis algorithms. In this paper, we argue in favor of extensibility as a key feature of data mining systems, and discuss the requirements that this entails for system architecture. We identify in which points existing data mining systems fail to meet these requirements, and then describe a new integration architecture for data mining systems that addresses these problems based on the concept of {open_quotes}plug-ins{close_quotes}. KEPLER, our data mining system built according to this architecture, is presented and discussed.

Wrobel, S.; Wettschereck, D.; Sommer, E.; Emde, W. [Inst. of Applied Information Technology, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

1996-12-31

316

Color Casts Detection and Adjustment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new method for detection and adjustment color cast. Using the neural network to detect color cast and classify images into three subsets: no cast, real cast, and intrinsic cast (image presenting a cast due to a predominant color that must be preserved). We have a database of 700 images which are downloaded from internet or acquired using various digital still cameras. We randomly select 350 images from the database for the neural network learning, and the others are for ...

Sheng-Fuu Lin; Huang-Tsun Chen; Tsung-Han Lin

2011-01-01

317

Multi-layers castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

J. Szajnar

2010-01-01

318

ANÁLISIS DE EXCAVACIONES EN LA MINA SUBTERRÁNEA EL TORO POR MEDIO DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS / FINITE ELEMENTS ANALYSIS FOR UNDERGROUND OPENINGS AT EL TORO MINE.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la mina subterránea El Toro se explota roca calcárea para la fabricación de cemento en la Planta El Cairo, de Cementos Argos S. A. El método de explotación es conocido como realce por subniveles o sublevel stoping , que consiste en la abertura de cámaras mediante perforación y voladura con explos [...] ivos, cada cámara excavada tiene dimensiones de 20m de ancho, 45m de altura y longitudes entre 80 y 120 m, separadas por pilares intermedios de 10 m de espesor, definiendo conjuntos denominados Bloques de explotación. Este artículo presenta el proceso realizado con el fin de modelar y evaluar la distribución de los desplazamientos y de los esfuerzos resultantes de la compleja interacción de los Bloques de explotación. La modelación numérica se realizó con fundamento en la mecánica del medio continuo y por medio de la técnica de los elementos finitos; inicialmente se obtuvo el modelo geomecánico del terreno rocoso y posteriormente el modelo numérico incluyendo las excavaciones. Se evaluaron varias configuraciones geométricas de los Bloques de explotación proyectados, y se concluyó con una propuesta de diseño que ofrece estabilidad del terreno intervenido y permite extraer el mayor volumen posible de reservas minerales. Abstract in english El Toro underground mine is located at Antioquia, Colombia and exploits a limestone deposit through sublevel stopping mining method. The mine was designed with five exploitation levels with 65m high, 20m wide and 120 m long stopes sets. In this work is presented the process to obtain the assessment [...] of the mechanical behavior of the rock mass under stoping effects, the geomechanical and numerical models were obtained and several stopes configurations were evaluated including existing and projected openings. The work concludes with geometrical modification that besides to offer stability of ground, allows to extract greater volume of mineral reserves.

ÁLVARO J., CASTRO CAICEDO.; JUAN E., MONSALVE OLIVEROS..

2007-11-01

319

The ancient Chinese casting techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

Tan Derui

2011-02-01

320

Cost and sensitivity analysis for uranium in situ leach mining. Open file report Oct 79-Mar 81  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of an assessment of uranium in situ leach mining costs through the application of process engineering and discounted cash flow analysis procedures. A computerized costing technique was developed to facilitate rapid cost analyses. Applications of the cost model will generate mine life capital and operating costs as well as solve for economic production cost per pound U"3O"8. Conversely, rate of return may be determined subject to a known selling price. The data bases of the cost model were designed to reflect variations in Texas versus Wyoming site applications. The results of applying the model under numerous ore deposit, operating, well field, and extraction plant conditions for Texas and Wyoming are summarized in the report. Sensitivity analysis of changes in key project parameters have also been tested and are included

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Morenci Mine, AZ  

Science.gov (United States)

The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North America's leading producer of copper. In the 1860s, prospectors arrived looking for gold; instead they found copper. Underground mining began in the 1870s, and the first pit was opened in 1939. Phelps Dodge employs over 200 people in the mining and refining operations. Around-the-clock removal of 700,000 tons of rock per day results in production of 382 thousand tons of copper per year. Phelps Dodge is now developing the Safford Mine, about 12 km southwest of Morenci. It will be the first new copper mine in the US in more than 30 years. When production starts in 2008, the Safford Mine will produce 109 thousand tons of copper. This ASTER image uses shortwavelength infrared bands to highlight in bright pink the altered rocks in the Morenci pit associated with copper mineralization. The image covers an area of 21 x 16.9 km, was acquired on July 14, 2007, and is centered near 33.1 degrees north latitude, 109.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

322

Monitoring report of groundwater quality in and around the former Yotsugi open-pit mining site, Ningyo-toge, Okayama, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of groundwater quality from boreholes in and around the former Yotsugi open-pit mining site in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC, have been carried out to estimate extent and quality of contaminated water plume from the buried heap-leaching residue. In this report, data collected from 1979 to 1998 fiscal year were listed and their spatial and time variation of physicochemical parameters, uranium and radium were also summarized. Additionally, groundwater sampler has been improved and analytical method has been modified. Some results from groundwater quality were; 1. Generally, electric conductivity and concentrations of uranium and radium outside of the site tend to lower than one from the inside area. 2. Data from borehole No. 13, installed outside of the site, exceptionally little higher than one from the inside area. (author)

Matsumura, Toshihiro; Takeuchi, Akira; Sato, Kazuhiko; Tsurudome, Koji; Tokizawa, Takayuki [Environmental Research and Development Group, Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

1999-08-01

323

Monitoring report of groundwater quality in and around the former Yotsugi open-pit mining site, Ningyo-toge, Okayama, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of groundwater quality from boreholes in and around the former Yotsugi open-pit mining site in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC, have been carried out to estimate extent and quality of contaminated water plume from the buried heap-leaching residue. In this report, data collected from 1979 to 1998 fiscal year were listed and their spatial and time variation of physicochemical parameters, uranium and radium were also summarized. Additionally, groundwater sampler has been improved and analytical method has been modified. Some results from groundwater quality were; 1. Generally, electric conductivity and concentrations of uranium and radium outside of the site tend to lower than one from the inside area. 2. Data from borehole No. 13, installed outside of the site, exceptionally little higher than one from the inside area. (author)

1999-01-01

324

Morbidity among iron ore mine workers in Goa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out among workers from an open-cast iron ore mine in South Goa with an objective to assess morbidity among these workers. Investigations were carried out at the Occupational Health Service Clinic of the mining company. Nearly 0.6% workers had pneumoconiosis, 3.2% had abnormal spirometry findings, 38.16% had hearing loss and 27.7% had defective vision respectively. The prevalence of other chronic diseases were as follows: diabetes 5.1%, hypertension 8.3%, dyslipidemia 37.5% and polycythemia 12.7% respectively. Since the findings were not compared with the pre-placement records and as most of the workers are young with duration of exposures <10 years, relationship cannot be definitely determined. The study findings are suggesting an association between the occupation in mining with pneumoconiosis, compromised lung function and hearing loss. However for the other finding further analytical studies are required to see for any association. Airborne respirable dust survey and noise monitoring studies also need to be carried out. PMID:24748360

Oliveira, Annet; Cacodcar, Jagdish; Motghare, D D

2014-01-01

325

CASTE FRAMEWORK AT NATIONAL LEVEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caste is an important element of the Indian political process. It is legitimate. Caste has been inequality creating in Indian society. Therefore its influence on power shaping & Policy Making process. In this sense caste element has got sphere of influence in political process. Relationship between Caste & politics has been more eminent. Caste has been influencing on politics & politics has been influenced by caste. Limitation of Dominant caste at national level: dominant caste has been demanding for representation on national level. But their demands were not accepted by forward castes. The forward caste has been controlling National level power. Dominant caste has been controlling the state level power.Hinduvat Framework has Successes but Caste Framework has Failure. ST'S Community is not related to Caste Politics. Caste framework is Failure to inclusion of all backward Caste. Caste framework had not successful to decided Social & Economic Public Policy. Because of this caste framework is empty so it has no capacity to competing with other frameworks. It has own Sense of Political Efficacy but on national level it made no impact.

PRAKASH PAWAR

2013-04-01

326

Clean Metal Casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

327

Clean Metal Casting; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

2002-01-01

328

Liquidation of technological waste by mining method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mining activities are unfavourably influencing the environment. On the other hand known that it is possible to fill-in the mine spaces by waste material of non-mining origin, the technological waste coming from other processing plants. At present time some examples can be found in the coal mines where the inert technological waste is put to the open pit spaces. It is believed that the new legislation will open new possibilities for elimination of some of technological waste by its depositing into abandoned parts of the mine areas. (author)

2002-02-01

329

Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the footwear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of [...] workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p

Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A.P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Rohr, Paula; Silva, Fernanda R. da; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; Silva, Juliana da.

330

RWE Power International RE GmbH - mining services provider worldwide; Die RWE Power International RE GmbH - Bergbaudienstleister weltweit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In their worldwide assignments the experts of RE GmbH must react with flexibility to the problems occurring unexpectedly in extraction and haulage technology present solutions adapted to the customer requirements and - if possible - also render assistance at the site. In the power station sector the employees of Re check the possibilities of improvement at the site and endeavour to minimise any down times of the power station. In the mining sector the mining engineers of this company offer inter alia the planning of open-cast mines according to the type of deposit and the type of conveyor chain. Aspects of the effect on the environment and the subsequent recultivation are taken into account in all planning stages. (orig.)

Rupprecht, O. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Business Development Dept.; Durchholz, R. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Mining Dept.; Ziegler, M. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Mining and Conveying Technology Dept.; Reinartz, E. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Thermal Power Plant Consulting Dept.

2008-06-19

331

A search for strategies for the neutralization of extremely acidic mining lakes - a literature study; Suche nach Neutralisationsstrategien fuer extrem saure Tagebauseen - eine Literaturstudie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a consequence of the closure of many open cast lignite mines and subsequent flooding there will be more than 500 mining lakes in eastern Germany within a few years. Many of these lakes will be extremely acidic as a result of sulfide weathering. The utilization of acidic lakes by man is limited and the effluents from these lakes may impact neutrophilic biocoenoses. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement to develop neutralization techniques for these lakes. In this study, various neutralization techniques and approaches are considered. Their advantages and disadvantages for the neutralization of extremely acidic mining lakes are discussed. All neutralization strategies can be classified into 4 types: (1) chemical neutralization, (2) biological neutralization, (3) electrochemical neutralization and (4) dilution. Besides the diversion of river water, the combination of chemical neutralization and microbial sulfate reduction seems particularly promising. In this article, 116 literature sources are considered. The most important information on 43 selected water neutralization approaches are tabulated. (orig.)

Totsche, O.; Steinberg, C. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany)

2003-07-01

332

Symptomatic stent cast.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

Keohane, John

2012-02-03

333

Special problems in the exploration and operation of loose-rock open-pit mines in developing and threshold countries. Besondere Probleme beim Aufschluss und Betrieb von Lockergesteinstagebauen in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenlaendern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world-wide activities of RHEINBRAUN-Consulting, a RHEINBRAUN AG subsidiary, in the field of open-pit mining technology is reported briefly. As a consulting company, it is concerned with the exploration and assessment of deposits, opening-up feasibility studies, the process of opening-up proper, the installation of required operational infrastructure, the structuring of operation in line-type management, subsequent in-service consulting, handover to operator/project organizer. The author reports experience gained in Asia, Latin America and Southern Europe. Special reference is made to the introduction continuous mining and conveying technology, to technology transfer and mastering of the 'new' technology by the operator/project organizer complete with the necessary planning implications. (MOS).

Gallisch, J.H. (Rheinbraun-Consulting GmbH, Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Projektwesen)

1987-01-01

334

Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

S. Pietrowski

2010-01-01

335

Casting critical components  

Science.gov (United States)

Investment casting is an essential processing route for critical rotating and static aero gas turbine components and for a wide spectrum of high integrity parts. These must perform reliably under arduous operating conditions involving high stresses and, frequently, extremely hostile environments. The advanced technology, in-process controls, rigorous specifications, and stringent testing and inspection procedures required for high integrity investment castings are considered along with some examples of the technological 'spin-off' into diverse industry sectors.

McCallum, R.

1982-06-01

336

Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the 226Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, 222Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated 226Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced 222Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as 226Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on 222Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, 226Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence 222Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on 222Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence 222Rn flux densities considerably

2009-01-01

337

A Winning Cast  

Science.gov (United States)

Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

2001-01-01

338

Estimation of radiation exposure to the population of Arad, following the opening of the 'Sedeh-Zohar' phosphate mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During a national survey of rock phosphate deposits in 1981, a large and rich field was discovered in the vicinity of Arad. This new deposit, known as 'Sedeh-Zohar', is spread over an area of some 100 km2 and has been estimated to contain about 200 million tons of high quality raw material. At the request of Negev Phosphate Ltd., an estimation of the radiation exposure dose to the population of Arad, was undertaken. Rock phosphates in the Negev contain several naturally occuring radioisotopes, mainly uranium (about 150 ppm) and traces of thorium and potassium. The mining operations of these phosphate deposits and their subsequent industrial use will no dout lead to the release of radioactivity into the atmosphere, and some of it may reach the city of Arad. The average annual exposure dose from natural radioactivity has been estimated as 2mSv (200 mrem/y). It was found that the natural background radiation in Arad is at least as high as the overall world average values of 2000 ?Sv/y (200 mrem/y), which includes all possible external and internal exposures. The overall addition of 70 ?Sv/y (7 mrem/y) to the population of Arad, due to the operation of the mining facility at Sede-Zohar, would constitute only about 3.5% more background radiation, within the range of regional fluctuations in the natural background

1988-09-05

339

Mining heritage and housing in Ipswich City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discovery and mining of coal in Ipswich, how byproducts of the coal mining industry are being recycled and also how the coal mining heritage is influencing the selection and design of residences, are discussed in this paper. The geological setting of the coal seams, and the various methods used to mine the deposit, are outlined. Mine workings at first were not much more than surface scrapings, but mining via tunnels from the banks of the river, soon became the main method of extracting the coal. Open cut mining commenced around the 1960s when the use of appropriate earthmoving equipment became economically viable. The open cut mines, which extended down to maximum depths of about 70 metres, were confined to the eastern and north western edges of the basin where the seams outcropped at the surface. Rehabilitation, development over mined areas and recycling of mine byproducts forms the final phase of the mining cycle. The most appropriate use of the land depended on the results of mining studies at the re-zoning or building approval stages. Areas that are unsuitable for conventional slab on ground residences are frequently suitable for heritage type stump structures which have traditionally been an acceptable style of housing in the area. All structures are fully engineered. In conclusion, the mining heritage of the city is recognised without the need to sterilize the land. This engineering approach is believed to be the way to the future. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

Grubb, K.B. [Moreton Geotechnical Services Pty. Ltd., QLD (Australia)

1995-12-31

340

Uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The winning of uranium ore is the first stage of the fuel cycle. The whole complex of questions to be considered when evaluating the profitability of an ore mine is shortly outlined, and the possible mining techniques are described. Some data on uranium mining in the western world are also given. (RB)

1975-09-08

 
 
 
 
341

Morcinek black coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the Morcinek mine (initially called the Kaczyce mine) started in 1978 and should be completed by 1988. Economic crisis caused cuts in investment. Target coal output of the mine was reduced to 6000 t/d. Coal resources of the mine amount to 560 Mt, recoverable reserves are 356 Mt. The deposit consists of coal seams 0.7-4.5 thick, On the average 1.32 m thick, with dip angles of 5-20 degrees and with a high methane content. Total seam thickness amounts to 18.8 m. The deposit was opened by a system of 3 shafts to 1212.8 m depth. Three working levels are situated at depths of 800 m (ventilation level), 950 m and 1100 m. Coking coal from the Marcinek mine is characterized by high quality (Polish coal type 34-35). Ash content in run-of-mine coal is high (45%). Investment from 1978 to 1986 was 28,000 zlotys, the total investment by 1989 will reach 48,000 zlotys.

1986-12-01

342

Process Mining Versus Intention Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Process mining aims to discover, enhance or check the conformance of activity oriented process models from event logs. A new field of research, called intention mining, recently emerged. This new field has the same objectives than process mining but specifically addresses intentional process models. This paper aims to highlight the differences between these two fields of research and illustrates the use of mining techniques on a dataset of event logs, to discover an activity process model as ...

Khodabandelou, Ghazaleh; Hug, Charlotte; Deneckere, Rebecca; Salinesi, Camille

2013-01-01

343

Highwall mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highwall mining systems, employing either augers or continuous miners, allow the economic recovery of reserves such as those in Appalachia comprising low-sulphur steam and metallurgical coal that would be uneconomic to mine by other surface mining techniques. The article describes one of the most advanced highwall mining systems available, the Joy Highwall Miner (HWM) and another similar system; the Jeffrey 102HP continuous miner. It goes on discuss the range of auger mining systems, particularly those available from Salem Tool and Brydet Development. 1 tab., 7 photos.

Chadwick, J.

1993-12-01

344

An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x108m3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

1978-06-23

345

Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

1998-11-23

346

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa

2012-06-01

347

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

348

Effects of limes and residual ash on the recultivation characteristics of sulfate-acid tertiary sediments of brown coal mining in North Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open-cast mining in North Hessen (Borken region) caused tertiary sediments to be dumped on the surface. The overburden is characterized by high pyrite and marcasite concentrations and a low nutrient content. Acration of the material causes oxidation of the pyrite and, in consequence, acidification of the substrate. In these extremely poor soils, revegetation by natural sucession will result in a very sparse vegetation. To permit direct revegetation without laying a new layer of topsoil, commercial limes and two industrial residual ashes were mixed with the overburden. (orig.)

1990-01-01

349

Pressure Casting in Investment Molds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was made of methods for pressure casting nonferrous alloys into investment molds. The experimental methods were compared with standard suction casting practices. The best method studied was the direct pressure diaphragm method. By this method, met...

S. Lipson F. Ripkin

1964-01-01

350

At the Zubovskaya mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conditions at the Zubovskaya mine of the Novomoskovskugol'complex, opened in 1954 with a planned annual output of 450,000 t of coal are described. The mine produces brown coal with a tendency to spontaneous combustion in seams 1.3-2.5 m thick and is not gassy. Safety training measures are described and figures are given for safety work carried out in 1982. The UMKS standardized powered support designed for the mine is described along with an improved method of stowing, using an MTsDZ stowing machine with a capacity of 20 m/sup 3/ per shift. Work on entry driving, drying and maintenance are now carried out using a team system. The overall injury rate was halved in 1982 by comparison with 1978, and the frequency coefficient for injuries reduced by 27%.

Chendev, F.S.; Kozlov, N.N.

1983-07-01

351

Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

2012-10-01

352

Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

Cvetkovi?, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosi?, Aleksandra

2013-05-01

353

Characterisation of Organic Matter and Carbon Cycling in Rehabilitated Lignite-rich Mine Soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open-cast lignite mining in the Lusatian mining district resulted in rehabilitated mine soils containing up to four organic matter types: (1) recent plant litter, (2) lignite deposited by mining activity, (3) carbonaceous ash particles deposited during amelioration of the lignite-containing parent substrate and (4) airborne carbonaceous particles deposited during contamination. The influence of lignite-derived carbon types on the organic matter development and their role in the soil carbon cycle was unknown. This paper presents the findings obtained during a six year project concerning the impact of lignite on soil organic matter composition and the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem. The organic matter development after rehabilitation was followed in a chronosequence of rehabilitated mine soils afforested in 1966, 1981 and 1987. A differentiation of the organic matter types and an evaluation of their role within the ecosystem was achieved by the use of 14C activity measurements, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis of plant litter compounds. The results showed that the amount and degree of decomposition of the recent organic matter derived from plant material of the 30 year old mine soil was similar to natural uncontaminated forest soil which suggests complete rehabilitation of the ecosystem. The decomposition and humification processes were not influenced by the presence of lignite. On the other hand it was shown that lignite, which was thought to be recalcitrant because of its chemical structure, was part of the carbon cycle in these soils. This demonstrates the need to elucidate further the stabilisation mechanisms of organic matter in soils

2003-01-01

354

"Souvenir" casting silicosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of silicosis in a 47-year-old worker who was employed for many years in a small souvenir casting shop is described. This work site demonstrates many unfavorable characteristics of small industries, such as lack of awareness of the need for safety measures, exposure control, protection of workers, and lack of compliance with environmental and medical-legal standards. PMID:7924512

Carel, R S; Salman, H; Bar-Ziv, J

1994-10-01

355

Wear resistance of cast iron  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

2008-01-01

356

Wear resistance of cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

S. Pietrowski

2008-10-01

357

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

358

Development and position of museology on mining industry in Hungary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development is described of technical and mining museums in Hungary from its beginnings in 1807 until 1983. In addition to the Central Mining Museum in Sopron, a further 8 mining museums have been established: The Ore and Mineral Mining Museum in Rudabanaya (1965), Underground Mining Museum in Salgotarjan (1965), The Mining Museum in Ajka on the Armin Shaft (1965), Collection of the History of Mining of Varpalota (1976), The Mecsek Mining Museum in Pecs (1977), Bauxite Mining Museum in Gant (1978), Mining Museum in Oroszlany (1979), Bauxite Mining Collection in Tapolca (1981). Tables list name, address and opening hours of the museums, field of interest, name and address of administrator, information on museum building, staff, exhibits, collections, publishing activity and other information. 9 references.

Molnar, L.

1983-01-01

359

Influence of continuous casting conditions on grey cast iron structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the unification of flake graphite morphology in cast iron ingots in conditions of forced convection of liquid metal in the continuous casting mould, which contains electromagnetic stirrer.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations of grey cast iron ingots were used laboratory stand of continuous casting, which contains continuous casting mould with inductor of rotate electromagnetic field.To investigations were made metallographic researches on scanning electron microscope and investigations of usable properties i.e. measurements of hardness and machinability.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show possibility of unification of flake graphite morphology in cast iron structure, and distribution of hardness on cross-section of ingot and its machinability.Research limitations/implications: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of introduced method of continuous casting with use of electromagnetic field in industrial tests.Practical implications: The work presents method of unification of structure and properties, which are particularly important in continuous casting. Uniform morphology of flake graphite in structure of cast iron ingots for automobile industry is very important in viewpoint of machinability.Originality/value: Contributes to improvement in quality of grey cast iron continuous casted ingots.

J. Szajnar

2010-03-01

360

Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 ÷ 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce the cast iron liquidus temperature and decrease of recalescence temperature of graphite-eutectic crystallization in compare with initial cast iron. Control of casts can be carried out by ultrasonic method. In plain cast iron, ferritic-pearlitic microstructure is obtaining. Additives of 1,5% Cu ensure pearlitic structure.

S. Pietrowski

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Quality of the joint between cast steel and cast iron in bimetallic castings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents conception and production method of skeleton composite castings with use of cast steel G35CrSiMnMoNi skeletoncasting and chromium cast iron EN-GJN-XCr15 filling. Working elements in winning machines and devices, which work in intensiveaberasive wear i.e. liner of exhausters, percussive and ram hammers, are destination of bimetallic castings. Skeleton geometry was basedon three-dimensional symmetrical cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors...

2008-01-01

362

Highwall mining of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental highwall mining system was developed from readily available equipment and trialled in an open-cut coal mine. The system was to make approximately parallel drives into the coal seam to a penetration of about 30 m from the highwall. The trial was the first stage of a multi-stage developmental process towards a deep penetration, high recovery highwall mining system. In total, ten adjacent drives were mined, under immediate roofs of shale, sandstone or interbeddings with conditions ranging, in the Geomechanics Classification, from fair to good. Drives were 3 m wide, except one which was 4 m. The widths of coal pillars between drives ranged from 1.8 to 3.5 m, demonstrating a recovery ratio of 60%, even under the restricted experimental conditions. Both roofs and pillars were generally stable. Estimated productivity exceeded 100 tonne/man/shift. Although there are important technical issues requiring developmental solutions in the long term, high wall mining was shown to be sufficiently attractive to warrant proceeding to the next stage of development, with a medium penetration production system.

Shanks, D.H. (and others) (BHP Melbourne Research Laboratories (Australia))

1990-03-01

363

Color Casts Detection and Adjustment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for detection and adjustment color cast. Using the neural network to detect color cast and classify images into three subsets: no cast, real cast, and intrinsic cast (image presenting a cast due to a predominant color that must be preserved. We have a database of 700 images which are downloaded from internet or acquired using various digital still cameras. We randomly select 350 images from the database for the neural network learning, and the others are for testing. From each training image, we can calculate 13 statistical parameters as input to the neural network. The second part is the white balance algorithm which is applied to the image while a real cast is found by the color cast detector. The test image is divided into m blocks. For each block, the output weighting can be obtained by a fuzzy system and the luminance weighted value is also calculated. Finally, we can obtain the new amplifier gains of the R, G, and B channel to adjust the color cast. If the input image be classified as no cast or intrinsic cast, white balance algorithm is not applied.

Sheng-Fuu Lin

2011-07-01

364

UNA APROXIMACIÓN A LA PLANEACIÓN MINERA A CIELO ABIERTO DESDE UN ENFOQUE BASADO EN DECISIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE / AN APPOXIMATION TO THE OPEN PIT MINE PLANNING APPROACH BASED ON DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta en primer lugar una descripción del proceso de planeamiento minero desde un punto de vista clásico y su relación con los actuales procesos de planeamiento minero que tienen como base la optimización en sus diferentes etapas. Seguidamente, se realiza un acercamiento a los [...] procesos de planeación minera a cielo abierto desde un enfoque basado en decisiones bajo incertidumbre. Por último, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de los artículos encontrados clasificándolos en cinco categorías: Modelamiento geológico; Planeamiento minero; Evaluación financiera; Decisiones bajo incertidumbre y modelos de optimización. Abstract in english This article first presents a description of the mine planning process from a classical view and its relation to existing mine planning processes that are based on optimization in its various stages. Then be made an approach to planning processes open pit mining from an approach based on decisions u [...] nder uncertainty. Finally, it performs a critical analysis of the items found divided into five categories: geological models, mine planning, financial evaluation, decisions under uncertainty and optimization models.

GIOVANNI, FRANCO SEPÚLVEDA; JOHN WILLIAN, BRANCH BEDOYA; PATRICIA, JARAMILLO ÁLVAREZ.

2010-11-30

365

Mining method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A deep level mining method is claimed wherein conventional mining takes place to recover ore and pillars are left for support purposes. The ore in the pillars is recovered before or after their formation by drilling overlapping holes into the reef in the pillars. The holes are plugged thereafter to restore the supporting function of the pillars.

Hopley, R.J.; van der Westhuizen, W.J.

1984-07-10

366

Mine transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A roundup of developments in mine transportation in South Africa is presented, including details of: the Nalva rail hopper; a mining camera and video transmission system; Cummins' diesel engines; the 'Hippo' - a hopper and a grizzly; a weighline system; the Dresser 4000 wheel loader; rigid dump trucks; and the ERF 6X4 super heavy hauler. 8 figs.

1992-01-01

367

Groundwater impacts of solution mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In some cases the mining of certain minerals can be achieved without the large-scale excavations involved in open pit or shaft mining. Instead, water is used to liquify the desired mineral so that it can be readily removed without disturbing the host medium or intervening deposits. In Texas this solution mining technique is used in the mining of brines, sodium sulfate, sulfur, and uranium. The advantages stem from the nondisturbing nature of the method that leaves the surface and subsurface physically intact. This is advantageous not only during mining, but also upon its termination when there is a minimum restoration requirement of the terrain. However, in some cases these advantages may be somewhat offset when a considerable chemical restoration of a host aquifer is required. The situation is considerably different with the solution (in situ) mining of uranium since these deposits often occur in usable quality groundwater aquifers. There are twenty-eight permitted sites in Texas. Eight have not yet been mined. This paper discusses the solution mining of uranium in Texas

1985-01-01

368

A partitioned resolution for concurrent fluid flow and stress analysis during solidification: application to ingot casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In simulation of solidification processes, an open issue is the concurrent modelling of fluid flow and solid mechanics. This is critical for the prediction of cracks formed in solidified regions during the filling stage of ingot casting, or in the mould during continuous casting. The proposed approach consists of a partitioned two-step resolution strategy.

2012-07-03

369

USGS CoreCast  

Science.gov (United States)

Just about everyone seems to be creating a podcast these days, and a number of government agencies have entered the fray as of late. The United States Geological Survey recently decided to hang out their own podcast shingle, and the results of their labors can be explored here. The site states that their "CoreCast" is "natural science from the inside out", which seems like an appropriate label. The podcasts range in length from two to fifteen minutes, and they cover topics such as polar bear research, sex-changing fish, and climate change. One podcast that shouldn't be overlooked is "This Episode of CoreCast is Highly Questionable". In a mere three minutes, host Scott Horvath responds to a number of questions in an engaging fashion. After listening to an episode or two, visitors will probably want to sign up to receive email updates about new episodes.

370

Blair Athol. [Coal mine in Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The opening of this mine, its developments and operations are discussed in this article. Blair Athol has one of the richest known deposits of good quality steaming coal in Australia, if not the world. The 30 m thickness of the mines main seam is almost legendary in coal mining circles. Furthermore there is little variation in the ash and sulphur content throughout the deposits and the longest haul road is only 3 km.

1984-03-26

371

Uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. It is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

2008-10-01

372

Metal casting extended assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997, the Industrial Assessment Center program of the US Department of Energy initiated Extended Assessments as an option for some of their in-plant assessments. Intended for larger, more complex manufacturing facilities, the multi-day Extended Assessment allows the plant assessment team to explore more complex recommendations with the intent of encouraging major process and equipment changes. In this paper the authors describe the results of Extended Assessments at plants in the Metal Casting Industry, one of the DOE Industries of the Future. They visited five plants, two foundries and three die casting plants, with combined annual sales of $134 million and a combined annual production volume of 35,300 tons. The recommendations offered potential savings to each plant of an average $417,000 or 1.5% of average gross sales. A number of generalizations can be observed based on the assessments in the cast metals industry. First is that many of the smaller firms in this industry have been slow to adopt innovative technology. Off the shelf technologies are available that will help these firms reach the 21st Century. The concept of remelt of metal or scrap in the plant is an operation that can be improved. They found approximately two pounds of metal melted for every pound shipped. Finally, many opportunities exist outside of the core plant operations to reduce operating costs

1999-06-15

373

Metal casting extended assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1997, the Industrial Assessment Center program of the US Department of Energy initiated Extended Assessments as an option for some of their in-plant assessments. Intended for larger, more complex manufacturing facilities, the multi-day Extended Assessment allows the plant assessment team to explore more complex recommendations with the intent of encouraging major process and equipment changes. In this paper the authors describe the results of Extended Assessments at plants in the Metal Casting Industry, one of the DOE Industries of the Future. They visited five plants, two foundries and three die casting plants, with combined annual sales of $134 million and a combined annual production volume of 35,300 tons. The recommendations offered potential savings to each plant of an average $417,000 or 1.5% of average gross sales. A number of generalizations can be observed based on the assessments in the cast metals industry. First is that many of the smaller firms in this industry have been slow to adopt innovative technology. Off the shelf technologies are available that will help these firms reach the 21st Century. The concept of remelt of metal or scrap in the plant is an operation that can be improved. They found approximately two pounds of metal melted for every pound shipped. Finally, many opportunities exist outside of the core plant operations to reduce operating costs.

Ambs, L.; Kosanovic, D.; Muller, M.; Kasten, D.

1999-07-01

374

Contemporary art casting’s education in Guangdong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the practical experience of establishing three art casting laboratories in three different colleges of Guangdong, this paper focuses on the development of contemporary art casting’s education. By analyzing the reason for the shortage of professionals nowadays and the characteristics of modern foundry industry in the Pearl River Delta, the authors try to find out what kind of knowledge structures a modern foundry industry professional should have. Then, from the viewpoint of education, the authors introduce how to combine the art casting laboratory and the creative art casting course as a new teaching pattern, on the one hand, to attract more students to study casting technology, on the other hand, to train them to be qualified professionals for the modern foundry industry.

Wu Chunmiao

2012-02-01

375

Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

1995-08-01

376

The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A

1998-02-01

377

The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings.

Opsomming
Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat onderliggend aan die leerpotensiaal en verskeie psigomotoriese metings is, redelik oortuigend gestaaf. ’n Algemene psigomotoriese faktor is nie in die huidige ondersoek gevind nie. Voorstelle is gemaak om die ontwerp- en kriteriumtekortkominge te verbeter.

Deléne Visser

2005-10-01

378

Radon measurements in mines and dwellings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP)

1985-01-01

379

Continuous roll casting of aluminium alloys – casting parameters analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of the paper was to present the influence of casting parameters on casting conditions and interference of casting parameters on the final strip characteristics such as constant strip thickness, surface quality and roughness of aluminum alloys sheet 6,30 to 6,50 mm thick. The study shows that casting speed, roll force and roll gap should have the greatest influence on the final strip thickness, and that the examined parameters agree well with the theoretical standpoints.

E. Krsti? Vukelja

2010-04-01

380

Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-11-10

 
 
 
 
381

77 FR 42505 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Long Canyon Mine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Newmont Mining Corporation (Newmont) proposes to construct and operate an open-pit gold mining operation, which would include one open pit, a heap leach pad, one waste rock dump, a tailings storage facility,...

2012-07-19

382

Origin of nitrogen in reforested lignite-rich mine soils revealed by stable isotope analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Restoration of the nitrogen cycle is an important step in the recovery of an ecosystem after open-cast mining. Carbon and nitrogen in rehabilitated lignite containing mine soils can be derived from plant material as well as from lignite inherent to the parent substrate. We assessed the use elemental and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements to trace the origin of soil nitrogen and applied these techniques to elucidate the origin of mineral N in the soil and the soil solution. The conceptual approach of this study included physical fractionation in addition to sampling of vegetation and soil from a lignite-containing mine site in Lusatia rehabilitated in 1985 with Pinus Nigra. We studied the elemental and isotopic composition of bulk samples as well as isolated fractions and soil solution. Our data indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the soil samples are the result of mixing between plant material and substrate inherent lignite. {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes may be used as indicators of nitrogen contribution from plants to solid samples as well as soil solution. N-isotope composition of ammonia shows low spatial and interannual variability, despite strong concentration changes. Plant-derived nitrogen contributes in higher amounts to the soil solution compared to the bulk mineral soil. 45 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Abad Chabbi; Mathieu Sebilo; Cornelia Rumpel; Wolfgang Schaaf; Andre Mariotti [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Department of Soil Protection and Recultivation

2008-04-15

383

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer is depending on accepted variant plates of alloy steels sort X6Cr13, X12Cr13, X10CrNi18-8 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The verification of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches. Moreover was made computer simulation of solidification of bimetallic layered casting in NovaFlow&Solid software.Findings: The results of studies and their analysis show efficiency of new, innovative technology of corrosion and heat resisting layered castings.Research limitations: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of different material on bearing part of bimetallic layered casting.Practical implications: Prepared bimetallic layered castings according to work out technology can work in conditions, which require from working surface layer of element a high heat resistance and/or corrosion resistance in medium for example of industrial water.Originality/value: The value of this paper resides in new effective method of manufacture of heat resisting castings, mainly for lining of quenching car to coke production

T. Wróbel

2011-04-01

384

Soil-depth requirements to reclaim surface-mined areas in the northern Great Plains. Open file report 29 Jul 76-8 Apr 82  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research was to determine existing reclamation practices and measure reclamation success for surface coal mines in the Northern Great Plains, determine the optimum soil-depth requirements for grass production following surface mining, and determine plant uptake of nutrients and trace elements in reclamation situations. Fourteen field plots were established at active coal mines. A wedge was cut into spoil and backfilled with soil; soil depth ranged from zero to 152 cm over a linear distance of 15 m. Perennial grasses were planted in each plot and production was measured from 1978 to 1981.

Barth, R.C.; Martin, B.K.

1982-04-01

385

Soil genesis of mine spoil, Navajo Mine, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Documenting mine spoil genesis has been limited in the Western States. Few areas have {open_quotes}before{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}after{close_quotes} type data and for some mines older reclamation areas are limited. Soil samples were collected from 8-11 year old reclaimed spoil as part of a rooting depth study completed in June 1987 at the Navajo Mine. Samples were collected in 25 cm increments to depths of at least 200 cm and most often to 350 cm at a total of fifteen different reclamation plots. The spoil was composed of various amounts of shale and sandstone. The sites represented different topographic positions (swale/backslope), reclamation ages (8 to 11 years), slopes (0-15%), and topdressing treatments (with and without).

Buchanan, B.A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Stutz, H.C. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Estrada, O.J. [BHP - Utah International Inc., Fruitland, NM (United States)

1990-12-31

386

Incline caving as a massive mining method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Finsch Mine is a kimberlite diamond mine located at Lime Acres in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The mine was founded in 1961 and started surface mining in 1964. Underground production commenced in 1990 using a modified blast-hole open stoping method for the mining of Blocks 1, 2 and 3. [...] Block 4 is currently being mined as a block cave. The process of identifying and optimizing a method to mine the Block 5 orebody started in 1991, and in 2006 incline caving was identified as being technically feasible. This paper aims to document the process employed in developing this method by the Block 5 pre-feasibility team as well as discuss the technical challenges encountered during this process. The paper commences with a history of Finsch Mine and highlights the complex geology and threat of sidewall failure that prompted the decision to use block caving as the mining method for Block 4. A literature study of mines that implemented mining methods upon which the incline cave was conceptualized is then presented. These practices were then used to form the basis for the designs on which the initial geotechnical modelling was done and built upon through an iterative process of modelling and design changes. The ventilation of the mining area, initial productivity simulation results, and the applicability of automation and comminution processes in the incline cave are also presented. The paper concludes with an investigation into some of the challenges of the mining method, and shows that that incline caving is a technical option available for further investigation in determining the optimal mining method to be employed at Block 5, Finsch Diamond Mine.

Munro, D.D..

387

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 5: White Cast Iron (?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2011-08-01

388

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos. Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2011-11-01

389

Occupational health and safety of workers in Saskatchewan uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, 1400 workers are employed directly by the uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan, where there are diverse mining conditions ranging from the underground mine of Eldorado Nuclear Limited to the shallow open pit of Cluff Mining. These different operating conditions present varied problems associated with occupational health and safety and concomitant solutions to reducing worker exposure to radiation. This paper examines legislation and regulatory procedures that assure the health and safety of the worker

1981-10-09

390

10th international conference on ground control in mining - proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

36 papers are presented covering topics that include longwall pillar design, assessment of underground structural design, load and convergence measurements in longwall faces, shield strata interaction, longwall shield recovery, roof control in longwall mining, anchor resin system, thrust bolting, roof bolts, cable slings, roof support in retreat mining, coal bump prediction, delineation of abandoned workings, stability of coal mine openings, mining under rivers, rock strength determination, subsidence prediction and measurement, drag picks, measuring roof convergence, and finite element modelling of subsidence

1991-06-10

391

Improved Foundry Castings Utilizing CAD/CAM.  

Science.gov (United States)

The CAD/Cam Casting process is being developed as an aid to casting engineers in designing better steel castings in a fraction of the time presently required. The computer routines incorporate drafting routines and computer assisted computations relative ...

T. Wassel J. Chevalier R. Nariman W. S. Hwang S. Miller

1981-01-01

392

Mining of thin coal seams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a South African mine, cutting heights down to 900 mm will be necessary. Gullick Dawson and Dobson Ltd., are supplying special chocks which are 650 mm high when closed, and up to 1140 mm when open. The chocks have a resistance of 100 t/m$SUP$2 when they are 1.3 m apart.

1981-06-01

393

Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

2002-07-30

394

German Creek Mines - operations and geology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

German Creek Mines comprises two underground mines, Central and Southern Colliery, and an open cut mine. After December 1992 the open cut operation will reduce from two to one dragline, digging alternately between German Creek and German Creek East. The paper briefly describes the stratigraphy of the Formation and discusses the significant igneous activity of the mine site. The German Creek Formation is characterised by a series of south east tending normal faults. Deeper reserves of the mine contain moderate to high seam gas, composed almost entirely of methane. Methane drainage by in-seam drilling has been successfully conducted at Central Colliery in the 305 panel (235 m depth ). 1 ref., 1 fig.

Phillips, R.N. (Capricorn Coal Management Pty. Ltd., Qld. (Australia))

1992-03-01

395

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2009-05-01

396

Mechanism of the slope failure of horizontal thick coal seam under the condition of combined mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using two methods of numerical simulation and similar simulation, the failure problems of an open-pit slope under the condition of combining open-pit mining with underground mining were analyzed and discussed. The results show that the failure of an open-pit slope is a gradual process. In order to guarantee that normal open-pit mine production works well, the explored boundary must be controlled properly by the vertical stature of safe mining. By analysis of a similar simulation, the mining order can be optimized. 14 refs., 8 figs.

Xian-Quan Liu; Jian-Ming Zhu; Jin-Yan Feng; You Lu; Jian-Ping Wu [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

2008-12-15

397

The issue of shut-down of uranium mines in the Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following topics are discussed: Characteristics of uranium deposits (System of uranium deposit opening, preparation and mining; Overview of exploitation of the individual deposits); Mine shut-down and remediation of consequences of uranium ore mining and processing (Shut-down and safeguarding of mines and underground void spaces; Mine water management; Development of mine water chemistry; Mine flooding; Water removal from the underground and purification; Shut-down of surface mines; Land reclamation; Shut-down of chemical treatment plants and remediation of lagoons). (P.A.)

2004-01-01

398

Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 ÷ 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce t...

2009-01-01

399

SME mining engineering handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This handbook is divided into 6 parts, covering 157 separate chapters. The first part, the introduction, discusses the activities of mining, field of mining engineering, history of mining, mineral economics and the role of government in mining. Part 2, the stages of mining covers mineral prospecting and exploration, project and mining geology, mine evaluation and analysis, mine development and mine exploitation. The unit operations of mining (Part 3) includes the operations of drilling, blasting, materials handling and production and auxiliary operations needed for effective control of health safety and the environment in surface and underground mining. Among the topics covering under the surface mining part are haul road design and in-pit crushing and conveying. Underground mining developments and methods covered in part 5 include self-supported, backfill supported and caving methods. Part 6, supplemental topics include the variables to be considered for the evaluation of mining methods and guidelines for mining method selection.

Hartman, H.L. (ed.)

1992-01-01

400

La hydrogeology en la traditional mining of hydrocarbons, mining new  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Is presented from the point of view of Geosciences, an approach torelations between hydrogeology and mining activities, including those of traditional non - metal deposits of ores and rocks application (underground or open pit), the so-called ''modern mining'' (pickles) and hydrocarbons. Within the traditional mining, hydrogeology participates decisively several aspects, both those related to the feasibility of the projects, water supply for the stage of exploration and exploitation, mineraloductos ácueosand mine operations, such as environmental protection of water resources. In the ''modern mining'' groundwater acquires true character mena when it comes to the use of natural brines, and subject when they are generated by injecting water into an aquifer medium. In the case of hydrocarbons, the spectrum is broader participation at the stage of exploration and exploitation, where the hydrogeology is critical to providing water to camps and processes as well as operations secondary recovery, consumers strongly. From the perspective of environmental protection, are the main protagonists of groundwater the impacts of production, but also the phases are transportation, processing and marketing. They are used in the presentation of case examples of Argentina and Chile, some reflections on the need for an appropriate regulatory framework, especially addressed to Uruguay, and information to protect the population activity production of an unfair detriment, when mining is done responsibly

2010-05-01

 
 
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