WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Land degradation due to open cast mines-a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of open cast mines is increasing day by day in coal production. These open cast mines have direct and visible impacts on land surface. During mining stage, land is damaged and degraded. Excavation of coal and overburden dumping along with other infrastructural development is responsible for this damage and degradation. Impact of land degradation is observed as loss of forest cover, reduction and extinction of wildlife, reduction of agricultural land, destruction of geologic column, soil erosion, hydrological imbalance, socioeconomic problems, etc. in active mining areas. The present paper discusses the extent and impact of land degradation by open cast mining activity in Singrauli coal field. The paper also highlights the extent of land degradation particularly in one of the open cast mining projects of Singrauli coal field. It also suggests certain control measures to minimise the problem. (author)

2

Projecting and control of Hambach open-cast mine; Planung und Steuerung des Tagebaus Hambach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The boundary conditions for projecting and control of Hambach open-cast mine are presented in brief. [German] Zur Planung und Steuerung des Tagebaus Hambach sind insbesondere nachstehende Rahmenbedingungen von Bedeutung, die kurz vorgestellt werden sollen. (orig.)

Hempel, R.J.; Kulik, L. [RWE Rheinbraun AG (Germany)

2003-09-01

3

Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

1995-12-01

4

Post-stripping processes and the landscape of mined areas in Estonian oil shale open casts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study describes creating a digital map of oil shale surface mining technology and evaluating mining influences on the landscape. The data from the digital map of the Sirgala open cast show a constant increase in the overburden thickness. Overburden material thickness influences directly the future landscape but it also sets limits to stripping equipment parameters and productivity. The present open cast landscape was divided into four classes: afforested area, area with poor vegetation, graded area, and spoils. The second purpose of the study is saving information in an easily accessible form for the future. For this purpose geographic information system for mining is used. (author)

5

Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In laboratory experiments, we tested reactive materials that may speed up the process of bacterial sulfate reduction. In in-situ experiments, we quantified nitrification rates. Based on the results, we are able to suggest promising technical measures that enhance natural attenuation processes at mine dump site and in mining lakes. The natural water cycle in lignite mining landscapes is heavily impacted by human activities. Basically, nature is capable of cleaning itself to a certain extent after mining activities stopped. However, it is our responsibility to support biogeochemical processes to make them more efficient and more sustainable. Isotopic monitoring proved to be an excellent tool for assessing the relevance and performance of different re-cultivation measures for a positive long-term development of the water quality in large-scale aquatic systems affected by the impact of lignite mining.

Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

2014-05-01

6

New drive systems for open-cast mining equipment; Neue Antriebstechniken auf Tagebaugeraeten und -anlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects and advantages of modern current inverters in the field of drives for open-cast mining equipment are presented. [German] Das Antriebsgleichgewicht setzt sich aus den folgenden Teilkomponenten zusammen: - das Lastmoment (Verfahrensleistung) bzw. Widerstandsmoment - das Beschleunigungsmoment (Beschleunigungsleistung), positiv (Beschleunigung), negativ (Verzoegerung) - das Motormoment bzw. die Antriebsleistung. Mit der modernen Umrichtertechnik koennen im Vergleich zur konventionellen Antriebstechnik wesentliche Effekte erreicht werden, die die gesamte Verfahrenstechnik und insbesondere die Antriebstechnik massgeblich beeinflussen. In diesem Vortrag sollen die Effekte und Vorteile der modernen Umrichtertechnik am Beispiel von Tagebaugeraeten und -Anlagen vorgestellt bzw. nachgewiesen werden. (orig.)

Daus [Fachhochschule Lausitz (Germany)

2001-07-01

7

Environmental compatibility investigation of the Garzweiler II open cast mine project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on an EEC directive, the law on the investigation of ecological compatibility came into force in 1990. With the application of these European directives in national law, investigations to determine the ecological compatibility must now be carried out for projects to exploit brown coal. In this connection and in conjunction with the licensing procedure for Garzweiler II, Rheinbraun in 1992 for the first time compiled data on the investigations carried out to determine the ecological compatibility of an open cast mine. The data on these investigations include information on the necessity of the open cast mine and on alternative projects that have been examined, as well as a description of the project in question as regards its nature and extent. As far as the legally specified protected objects are concerned, i.e. people, water, air, nature (animals and plants, soil, climate and landscape) as well as cultural and other material objects, itemized data are furnished on the development and effects of the project and on countermeasures and the planned traffic and transport concept. (orig.)

8

Calorific value and amounts of oil shale delivered to power plants from mines and open casts in 1968-1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper provides the information about the fuel supply of Estonian oil shale fired power plants over the years 1968-1997. The data about the amounts and calorific value (as determined in the calorific bomb) of oil shale delivered to Estonian power plants by mines and open-casts are presented. (author)

9

Determination of heat production zones at open-cast mine dump  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical processes and their thermal effects taking place inside a dump of an open-cast mine (Cospuden) during a reclamation process were investigated. Fiber-optic-distributed-temperature sensing (DTS) was applied together with a soil ground water monitoring system (SGM-System). An optical fiber was mounted at the entire length of a double-pipe SGM-System. The temperature was measured monthly, along the depth of 50 m, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m. The system was utilized for the localization of heat production zones in the subsurface, for the determination of the temperature variation's penetration depth from the surface into the soil of the dump and for the determination of the influence of the SGM-System on the subsurface temperature balance. The results were compared with a heat transport model and then interpreted

10

Cottbus-Nord open-cast lignite mine. Compensation measures outside the landscape in the aftermath of the mining industry; Braunkohlentagebau Cottbus-Nord. Kompensationsmassnahmen ausserhalb der Bergbaufolgelandschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The requirements of nature conservation legislation play a central role in the approval of mining projects, in particular if utilisation of large areas is accompanied by significant interventions. A detailed practical example is the Cottbus-Nord open-cast lignite mine, a consequence of its continuation being the complete loss of the 'Lakoma pond' FFH area. As compensation in this case measures to upgrade the natural balance are already realised before recultivation outside the landscape in the aftermath of the mining industry. (orig.)

Freytag, K.; Pulz, K.; Neumann, U. [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Geologie und Rohstoffe (LBGR), Cottbus (Germany). Dezernat Braunkohlebergbau

2007-10-18

11

Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

12

The possible hydrologic effects of the proposed lignite open-cast mining in Drama lignite field, Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study investigates the possible hydrologic effects of the proposed lignite open-cast mining in Drama lignite field (north Greece). Recent years have seen a rapid increase in surface mining. This activity has generated a growing concern for the potential environmental impacts associated with large scale surface mining. In order to achieve a safe mine operation and allow extraction of lignite to considerable depths, extensive dewatering by pumping will be necessary, while at the same time it is desirable to avoid presence of overpumping conditions in the broader area. Based on stratigraphic, hydrologic and hydrogeologic data, a three-dimensional finite difference model was developed in order to simulate the dewatering process of the western part of the lignite open-cast mine in Drama and to predict both spatially and temporally the decline of ground water level down to the lignite surface. The dewatering of the part of the aquifer which underlies the mine area will influence the hydrological conditions of the broader region. The most important anticipated effects will be the abandonment of shallow wells as well as the decrease of ground water pumping rates of deep wells. Aquifer discharge towards the ditches of the study area will cease and there will be an inversion of ground water flow from the ditches towards the underlying aquifer. Dewatering activities will probably result in minor subsidence of the nearby peat deposits of Drama Philippi marshes. Moreover, sand pumping as well as the presence of gases is likely to cause local subsidence phenomena, mainly in the pit slopes.

Panilas, S.; Petalas, C.P.; Gemitzi, A. [Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi (Greece). School for Engineering

2008-05-15

13

THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL, PETROGRAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE SLOPE STABILITY IN THE OPEN CAST MINE OF GRADNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining technology was observed in the area. The local control of hydrogeologic properties, as well as climatic fluctuations of temperature and precipitation on the slope stability, was also recognized. It turned out that the structural relationships, characteristic of the manifold cataclased dolomite, stimulated the development of local instabilities, particularly during the period of low temperatures affecting the process of ground-water accumulation. When the temperatures are worm, the ground-water circulation is slow, exerting only the small-scale influence on the local instabilities.

Ivan Tomaši?

1992-12-01

14

Evaluation of genetic damage in open-cast coal mine workers using the buccal micronucleus cytome assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal is the largest fossil fuel source used for the generation of energy. However, coal extraction and its use constitute important pollution factors; thus, risk characterization and estimation are extremely important for the safety of coal workers and the environment. Candiota is located to the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and has the largest coal reserves in Brazil, and the largest thermal power complex in the state. In the open-cast mines, the coal miners are constantly exposed to coal dust. The human buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay has been used widely to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death, and basal cell frequency in buccal cells. The aim of this study was to assess whether prolonged exposure to coal dust could lead to an increase in genomic instability, cell death, and frequency of basal cells using the BMCyt assay. In the analysis of epithelial cells, the exposed group (n = 41) presented with a significantly higher frequency of basal cells, micronuclei in basal and differentiated cells, and binucleated cells compared to the non-exposed group (n = 29). The exposed group showed a significantly lower frequency of condensed chromatin cells than the non-exposed group. However, we found no correlation between DNA damage and metal concentration in the blood of mine workers. DNA damage observed in the mine workers may be a consequence of oxidative damage resulting from exposure to coal residue mixtures. In addition, our findings confirm that the BMCyt assay can be used to identify occupational risk. PMID:23055270

Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda R; Sarmento, Merielen; Porto, Carem; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dos Santos, Carla E I; Dias, Johnny F; Kvitko, Kátia

2013-01-01

15

Groundwater recharge in order to compensate the impacts of sump dewatering of the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Grundwasseranreicherung zum Ausgleich von Suempfungsauswirkungen des Tagebaues Garzweiler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) annually produces nearly 100 million tons of brown coal in the Rhenish lignite mining district within the triangle of cities formed by Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach (Federal Republic of Germany). The secure production of brown coal requires a drainage of the aquifers above the coal as well as relaxed aquifers beneath the deepest seams of coal. Actually, the sump dewatering being necessary for the operation of the open-cast mining amounts nearly 600 million m{sup 3} per year. The dewatering of the open-cast mining is performed by means of wells which were set up nearly five to ten years prior to the date of coal mining. Due to the ongoing coal mining, continuously new wells have to be set up. Moreover, the centres of drainage or the funnels of sump dewatering, respectively, move with the progress of coal mining. The measures of sump dewatering are optimized by minimizing the amounts and impacts of sump dewatering.

Forkel, Chrsitian [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Wasserwirtschaft und Wasserwirtschaftliche Planung und Genehmigung; Mueller, Christian [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Langfrist- und Entwaesserungsplanung

2013-01-15

16

PROSPECTS OF RUBBER CRUMB APPLICATION AS A PART OF DEEP OPEN-CAST MINES ROAD COVERINGS ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of worn out tires recycling at the mining enterprises is considered. The most important results of influence research of mechanical activation to properties of a rubber crumb and to modified bitumunous concrete properties are discussed

Khristoforova A. A.

2011-12-01

17

25 years of technological development at Hambach open-cast mine; 25 Jahre Weiterentwicklung der Anlagentechnik im Tagebau Hambach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ever since the commissioning of Hambach open-cast mine in 1978, it has been worked by large-scale equipment with a daily production of 140,000 (fm{sup 3}+t)/d. This was a new dimension of requirements both on the mechanical and the electric sytems. Increasing cost pressure, demand for higher utilisation and better maintenance resulted in constant optimisation. Key challenges today are wear problems and new technologies to enhance productivity. The contribution presents examples to show how plant components are being optimized. [German] Seit dem Aufschluss des Tagebaus Hambach im Jahr 1978 wird die Anlagentechnik durch den Einsatz der Grossgeraete mit einer Tagesfoerderleistung von 240 000 (fm{sup 3}+t)/d bestimmt. Diese Grossgeraete mit den dafuer notwendigen Foerderwegen, die fuer einen Nennmassenstrom von 35 000 t/h dimensioniert sind, stellten eine neue Dimension der Anforderungen an die Anlagenkomponenten sowohl auf mechanischer als auch elektrischer Seite dar. Die errichteten Anlagen sind nun seit 25 Jahren erfolgreich im Einsatz. Durch zunehmenden Kostendruck und der damit verbundenen Forderung nach Erhoehung des Last- und Zeitgrades sowie nach Verbesserung der Instandhaltung unterliegen diese Anlagen einer stetigen Optimierung. Wesentliche Herausforderungen sind die Verschleissreduzierung der Betriebsmittel, die einer haeufigen, kostenintensiven Instandsetzung unterliegen, sowie die Steigerung der Produktivitaet durch Einsatz neuer Technologien. In diesem Artikel werden exemplarisch Weiterentwicklungen einiger Komponenten dieser Anlagen dargestellt. (orig.)

Huenten, F.; Mannel, T. [RWE Rheinbraun AG (Germany)

2003-09-01

18

Construction of the new material distribution point in the open-cast mining. Inden from a geotechnical point of view; Bau des neuen Bandsammelpunktes im Tagebau. Inden aus geotechnischer Sicht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rhenish lignite mining area with the three open-cast minings Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden is located between the three cities Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach. Here, up to 100 million tons of brown coal is produced annually. The stocks of lignite amount to 3.24 billion tons. 20-25 million tons of lignite is produced annually in the open-cast mining Inden. In order to explore the further activities of the open-cast mine Inden with respect to the coal mining, the material distribution point had to be moved to a site in the north of the location Lamersdorf. The commissioning of the material distribution point took place in June 2008.

Weuffel, Michael; Wilden, Ulrich [RWE Power AG, Abteilung PCS-GE, Bergheim (Germany); Nendza, Matthias [Geotechnisches Buero Prof. Dr.-Ing. H. Duellmann, Aachen (Germany)

2013-05-15

19

De recursos naturales a bienes comunes: la minería a cielo abierto / From natural resources to common goods: open -cast mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La crisis política e institucional ocurrida en Argentina en 2011 muestra un escenario donde se instaura con fuerza la protesta “desde abajo” corporizada en diversas asambleas populares. En este caso específicamente el interés recae sobre los colectivos sociales que resisten las explotaciones mineras [...] a cielo abierto. Las negociaciones, las luchas, los intereses en juego, las actividades de promoción y los procesos de resistencia, conforman un escenario particular donde los actores sociales y su capacidad de acción dan cuenta de modalidades renovadas de apropiación cultural del ambiente. La recategorización del medio, por parte de las asambleas ambientales, rechazando la designación de recurso natural y sustituyéndola por bien común, permite a estos actores sociales establecer un nuevo anclaje para llevar adelante la lucha. Abstract in english The political and institutional crisis happened in Argentina in 2011 shows a political scene where the protest is restored strongly "from below" embodied in diverse popular assemblies. In this article, the interest specifically relapses on the social groups that resist the open-cast mining. The nego [...] tiations, the fights, the interests in game, the activities of promotion and the processes of resistance, shape a particular scene where the social actors and their capacity of action realize of modalities renewed of cultural appropriation of the environment. The new categorization of the habitat by environmental assemblies, rejecting the designation of natural resource and replacing it by common good, allows these social actors to establish a new anchorage to take forward the fight.

Andrea, Milesi.

2012-06-01

20

In situ preservation and paleoenvironmental assessment of Taxodiacea fossil trees in the Buekkalja Lignite Formation, Buekkabrany open cast mine, Hungary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In summer 2007 sixteen Taxodium tree trunks were found in situ standing position in the Buekkabrany open cast mine. The fossil trees were exposed during the excavation of the overburden layers of the Buekkalja Lignite Formation (BL). The Buekkabrany discovery is a global novum because the trees are very well preserved but not fossilized that makes the most detailed and direct analysis feasible. In spite of the 7-8 million years passed, the actual site and the host formation is rather intact, lacking tectonic deformations, deeper burial and/or dewatering during uplift. Organic petrology of tree trunks and sedimentology of the overburden sands are the subjects of this study. The extremely good preservation of fossil trunk tissues, presence of high amount of cellulose and moisture content along with the slightly gelified state of the wood and the lack of deformation indicate that there was only limited alteration during the early diagenesis. Chemical investigation of standing trunks fossil driftwood nearby the Late Miocene trees, and the fossil woods in the underlying lignite have revealed that their cellulose and total phenol concentrations were significantly lower than in intact recent trees, applied for reference. Yet their preservation levels were quite high, also proving that the chemical degradation of the fossil wood tissues had not been taken place extensively in the mire and the trees remained exceptionally well preserved. Sudden burial of the trees by strand plain sand beds indicates flooding by heavy storms or tsunamis, which interrupted and terminated the peat formation and preserved the trunks from later oxidation and biodegradation. (author)

Hamor-Vido, Maria [Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Kolumbusz st. 17-23 Budapest, H-1145 (Hungary); Hofmann, Tamas; Albert, Levente [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Forestry, University of West Hungary, Ady Endre st. 5 Sopron, H-9400 (Hungary)

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

Diversity of surface dwelling beetle assemblages in open-cast lignite mines in Central Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Species richness of ground dwelling beetle assemblages in two non-reclaimed lignite mines and a dump in Central Germany were investigated by means of pitfall trapping. During a period of five months, a total of 203 beetle species within 27 families represented by 4099 individuals were trapped. The number of individuals, species richness, as well as the proportions of endangered species did not differ between successional stages whereas species composition of sites could be related to a set of environmental variables. High values of beta-diversity between sites indicated that the total number of species recorded is caused by habitat diversity. From the viewpoint of nature conservation, it is concluded that postmining areas can play a key role in conservation of beetle diversity in agricultural areas since they harbour threatened species whose original habitats are now rare due to human impact.

Brandle, M.; Durka, W.; Altmoos, M. [UFZ Centre of Environmental Research, Halle (Germany). Dept. of Community Ecology

2000-07-01

22

Cyclic sedimentation in Tertiary Lower-Rhine Basin (Germany) —the 'Liegendrücken' of the brown-coal open-cast Fortuna mine  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Lower-Rhine Basin, at the northwestern headlands of the Schiefergebirge in western Germany, the Oligocene-Miocene Köln Formation once was splendidly exposed in the former Fortuna mine, one of the open-cast mines of the regional brown-coal mining industry. There, a complex 60 m thick clastic marine shoreline succession was studied. Coastal marine sediments were formed along a high-energy coast in the basal sediment-fill of the basin. Due to repeated ingressions of the Tertiary North Sea, a number of subtidal to supratidal coastal onlap cycles developed. This study provides first knowledge about cyclic sedimentation in the Tertiary of the Lower-Rhine Basin.

Schäfer, A.; Hilger, D.; Gross, G.; von der Hocht, F.

1996-06-01

23

Spatio-Temporal Land Cover Dynamics in Open Cast Coal Mine Area of Singrauli, M.P., India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Singrauli is an opencast coal mining area where large scale mining activities are going on continuously, land use/land cover studies are of vital importance to observe the changes in the land use/land cover. The present study utilizes multi-spectral/multi-temporal data of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS LISS II geocoded (FCC of 4th May 1993 and LISS III of 4th May 2010 for thematic mapping. Survey of India toposheet 63L/12 on scale 1:50,000 were used for preparation of base map which was overlaid on the FCC for land use/land cover mapping through visual interpretation. Visual interpretation of satellite imagery led to the identification of 15 land use/land cover categories such as dense forest, open forest, open scrub, plantation, cultivated land, uncultivated land, mining pit, overburden dumps, wasteland and settlement. The ground truth verification was carried out in key areas to rectify the errors in generated maps and then land use/land cover maps were finalized. The comparative analysis of land use/land cover shows that dense forest has been degraded to open forest, open scrubs and mining pits due to the expansion of mining activity. Open scrubs has increased, overburden dumps has increased, settlement has also increased, cultivated land has decreased and changed into uncultivated land and wasteland. It has also been observed that the plantation has been done on overburden dumps and residential colonies of NCL and NTPC. It has been identified that the main drivers which has increased the rate of change in land use/land cover are mainly coal mining activities and industrial expansion.

2012-12-01

24

Analysis of the effect of temperature and viscosity of the hydraulic fluid on the operational reliability of open-cast mining equipment; Einfluss von Temperatur und Viskositaet von Hydraulikfluessigkeiten auf die Betriebssicherheit von Tagebaugeraeten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emergency disconnection of open-cast mining equipment is often caused by the hydraulic system. The ambient temperature prevailing in open-cast mines affects the viscosity of the hydraulic fluid. Consequently the duration of a working cycle may be varied, which may adversely affect the life of the entire system and all the more so, if additional contaminants due to wear or dust from outside enter the hydraulic system. Temperature fluctuations in winter, when the ambient temperature changes from plus to minus values and rises again, are particularly critical. The tests were conducted on a TSM 250 Surface Miner in a phosphorite deposit in Uzbekistan. (orig.)

Grabski, Alexander [Moskauer Staatsuniv. (MGGU), Moskau (Russian Federation). Lehrstuhl fuer Bergbaugeraete und Bergausruestung; Grabski, Konstantin [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

2011-10-15

25

Geoelectrical surveys for identification and monitoring of AMD in groundwaters influenced by lignite open-cast mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1989, lignite peak production from the Zwenkau mine was 10 million tons. The Zwenkau mine is part of the central German mining district, located approximately 10 km south of Leipzig. The ratio of both overburden and sumping water to lignite is approximately 2.5:1 m3/ton. Following mine abandonment in 1999, the rising groundwater infiltrated the dump areas as well as the unexploited sedimentary sequence, resulting in significant acid mine drainage (AMD). Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques were used to identify AMD affected lignite open-pit dump areas and adjacent groundwater bodies. The survey techniques included direct current resistivity measurements and direct push based electrical conductivity logging. The paper described the methods and materials used in the geoelectrical surveys and groundwater sampling. It was concluded that both surface and subsurface measurements provided precise imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. 3 refs., 5 figs.

26

From deposit modelling to the mine plan engineering guidance in a Greenfield project for the opening of a lignite open-cast mine during the preparation and development phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to supply the nearby power plant Elbistan B, a new open-cast mine is being developed at the Collolar Field in Turkey. Initial fieldwork began in mid-2007, followed by overburden removal in early 2008 and lignite production in 2009. Several planning studies have been undertaken in order to prepare and undertake the initial work in just under two years, including the establishment of a geological model as a basis for calculating reserves, and for hydrological and geotechnical calculations, leading to a drainage concept and the formulation of requirements made on the slope stability. This paper presented the framework concept for the modelling and discussed the geological modelling and selection of a suitable development plan. The hydrological calculations and planning of drainage measures were also outlined. The more detailed plans for phase two, including the database for hydro-geological modelling, pumping tests and laboratory tests, ground water modelling, and the dewatering concept were also presented. The paper also discussed the determination of geotechnical parameters, calculation methods, and the slope stabilities at the mining and dumping site. It was concluded that regular comparison to plans and calculations on drainage and slope stability must be conducted when planning and operating a mine. 3 figs.

27

The problem of liquidating the buildings of former underground brown coal mines in the Podkru?nohoøí area in connection with the decree of the czech bureau of mines no. 52/1997, collection of laws, and problems of open cast mines in places of their occurrences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contribution deals with the problems of liquidating buildings of former underground mining, especially of shafts of closed and damped mines. It is stated that strict maintaining the Decree of the Czech Bureau of Mines (ÈBÚ No. 52/1997, Collection of Laws, has its justification for deep and gassy hard coal mines, but it cannot be absolutely valid in the full extent for shallow ore, and mainly brown coal mines. An example of the analysis of shaft depths of the Sokolov District and the liquidation of some shafts of the Most Coal Company, joint-stock company in Most is adduced. Moreover, the liquidation of objects of development and preparatory workings of former underground mines using the open-cast mining method and related problems are discussed in the contribution.

Fröhlich Emil

2000-12-01

28

50 years of brown coal open cast ''Konin''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history as well as present condition of brown coal mine ''Konin'' located in Central Poland are presented. In 1994 about 13380 million tons of coal were extracted from this open cast and 95% of it was burnt in power plants. The prognosis of future production up to 2020 is given and the program of mine restructurization is described. 3 ills

29

Impact of erosion-transported overburden dump materials on water quality in Lake Cospuden evolved from a former open cast lignite mine south of Leipzig, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acidification is the most common water quality problem in lakes created from previous open cast lignite mines. Aeration of aquifers and dump materials from mining activities causes pyrite oxidation. Pyrite oxidation products are stored in pore water, minerals and at the exchange complexes of the aquifers and dump sediments. Rainfall runoff transports sediments on the dump slope into the lakes. Elutriation of these sediments within the lakes releases either acid-producing or acid-neutralizing agents. At a test site south of Leipzig, the annual erosion rates were quantified by water erosion models (RUSLE, EROSION 2D, PEPP) and field measurements. They ranged from 300 up to 900 tons per hectare. Hydrogen ion equivalent release or binding at the sediment elutriation was computed from laboratory analysis of the pore-water quality, ion exchange complex and mineral composition of the sediment. Two of the three investigated sediments contained 3 mmol (eq) acidity per 100 g dry sediment and revealed saturation with respect to jarosite, jurbanite and gypsum. In the third sediment, 6 mmol (eq) alkalinity per 100 g dry sediment was obtained. The annual net acidity influx was calculated to be about 0.5 million mol (eq) for the lake of the test site. (orig.)

Abel, A.; Michael, A. [Dresdner Grundwasserforschungszentrum e.V., Dresden (Germany); Zartl, A. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Geowissenschaften, Geotechnik und Bergbau; Werner, F. [Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Hydraulics and Rural Water Management

2000-04-01

30

Development of biological soil crusts and their influence on soil hydrology in the recultivation area of lignite open-cast mining district in Lower Lusatia (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses and lichens are often the first colonizers of substrate and initial soil surfaces. They are an important factor of initial soil formation as they stabilize the substrate and decrease erosion processes. Biological soil crusts accumulate the initial soil organic matter and provide nitrogen fixation. Once settled, the crusts influence the soil water regime by delaying or limiting infiltration through enhanced water repellency. Aim of this study was to compare the influence of biological soil crusts on soil hydrology under conditions on various substrates and of different ages in recultivated areas of the open-cast mining district of Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, NE Germany) with various recultivation aims. In Brandenburg (NE Germany), where the climate is transitional between oceanic and continental and the summers are characterized by generally low of precipitation (mean annual rainfall 559 mm, mean annual temperature 9.3° C) open landscapes provide ideal conditions for biological soil crusts, e. g. on mobile sand dunes in former military training areas and in recultivation areas related to open-cast mining with initial soil development. Here biological soil crusts are commonly found (Spröte et al., 2010). At five study sites in recultivation areas with different reclamation approaches (natural development, pine reforestation, birch reforestation) we defined four types of biological soil crusts: i) cyanobacterial and green algae crusts on the soil surface with no vegetation where dominating sand grains were physically stabilized in their contact zones by this crust type (type 1), ii) cyanobacteria and green algae partially filled in the matrix pores and enmeshed sand grains between sparse vegetation cover (type 2), iii) biological soil crusts with mosses which covered most of the surface between the vegetation (type 3) and (iv) with soil lichens (type 4). We investigated the development of the amount of chlorophyll a which is an indicator for biomass productivity and depends from the species composition and crust type, and the water repellency index which shows the influence of biological soil crusts on hydrological parameters. Additionally, organic matter content (dry combustion) as well as soil pH (soil: H2O = 1:2.5) were determined. Texture was analysed by wet sieving and fractionation pipette method. At all study sites and for all crust types soil pH ranged between 7.2 to 4.7 and decreased from type 1 to type 4. Soil organic matter and chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.3 and 1.7% and from 0.95 to 16.44 mg m-2, respectively, and increased from type 1 to type 4. With few exceptions, water repellency indices ranging between 1.0 and 1.85, followed this trend. Constrarily, infiltration rates decreased from type 1 to type 4. The cause for limited infiltration is the swelling of extracellular polysaccharides in the biological soil crusts (Fischer et al., 2010) and the influence of the particle size distribution and porosity of the substrate with a relatively high content of silt and clay at some study sites. Fischer, T., Veste, M., Wiehe, W. & Lange, P. (2010): Water repellency and pore clogging at early succesional stages of microbiotic crusts on inland dunes, Brandenburg, NE Germany. - Catena, 80, 47-52. Spröte, R.,Fischer, T., Veste, M., Raab, T., Wiehe, W., Lange, P., Bens, O., Hüttl, R.F. (2010): Biological topsoil crusts at early successional stages on Quaternary substrates dumped by mining in Brandenburg, NE Germany. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement 4/2010: 359-370.

Spröte, R.; Veste, M.; Fischer, T.; Raab, T.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

2012-04-01

31

Analysis of the planned post-mining landscape of MIBRAG's open-cast mines with regard to a possible environmental impact of alteration processes in mixed dumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been an increasing body of knowledge with regard to hydro- and geochemical alteration processes in overburden dumps and their impact on groundwater quality in lignite mining and reclamation operations associated with post-mining landscapes in Germany. The operators of the MIBRAG mines have examined issues regarding alteration processes and how they affect the environment and which opportunities exist to actively influence the dumping process. The objectives were to counteract any possible negative impact of the alteration processes. Special emphasis was on the impact caused by oxidation of sulfur containing minerals. This paper presented an analysis of the situation at United Schleenhain Mine and how it reflects on the work to date for MIBRAG's mines. A future outlook was also presented. Specifically, the paper discussed the development of the United Schleenhain mine and the post-mining landscape. The potential for discharge of substances was also evaluated along with acidification. 1 tab., 5 figs.

32

Revealing the microbial community structure of clogging materials in dewatering wells differing in physico-chemical parameters in an open-cast mining area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron rich deposits cause clogging the pumps and pipes of dewatering wells in open-cast mines, interfering with their function; however, little is known about either the microbial community structure or their potential role in the formation of these deposits. The microbial diversity and abundance of iron-oxidizing and -reducing bacteria were compared in pipe deposit samples with different levels of encrustation from 16 wells at three lignite mining sites. The groundwater varied in pH values from slightly acidic (4.5) to neutral (7.3), Fe(II) concentrations from 0.48 to 7.55 mM, oxygen content from 1.8 to 5.8 mg L(-1), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from 1.43 to 12.59 mg L(-1). There were high numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in deposits, up to 2.5 × 10(10) copies g(-1) wet weight. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (63.3% of the total reads on average), followed by Actinobacteria (10.2%) and Chloroflexi (6.4%). Gallionella-related sequences dominated the bacterial community of pipe deposits and accounted for 48% of total sequence reads. Pipe deposits with amorphous ferrihydrite and schwertmannite mostly contained Gallionella (up to 1.51 × 10(10) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) wet weight), while more crystalline deposits showed a higher bacterial diversity. Surprisingly, the abundance of Gallionella was not correlated with groundwater pH, oxygen, or DOC content. Sideroxydans-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were one order of magnitude less than Gallionella, followed by acidophilic Ferrovum-related groups. Iron reducing bacteria were detected at rather low abundance, as was expected given the low iron reduction potential, although they could be stimulated by lactate amendment. The overall high abundance of Gallionella suggests that microbes may make major contributions to pipe deposit formation irrespective of the water geochemistry. Their iron oxidation activity might initiate the formation of amorphous iron oxides, potentially providing niches for other microorganisms later after crystallization, and leading to higher bacterial diversity along with deposit accumulation in later stages of clogging. PMID:25010562

Wang, Juanjuan; Sickinger, Maren; Ciobota, Valerian; Herrmann, Martina; Rasch, Helfried; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

2014-10-15

33

Groundwater monitoring in the area of open cast Belchatow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater analyses in the area of the open cast lignite mine Belchatow and Szczercow have been continued since 2000. The field work contains analyses of macro- and microion concentrations as well as measurements of tritium, 222Rn and mean radioactivity (40K). Complementary to these analyses, isotope ratios of ?34S/32S and ?18O/16O in SO42- ion and ?D in water have been investigated. In 2005 samples of water from boreholes and drains in the area of Szczercow open cast were taken and analyzed. It was found that the groundwater was not polluted, its quality and purity being in agreement with the approved groundwater purity standards

34

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This research explains the use of remote sensing (RS, Global positioning system (GPS, and GIS technology for the detection of LULC changes. In this work LULC changes have been detected using remotely sensed images during the period from 1990 to 2010, using Landsat-TM image of year 1990 and Cartosat-I image of year 2010. The above images were rectified and georeferenced using GPS data collected by point positioning mode observations.Ground truthing for the LULC classification accuracy assessment has been done using GPSinstrument. Image analysis operations have been carried out using Erdas Imagine software. Various effects of coal mining activities on the Land use have been highlighted.

ANIL Z CHITADE

2010-12-01

35

Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

Lucai WANG

2005-02-01

36

Experience with a well constructed by horizontal directional drilling for drainage of residual water at Vereinigtes Schleenhein open-cast mine of MIBRAG mbH; Erfahrungen beim Einsatz eines verlaufsgesteuerten Horizontalfilterbrunnens (VHB) zur Beherrschung von Restwasserstaenden im Tagebau Vereinigtes Schleenhain der MIBRAG mbH  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In October 2002, a well was constructed by horizontal directional drilling at Vereinigtes Schleenhein open-cast mine by Haustadt and Timmermann GmbH and Co. KG, Duisburg, for the Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH (MIBRAG mbH). The well was to drain residual water resulting from leaching processes in the Zechstein trough of aquifer 3. At the same time, experience was to be gained on horizontal directional drilling. (orig.) [German] Im Oktober 2002 wurde im Auftrag der Mitteldeutschen Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH (MIBRAG mbH) ein Horizontalfilterbrunnen mittels Horicontal Directional Drilling (HDD) im Tagebau Vereinigtes Schleenhain durch die Firma Haustadt and Timmermann GmbH and Co. KG, Duisburg hergestellt. Dieser Brunnen sollte in einer durch Auslaugungsvorgaenge im Zechstein entstandenen Mulde des Grundwasserleiters 3 (GWL 3) anstehende Restwaesser fassen. Gleichzeitig diente der Brunnen dazu, Erfahrungen mit der HDD-Technik im Zusammenhang mit der Entwicklung eines modifizierten Entwaesserungssystems zu sammeln. (orig.)

Struzina, M. [Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH (MIBRAG), Theissen (Germany)

2004-10-01

37

Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

38

Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

Hadj-Hassen, F. [Ecole des Mines de Paris - CGES, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Bienvenu, Y. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CM, 91 - Evry (France); Noirel, J.F. [Charbonnages de France, DTN, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France); Metz, M. [charbonnages de France, ESA, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France)

2005-07-01

39

The design, implementation and optimization of casting blasts in strip mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes experience in designing and implementing casting blasts over the past fifteen years. Important design parameters such as powder factor, burden and spacing, blast pattern geometry, front row burden and toe distance, pit width versus height, blast length, explosive selection, millisecond delay timing and tie-in types are discussed. Active highwall presplitting is often an important technique to incorporate into casting blasts. Currently mines are finding it advantageous to angle presplit to enhance the stability of the resulting highwall. Experience with angle hole presplitting is discussed. When casting is introduced in a dragline mine, changes to the dragline operating methods are often necessary. Techniques for operating the dragline in these pits are described. Cost is always an important consideration when new techniques are introduced at a mine. The economics of increased stripping rates and coal shipments resulting from cast blasting is compared to conventional, non-blasting techniques with the same dragline. It is observed that for direct cast percentages beyond 25 percent costs are quite favorable.

Workman, J.L. [Calder and Workman, Inc., Washburn, ND (United States)

1995-12-31

40

Improved process for casting supporting anchors in mining and engineering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of grouting supporting anchors in mining and engineering is described. It consists of an unsaturated polyester resin, a catalyst, an inhibitor and fillers with a certain composition. As a special feature, soot with a proportion of between 0.5 and 5%, preferably 2.15% by weight of the resin is added to the grout. The soot should have a special surface of 30 m/sup 2//g according to BET and a mean particle diameter of 51 nm. This gives a good compromise between viscosity and reactivity (binding time).

Benichou, A.; Perraud, R.

1979-11-21

 
 
 
 
41

Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

42

Official opening of new mine in Northern Saskatchewan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cluff Mining's uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan was officially opened 1981 April 2. General information is provided, with emphasis on worker safety and environmental protection. (N.D.H.)

43

Sanitation of land polluted by brown coal mining. The example of Heide open-cast mine. Part 2. Integration of sanitation measures with the envisaged further use of the recultivated land; Sanierung oekologischer Altlasten des Braunkohlenbergbaus am Beispiel des Tagebaus Heide. T. 2. Verflechtung der Sanierungsmassnahmen mit den Nutzungs- und Funktionszielen in der Bergbaufolgelandschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combination of optimal use of recultivated land and sanitation of polluted territory is illustrated by examples based on the 'Ecological studies on sanitation of the Heide open-cast min including proposals for land reclamation' carried out by Safetec in 1995 on behalf of the project leader LMBV mbH. [German] Nachfolgend werden fuer die Sanierungskonzeption des Tagebaus Heide die Zusammenhaenge zwischen einer optimalen Folgenutzung und einer angemessenen Sanierung des beeintraechtigten Territoriums an einigen Beispielen erlaeutert. Grundlage fuer diese Darstellungen bilden die 'Oekologischen Untersuchungen zum Sanierungsgebiet des Tagebaues Heide einschliesslich Vorschlag zur Bergbaufolgelandschaft', die von Safetec 1995 im Auftrag des Projekttraegers, der LMBV mbH, angefertigt wurden. (orig./MSK)

Hein, B.; Scherb, K.; Model, G. [Safetec GmbH und Co. KG Umwelt Consulting Berlin (Germany)

1999-08-01

44

A study into the potential of using coal mining and preparation wastes in the production of cast iron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of using coal mining and coal preparation wastes as an additive to partially reduce the quantity of coke used in the production of cast iron is being investigated by Russia. The method is based on the formation of silicon carbide and ferrosilicon during the heating process in a blast furnace. The study involved thermodynamic calculations and experiments using two types of feed stock at two metallurgical plants. This paper reflects the progress that has been made. The results show that the decrease of coke consumption and increase in blast furnace capacity was achieved. According to our calculations lt. of CW can be used in lieu of 0.5 t of coke for casting cast iron instead of cast iron produced for steel manufacture. Furthermore favourable results were also achieved using shungit rocks in this process; to the extent that shungits are used constantly for decreasing coke quantities in the production of cast iron. 3 tabs.

Shpirt, M.I.; Gorjunova, N.P.; Rainbow, A.K.M. [Fossil Fuel Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2001-07-01

45

Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both of the mines. (author). 10 refs.

Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

1998-12-01

46

THE PROCESS OF PEDOGENESIS ON MINE DUMPS (A CASE STUDY: AGHIRE? MINING AREA, ROMANIA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of pedogenesis on mine dumps (a case study: Aghire? mining area, Romania). The presence of mining, with all its specific activities carried on for decades, leads to an inevitable change in the evolution of environmental factors. Among these, and especially in the conditions of open-cast mining, the soil is definitely affected. The present study examines the soils developed on mine dumps in Aghire? mining area. It is noted that depending on how the mine dumps were managed, a diff...

VLAD M?CIC??AN; GHEORGHE RO?IAN; RAMONA B?LC; LIVIU MUNTEAN

2013-01-01

47

The prevention of mine accident and utilization of abandoned mine openings.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report consists of 2 subjects. (1) Research on the prevention of mine accident (V): This research has been conducted to investigate 11 major operating coal mines in respect to mine safety. The safety inspection on 9 coal mines has already been done until 1998. In this year, two coal mines, Sangduck and Maro, were inspected and desirable counter measures were recommended. (2) Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings: The final goal of this study is to establish the model of utilization of abandoned mine openings, to design the utilization model, and to develop the utilization techniques. For these research targets, literature surveys, determination of major factors, and field surveys for candidate mines were performed during first research year. Now in this second year, the candidate mines were deeply surveyed, and finally conceptual design was made for one of these abandoned mines. The Gahak mine which is located in Kwangmyung city, Kyunggido, can be utilized as a bio-park and a cave land. (author). 33 refs., 104 tabs., 21 figs.

Cho, Won-Jai; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Chung, So-Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

1999-12-01

48

Concept for using automatically generated SABAS equipment position data in the context of the updating of the official mine map by the example of the open-cast mine Hambach; Konzept zur Nutzung automatisch generierter SABAS-Geraetepositionsdaten im Rahmen der Fortfuehrung des Gewinnungsrisses (Betriebsrisses) am Beispiel des Tagebaus Hambach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To underpin the competitiveness of lignite mining, it is necessary to keep the specific mining costs of lignite at a constantly low level and, if required, adjust them to the market by initiating further rationalization measures. As far as the classical mine surveying tasks are concerned, this means utilizing systematically the potential offered by new surveying processes and techniques. It was against this backdrop that RWE Power AG started the SATAMA (satellite-supported mine surveying and mass calculation) project in 1995/96 with the object of automating terrestrial and photogrammetric mine surveys and updating them close to real time. In this first project, feasibility was demonstrated successfully. The target of the follow-up project SABAS (satellite-assisted excavator operation control) is to use this experience and equip the mining machines in the Hambach and Garzweiler opencast mines of RWE Power AG with the corresponding GPS technology. This article reports on the currently implemented subproject ''Further processing of the SABAS data for updating of the official mine map (automated mine survey)''. (orig.)

Guder, W.; Weber, P. [RWE Power AG, Niederzier (Germany). Tagebau Hambach; Schulte, R.; Holzheim, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen, Bergschadenkunde und Geophysik im Bergbau

2004-06-01

49

Equipment size effects on open pit mining performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the exploitation of economies of scale in open pit mining through the use of increasingly larger equipment. It presents a method adopted to evaluate the impact of increased scale on operational performance factors. The work identifies equipment size sensitive variables (ESSVs) in the mine design process that affect the performance of the production process. Data from a set of case studies show that the ESSV influence extends beyond mine production to encompass milling performance, environmental footprint and community impacts. Some ESSVs (such as reliability, tyre costs and productivity) are shown to be related to the current state of equipment technology and their effects are therefore comparable for different mines. Other ESSVs relate to the mine and deposit characteristics; their effects therefore vary from mine to mine. A detailed analytical approach, developed to model the impact of ESSVs, suggests that for truck/shovel operations, the industry may be approaching a situation of diseconomies of scale.

A. Bozorgebrahimi; R.A. Hall; M.A. Morin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

2005-03-01

50

Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is “deepened” in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level.

Ivana Cehlárová

2007-10-01

51

Analysis of the planned post-mining landscape of MIBRAG's open-cast mines with regard to a possible environmental impact of alteration processes in mixed dumps; Analyse der geplanten Bergbaufolgelandschaft der MIBRAG-Tagebaue in Bezug auf moegliche Umweltauswirkungen durch die Folgen von Stoffumwandlungsprozessen in Kippenmischboeden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years increasing knowledge has been gained with regard to hydro- and geochemical alteration processes in overburden dumps and their impact on groundwater quality in lignite mining and reclamation operations associated with post-mining landscapes in Germany. The questions of how alteration processes affect the environment and which opportunities exist to actively influence the dumping process in order to counteract any possible negative impact of the alteration processes, have been investigated at the MIBRAG mines. Investigations focus on the impact caused by oxidation of sulfur containing minerals. (orig.)

Jolas, Peter; Hofmann, Berthold [Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH, Theissen (Germany)

2009-03-15

52

Ecological risk assessment of open coal mine area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coal mine areas in China have the serious conflicts between resources exploitation and ecology safety, therefore the coal mine ecological risk assessment is an important problem which relates to the sustainability of coal mines to regions and the whole country. In this study, open coal mine area serves as researching object, heavy metals, soil erosion and coast are screened out as risk resources, soil wireworm as the receiver of heavy metals risk, biotope ecosystem as the receiver of soil erosion and coast risk; ecological indexes are calculated with species background index, biological diversity index and natural degree index, ecological friability indexes are calculated with soil fertility index, plant coverage, plant species diversity index, soil wireworm index and maturity index, and the typical coal mine area assessment indexes system is established. In addition, the regional ecological risk assessment is conducted on the friable ecological system of Fuxin Haizhou open coal mine area. Examples are researched of Haizhou open coal mine, the coal mine risk distribution is established, and foundations are provided for the administrative decision-making. PMID:18301998

Xi-jun, Ma; Zhao-hua, Lu; Jian-long, Cheng

2008-12-01

53

Robotization of coal harvesting in open cut lignite mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents a summary of research which is currently being conducted at Monash University-Gippsland Campus on the automation of coal harvesting at a major Australian open cut mine. This mine is located at Morwell, Victoria and produces brown coal (lignite). The research aims to provide a computer assisted remote operation of mining machines and services. In addition it is developing an intelligent unmanned mining system using robotics technology. Also discusses the method of robotizing such a mine for maximum economic efficiency and the proposed control configuration for the system. Describes the current automation project, which is to achieve the required alignment between the rototized mining machine and the hopper by employing a reactive/adaptive fuzzy control system for maximum economic efficiency.

Ibrahim, M.Y.; Barfoot, C. [Monash University, Churchill, Vic. (Australia). School of Engineering

1997-12-31

54

Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and dewatering measures were designed with the help of a numerical mathematical model. A combination of dewatering wells installed from the surface around the perimeter of the pit and horizontal drains in areas of high slope failure potential substantially improved the mining conditions and slope stability. This procedure consequently led to the successful ore recovery from the highly saturated sandstone strata. The development of drawdown during the dewatering of two separated aquifers in the overburden was close to that predicted by the model

55

IMPROVEMENT IN DETERMINATION OF AN AVERAGE MINE OPENING PROFILE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determination of air current resistance in a mine opening with allowable error depends very much on knowing the exact values of its geometric characteristics, i.e. length, cross-section, and perimeter. Eventual error in determining an opening profile grows when calculating the resistance by raising to the third power. The paper describes the construction of a portable device for illumination of cross-sectional area for taking photographs. Determination of geometric characteristics of an average stage profile of a mine opening is analytically and graphically presented herewith by application of F3/U relation of measured profiles.

Vladimir Renduli?

1992-12-01

56

Australian open cut coal mine blasting practices and trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last two decades, many advances have been made in open cut coal mining technology as new mines have come on stream and old mines have faced increasingly difficult mining and operational conditions. The need for close control of operating costs has necessitated consideration of modified excavation methods. Mining systems now often include: truck/shovel prestripping ahead of dragline operations; dragline high walls of 50 meters; total pit depths in excess of 80 meters; mining of multiple coal seams, thin seams and thin partings; more focus on (and measurement of) excavation equipment productivity; and/or conformance to strict environmental limitations. To meet these challenging requirements, innovative explosive products, initiating explosives and delivery systems have been developed. Suitable blasting techniques such as throw blasting also assist coal mining operations to maintain competitiveness in a tough economic environment. This paper examines some of the changes in blasting practices in both open pit and strip mines throughout the Australian coal industry and considers some of the trends for the future.

Sengstock, G.W. [ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd., Kurri Kurri, New South Wales (Australia); Kennedy, B.J. [ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

1995-12-31

57

Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

58

A Novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for Executing Data Mining tasks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining services on grids is the need of today’s era. Workflow environments are widely used in data mining systems to manage data and execution flows associated to complex applications. Weka, one of the most used open-source data mining systems, includes the Knowledge-Flow environment which provides a drag-and-drop inter-face to compose and execute data mining workflows. It allows users to execute a whole workflow only on a single compute on the basis of simplicity. There are several workflows in today’s scene. Most data mining workflows include several independent branches that could be run in parallel on a set of distributed machines to reduce the overall execution time. In this paper we proposed a novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for executing data mining tasks. Our algorithm contains five phases 1 Authentication 2 Reading Database3 Define the minimum support 4 Subset Find 5 Prune phase. Finally our algorithm shows better performance showing the simulation result.

Asif Ali

2011-11-01

59

Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

60

Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes opening of several coal pits with aim to prolong ate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in this paper. (Author)

 
 
 
 
61

Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

62

Recultivation in the Lusatian mining region - targets and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than 100 years, lignite has been mined in open-cast mines in the Lusatian region of northeastern Germany. The increase of output quantities in the former GDR of up to about 200 million tons per year lead to problems for recultivation and loss of public acceptance. By 1993, about 39,000 ha of land were reclaimed, but 75,000 ha of land had been utilized by open-cast mining operations until that date. Forest recultivation has a tradition of more than 60 years and shows the ways for an economically acceptable recultivation by the mining industry. Agricultural recultivation of dumps is also performed successfully. Today, the future mining operation of LAUBAG being reduced to 5 open-cast mines uses specific overburden removal technologies in order to create favourable conditions for the arrangement of a safe, variable and Lusatia-typical post-mining landscape - the beginnings are already visible. 12 refs., 6 figs

63

30 CFR 75.501-3 - New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. 75.501-3 Section 75.501-3 Mineral... § 75.501-3 New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. (a) Where a new opening(s)...

2010-07-01

64

30 CFR 75.501-3 - New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy.  

Science.gov (United States)

...mines above water table and never classed gassy. 75.501-3 Section 75.501-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501-3 New openings; mines above water table and...

2010-07-01

65

Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

66

Technical aspects regarding the opening of a new mine with old already-existing equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decision of opening a new mine is a rather complicated investment project evaluation, including too many separate stages of decision making. Equipment selection is one of them. This article deals with the technical aspects regarding the opening of a new mine with old and already-existing equipment. A case study in the Greek, surface-mined, bucket wheel excavator (BWE) lignite operations is presented. The new Mavropigi Mine will be opened with the (gradually mined out) North Field Mine and Komanos Mine BWEs. Issues examined include the establishment of borehole evaluation criteria, modeling of the deposit, estimation of both geological and minable reserves, calculation of the rate-of-recovery and assessment of the run-off-mine lignite quality, investigation of a new BWE type, investigation of the present status of the old existing equipment, and considerations for selecting another type of continuously-selective mining equipment.

Christos J. Kolovos [Public Power Corporation of Greece, Ptolemais (Greece)

2006-01-15

67

30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines...and Control § 57.22105 Smoking and open flames (IV mines). Smoking or open flames shall not be...raise, or during release of gas from a borehole until tests...

2010-07-01

68

Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reclaimed mine soils (RMS) which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe) reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L). Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control p...

Wojciech Krzaklewski; Marcin Pietrzykowski

2010-01-01

69

Preparation of big size open-cell aluminum foam board using infiltration casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an infi ltration casting technique for manufacturing big size open-cell aluminum foam boards. The principle and key technologies of infi ltration casting are also analyzed. Based on the previous practice of the small size aluminum foam production, the die for preparing big size aluminum foam boards is designed and manufactured. The experiments on aluminum boards of 300 mm × 300 mm × (20-75 mm, with the pore size ranging from 1.0 to 3.2 mm and average porosity of 60%, have been performed. The experimental results show that a reliable infi ltration process depends critically on the pouring temperature of the molten Al-alloy, the preheated temperature of the mould and salt particles and vacuum. Current research explores the possibility of large-scale manufacturing and application of the aluminum foams.

Wang Lucai

2008-11-01

70

Rehabilitation of alluvial lands after open cut mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development consent for Coal & Allied's Hunter Valley Operations required completion of open cut mining to be followed up with rehabilitation and reinstatement of 63 hectares of land to class 1 and 2 cropping capacity by growing lucerne. The alluvial lands were backfilled with overburden, manured and sown with Aurora and Pioneer varieties and an irrigation system was installed in 2003. Drought conditions and prevalence of the white fringed weevil led to decreased yields but in February 2008 the lucerne productivity performance complied with the completion criteria. 2 photos.

NONE

2008-05-15

71

A Moessbauer spectroscopy study of the corrosion of nodular cast iron in mine waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of ductile cast iron in water containing different amounts of chloride ions was investigated under both static and dynamic conditions. Corrosion/time relationships were established for exposure times of up to 30 days. Post-corrosion investigations were performed, employing Moessbauer spectroscopy, optical microscopy and electrochemical techniques. It was found that the nature of the surface corrosion product formed under static conditions differed morphologically and chemically from that formed under dynamic conditions. The latter was a hard layer consisting of a mixture of ?- and ?-FeOOH (situated on an underlying cementite layer), whereas the static tests resulted in a soft, spongy corrosion product, identified as ?-FeOOH. (orig.)

72

Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

73

Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

Kisieleski, W.E.

1980-06-01

74

Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju

2009-01-01

75

Radioecological study of the open reservoirs of the North Kazakhstan area uranium-mining deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper the radiological data of open reservoirs in the former uranium-mining enterprise territory and settlements are given. The received data show, that both the Kutunguz river and reservoirs close to uranium-mining enterprise are polluted by radionuclides. On the received data it is possible to assume, that the essential contribution to the Kutunguz river contamination by radioactive substances the acting mine 11 water is giving. (author)

76

Study on the Law of the Movement and Damage to Slope with the Combination of Underground Mining and Open-Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under circumstances in which both underground mining and open-pit mining are employed, the mining effects of two approaches will be superposed and the mining slope will receive several induced stress fields, which makes the sliding mechanism and deformation law of slope rock mass more complicated. This paper, targeting at the east slope of Antaibao Mine with the joint employment of underground mining and open-pit mining, aims to study the moving law of the slope rock mass and the damage mechanism to the overburden of the goaf by numerical simulation. It is supposed that models of possible damage to the slope could be explored for guidance to safety-production of the mine.

Xingkui Fang

2010-04-01

77

28. international trade fair for construction machinery, building material machines, mining machines, construction vehicles and construction equipment - bauma + mining 2007; 28. internationale Fachmesse fuer Bau-, Baustoff- und Bergbaumaschinen, Baufahrzeuge und Baugeraete - bauma + mining 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 23. and 29. April 2007 the latest technologies from the fields of open-cast mining, deep mining, tunnel construction, preparation and conveying technology, geology, geophysics, exploration and consulting were introduced to the international public of 'bauma + mining 2007'. The fair was thus the international meeting point for the entire mining and construction industry above and below ground for the second time. (orig.)

Gutberlet, K. [VGE Verlag GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2007-05-29

78

Dealing with open fire in an underground coal mine by ventilation control techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Open fire in coal mines is one of the most serious threats to miners, as well as to the mine. Open fire can often be effectively dealt with by prompt local action, otherwise it very quickly becomes uncontrollable. In one incident, none of the available open fire control technologies, viz., water del [...] uge and sprinkler systems, high-expansion foam, high-pressure high-stability nitrogen foam, water misting, and ventilation and pressure control techniques, were effective for saving the mine without sealing from surface, since the fuel-rich environment prohibited underground access due to the methane explosion hazard. The authors have developed a methodology for dealing with advanced-stage open fires underground by the application of a modified ventilation control technique. It is based primarily on a better understanding of the behaviour of open fires, proper diagnosis of the problem, application of judicious ventilation control techniques, and selection of suitable fire indices for assessing the status of an open fire. This methodology was used to successfully control an open fire in Surakachhar 3 and 4 incline mine Surakachhar, central India. The fire area was sealed underground and production subsequently resumed in record time. The paper discusses the behaviour of open fires, particulars of the mine, diagnosis of the problem, experimentation methods, and the results obtained.

N, Sahay; A, Sinha; B, Haribabu; P.K, Roychoudhary.

79

Dealing with open fire in an underground coal mine by ventilation control techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Open fire in coal mines is one of the most serious threats to miners, as well as to the mine. Open fire can often be effectively dealt with by prompt local action, otherwise it very quickly becomes uncontrollable. In one incident, none of the available open fire control technologies, viz., water del [...] uge and sprinkler systems, high-expansion foam, high-pressure high-stability nitrogen foam, water misting, and ventilation and pressure control techniques, were effective for saving the mine without sealing from surface, since the fuel-rich environment prohibited underground access due to the methane explosion hazard. The authors have developed a methodology for dealing with advanced-stage open fires underground by the application of a modified ventilation control technique. It is based primarily on a better understanding of the behaviour of open fires, proper diagnosis of the problem, application of judicious ventilation control techniques, and selection of suitable fire indices for assessing the status of an open fire. This methodology was used to successfully control an open fire in Surakachhar 3 and 4 incline mine Surakachhar, central India. The fire area was sealed underground and production subsequently resumed in record time. The paper discusses the behaviour of open fires, particulars of the mine, diagnosis of the problem, experimentation methods, and the results obtained.

N, Sahay; A, Sinha; B, Haribabu; P.K, Roychoudhary.

2014-06-01

80

Technical parametrization of uranium reserves to be mined by open-pit method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous technical parameters must be dealt with in calculating grade-tonnage relationships: some refer to ore selection criteria in the ore zone (for example the cut-off grade, the size of the standard mining unit, the blast-holes grid available when mining), others relate to geometrical constraints depending upon the mining method (for example the stripping ratio). Achieving the technical parametrization of the recoverable reserves is somewhat challenging when there is an excessive number of parameters: the example of an uranium deposit to be mined by open-pit method shows that the solution can be reached by a sequence of adequately interrelated studies

 
 
 
 
81

In situ characterization at limestone open pit mine using prompt gamma neutron activation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) in situ characterization of blast holes in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. has been performed. This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results for a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAA system gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines. (orig.)

82

Namibia: A mining profile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Namibia is one of Africa's major mining countries and ranks amongst the first 20 in the world. The mining industry is by far the single largest contributor to Namibia's gross domestic product, as well as its exports and public revenue. 44 deposits are currently being mined in Namibia, with diamonds, from the world's richest alluvial diamond field, and uranium, out of one of the world's largest open cast uranium mines (Roessing Mine), being most important of the 31 different commodities produced. In addition Namibia is Africa's largest producer of refined lead and zinc concentrate. Other commodities produced include copper, pyrite, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, gold, silver, tin, fluorite, salt, various pegmatitic industrial minerals, semi-precious stones and building material. Approximately 80% of the value of this mining output is derived from operations held by three major mining companies. There are, however, some 30 other operators active in the country. - Mining has a long history in Namibia with the first prospector arriving in 1761 and the first mine opening in 1856. Mining companies continue to prospect for new mineral resources and extend the reserves of those currently being mined. In 1989 a total of 62.2 million Rand was spent on exploration. The relatively high mineral potential of the country continues to attract investment in the Nambibian mining industry. Areas of particular interest are the base metal mineralization in the northern part of the country, tion in the northern part of the country, the rare metal occurrences in pegmatites of central and southern Namibia and the offshore potential for fossil fuels, which has been stimulated by the discovery of a substantial gas field in 1974. (orig./HP)

83

Opening of the medieval Jeroným Mine in the Czech Republic to the public  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The beginnings of underground mining in the locality go back to the first half of the 16th century. The mining and sporadic exploitation then continued with many interruptions till the beginning of the 20th century. According to historic data, the depth range of mine workings is approximately 50 m. The opening of the Èistá ? Jeroným complex to the public is designed to be economical with the aim to utilise, e.g. for the purpose of mining tourism, especially a medieval large-volume room that together with flooded stoped-out workings forms an inimitable atmosphere underground. This article is focused primarily on geomechanical problems connected with the opening of this complex to the public.

Koøínek Robert

2003-09-01

84

Drug discovery applications for KNIME: an open source data mining platform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technological advances in high-throughput screening methods, combinatorial chemistry and the design of virtual libraries have evolved in the pursuit of challenging drug targets. Over the last two decades a vast amount of data has been generated within these fields and as a consequence data mining methods have been developed to extract key pieces of information from these large data pools. Much of this data is now available in the public domain. This has been helpful in the arena of drug discovery for both academic groups and for small to medium sized enterprises which previously would not have had access to such data resources. Commercial data mining software is sometimes prohibitively expensive and the alternate open source data mining software is gaining momentum in both academia and in industrial applications as the costs of research and development continue to rise. KNIME, the Konstanz Information Miner, has emerged as a leader in open source data mining tools. KNIME provides an integrated solution for the data mining requirements across the drug discovery pipeline through a visual assembly of data workflows drawing from an extensive repository of tools. This review will examine KNIME as an open source data mining tool and its applications in drug discovery. PMID:23110532

Mazanetz, Michael P; Marmon, Robert J; Reisser, Catherine B T; Morao, Inaki

2012-01-01

85

Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers. Calibration of the hydrodynamic model is the starting point for making prognosis calculation in order to create the most optimal system of open-pit mine protection from groundwater. The results of model calibration indicated that the rivers Gomjenica and Bistrica, precipitation and inflow from karstified rocks are the primary sources of recharge of the limonite ore body “Buva?”.

Papi? Petar

2013-09-01

86

The using of GPS – RTK technology for creation of the Open – Pit mine basic map  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the open – pit mine map with results of the method GPS – RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the open – pit mine in Jakub?ovice nad Odrou is evaluated. The results of comparison written are estimated in the end of the paper as well as some tasks at surveying by means of using GPS –RTK technology in the open pit mine.

Jitka Mu?ková

2007-06-01

87

Casting methods  

Science.gov (United States)

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

88

A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning and management of a mine. Optimization of long-term production planning needs correct selection of equipments and labor forces and reducing capital and operation costs. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP methods are used for optimizing production planning in open pit mines with objective of maximizing the total discounted net present value. But MIP formulation of the production scheduling in open pit mines, particularly in large open pit with many numbers of blocks needs too many variables causing it very difficult or impossible to solve. To over come this problem a new heuristic approach by reducing schedule period and applying primary guess is developed based on mixed integer linear programming to reduce the periods of planning and decrease the number of variable and the number of constraint needed in the formulation. The results of this method compared to existing methods shows the significant reduction of binary variable in MIP formulation and higher chance to obtain the optimal Net Present Value (NPV.

Vahid Rafiee

2008-01-01

89

Mining principles in the situation of Dolni Rozinka Uranium Mines deposit with respect to protection of open pits and mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three surface and a network of underground monitoring points were established for assessing the impact of extracting oblique and steep ore zones and veins in the uranium ore deposit at Dolni Rozinka on the surrounding massif and on the earth surface. On the basis of these in-situ measurements and the results of modelling using equivalent materials and mathematical modelling and the evaluation of practical experience in the excavation of mines in this deposit new techniques were designed for protecting installations and buildings from the impacts of mining activities. The distance and size of limit angles of the mining effect were determined which allowed to considerably limit the range of existing safety pillars and thereby to reduce the volume of utility minerals whose excavation had previously been restricted. (B.S.)

90

The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

91

Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

2014-05-01

92

A knowledge-informed chemotype approach to mining the ToxCast/Tox21 chemical-data landscape (WC9)  

Science.gov (United States)

ToxCast and Tox21 chemical libraries currently exceed 2000 and 8000 unique chemicals, respectively, and span a broad diversity of chemical use-types, functionality, and toxicity mechanism and endpoint space. These libraries function as mechanism probes across hundreds of high-th...

93

Post mining land reclamation using ashes from lignite combustion stored in open pit excavations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The power industry in Poland is based on brown and hard coal combustion and transferring the heat into electric power. About 99% of lignite, mined in open pits, is used as a fuel in power plants. Therefore very deep excavations having great volume are formed. Thus such type of mining has the impact on land degradation. In order to reduce this effect, at the earliest possible moment the cap rocks are dumped in the pit but at the safe distance from the mining face. Due to the big amounts of lignite delivered to the power plant, there are shortages of solids for filling the pit after completing the mining operations. Geotechnical properties of dumped combustion by-products depend on the lignite type, combustion technology and ashes haulage methods. The paper describes using waste from power industry for filling the open pits. It presents the types of post-mining open pits which require filling and reclamation. The methods of using combustion by-products which come from commercial power stations and thermal-electric power stations are presented in the paper too. (orig.)

Kudelko, Jan; Nowak, Janusz [KGHM CUPRUM Research and Development Centre, Wroclaw (Poland). Energy Resources Dept.

2010-10-15

94

THE PROCESS OF PEDOGENESIS ON MINE DUMPS (A CASE STUDY: AGHIRE? MINING AREA, ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process of pedogenesis on mine dumps (a case study: Aghire? mining area, Romania. The presence of mining, with all its specific activities carried on for decades, leads to an inevitable change in the evolution of environmental factors. Among these, and especially in the conditions of open-cast mining, the soil is definitely affected. The present study examines the soils developed on mine dumps in Aghire? mining area. It is noted that depending on how the mine dumps were managed, a differentially pedogenesis process started on their surface. Under these conditions, in order to determine the physical characteristics of soils in question, four sampling points were chosen, plus a fifth one with the role of control sample. The final results show clear differences between the physical parameters of investigated soil samples depending on the pedogenesis conditions, differing between the planted dumps and those without a protective vegetation cover.

VLAD M?CIC??AN

2013-04-01

95

Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

NONE

1995-12-31

96

GPSS system applied to optimization of technological process of open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The queuing sub-system and the stored sub-system are abstracted as a composed dynamic system from the technological process of open-pit mining. Using the GPSS system the simulation models were established, and by changing the parameters of the models the optimization of the technological process was carried out

97

Process control system and driving technology enhance the productivity of a copper mine; Prozessleitsystem und Antriebstechnik erhoehen Produktivitaet in Kupfermine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Europe's biggest open-cast copper mine is located in northern Sweden. The metal concentration in htis mine, Aitik, is low. To achieve higher productivity and profitability, the owner Boliden installed modern automation, driving and power supply systems by ABB. (orig.)

Heinze, Ronald

2010-11-15

98

Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

1065-10-01

99

Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India) resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils). To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bau...

Krishnakumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.

2012-01-01

100

A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

 
 
 
 
101

Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

102

Problems of definitive slopes mining at Doly Nastup Tusimice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The instability of slopes influents mining business in many aspects at open-cast mining. The temporary decrease of intended mined volumes due to land slips is common and sometimes there is necessary to change origin-mining plans. It has impact to economy and other essential costs for rehabilitation are required. In case of definitive slopes formation in contact to traffic and communication networks, watercourses and infrastructures of seats stability of slope security there is even more important. Monitoring of rock massive stability plays an important role. Everything which stability of slopes is concerned belongs to essential tasks for mining technicians at open-cast mining. The article explains what ways for definitive slope formation near mining boundary were selected at Severoceske doly j.s.c., Doly Nastup Tusimice mining site. The precautions refer to mining technology, preventive and reconstruction precautions for stabilization of slopes must to solve, are to described. Tasks, which mining engineers, surveyors, geologists and geotechnics have to solve are described. (authors)

103

Impacts of mining activities on water and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven coal mines are situated in Wardha River Valley. These mines are located at Wani (Dist. Yavatmal of Maharashtra). Out of these, 5 open cast coal mines are run by Western Coal Field Ltd. India. The present study has been undertaken to assess the impacts of mining activities in the adjacent areas. Total 25 samples of water and 19 samples of soil from Nilapur, Bramhani, Kolera, Gowari, Pimpari and Aheri were analyzed for pH, TDS, hardness, alkalinity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, arsenic, manganese, sodium and potassium, and the results were compared with the limits of Indian Standards: 10500. PMID:17913182

Warhate, S R; Yenkie, M K N; Chaudhari, M D; Pokale, W K

2006-04-01

104

Assessment of the possible reuse of MSW coming from landfill mining of old open dumpsites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study addresses the theme of recycling potential of old open dumpsites by using landfill mining. Attention is focused on the possible reuse of the residual finer fraction (Lactuca sativa) do not emphasize adverse effects to the growth of the plant species, except the bioassay with V. faba, which showed a dose-response effect. The new developed chronic bioassay test with Spartium junceum showed a good adaptation to stress conditions induced by the presence of the mined landfill material. In conclusion, the conducted experimental activities demonstrated the suitability of the material to be used for different purposes. PMID:24412012

Masi, S; Caniani, D; Grieco, E; Lioi, D S; Mancini, I M

2014-03-01

105

Pb-210 growth in water in an open pit uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an open pit uranium mine, pluviometric precipitation may fill the pit with water. Pb-210 concentration grows in this water due to Rn-222 emanation from the submerse ore. The results of this model are compared with the numerical calculation of Pb-210 growth, from a constant value of 1 Bq of Rn-222. An independent determination of Rn-222 concentration equilibrium value, that is the value of Rn-222 concentration dissolved in water, is also necessary, in order to confirm the results of the model. Results of experiments made in the uranium mine at 'Caetite', BA, Brazil, have confirmed this model predictions, with good accuracy

106

Gastropods as indicators of the ecological impact of the lowering of the ground water level due to projected open-pit brown coal mines. Gastropoden als Indikatorgruppe fuer die Bewertung von Grundwasserabsenkungen durch geplante Braunkohlentagebaue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible effects on the biocoenosis caused by changed ground water tables due to open-cast mining were investigated during 1984/85 in the planned brown coal areas Garzweiler II and Inden II (Rheinisches Braunkohlenrevier). Among others, gastropods were recorded to point out moisture depending and endangered coenosis. According to the composition of moisture indicators and endangered species the sites were assigned to three categories of sensitivity. A cluster analysis supported these assessments. The prediction for most of the investigated sites is an irreversible damage and long-lasting threatening of the coenosis in case of a manipulated water balance. (orig.).

Willecke, S. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Naturschutz und Landschaftsoekologie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

107

Simulation of the casting process - a powerful tool for enhanced design of the cutting teeth in surface mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent development in the computer simulation technology caused a tremendous influence on a rapid prototyping in casting process. These computational tools facilitate engineering work and urge moulding verification in foundries. Among dedicated software packages the MAGMASoft is selected for availability reasons. Its effectiveness is proved with the simulation of moulding process of the cutting teeth for a bucket wheel excavator Use of MAGMASoft enables a shortcut to a forceful and durable product, without internal cavities and micro-porosity. Such advancement of the moulding process is described in this paper.

R. Slavkovic

2013-07-01

108

Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

Kryl Václav

1998-06-01

109

Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 {+-} 0.32 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.61 {+-} 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 {+-} 0.38 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.55 {+-} 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle size distributions of TSP and PM{sub 10} are lognormal Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health.

Huertas, Jose I., E-mail: jhuertas@itesm.mx [Tecnologico de Monterrey, Eduardo Monroy Cardenas No 2000, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico); Huertas, Maria E. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Solis, Dora A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carrera Toluca - Atlacomulco km 14.5. Tlachaloya, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico)

2012-04-15

110

Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

Martin Vrubel

2007-06-01

111

???????? ???????? data mining ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? data mining ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????. ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????, ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????. ? ?????? ???? ??...

???????, ???????? ?.

2006-01-01

112

Reorganization of oil shale mining in Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the present conditions of limited demand for oil shale, the Estonian oil shale mining industry is in a state of over capacity. This results in an inefficient use of labor. This working atmosphere has resulted in high production costs per tonne of mined oil shale. To improve economic factors, it is necessary to concentrate production into a limited number of mines working at full capacity and to modernize the mining technology at those mines. A development plan for oil shale mining is proposed. It primarily includes modernization of the prospective mines to be kept in operation and reduction of surface mining at the Sirgala and Narva open cast pits. This will result in conservation of oil shale reserves for 8- 10 years of future production. It is recommended that the resumption of mining in these fields be by underground means. The detailed plan does not call for the untimely closing of mines before the exhaustion of their reserves of oil shale. At the same time, a relatively stable level of mining activity (10-13 million tonnes per year) with minimal investments in the oil shale industry is guaranteed until 2025. (author)

113

Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

114

AN ANOTHER WAY FOR OPEN PIT MINE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION – FLOATING SLOPES METHOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors of the work presents main principles of a new method of design the ultimate pit which is primarily applicable for bedded formations, but also can be acceptable for other types of deposits. On the basis of main criteria of optimum design (profitability and slope stability, the authors have tested theirs procedure and proposed a new method for optimum design of open pit mines, for which the most suitable name would be the Floating Slopes Method.

Branimir Jankovi?

2009-12-01

115

CLUO: Web-Scale Text Mining System for Open Source Intelligence Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof openly available information.

Przemyslaw Maciolek

2013-01-01

116

Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the years 1998-2001 geotechnical processes in closed underground oil shale mines and open casts were investigated. In addition to kukersite oil shale deposit, the closed Sillamaee uranium (Dictyonema shale) mine was prospected. The main tools and methods included mine plans, aerial photographs and Geographical Information System data. 290 km2 of underground and 130 km2of strip-mined areas were studied. The mining maps of Estonian underground and surface mines were created. The stability of underground mined area, where room-and-pillar method was used, was the main objective of the study. It was studied with the help of aerial photographs, mine drawings, maps of quaternary sediments and mathematical modeling of rock failure. The main results are: 20 % of subsidences remain undiscovered and 42 % of subsidence occurrences have no remarkable influence to the land cover; the probability of subsidence remains and may increase in the case of mine drowning. As several mines will be closed during the next few years, the problems of drowned waste (which were not subjects of this study) are going to be more actual than before: increasing underground water level, pollution of underground water, formation of technogenic water sources, overflooding of reclaimed areas, etc. (author)

117

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

Adel Badri

2011-09-01

118

Interoperability Using Lightweight Metadata Standards: Service & Data Casting, OpenSearch, OPM Provenance, and Shared SciFlo Workflows  

Science.gov (United States)

Under several NASA grants, we are generating multi-sensor merged atmospheric datasets to enable the detection of instrument biases and studies of climate trends over decades of data. For example, under a NASA MEASURES grant we are producing a water vapor climatology from the A-Train instruments, stratified by the Cloudsat cloud classification for each geophysical scene. The generation and proper use of such multi-sensor climate data records (CDR's) requires a high level of openness, transparency, and traceability. To make the datasets self-documenting and provide access to full metadata and traceability, we have implemented a set of capabilities and services using known, interoperable protocols. These protocols include OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, Open Provenance Model, service & data casting technologies using Atom feeds, and REST-callable analysis workflows implemented as SciFlo (XML) documents. We advocate that our approach can serve as a blueprint for how to openly "document and serve" complex, multi-sensor CDR's with full traceability. The capabilities and services provided include: - Discovery of the collections by keyword search, exposed using OpenSearch protocol; - Space/time query across the CDR's granules and all of the input datasets via OpenSearch; - User-level configuration of the production workflows so that scientists can select additional physical variables from the A-Train to add to the next iteration of the merged datasets; - Efficient data merging using on-the-fly OPeNDAP variable slicing & spatial subsetting of data out of input netCDF and HDF files (without moving the entire files); - Self-documenting CDR's published in a highly usable netCDF4 format with groups used to organize the variables, CF-style attributes for each variable, numeric array compression, & links to OPM provenance; - Recording of processing provenance and data lineage into a query-able provenance trail in Open Provenance Model (OPM) format, auto-captured by the workflow engine; - Open Publishing of all of the workflows used to generate products as machine-callable REST web services, using the capabilities of the SciFlo workflow engine; - Advertising of the metadata (e.g. physical variables provided, space/time bounding box, etc.) for our prepared datasets as "datacasts" using the Atom feed format; - Publishing of all datasets via our "DataDrop" service, which exploits the WebDAV protocol to enable scientists to access remote data directories as local files on their laptops; - Rich "web browse" of the CDR's with full metadata and the provenance trail one click away; - Advertising of all services as Google-discoverable "service casts" using the Atom format. The presentation will describe our use of the interoperable protocols and demonstrate the capabilities and service GUI's.

Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E.

2011-12-01

119

Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

120

Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

1059-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Casting versus surgical fixation for grade IIIA open tibial diaphysial fractures in children: effect on the rate of infection and the need for secondary surgical procedures to promote bone union  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated 39 grade IIIA open tibial fractures presenting in children younger than 13 years of age, to determine if the mode of fracture stabilization (casting vs. surgical fixation) was related to the rate of infection or the need for secondary surgical procedures to promote bone union. All fractures had wound debridement in the operating room. Thirty patients had manipulation and casting, and nine surgical internal or external fixation. There were two cases of infection in the cast-treated group and two in the surgical fixation group (P=0.17). None of the fractures required a secondary surgical procedure to promote bone union. Three of the fractures treated by manipulation and casting displaced; two required re-manipulation and casting and one was converted to external fixation. In two cases the applied external fixator had to be re-aligned. Our results suggest that manipulation and casting is a reliable treatment for open tibial fractures in children. PMID:16091949

Alvi, F.; Siddique, I.; Zenios, M.; Hirst, P.; Marshall, P.

2005-01-01

122

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka

2011-05-01

123

Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia  

Science.gov (United States)

Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event: rainfall depth, rainfall intensity in fifteen minutes and in two hours, peak discharge, runoff coefficient, dry time duration before the event and flood duration. The calculation of suspended sediment yield (SSY) at different time scales gives an evaluation of the pollution delivered to the creeks and lagoon and of the water management and sediment trap efficiency. An extreme rainfall event (December 25th, 2011) of 500 mm in 26 hours yielded downstream more suspended sediment than all the floods of the previous monitored period. This highlights the threshold effects in runoff and erosion response in these open mining areas.

Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

2014-05-01

124

X-ray fluorescence sampling of mining openings at lead-zinc and chalcopyrite ore deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of possible application of various ways of the X-ray fluorescence method realization while sampling the polymetallic ores in mining openings was made according to the experimental results obtained on the models with discrete distribution of mineralization. It is shown that the identification and quantitative estimation of copper, zinc or lead concentrations may be carried out by the method of spectral intensity as well as by the known method of spectral ratios, that simplifies sufficiently the technique for measuring, data processing and interpreting. Conclusions are illustrated using the examples of Dzheskazgansk copper deposit, Altyn-Topkansk and Kansaisk lead-zinc deposits

125

A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

126

Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

2012-11-01

127

A hybrid GA-TS algorithm for open vehicle routing optimization of coal mines material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP), the objective is to minimize the number of vehicles and the total distance (or time) traveled. This study primarily focuses on solving an open vehicle routing problem (OVRP) by applying a novel hybrid genetic algorithm and the Tabu search (GA-TS), which combines the GA's parallel computing and global optimization with TS's Tabu search skill and fast local search. Firstly, the proposed algorithm uses natural number coding according to the customer demands and the captivity of the vehicle for globe optimization. Secondly, individuals of population do TS local search with a certain degree of probability, namely, do the local routing optimization of all customer sites belong to one vehicle. The mechanism not only improves the ability of global optimization, but also ensures the speed of operation. The algorithm was used in Zhengzhou Coal Mine and Power Supply Co., Ltd.'s transport vehicle routing optimization.

Yu, S.W.; Ding, C.; Zhu, K.J. [China University of Geoscience, Wuhan (China)

2011-08-15

128

Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas  

Science.gov (United States)

In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and allows an easy exploration of the data to assess its quality and suitability for a specific task. More complex remote sensing image analysis is performed through 3rd party software, which is dynamically integrated into a Web Processing Service (WPS). With an increasing data volume the transmission becomes a key problem for a WPS processing this raster data. Here the Moving Code principle embedded in the 52North WPS implementation (MÜLLER et al. 2013) is applied to engage this problem by flexibly sending processes to the WPS which is directly coupled with the data on a server. The required parameters to control the processing are entered via an interface within the web portal. The Moving Code approach not only contributes to improving web processing for big data sets but it also makes it easier to integrate external executable programs into a WPS. As a result the proposed framework of web services and a web portal successfully combines various open source technologies to integrate all of the gathered vector and raster data as well as the analysis methods developed during the GMES4Mining project into a spatial data infrastructure and to enable access to them through a web browser. References: BENECKE, N., ZIMMERMANN, K., MÜTERTHIES, A., PAKZAD, K., TEUWSEN, S., GARCÍA MILLÁN, V., KATELOE, J., PREUßE, A., PEBESMA, E. & T. PRINZ (2013): GMES4Mining: GMES-based geoservices for mining areas. In: Proceedings of the XV International ISM Congress, September 2013, Aachen, Germany. MÜLLER, M., BERNARD, L. & D. KADNER (2013): Moving code - Sharing geoprocessing logic on the Web. In: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 83: 193-203.

Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

2014-05-01

129

Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5?×?10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

2014-12-01

130

Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian open-cut coal mines: contribution from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation of waste coal and other carbonaceous material at open-cut coal mines are potentially significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the magnitude of these emissions is largely unknown. In this study, emissions from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation were estimated for six Australian open-cut coal mines with annual coal production ranging from 1.7 to more than 16 Mt. Greenhouse emissions from all other sources at these mines were also estimated and compared to those from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation. In all cases, fugitive emission of methane was the largest source of greenhouse gas; however, in some mines, spontaneous combustion accounted for almost a third of all emissions. For one mine, it was estimated that emissions from spontaneous combustion were around 250,000 t CO(2)-e per annum. The contribution from low-temperature oxidation was generally less than about 1% of the total for all six mines. Estimating areas of spoil affected by spontaneous combustion by ground-based surveys was prone to under-report the area. Airborne infrared imaging appears to be a more reliable method. PMID:19572109

Day, Stuart J; Carras, John N; Fry, Robyn; Williams, David J

2010-07-01

131

The influence of seismic hazard on the building of inner dump in the Belchatow lignite open cut mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vibration of surface caused by seismic quakes present a risk to large mining construction. This risk occurs in the Belchatow open cut mine where seismic quakes of various energy and range have occurred since the end of 1970s. The seismic risk influence on the mine structure with the special attention to the slopes of an internal dump has been presented. Hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions of the lignite mining and internal dumping of overburden and ash from Belchatow power plant have been considered. Seismic activity in Belchatow open cut from 1979 to 2001 was described and the connection between mine working and seismicity of this area was investigated. The energy and approximate location of the quakes and seismological parameters of the strongest ones observed from 1995 to 2001 were presented. The mechanism of the quake focuses was determined by means of the primary-arriving wave method. Stability of the slopes was evaluated by means of the Fellenius method. It has been found that seismic events occured in Belchatow region may cause only local eboulements whereas there are not any safety risks to the stability of slopes of the internal dump in Belchatow open cut. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

A. Wasowicz; S. Slusarczyk; Z. Kozlowski

2003-07-01

132

PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

133

PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

2012-07-01

134

Opencast lignite mining Reichwalde. 11 years of stagnation - restart in 2011; Braunkohlentagebau Reichwalde. 11 Jahre Stillstand - Wiederinbetriebnahme 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Lausitz (Eastern Germany), Vattenfall operates five brown coal mines and supplies lignite to the power plants Jaenschwalde, Schwarze Pumpe and Boxberg as well as to the finishing plant in Schwarze Pumpe. In addition to the active mines Jaenschwalde, Cottbus-North, Welzow-South and Nochten with reserves of about 0.9 billion tons of raw coal, in the mine store Reichwalde another 370 million tons of lignite being approved for the mining are present. At the end of 2010, the open-cast mining again has started up the coal mining in the area in order to perform a significant share in particular in the supply of the power plant Boxberg as well as the power plant Schwarze Pumpe. The annual coal production in the Lausitz area amounts about 60 million tonnes per year. With the restart of the mine Reichwalde this level of mining is secured on the long term level.

Klocek, Gert [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Tagebauplanung

2011-03-15

135

Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

136

29{sup th} international trade fair for construction machinery, building material machines, mining machines construction vehicles and construction equipment - bauma; 29. Internationale Fachmesse fuer Baumaschinen, Baustoffmaschinen, Bergbaumaschinen, Baufahrzeuge und Baugeraete - bauma 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 19. and 25. April 2010 the latest technologies from the fields of open-cast mining, deep mining, tunnel construction, preparation and conveying technology, geology, geophysics, exploration and consulting were introduced to the international public of ''bauma 2010''. The fair was thus the international meeting point for the entire mining and construction industry above and below ground for the third time. (orig.)

Gutberlet, Karsten [VGE Verlag GmbH - Verlag Glueckauf, Essen (Germany); Ipp, Benjamin [Inst. fuer Maschinentechnik der Rohstoffindustrie (IMR), RWTH Aachen (Germany)

2010-06-15

137

The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling [...] . Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves and provides input into the Letseng overall business plan. The process of defining the key inputs for the entire mine planning process is discussed, which covers: ? Slope design as an input ? Diamond price inputs ? Operating and capital cost inputs ? Generation of pit shells ? Selection of an optimum pit shell and interim cutbacks using operational scenarios ? Sensitivity analysis on the selected optimum pit shell. ? Slope design criteria in the detailed design ? Split shell vs concentric pit design ? Practical mining widths to determine cutback design ? Pit design process in the GEMS software package. ? Development of scheduling scenarios in the XPAC software package ? Planning through mining production bottlenecks. ? Company-level NPV model ? Comparing scenarios and input of the different schedule scenarios into the company NPV model.

A., Madowe.

138

The mining industry in Zambia; Der Bergbau in Sambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining industry plays an important role in the Zambian economy. In particular the copper mining industry accounts for the largest proportion of proceeds from foreign trade; coal is an important indigenous source of energy. Lead ore, zinc ore and precious stones make a further contribution. Sulphur is obtained for domestic requirements from the Nampundwe mine. Various nickel ore deposits are currently being explored. Two mines in the Zambian copper ore belt and the Maamba open-cast coal mine are described. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bergbau hat in der sambischen Wirtschaft eine grosse Bedeutung. Insbesondere der Kupfererzbergbau erzielt trotz unguenstiger Bedingungen den groessten Teil der Aussenhandelserloese; weiteren Beitrag liefern Bleierz, Zinkerz und Edelsteine. Fuer den inlaendischen Bedarf wird auf dem Bergwerk Nampundwe Schwefel gewonnen, zur Zeit befinden sich verschiedene Nickelerzlagerstaetten in Erkundung. Wichtiger Einheimischer Energietraeger ist die Steinkohle. Vorgestellt werden zwei Bergwerke des sambischen ``Kupferguertels`` sowie der Steinkohlentagebau Maamba. (orig.)

Antweiler, P. [Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I der Rheinisch-Westfaelischen Technischen Hochschule, Aachen (Germany); Drijver, J. den [Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I der Rheinisch-Westfaelischen Technischen Hochschule, Aachen (Germany)

1995-05-11

139

Opening of stripe mine Oslomej - West as a contribution to exploitation of coal in Kichevo basin and extension of exploitation period of TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal mining in the open mine 'Oslomej' in Macedonia has started 1980 and its regular coal production is 1,2 x 106 t per year. The whole coal produced in this mine is used for the Thermal Power Plant 'Oslomej', whose total installed capacity is 120 MW. Taking into consideration the planned exploitation dynamics, the coal reserves will meet the TPP needs for the next 4-5 years. In order to consolidate the coal reserves in the Kitchevo basin, a previous geologic examinations were carried out. In this paper economic, electro energetic and commercial justification of opening the stripe mine Oslomej - West is analysed

140

Environmental management of large scale open pit mining operations with special reference to Northern Coalfields Limited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India`s coal production from open pit mines rose to 202.2 mt in 1995-96 and is forecast to rise further. Northern Coalfields Ltd., has developed the production of coal from the Singrauli coalfield but had to implement strict environmental control to minimise damage to an area where the population is largely tribal and economically and socially weak. The paper describes the successful environmental and social mitigation measures implemented in and around the area. Those include reclamation of spoil dumps for afforestation, measures to minimise emissions and noise emitted from heavy vehicles and to control coal dusts, treatment of water pollution, and rehabilitation of families within core activity areas. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs., 9 photos.

Sen, S.K. [Northern Coalfields Limited (India)

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
141

Mining in eastern Australia and Tasmania. Pt. 1. The role of the mining industry in Australia. Dartbrook Mine and Baal Bone Mine; Bergbau im Osten Australiens und auf Tasmanien. T. 1. Bedeutung des Bergbaus fuer Australien, Steinkohlenbergwerke Dartbrook Mine und Baal Bone Mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 31 August and 26 September 1996, German mining experts made a study trip to Australia. Visits were made to seven underground mines and six open-cast mines as well as to the opal fields of White Cliffs. In a serial of three articles, Bergbau will describe the Australian mining industry and some of the mines that were visited. Any sums of money mentioned are in Australian dollars. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] In der Zeit vom 31. August bis 26. September 1996 wurde eine bergmaennische Studienreise nach Australien durchgefuehrt. Im Rahmen der Reise wurden sieben Tiefbaubetriebe und sechs Tagebaue sowie die Opalfelder von White Cliffs befahren. In einem dreiteiligen Aufsatz sollen das Bergbauland Australien und einige der befahrenen Bergbaubetriebe vorgestellt werden. Alle Angaben in Dollar sind - wenn nicht anders angegeben - Australische Dollar. (orig./MSK)

Aretz, J. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Abt. Tagebautechnik

1997-06-01

142

Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

143

Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

2011-11-01

144

Automatic monitoring system for high-steep slope in open-pit mine based on GPS and data analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, GPS has been more and more applicative in open pit mine slope safety monitoring. Daye Iron Mine open pit high-steep slope automatic monitoring system mainly consists of three modules, namely, GPS data processing module, monitoring and warning module, emergency plans module. According to the rock mass structural feature and the side slope stability evaluation, it is arranged altogether to seven GPS distortion monitoring points on the sharp of Fault F9 at Daye iron Mine, adopted the combination of monofrequent static GPS receiver and data-transmission radio to carry on the observation, the data processing mainly uses three transect interpolation method to solve the questions of discontinuity and Effectiveness in the data succession. According to the displacement monitoring data from 1990 to 1996 of Daye Iron Mine East Open Pit Shizi mountain Landslide A2, researching the displacement criterion, rate criterion, acceleration criterion, creep curve tangent angle criterion etc of landslide failure, the result shows that the landslide A2 is the lapse type crag nature landslide whose movement in three phases, namely creep stage, accelerated phase, destruction stage. It is different of the failure criterion in different stages and different position that is at the rear, central, front margin of the landslide. It has important guiding significance to put forward the comprehensive failure criterion of seven new-settled monitoring points combining the slope deformation destruction and macroscopic evidence.

Zhou, Chunmei; Li, Xianfu; Qin, Sunwei; Qiu, Dandan; Wu, Yanlin; Xiao, Yun; Zhou, Jian

2008-12-01

145

VIABILIDAD DE LA EXTRACCIÓN DE CARBONES A CIELO ABIERTO. CASO MINA LA MARGARITA / OPEN PIT COAL EXPLOTATION VIABILITY. MARGARITA MINE CASE OF STUDY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo analiza la viabilidad, planeamiento y diseño de una nueva explotación a cielo abierto de carbón en la mina La Margarita S.A., con recursos carboníferos superficiales calculados en 440.139,7 ton. Se logró dimensionar, diseñar y evaluar económicamente con tres diferentes métodos de explo [...] tación: Cortas, Contorno y Terrazas. Para el método de Cortas el Valor Presente Neto (VPN) fue de 817,5 de Contorno 518,5 y Terrazas 645,2 dado en millones de pesos ($) colombianos corrientes del 2004 y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR) para Cortas: 78,33%, Contorno 34,0% y Terrazas 38,62. Estos indicadores sirvieron para seleccionar el método de Cortas, el cual fue ajustado con cierto detalle, ya que fue necesario trabajar conjuntamente dos frentes para hacerlo viable. Como valor agregado para el proyecto se hizo una evaluación general ambiental, que es de vital importancia para la explotación. Se dan recomendaciones para minimizar los impactos más importantes tales como la flora, fauna, aire, suelo, aguas. De cada una de ellas se plantean medidas ya sean de mitigación, control o prevención. Se espera que este trabajo sirva como soporte técnico - económico para el desarrollo de una nueva extracción de carbón a cielo abierto dentro de la mina La Margarita. Abstract in english This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for “La Margarita” mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation was possible by three exploitation methods: (Multiple bench, Open Cast [...] contour, and Terraces). Net Present Values (NVP) were calculated: $C 817,5; $C 518,5 and $C 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $C 2380 are equivalent to $US 1) and Rate of Return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. In addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. It is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the Margarita Mine

JULIA, VELOZA; JORGE, MOLINA; HUMBERTO, MEJIA.

2006-11-01

146

Data Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

Data Mining, also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases, is a process used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. This first website (1) provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki (2). This website from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (3) describes a project involving the development of new algorithms that will be applied to the creation of two large-scale databases to be used to "enable insight into government efficiency and the flow of scientific ideas." This white paper (4) provides a nice educational resource for Data Mining. If you are inspired to try your the process, the Weka Machine Learning Project from Waikato University (5) offers open source software that can be used for data mining tasks. KD Nuggets (6) posts articles on Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Genomic Mining, Web Mining that range from the serious to the silly, along with other resources. For a brief history of data mining and related fields, visit this website (7). Finally, The Data Mine website (8) is an excellent place to venture into further explorations on Data Mining.

147

Pattern-Based Web Mining Using Data Mining Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last decade, many data mining techniques have been proposed for fulfilling various knowledge discovery tasks in order to achieve the goal of retrieving useful information for users. Data mining techniques include association rule mining, frequent itemset mining, sequential pattern mining, maximum pattern mining and closed pattern mining. However, how to effectively exploit the discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of Web mining. In this study, we...

Sheng-Tang Wu; Yuefeng Li

2013-01-01

148

Mined-out areas need not sink  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estonia's most important mineral resource - oil-shale or kukersite - has been mined for long years. In spite of the decrease in oil-shale production over recent years, mining for this important raw material of the power and chemical industries will have to be continued. For various reasons, in the near future the prevalent role will be played by underground mining. Unfortunately, this method, as well as open-cast pit mining, has done much damage to nature in North-East Estonia. The best measure to lower the cost and diminish the negative effects of mining will probably be filling the shafts and pits with either mechanical gangue or some petrifying material. Experiments carried out in the Viru and Kivioli mines have yielded good results; the sinking of the ground lessens, the mining losses of oil-shale and the pollution of ground water are reduced and the ground water cone of depression is narrowed. At the same time the application of this method also has some negative aspects: it increases the cost of production and creates a need for procuring additional machinery. (author)

149

The morphology of fossil pebbles as a tool for determining their transport processes (Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit, central Poland)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit is the southernmost exposure of Palaeogene (lower Oligocene) deposits in central Poland. This study is focused on Palaeogene pebbles of the so-called Ko?min Gravels, rede- posited in the Neogene sands. These pebbles are not known from the adjacent territory of central Poland and they vary in petrographic composition, shape and surface texture. The classification of the pebble-size particle form is determined as DI/DL (elongation ratio) and DS/DI (flatn...

Widera, Marek

2010-01-01

150

Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

Jurcakova K.

2013-04-01

151

Lignite mining and its after-effects on the central German landscape  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lignite mining, which has been pursued in Central Germany for 150 years, has left deep scars on the landscape on an area of over 600 km2. The open-cast mines set up to extract lignite, along with the dumps and pits arising during the course of mining activities, have resulted in a completely new landscape, the external appearance and abiotic factors of which differ from the developed, cultivated landscape outside the mining areas. Dumps and slope faces are reclaimed on the basis of specific approaches, while pits are flooded to create strip mine lakes. Soil and water have developed in conformity with their own natural laws, knowledge of which is indispensable for recultivation. The development of new post-mining landscapes above all chiefly determined by ecological standards. 16 refs

152

Casting Titanium and Zirconium in Zircon Sand Molds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A zircon sand molding process was developed by the Bureau of Mines for static casting small titanium or zirconium shapes. Castings with unfinished weights up to 3.5 kg (7.7 lb) were produced in an inductoslag furnace and castings up to 7 kg (15.4 lb) were...

J. L. Hoffman, M. L. Transue, R. A. Beall, R. K. Koch

1977-01-01

153

Forecast of Water Quality In Mining Lakes When Used As Reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

The area of investigation is located in the Lusatian lignite mining region (Saxonia/ Germany). Until 1990 an excessive open- cast lignite mining was carried out resulting in a regional water deficit of about 13 billion m3. Since 1990 (until now) extensive rehabilitation measures in the formerly open cast lignite mining areas have been re- alized. To compensate the ecological damages it is planned to use these open- cast mines as lakes in future nature protection areas and as water reservoirs in the catch- ment of the river Spree. Some of the open- cast mines are already flooded and most of them show pH- values lower 3.5 and sulphate concentrations greater than 500 mg/ l. There is a fear that the use of the residual pits as storage reservoirs will originate a fur- ther acidification and mineralisation of the water and so cause a deterioration of water quality. The fact that the reservoirs will be used to ensure the ecological required min- imum discharge in the receiving water course Spree gives emphasis to the importance of this developement. Our goal is the investigation of these effects, show the influence of water management on water quality in mining reservoirs and connected groundwa- ter and surface water systems. Exemplary the water and matter balance of the reservoir system >Lohsaregional groundwater model, geochemical models for matter transport and pyrite oxidation, water resource balance model Spree. Finally the mod- elling results and computational approaches will be presented as 35 years forecasting time series of essential water quality parameters.

Rolland, W.; Ehret, B.; Mazur, K.; Grünewald, U.

154

Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level during different years (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC, and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers. Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km, and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km. Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

Sarula Kang

2014-03-01

155

Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

156

Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

2005-07-01

157

The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate [...] highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

D., van Rensburg; L., Melis.

158

?Relation of loess units and prehistoric find density in the Garzweiler open-cast mine, Lower Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Auf der Basis einer detaillierten Lössstratigraphie wurden auf dem Lössplateau des westlichen Niederrheins von einer Abbauwandgesamtfläche von 11.000qm die Anteile der wichtigsten Lösseinheiten berechnet. Darin nimmt der Brabant-Löss (spätes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS 2 45% Anteil ein, also nahezu die Hälfte des vorhandenen Lösses, der Hesbaye-Löss (frühes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS2 etwa 5%. Ein Viertel des Lösses (25% geht an den Keldach-Löss (Älteres Hochwürm, MIS4, nur wenig (1,5% an den Rheingau-Löss (MIS 5. Dem Prä-Eem-Löss gehört das letzte Viertel (24% desgesamten Lösses. Eine statistische Suche nach prähistorischen Funden erbrachte 131 paläolithische Knochen und Artefakte, die stratigraphisch genau zugeordnet werden konnten. Die Hauptmasse der Funde gehört den beiden Stadien MIS4 und MIS2 an – bemerkenswerterweise zwei kalten Perioden. Das Fehlen interglazialer Funde – solche sind vom übrigen Lössplateau durchaus bekannt – wird der starken periglazialen Abtragung und Einebnung in Plateauposition zugeschrieben. Die vorliegenden Funde belegen erstmals lokale Jagdaktivität während feuchter Perioden im Stadium MIS4. Ob die Funde aus dem MIS2 autochthon sind oder aus älteren Schichten aufgearbeitet wurden, muss offen bleiben.

Holger Kels

2011-02-01

159

The antibody mining toolbox: an open source tool for the rapid analysis of antibody repertoires.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1-2 million reads can be accomplished in 10-15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries. PMID:24423623

D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Kiss, Csaba

2014-01-01

160

On the atmospheric response to urbanization and open-pit mining under various geostrophic wind conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulations alternatively assuming a real landscape with and without open-pit mines and grown settlements were performed with a non-hydrostatic meteorological model of the meso-{beta}-scale to elucidate whether the atmospheric response to such land-use changes is sensitive to the direction and magnitude of geostrophic wind. The results of simulations with the same geostrophic wind conditions substantiate that the daily domain-averages of the variables of state hardly differ for the different landscape realizations, except for cloud- and precipitating particles. However, land-use changes may significantly affect the local conditions over and downwind of the altered surfaces. The significant differences in the cloud- and precipitating particles, however, are not bound to the surroundings of land-use changes. The vertical component of wind vector, which is modified by the different heating of converted land-use, strongly affects cloud- and precipitation formation by the interaction cloud microphysics-dynamics. The magnitude of atmospheric response changes under the various directions and speeds of geostrophic wind for most of the field quantities and fluxes. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Moelders, N. [Universitaet Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany). LIM - Institut fuer Meteorologie

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Casting Manipulation  

Science.gov (United States)

We have been developing a casting manipulator which includes a flexible string in the link mechanism in order to enlarge workspace of the manipulator. We proposed the swing motion control as the first step of casting manipulation. In this paper we deal with swing motion and throwing motion of casting manipulation. First, we show a method of generating pendulum swing and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method through experiments using a prototype casting manipulator. Next, we clarify that the main factors which disturb throwing motion are the time delay of releasing a gripper and frictional force which also disturbs flying motion of the gripper based on the results of throwing experiments. We propose a method of compensating these factors. Through the evaluation by comparing the results of numerical simulation with those of experiments, we show that the proposed method helps to reduce the position error of the gripper which reaches to the target.

Arisumi, Hitoshi; Yokoi, Kazuhito; Kotoku, Tetsuo; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

162

Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

163

Hair casts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

Parmar, Sweta S; Parmar, Kirti S; Shah, Bela J

2014-10-01

164

Implementation of the EC water framework directive and its significance for the protection of water in lignite mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the location of the deposits, lignite in Germany is mined in open casts. This has a far-reaching impact on the water landscape in a given mining area, and indeed also on its bodies of water, which includes a major change to the groundwater situation available before the extraction of the lignite. Any body of water above ground in the area needs to be removed, and as soon as open-cast mining has been concluded, new water bodies come into being, creating a new water landscape. To ensure that mining operations are dry and safe, the groundwater has to be pumped off in large volumes and needs to be largely redirected into water bodies near the mines. This inevitably means that the water management situation in and around a lignite mine changes continually - a fact which is rather difficult to reconcile with developments initiated in water management at the European level and aiming to keep water bodies largely untouched and free from human influences. Although this article does not provide enough space to give a comprehensive overview of the effects of water management policies on mining in general or on lignite mining in particular, we can nevertheless highlight a number of foreseeable conflicts of aims and possible solutions. Before we do so, we need to give a brief introduction to the new water management principles specified in the EC Water Framework Directive. (orig.)

Viertel, B. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

2005-05-01

165

The suitable of utilization the opening spaces of browncoal and ore mines for the waste deposition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the conection with the transformation of non economical metal mining in Slovakia nowadays possibilities of secondary utilization of mine underground spaces for unmining purposes are analyzed. This paper presents the technical Aspects and the Possibilities for the undergrounding deposition of waste materials on the slowak mining works on the brown coal and metalic raw materials mines. This problems are in the last year still more solution and with the positive results too. The specific points of the paper addresed in this report deal with charakterization of the waste from the point of view one coal power plant. Are charakterized their preparation and laboratory methods, but the hydrogelogical and geotechnical problems too. Ending this paper is describe one of the possibilty of the Informatik system for underground waste storage (UAE. On the relation of this problem are in the paper described the more technical aspects from point of view one brown coal mining area. Together with the problem of possibilities of storage mining in underground has been the technical consulting system soluted (WBS. Technological and temporary storage of waste and utility materials without the relation to the mining technology are described too. The mining waste management (UAE in metal and brown coal mines may in future be rather perspective industrial area of enterprising which if, it is rigthly orientated, will make possible at least the partial iprovement of the living environment.

Bauer Viliam

2000-12-01

166

Aquatic invertebrates in final void water bodies at an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the diversity of aquatic invertebrates colonising water-filled final voids produced by an open-cut coal mine near Moura, central Queensland. Ten disused pits that had been filled with water from < 1 year to 22 years prior to the survey and three nearby 'natural' water bodies were sampled in December 1998 and again in March 1999. All invertebrates collected were identified to family with the exception of oligochaetes, cladocerans, ostracods and copepods, which were identified to these coarser taxonomic levels. Sixty-two taxa were recorded from > 20 000 individuals. The greatest familial richness was displayed by the Insecta (33 families) followed by the mites (Acari) with 12 families. While natural water bodies held the greatest diversity, several mine pits were almost as rich in families. Classification analyses showed that natural sites tended to cluster together, but the groupings did not clearly exclude pit sites. Mining pits that supported higher diversity tended to be older and had lower salinity (< 2000 {mu}S/cm); however, salinity in all water bodies varied with rainfall conditions. We conclude that ponds formed in final voids at this mine have the potential to provide habitat for many invertebrate taxa typical of lentic inland water bodies in central Queensland.

Proctor, H.; Grigg, A. [Griffith University, Nathan, Qld. (Australia). Australian School of Environmental Studies

2006-07-01

167

A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks  

Science.gov (United States)

Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.

2009-01-01

168

Mitigation of the environmental impacts of open pit and underground uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological and nonradiological environmental impacts of uranium mining on air, water and land are discussed. Methods of reducing impacts are covered with emphasis on Exxon's practices and experience. The message is that uranium mining environmental impacts are relatively small, but they do require good planning to avoid the need for expensive solutions later

169

The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

170

Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

171

Various effects of mining on groundwater quality and resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining excavations intercept groundwater flow, often down to considerable depth. Indeed groundwater frequently causes serious difficulties during the development and operation of mines, particularly where the style of the permeability is such that sudden high rates of inflow occur in an apparently random fashion. While the effects are quite evident on the mining environment, the effects of the large distortions on the natural pattern of groundwater flow orientation and chemical quality, on the environment at large, are often longer term and more suitable. Measurable effects, and sometimes contamination, may take some time to appear. While deep-mining of most types usually has the most noticeable involvement with groundwater, quarrying and open cast mining can also cause conspicuous effects on groundwater level and quality as observed in the Tobago mineral sand mining area of New South Wales Australia. In this case the main problem was elevated concentrations of dissolved iron. In Germany, opencast mining of lignite causes extreme drawdown of surrounding groundwater levels, one effect of which is to make the abstraction of public groundwater supplies significantly more expensive. More exotic developments such as solution mining have effects on both groundwater and aquifer, but luckily such operations are few at the moment. The most serious and widespread environmental effects of mining however emanate from the disposal or storage of spoil and groundwater tends to be especially badly effected. Geotechnical problems such as subsidence may be a further effect of groundwater abstraction for mine dewatering, and there is much evidence that the lesser degrees of deformation due to mining on the surrounding rocks can enhance permeability. This note briefly reviews the interaction of mining and groundwater with reference to case history data. 6 refs., 2 refs., 1 tab

172

The coal mining industry in Vietnam and its challenges; Steinkohlenbergbau in Vietnam und seine Herausforderungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The province of Quang Ninh in the north of Vietnam is the most important coal mining region in the country. The NBCC (Nui Beo Coal Company) operates several open-cast mines. Large quantities of overburden have to be removed and dumped in the immediate environment. The creation of these heaps up to 300 m high is accompanied by many environmental problems. In particular ground and surface waters are contaminated by ''acid mine drainage''. Furthermore, large emissions chiefly in the form of dust occur as a result of the working and dumping depending on the season. In addition the stability of the heaps is sometimes greatly endangered. In the German-Vietnamese Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam (RAME) the aspects of coal mining with an effect on the environment are dealt with in various sub-associations and protective measures worked out jointly. (orig.)

Martens, Per Nicolai; Pateiro Fernandez, Jose B.; Ahmad, Shakeel [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I; Cramer, Thomas; Deissmann, Guido [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Fuchsschwanz, Marcus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geotechnik

2010-04-15

173

A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine  

Science.gov (United States)

The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

Bascetin, A.

2007-04-01

174

A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

175

30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...  

Science.gov (United States)

...mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification...mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification...coal mine, and a mine which has been abandoned or deactivated and is to be...

2010-07-01

176

Revegetation of former mining landscapes - an ecological restitution - demonstrated by examples of MIBRAG's brown coal works 'Regis'. Die Bergbaufolgelandschaft - ein oekologischer Neubeginn - dargestellt an Beispielen im Braunkohlenwerk Regis der MIBRAG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Regis brown coal works, now a subsidiary of MIBRAG, has extracted brown coal by open-cast mining in the brown coal district of Saxonia and Thuringia. During the period from 1945 to 1989, 3900 hectares out of a total mining area of 7800 hectares in this district were reclaimed as land with high-quality soil for farming and forestry or other uses, and were made available for recultivation. In the districts of Altenburg, Borna and Zeitz, mining activities created new landscape elements which are valuable both as landscapes and in ecological terms. How natural and ecologically valuable landscapes can be created is demonstrated by the example of two abandoned open-cast mining sites at Zechau and Phoenix-Ost, the former being a residual depression and the latter a spoil bank. (orig.).

Moewes, K.; Buettner, F. (BKW Regis, Borna (Germany))

1991-08-01

177

Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time, can only use the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring, the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectiveness. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Fu, Hua; Liu, Yin-ping; Xiao, Jian [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering

2008-06-15

178

Development of an on-line coal quality management system in a lignite open pit mine in Serbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presented a study regarding the development of a coal quality management system (CQMS) for two open pit mines located in Serbia called Tamnava West and Veliki Crljeni. The study was based on on-line measurements, and was commissioned by the public energy corporation Elektroprivreda Srbjie. The purpose of the study was to develop a CQMS that met the quality requirements of the power plants by implementing a rigorous exploration, production planning, and production monitoring system in order to control the production according to certain quality parameters. The paper provided general information and described the initial situation. It also presented an analysis of the necessity to introduce a production monitoring and control system. The setup and layout of a production monitoring and control system based on on-line measurements were outlined, with particular reference to the determination of input parameters for every excavator for the tracking of masses; the simulation of mass tracking and summation of the masses at the transfer points towards the major conveyor; and the monitoring of the output and control of the mass flow according to determined limit values. Recommendations for implementation were also discussed. It was concluded that the newly developed CQMS at Tamnava West open pit mine could be classified as uncomplicated with regard to the quality parameters to be controlled, since currently only calorific value was being controlled. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Zimmer, B. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Theiben, (Germany)

2010-07-01

179

Subterranean clover enhances production of [open quote]Coastal[close quote] bermudagrass in the revegetation of lignite mine spoil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lignite mine spoils in Texas are commonly revegetated with [open quote]Coastal[close quote] bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Legumes have been overseeded in bermudagrass in reclamation programs in Texas, but information regarding establishment and persistence in mine spoil is limited. A field study investigated the effects of fertilization and inoculation with Rhizobium spp. on subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.; subclover) establishment and production in mine spoil and to assess the effect of subclover on Coastal bermudagrass. Subclover seed was broadcast into a 6-mo-old bermudagrass sod in October 1986. Individual plots were fertilized, or left unfertilized at the beginning of each clover season (Sept.-Oct.); however, all plots were fertilized at the start of each grass season (April-May). Although native rhizobia was present in plots, inoculation with a commercial, multi-strain inoculant increases subclover forage production (100%) and total N and P yields of subclover. The overseeding of subclover into the bermuda grass sod increased grass production and total N and P yields later in the first year and in the second season. However, inoculation of subclover had little effect on subsequent grass production. There was an apparent positive benefit of P fertilization on subclover and bermudagrass production. The effect of subclover on grass production was apparent by the end of the first grass season, and it became even more evident in the second year. The results showed that subclover was established and maintained for at least two seasons in a bermudagrass sod on reclaimed lignite spoil, and that the clover benefited the subsequent grass crop when fertilized with P and K, apparently by providing extra [open quotes]fixed[close quotes] N for grass production. 22 refs., 5 tabs.

Harris, P.A. (Kansas Agriculture Experimental Station, Hays (United States)); Zuberer, D.A. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

180

Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

S. Pietrowski

2008-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Process development of thin strip steel casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

1990-12-01

182

Impact assessment of chromite mining on groundwater through simulation modeling study in Sukinda chromite mining area, Orissa, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pre-Cambrian chromites ore deposits in Sukinda valley, Jajpur District, Orissa, India, are well known for chromite ore deposits. The exploitation of the ore is carried out through open cast mining method since the last few decades. In the process, the overburden and ore dumps are stored on ground surface, where leaching of chromite and other toxic element takes place particularly during monsoon seasons. This leachate may cause threat to groundwater in the vicinity. An integrated approach has been adopted to evaluate possibility of pollution due to mine seepage and leachate migration on groundwater regime. The approach involves geophysical, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical and aquifer modeling studies. The investigation has the significance as many habitats surround the mining area facing groundwater problems. PMID:18450374

Dhakate, Ratnakar; Singh, V S; Hodlur, G K

2008-12-30

183

Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

2012-07-01

184

Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

185

The morphology of fossil pebbles as a tool for determining their transport processes (Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit, central Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit is the southernmost exposure of Palaeogene (lower Oligocene deposits in central Poland. This study is focused on Palaeogene pebbles of the so-called Ko?min Gravels, rede- posited in the Neogene sands. These pebbles are not known from the adjacent territory of central Poland and they vary in petrographic composition, shape and surface texture. The classification of the pebble-size particle form is determined as DI/DL (elongation ratio and DS/DI (flatness ratio. A great number of pebbles are disc-shaped (oblate-shaped and blade-shaped or they can be classified as platy, bladed and very bladed pebbles. The oblate-prolate index (OP is less than -2 for 45% of the particles (typical of beach pebbles, the mean sphericity (yp is 0.56 (typical of beach pebbles, and the mean roundness (RWt is 0.73 (typical of beach pebbles.The data obtained from SEM analysis of quartz pebble surface micromorphology are characteristic of high mechanical energy of the littoral environment. The surface of some pebbles is excellently polished with v-shaped indentations and grooves. The average composition of the heavy mineral fraction occurring with these pebbles is marked by the predominance of zircon (exceeding 70%. All the above-mentioned data, in the light of extensive literature, indicate that more morphological features of the analysed pebbles have been inherited from the littoral/beach environment. Moreover, a detailed petrographic study was very useful for determining the prove- nance of these pebbles. The most characteristic rocks are greyish-blue quartzes. They are known only from the Sudetes Mts., situated on the NE slope of the Bohemian Massif. Thus, the rock fragments were transported at least 300 km by rivers from the Sudetes to the littoral/beach zone of the Palaeogene sea. Then, the residually-marine beach pebbles were redeposited into the Neogene debris flow and/or fluvial deposits. The present-day area of the Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit was tectonically active at that time.

Marek WIDERA

2010-01-01

186

Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

187

Cooperation with emerging countries in advanced mining training programmes involving an industrial partner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources (CESMAT) is a Higher Education Institution in France to train and perform the upper management personnel working in mining, throughout the world. The program of study is comprised of seven separate year long study programs, a network of some 2 300 former students from a hundred countries with whom regular contact is maintained, and a permanent think tank unit that concentrates on the training of mining sector managers. The guiding principle for CESMAT is that cooperation and training hold a special position in French policy concerning relations with mineral producing countries. Seven programmes have been progressively developed on minerals prospecting and processing, resources evaluation, open cast mining techniques, mining economics, impact of mining on environment, management of closure of mining activities and the role of the State. These programmes bring together ten to twelve engineers or geologists who have already had professional experience. For non-French speakers, a language-training phase of three months may precede the programs. The following specializations are currently being offered: - Ore Prospecting and Mineral Processing - Nancy School of Geology - CESEV, - Treatment of Industrial Evolutions and Changes - CESTEMIN, - Geostatistical Analysis of Ore Deposits - Paris School of Mines - C.F.S.G., - Open Cut Mining Operations - Paris School of Mines - CESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining Projects - Paris School of Mines - CESPROMIN, - Mine Safety and Environments - Ales School of Mines - CESSEM, - Mines Public Administration - Paris School of Mines - CESAM. Teaching is done both by Institute professors and by public and private sector industry experts. These instructors rely heavily on technical visits and on practical case studies. One specific example is the student research project mentored by specialists in the field, which is oriented directly to circumstances in the student's country. The participation of students in each program is attested to by means of an official certificate. In some cases, this may be accompanied by a diploma from the host school. Tuition for the courses, which runs (around 15 000 Euro/year) may be covered by CESMAT for students affiliated with public or private mining organizations from foreign, mineral producing countries. Scholarships are also available from French organizations, sources in the student's country of origin, or international organizations such as the EU, UNESCO, UNPD and others. CESMAT has also built partnerships with mining companies (VALE in Brazil, CODELCO in Chili and AREVA in France) which contribute to sponsor trainees for living cost during their studies in France. AREVA is developing uranium exploration and mining in many countries and has signed cooperation agreement with the government of these countries to provide them technical and financial support for capacity building in partnership with the French school of mines. (author)

188

igm Robots with laser measurement for an economic repair welding of equipment components of open-pit minings; igm-Roboter mit Laservermessung zum wirtschaftlichen Reparaturschweissen von Tagebauausruestungsteilen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Lusatian area,Vattenfall Europe AG prosecutes four open-pit minings whose lignite directly is supplied to power stations. A quarter of Germany's total electricity supply is based on lignite. The lignite mining in the area of the Lusatian open-pit minings is particularly efficient due to the horizontal orientation of the Lusatian coal seams. The movable components of the overburden conveyor bridges as well as the bucket wheel excavators and bucket ladder dredgers are subject to a tremendous wear. It is not economically feasible to refurbish certain wear parts. Such parts include Turas corners. In order to refurbish such Turas corners nevertheless, the Austrian company igm robot system AG (Wiener Neudorf, Austria) offers a welding robot.

Wihsbeck, Martin [igm Robotersysteme AG, Wiener Neudorf (Austria); Wache, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Spremberg (Germany). Schwarze Pumpe; Springfeld, Peter

2012-08-15

189

Mining in Germany 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers were presented on the following subjects: Mining in the new German states; Development of knowledge-based consulting systems for waste disposal and mine savitation operations; Advantages and drawbacks of underground leaching of uranium ores - proposals for environmentally compatible termination of mining operations; Backfilling of open shafts; The final operation plan -legal fundamentals of mine abandonment; stability assessment of subsurface workings of the Ehrenfriedersdorf tin mine and conclusions for safety measures; Experience and problems of landscaping measures for abandoved mines in densely populated areas; Performance of pipeless shaft drilling machines in hard and extremely hard rock; subsurface tunnelling in subsidence areas; Selective cutters in potassium mining in Alsace-Rock salt mining at Bernburg; Problems of stabilisation of abandoned shafts in potassium mines in central Germany. Six of the papers have been recorded as separate entries in this database. (orig./HS)

190

Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github.com and stackoverflow.com. These popular, developer-centric websites have powerful application-programmer interfaces, and follow an open-data policy. In this regard, these sites offer a web-accessible reservoir of information that can be tapped to study questions such as: which open source software projects are eminent in the various geoscience fields? What are the most popular programming languages? How are they trending? Are there any interesting temporal patterns in committer activities? How large are programming teams and how do they change over time? What free software packages exist in the vast realms of related fields? Does the software from these fields have capabilities that might still be useful to me as a researcher, or can help me perform my work better? Are there any open-source projects that might be commercially interesting? This evaluation strategy reveals programming projects that tend to be new. As many important legacy codes are not hosted on open-source code-repositories, the presented search method might overlook some older projects.

Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

2013-04-01

191

Casting materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

2011-06-14

192

Landscaping and ecology in the lignite mining area of Maritza-East, Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study on the future mining concept of the open-cast mine Trojovano-North, Bulgaria which is presented in this paper was prepared in close cooperation with Bulgarian specialists. It particularly takes into account ecological aspects. The mining concept clearly shows that economy and ecology can be combined usefully. The advantages are, among others, reduced occupation of land, avoiding of river and village translocation and the efficient use of chernozems for topsoil. Various landscape elements are used for the improvement of the ecological conditions in this intensively agricultural area. The illustrated measures show that the mining impacts on nature can be limited, minimized and balanced. It is possible to win the required public acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

193

Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of {sup 238}U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained.

Pettersson, H.B.; Koperski, J. (Lund Univ. Teaching Hospital (Sweden))

1991-05-01

194

Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

195

Numerical modeling to assess possible influence of the mine openings on far-field in-situ stress measurements at Stripa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finite element analyses were carried out to assess the possible effects of the Stripa mine openings on the in-situ stress measured in a 400-m-deep borehole drilled from the surface. For this assessment, four 2-dimensional cases were modeled. These cases variously included two horizontal sections, and two separate, idealized vertical sections. An iron ore body in the mine was assumed to be completely extracted, thereby providing conservative estimates of stress concentration effects. Since no in-situ stress measurements were made before mining, overburden weight and horizontal stresses measured by hyrodfracturing were assumed to be the pre-mining state of stress. The stress state resulting from excavation of the mine was calculated by the finite element model. In the cases using horizontal sections, the model predicted a stress concentration factor at the borehole of approximately 1.15, which is negligible considering the difficulty of obtaining accurate stress measurements. For the vertical sections the model predicted higher stress concentration factors at depths less than 200 m. This was expected because the vertical sections chosen brought the borehole unrealistically close to the mine openings, thereby leading to overly conservative estimates. In general, deviations in the magnitudes and orientations of the calculated redistributed principal stresses from the assumed pre-mining state of stress were found to be comparable to the scatter of overcoring data. It is, therefore, recommended that, for near-field stress calculations, the vertical stress due to overburden weight and the horizontal stresses measured by hydrofracturing at the borehole be considered the unperturbed far-field in situ state of stress

196

Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote Sensing Systems Department at Space Research and Technology Institute thematically oriented spectrometric system TOMS working in the 0.4-0.9 ?m range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). For proper comparison between the data obtained from the different sources mentioned spectral transformations such as normalized difference and rationing data for two wavelengths were applied in order to avoid misinterpretation. Statistically significant dependence between the various spectral transformations and the quantitative content of the iron in the different type of compounds was established. The achieved results provided evidence that methodology used could be extended to other regions of the country polluted by the mining activities and should be also tested in the region of the copper and zinc extraction. In the next step of our research we intend to use the results obtained by the multitemporal analysis of the satellite and ground-based multispectral data for the same and the similar regions of interest.

Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

2013-10-01

197

Fundamentals of using bio-diesel for operating large fleets of mining equipment and building machines and the experience gained so far  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Against the topical background of the finite reserves of fossil mineral oil as well as internationally available vegetable fat and oil resources, of the current developments in the field of the biodiesel production technology and of the international conditions for the reduction of CO2 emissions, this paper is to examine, whether the suitability of bio-diesel for fuelling mining equipment has come true. The examination will focus on the biogenic fuel profile, on the organizational necessity to actively retrofit the machinery during operations as well as on the precise verification of the expected technical conversion problems and of the saving potentials actually achieved. The examination will be conducted in the world's first open-cast mine that has converted its entire fleet of equipment to be fuelled with bio-diesel. The open-cast mine is operated by the Ronneburg branch of Wismut GmbH, a company based in Germany (referred to hereinafter as the Lichtenberg open-cast mine). (orig.)

198

The application of data mining methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

199

Description of basic mining legal principles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently. PMID:23851585

Schmidt, Reinhard

2014-01-01

200

Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; ed ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

 
 
 
 
201

Pattern-Based Web Mining Using Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, many data mining techniques have been proposed for fulfilling various knowledge discovery tasks in order to achieve the goal of retrieving useful information for users. Data mining techniques include association rule mining, frequent itemset mining, sequential pattern mining, maximum pattern mining and closed pattern mining. However, how to effectively exploit the discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of Web mining. In this study, we compare these data mining methods based on the use of several types of discovered patterns. The performance of the pattern mining algorithms is investigated on the Reuters dataset RCV1 for completing Web mining tasks. The experimental results show that the closed pattern methods, such as SCPM and NSCPM, have better performance due to the use of pruning mechanism in the pattern discovery stage.

Sheng-Tang Wu

2013-04-01

202

Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

203

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

204

Special thermite cast irons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

Yu. Zhiguts; Kurytnik, I.

2008-01-01

205

A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for source and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of automatic textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This paper describes is a multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morpho-Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence, cycling through all the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Once reduced to its Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form, referred to its language independent entry inside a sectorial multilingual dictionary, each tagged lemma is used as descriptor and possible seed of clustering. The automatic classification of results is made by Unsupervised Classification schema. By Multilingual Text Mining, analysts can get an overview of great volumes of textual data having a highly readable grid, which helps them discover meaningful similarities among documents and find any nuclear proliferation and safeguard related information. Multilingual Text Mining permits to overcome linguistic barriers, allowing the automatic indexation and classification of documents, whatever it might be their language, letting international agents cut through the information labyrinth. (author)

206

Open pit blasting in uranium ore mining of SDAG Wismut. Pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reports blasting work in the abandoned open pits at Culmitzsch and Lichtenberg, dealing primarily with the techniques of so-called detonation-wave-shielded blasting, blasting at elevated rock temperatures, and blasting at site with fractured rock. (orig./HP)

207

Pattern of hexa-valent chromium in air borne respirable dust generated at various workplaces in opencast chromite mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a study into air borne respirable dust (ARD) concentration at various workplaces in two open cast chromite mines of Sukinda chromite belt, India. One of these mines is mechanised and the other one is semi-mechanised. The study has been conducted in three phases and ARD concentration has been measured at various workplaces in both the mines. Apart from the determination of ARD concentration, the dust samples collected on filter papers were analysed for hexa-valent chromium by colorimetric method and Cr(VI) direct absorption measurement. In addition, the particle size ranges in ARD have been determined by using cascade impactor fitted onto high volume samplers and laser guided particle size analyser. The paper finally presents a comparison between ARD concentration vis-à-vis the presence of hexa-valent chromium concentration in collected samples of both mechanised and semi-mechanised mines. PMID:16502358

Panigrahi, D C; Pandey, J K; Udaybhanu, G

2006-03-01

208

Radioisotope investigation of continuous steel casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects are discussed of the design of the casting set, the system of the coupling of spray water cooling and the movement inside the liquid zone, on hardening, the macrostructure of ingots, the macrodistribution of non-metallic inclusions and the formation of surface cracks in cast ingots. It is demonstrated that with the use of a casting funnel with side openings and a system of support cylinders, with a total change in the system of cooling jets of the sprayer and after attaining continuous film boil in the spray tube of the water cooler, the output of the casting set may be increased by 50%, this with substantially improved quality of castings. (J.B.). 9 figs., 7 refs

209

The use of geotextile tube containers for dewatering the Restigouche open pit zinc mine and settling pond basin in New Brunswick, Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of geotextile tube containers for the dewatering of an open pit zinc mine and settling pond in New Brunswick (NB). The zinc and lead mine closed in 1996 and will be re-opened in 2007. Remediation of the site has been challenged by severe discharge criteria for treated water, as well as by the different types of wastewater produced at the site, which is located in a mountainous area with no impermeable soil. The remediation projects include an open pit cleaning procedure where water is removed and the mine is then desludged. A wastewater treatment plant will then be installed. More than 32,000 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated at the bottom of the pit. The zinc content of the sludge was estimated at 2.5 ppm. The water management phase of the project will include batch treatments and the addition of 140 metric tonnes of lime to raise the pH and to precipitate metal ions. The sludge management program included the use of mechanical dewatering, the construction of a storage area, and the use of geocontainers for dewatering and temporary containment. Seventeen geotextile containers were used to reduce the zinc content of the water to less than the 250 ppb authorized by environmental agencies. The containers were changed once every 2 months. tabs., figs.

Douheret [Terratube, Saint-Romuald, PQ (Canada)

2010-07-01

210

The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

211

Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

Zeinab Aliabadian

2013-07-01

212

Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

2013-12-01

213

Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

Coaldrake, J.E.

1978-03-01

214

Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

Marcos E. Hartwig

2013-09-01

215

Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID: protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabilization for six weeks is a simple, convenient, and ubiquitously available intervention. In contrast, ORIF requires hospitalization, but allows for functional rehabilitation. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials, it remains unclear whether ORIF leads to better functional outcomes one year after injury than closed reduction and casting. Methods/Design ORCHID (Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius is a pragmatic, randomized, multi-center, clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms. It is planned to include 504 patients in 15 participating centers throughout Germany over a three-year period. Patients are allocated by a central web-based randomization tool. The primary objective is to determine differences in the Short Form 36 (SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS between volar locked plating and closed reduction and casting of intraarticular, comminuted distal radius fractures in patients > 65 years of age one year after the fracture. Secondary outcomes include differences in other SF-36 dimensions, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH instrument. Also, the range of motion in the affected wrist, activities of daily living, complications (including secondary ORIF and revision surgery, as well as serious adverse events will be assessed. Data obtained during the trial will be used for later health-economic evaluations. The trial architecture involves a central statistical unit, an independent monitoring institute, and a data safety monitoring board. Following approval by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, conduct and reporting will strictly adhere to national and international rules, regulations, and recommendations (e.g., Good Clinical Practice, data safety laws, and EQUATOR/CONSORT proposals Discussion To our knowledge, ORCHID is the first multicenter RCT designed to assess quality of life and functional outcomes following operative treatment compared to conservative treatment of complex, intra-articular fractures of the distal radius in elderly patients. The results are expected to influence future treatment recommendations and policies on an international level. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN76120052 Registration date: 31.07.2008; Randomization of first patient: 15.09.2008

Seiler Christoph

2011-03-01

216

Recultivation and landscaping in areas after brown-coal mining in Middle-East European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research on the reclamation of areas devasted by open cast mining has a long tradition in the Middle-East European Countries. Results obtained from the research in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia and Estonia are summarized. Mining technologies, law regulations and the physiogeographical situation of the mining regions are different in the particular countries. This resulted in different reclamation strategies in these countries. In Poland, forest recultivation is of great importance because of the physical and chemical properties of the uppermost layers of the dumps, whereas in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania agricultural recultivation is more important. The results of studies on the forest recultivation of dumps in Estonia are of great interest, because they have been carried out for more than 50 years. 26 refs., 3 tabs

217

Fatigue Assessment of Cast Components : Influence of Cast Defects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 This thesis is on the fatigue assessment of cast components with special attention to defects. The primary material in view is nodular cast iron, but also cast steel is considered. However, the fatigue behaviour is in principle valid for general use on other cast metals.The first two papers is about general cast material behaviour in fatigue loading. The materials considered are a high strength alloyed cast steel and a medium strength nodular cast iron. It is concluded that cast defects is ...

Bjo?rkblad, Anders

2008-01-01

218

Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage

219

Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes such kind of relationship of a well established course at the Technical University of Denmark using statistical methods. Keyphrase extraction tool was used to find the main topics of students' comments, based on which the qualitative feedback was transformed into quantitative data for further statistical analysis. Application of factor analysis helped to reveal the important issues and the structure of the data hidden in the students' written comments, while regression analysis showed that some of the revealed factors have a significant impact on how students rate a course.

Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

2013-01-01

220

Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbate this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest (referred to as Spam in this document). This paper focuses on the identification and removal of duplicate, near-duplicate information and Spam in the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy. To that end, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modhis paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information. In this paper, these concepts are referred to as duplicate and near duplicate detection and irrelevant information (Spam) filtering. (author)

 
 
 
 
221

Graphite Formation in Cast Iron  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

Stefanescu, D. M.

1985-01-01

222

High quality casting materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The paper briefly presents results of the new developed high quality cast materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following materials are: hypereutectoid cast steel with various microstructure modular graphite obtained in as-cast condition (raw state), ductile cast iron of bainite-martensitic carbides structure obtained in a raw state, aluminum bronzes and silumins with additives of: chromium, molybdenum, wolfram, vanadium.Findings: These alloys are characterized primarily by sign...

Pietrowski, S.

2010-01-01

223

Special thermite cast irons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

Yu. Zhiguts

2008-07-01

224

Closed aluminium skeleton casting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this miclc authors showcd method for rnanuraauring of skeleton castings with continuous cxtcmal surfacc. Wall lhickncss of thcexternal surface was 6 mm. Thc cxprirnental casting was rnanulacturcd in order to verify lhc rcsults of fitling mould cavity which wcreohtaincd by numerical simu tation. Thc alurninosilicarc core was ad to pducc cxpcrimntal aluminum skelaon castings wilhdimensions or (1 15x65~13 6) mm. Expximental casting was manufactured with elevated temperature of mwld (370 K). L...

Dziuba-ka?uz?a, M.; Cholewa, M.

2008-01-01

225

Niobium in steel castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in large steel node castings are described briefly, and the advantages offered by the use of cast nodes are illustrated. The development of high integrity castings has been made possible by steelmaking developments and developments in foundry technology. This paper describes the metallurgical aspects of the development of nodes, which necessitates deviations from the conventional manufacture of steel castings. The microstructural and mechanical properties attained are compared with those of plates used in fabricated structures

226

Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war es, die durch spektrometrische Erfassungsmethoden der Fernerkundung erhaltenen Ueberfliegungsdaten mittels konventioneller petrographischer, mineralogischer und geochemischer Analytik zu kalibrieren, um der Bergbauindustrie eine wirkungsvolle Methode zu liefern, welche es ermoeglicht, die riesigen Kippenareale des Tagebaubergbaus mit geringem zeitlichen und personellen Aufwand aussagesicher zu klassifizieren, die Sachverhalte mit hoher Genauigkeit raeumlich zuzuordnen und so einer geeigneten Nutzung zuzufuehren. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag dabei in der Charakterisierung der hydro- und geochemischen Veraenderungen in den Kippensedimenten des im mitteldeutschen Raum suedlich von Leipzig aufgeschlossenen Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau. Die Erfassung dieser Daten spielt in Hinblick auf eine Rekultivierung und Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials der Tagebaulandschaft eine entscheidende Rolle. (orig.)

Wiegand, U.

2002-07-01

227

30 CFR 18.54 - High-voltage continuous mining machines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...power circuit. A continuous mining machine designed with an onboard ungrounded...any location where the continuous mining machine is normally operated; and (3...exhibit: (1 ) Leakage through welds or casting; or (2 ) Rupture of any part...

2010-07-01

228

Casting and Molding  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

229

Regulatory processes associated with metal-mine development in Alaska: A case study of the Red Dog Mine. Open File Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regulatory processes associated with development of a world class lead-zinc mine, Red Dog Mine, in northwestern Alaska were reviewed and evaluated. Informal interviews with key project personnel, consultants, and agency field and permitting specialists provided perspective on the regulatory successes and failures of the project. Due to potential impacts to air quality, water quality, wetlands, and National Park lands, an Environmental Impact Statement was required. By developing a comprehensive baseline of information on the existing environment to aid in minimizing impacts during project siting/design and through regular coordination of evolving project plans with regulatory agencies, the mine developers were able to acquire necessary permits in a timely and cost effective manner. The only major exceptions occurred when inadequate information was collected on dispersal of airborne particulates, rates of surface water run-off, and groundwater quality. These deficiencies resulted in the need for emergency design changes, unscheduled construction, additional environmental monitoring costs, and delays in issuance of the NPDES permit.

Hemming, J.E.; Cocklan-Vendl, M.

1992-09-01

230

Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

231

A collection of open source applications for mass spectrometry data mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present several bioinformatics applications for the identification and quantification of phosphoproteome components by MS. These applications include a front-end graphical user interface that combines several Thermo RAW formats to MASCOT™ Generic Format extractors (EasierMgf), two graphical user interfaces for search engines OMSSA and SEQUEST (OmssaGui and SequestGui), and three applications, one for the management of databases in FASTA format (FastaTools), another for the integration of search results from up to three search engines (Integrator), and another one for the visualization of mass spectra and their corresponding database search results (JsonVisor). These applications were developed to solve some of the common problems found in proteomic and phosphoproteomic data analysis and were integrated in the workflow for data processing and feeding on our LymPHOS database. Applications were designed modularly and can be used standalone. These tools are written in Perl and Python programming languages and are supported on Windows platforms. They are all released under an Open Source Software license and can be freely downloaded from our software repository hosted at GoogleCode. PMID:25055762

Gallardo, Oscar; Ovelleiro, David; Gay, Marina; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

2014-10-01

232

Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

NONE

1998-12-31

233

A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Generally speaking, up to 80% of electronic data is textual and most valuable information is often hidden and encoded in pages which are neither structured, nor classified. The availability of huge amount of data available in the open sources leads to the well-identified nowadays paradox: an overload of information means no usable knowledge. Besides, open source texts are - and will be - written in various native languages, but these documents are relevant even to non-native IAEA speakers. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for type (scientific article, patent, free textual document), source (Internet/Intranet, database, etc), protocol (HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, GOPHER, IRC, NNTP, etc) and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of focused crawling, textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This task undoubtedly requires remarkable efforts. This poster describes is a multimedia content gathering, multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. Its focused crawling aims to crawl only the subset of the web pages related to a specific category, in order to find only information of interest and improve quality in documents gathering. The focused crawling algorithm builds a model for the context within which topically relevant pages occur on the web, typically capturing link hierarchies within which valuable pages occur, as well as model content on documents that frequently co-occur with relevant pages. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morphological, Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. The languages supported are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, but the system can be fully integrated on demand with other languages such as Arabic, Russian, simplified Chinese, etc. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence and, for each word, the Slot Grammar parser draws on the word's slot frames to cycle through the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Each slot structure can be partially or fully instantiated and it can be filled with representations from one or more statements to incrementally build the meaning of a statement. This includes most of the treatment of coordination, which uses a method of 'factoring out' unfilled slots from elliptical coordinated phrases. The parser - a bottom-up chart parser - employs a parse evaluation scheme used for pruning away unlikely analyses during parsing as well as for ranking final analyses. By including semantic information directly in the dependency grammar structures, the system relies on the lexical semantic information combined with functional application rules. The detected terms and phrases are then extracted, reduced to their Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form. Once referred to their language independent entry inside the sectorial multilingual dictionary, they are used as descriptors for documents and possible seeds of clustering. Then final system users can search document by keywords combined by boolean operators, or by typing their own query in Natural Language, expressed using normal conversational syntax. Traditional Boolean queries, while precise, require strict interpretation that can often exclude information that is relevant to u

234

Evaluation and monitoring an on-going landslide in volcanic sediments - a case study for an open pit mine, Turkey: Part 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TKI (Turkish Coal Enterprises) has been operating an open pit lignite mine since late 1970s in a town called Can which is situated in the north-west of Turkey. There is a ceramic factory, which is one of the biggest in Europe as far as capacity is concerned, operating very close to the lignite open pit mine. In 1999, a catastrophic earthquake demolished not only the cities and towns located on the Northern Anatolian fault zone but also triggered a landslide on the ceramic factory site benches of the Can lignite open pit. The susceptibility of artificial slopes to failure during earthquakes is a well-known event. This paper summarises geological, geomorphological and hydrological surveys of the area and the work done to define the slip surface by means of inclinometer surveys. Geotechnical parameters collected from all local geological formations were used later in the slope stability analysis. Details of the studies undertaken since the beginning of the landslide are given in this paper.

Onur, A.H.; Konak, G.; Koca, Y.; Yenice, H.; Kose, H.; Karakus, D. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mineral Engineering

2004-09-01

235

Ankle Injury Management (AIM): design of a pragmatic multi-centre equivalence randomised controlled trial comparing Close Contact Casting (CCC) to Open surgical Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients over 60 years  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Ankle fractures account for 9% of all fractures with a quarter of these occurring in adults over 60 years. The short term disability and long-term consequences of this injury can be considerable. Current opinion favours open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) over non-operative treatment (fracture manipulation and the application of a standard moulded cast) for older people. Both techniques are associated with complications but the limited published research indicates higher complication rates of fracture malunion (poor position at healing) with casting. The aim of this study is to compare ORIF with a modification of existing casting techniques, Close Contact Casting (CCC). We propose that CCC may offer an equivalent functional outcome to ORIF and avoid the risks associated with surgery. Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic multi-centre equivalence randomised controlled trial. 620 participants will be randomised to receive ORIF or CCC after sustaining an isolated displaced unstable ankle fracture. Participants will be recruited from a minimum of 20 National Health Service (NHS) acute hospitals throughout England and Wales. Participants will be aged over 60 years and be ambulatory prior to injury. Follow-up will be at six weeks and six months after randomisation. The primary outcome is the Olerud & Molander Ankle Score, a functional patient reported outcome measure, at 6 months. Follow-up will also include assessments of mobility, ankle range of movement, health related quality of life and complications. The six-month follow-up will be conducted face-to-face by an assessor blinded to the allocated intervention. A parallel economic evaluation will consider both a health service and a broader societal perspective including the individual and their family. In order to explore patient experience of their treatment and recovery, a purposive sample of 40 patients will also be interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule between 6-10 weeks post treatment. Discussion This multicentre study was open to recruitment July 2010 and recruitment is due to be completed in December 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04180738. PMID:24621174

2014-01-01

236

Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

237

First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

2005-07-01

238

Application of new techniques to create post mining landscape suitable for future generations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fundamental economic change in the lignite mining industry of East Germany required the closing down of more than 29 open cast mines since 1990. The shaping of post mining landscape follows up in order to make it suitable for future generations. In this process, LMBV (Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbauverwaltungsgesellschaft mbH) decisively contributes to the process of re-establishing economic life in former mining areas. The remediation of the surface, as required by Mining Law, will increase the economic and social attractiveness of the former mining areas. For this purpose, LMBV developed modern planning techniques in which digital mapping is connected with both, technical data bases and commercial accounting systems. (orig.) [German] Der wirtschaftliche Umbruch in den Industrieregionen Ostdeutschlands erforderte die Schliessung von 29 Bergwerksbetrieben und die Gestaltung einer nachhaltig nutzbaren Bergbaufolgelandschaft. In diesem Prozess leistet die LMBV einen entscheidenden Beitrag zur Umstrukturierung der ehemals einseitig ausgerichteten Bergbauregionen. Die bergrechtlich notwendige Wiederherstellung der Oberflaeche fuehrt zu einer nachhaltig nutzbaren Bergbaufolgelandschaft, die die wirtschaftliche und soziale Attraktivitaet der Regionen erhoehen wird. Dazu entwickelte die LMBV moderne Planungsverfahren, bei denen digitale Kartenwerke mit ingenieurtechnischen Datenbanken und kaufmaennischen Rechenwerken verknuepft werden. (orig.)

Fritz, W.; Benthaus, F.C. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin (Germany)

2000-06-01

239

International mining news  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These columns report on news from the mining industry activities: discovery and identification of ore deposits, technological research and development studies, projects and development of ore exploitations, expansion of existing mines, rehabilitation and re-opening of sites, production stopping, environmental regulation, metal industry developments, and economical and political news. This issue reports on some news about the project of exploitation of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit (Saskatchewan, Canada) and about the re-opening of the Stepnogorsk uranium processing plant in Kazakhstan. Two short news deal with the project of exploitation of lignite deposits in Barsingsar (Rajasthan, India) and in Garzweiler (Germany). Several short notes deal with coal mining: start up of the exploitation of the Bontang mine in Indonesia (Kalimantan), expansion of Goedehoop mine in South Africa, of the Burton mine in Australia (Queensland), common development of the neighboring deposits of Oreganal and Correjon Centrale in Colombia, revival of the coal production at Moatize (Mozambique) and closure of the oldest Japanese mine of Miike, and denial of subsidies for the exploitation of Spanish and German coal mines. (J.S.)

240

Sealant tests to control radon emanation in a uranium mine. Open file report sep 79-dec 81  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a field-test program to determine the effectiveness of a polymeric wall sealant to reduce the escape of naturally occurring radioactive gas radon from the walls of an underground uranium mine into the ventilation air

 
 
 
 
241

Continuous bucket wheel excavator systems in Chinese open-cast coal mines; Einsatz des kontinuierlichen Schaufelradbagger-Systems im Kohlentagebau der VR China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a primary energy consumption of about 1300 million t.c.e., i.e. about 10 percent of the total world energy consumption, China is the world's second biggest consumer next to the USA. About 70 percent of the energy is based on coal. The structure will change according to the new plans for energy supply, but in view of the steady increase in primary energy consumption coal will continue to be China's main primary energy source for years to come. The coal industry is one of the pillars of industry. (orig.) [German] China ist derzeit mit einem Primaerenergieverbrauch von ca. 1300 Mio. t SKE, somit knapp 10% des Weltenergieverbrauchs, nach den USA der zweitgroesste Energieverbraucher der Erde. Etwa 70% des Primaerenergieverbrauchs werden durch Kohle gedeckt. Mit der Neuplanung der chinesischen Energiepolitik wird sich die Energiestruktur in Zukunft veraendern. Wegen der stetigen Erhoehung des Primaerenergiebedarfs bleibt die Kohle jedoch in den kommenden Jahrzehnten nach wie vor der wichtigste Primaerenergietraeger Chinas. Die Kohlenindustrie ist eine der wichtigsten Industriesaeulen. (orig.)

Niemann-Delius, C.; Bai Fuchen [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3; Hofmann, L. [RE GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

2004-09-01

242

Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclaimed mine soils (RMS which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control plots were arrang- ed in managed pine forests on natural sites in the surrounding area. The results shows high Carbon accumulation in RMS, estimated on 16.77 Mg?ha-1 in poor (oligotrofic soils on Quaternary sands on sand quarry and up to 65.03 Mg?ha-1 on external waste heap after Sulfur sur- face mining exploitation on Quaternary sands mixed with Tertiary clays. These results were very similar to natural forest soils on control plots. Potential rate of Carbon sequestration in RMS was estimated on 0.73 (on the poorest sa- ndy soils on quarry to 2.17 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on potentially abundant sandy-clayish soils on Sulfur waste heap, and 5.26 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on Tertiary sands substrate soils on lignite mining waste heap. In conslusion the average Carbon accu- mulation in RMS was estimated on 41 Mg?ha-1 and Carbon sequestration rate was 1.45 Mg? ha-1?yr-1. According to the result of this study and range of post-mining areas reclaimed to forestry in Poland (ca 15000 ha total Carbon accumulation in RMS was estimated on 615 × 103 Mg and potential Carbon sequestration rate in new ecosystems on 21.75 × 103 Mg?ha-1?yr-1. However, the main factors affecting Carbon sequestration and protection in RMS under tree stand were substrate, percentage of clay and silt sized fraction, in order to formulate guidelines for sustainable management of post-mining ec- osystem, further study must be continue for be- tter understanding.

Wojciech Krzaklewski

2010-10-01

243

New casting coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this project the results of the researches about the influence of the four types of ceramic coatings of the evaporating patterns (on the basis of talc, mullite, zircon and cordierite) on the talc of the Lost Foam process and the castings quality are presented. For the valid evaluation of the results, some parallel examinations of the quality of castings obtained by casting in sand were carried out. (Original)

244

Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S. [Inst. of Crystal Growth Berlin (Germany)

1995-08-01

245

Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto / Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em [...] heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, hav [...] e been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

Lásara Fabrícia, Rodrigues; Luiz Ricardo, Pinto.

246

Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto / Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em [...] heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, hav [...] e been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

Lásara Fabrícia, Rodrigues; Luiz Ricardo, Pinto.

2012-09-01

247

Method and mold for casting thin metal objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

2014-04-29

248

Measurement of methane emissions in the plume of a large surface coal mine using open-path FTIR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives results of a portion of an overall study to: (1) develop a methane measurements methodology and protocol that can be used at large surface mining operations, (2) conduct a field trial of this methodology and protocol and identify methodology modifications that are warranted based on field trial results, and (3) estimate the total emissions from the mine where the field trial was conducted. Specifically, the paper describes results of a study to develop a measurements methodology for surface mines and to field test the methodology at an actual surface mine. The research conducted to examine alternative measurements approaches and to develop the methodology and protocol is described first. A brief discussion of the preliminary results from the field trial is also presented. Emissions from a variety of human activities may be contributing to the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and other trace gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons are among the greenhouse gases that have been identified as contributing to global climate change phenomena. The significance of methane as a greenhouse gas is a relatively recent concern. Current global emission estimates indicate that coal mining contributes 25-45 Tg of methane per year, or about 10% of total global anthropogenic methane emissions

249

Mining in low coal. Volume 1. Biomechanics and work physiology. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the job demands associated with low coal mining, (2) to survey the anthropometry, strength, and aerobic capacity of low coal miners to determine if they differ from the U.S. population, and (3) to recommend, on the basis of available information, optimal job and work station design for low coal mining. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. Back strength for male and female miners was significantly lower than the industrial worker population. This can be one of the contributing factors of low back problems in mining. Shoveling, timbering, and helpers tasks were physiologically demanding activities. However, because of the frequent stoppage of work, adequate rest was usually available. If work stoppage is corrected, then better work and rest schedules are essential.

Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.; Caddel, D.K.

1981-11-01

250

Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

2001-03-01

251

Cool Cast Facts  

Science.gov (United States)

... parent right away if your cast gets any cracks. This can happen if it's hit or crushed, has a weak spot, or if the injured area begins to swell underneath. Your parent will call the doctor. If you notice the cast is causing your fingers or toes to turn white, purple, or blue, tell a ...

252

Closed aluminium skeleton casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this miclc authors showcd method for rnanuraauring of skeleton castings with continuous cxtcmal surfacc. Wall lhickncss of thcexternal surface was 6 mm. Thc cxprirnental casting was rnanulacturcd in order to verify lhc rcsults of fitling mould cavity which wcreohtaincd by numerical simu tation. Thc alurninosilicarc core was ad to pducc cxpcrimntal aluminum skelaon castings wilhdimensions or (1 15x65~13 6 mm. Expximental casting was manufactured with elevated temperature of mwld (370 K. Luwcr andstotrcd ingalc with high gcting sysicm (300mm was usd. Analysis of ability of metal to fill rhe mould cavity in esrablish tcchnologicalconditions was jxrfomcd. Dcgm of tclincrncnt OF structure in typicall rcgion of skctcton casting was compared. Qualitative diffccrentdcgrcc of fineness of cuteetic was confirmed. Sclcction of mDdification conditions AlSi alloy of skclcton casting is nmssary.Thc manufacturing af skclcron casting in establish tcchnological conditions enables obtained vcry gdfil ling or mould cavity andsuitable cxtcrnaE gmmctrical form of casting.

M. Dziuba-Ka?u?a

2008-03-01

253

Bimetallic layer castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layer casting in configuration: working part (layer from ferritic or austenitic alloy steel and bearing part from grey cast iron.Design/methodology/approach: In applied technology surface layer on the basis of alloy steel at 2 or 5mm thickness was put directly in founding process of cast iron with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Quality of bimetallic layer castings was estimated on the base of ultrasonic non-destructive testing and examination of the structure and selected usable properties i.e. hardness.Findings: The results of studies and their analysis show efficiency of new, innovative technology of heat-resisting layer castings.Research limitations/implications: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of different type of alloy steels on working part (layer of bimetallic casting.Practical implications: On the basis of research results was affirmed that application of thinner plates i.e. about thickness 2mm causes their deformation in time of pouring, what disqualify this layer casting for industrial application. Considerably best results was obtained with use thickness of plate 5mm.Originality/value: The value of this paper resides in new effective method of manufacture of heat-resisting castings, mainly for lining of quenching car to coke production.

M. Cholewa

2010-11-01

254

Enhancement of macrostructure in structural steel castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Number and type of defects which are formed in ingots during open-hearth steel casting by the bottom gate method are analyzed for a large number of structural steels. It is shown that the largest number of defects is detected in titanium-alloyed steel castings and in low-alloy chromium-molybdenum and chromium-nickel steels (18KhGT; 20KhN3A, 20N2M, 20Kh2NUA). Chromium steel ingots (40Kh) feature a satisfactory quality. Reasons for the formation of defects and remedies are discussed

255

A new look at Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata of the East Midlands, UK: initial data from the Smalley open pit mine  

Science.gov (United States)

Outcrops of Pennsylvanian (Duckmantian) age coal-bearing strata in the East Midlands of England are rare and have become rarer as more of the surface environment has been developed. Much of the stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental interpretation of these strata have thus been based on subsurface data from deep mine workings and coal exploration boreholes. However, in 2009, coal mining commenced at an open pit mine near Smalley, east Derbyshire in the UK East Midlands. The mine provides a unique opportunity to carry out examination of a large-scale outcrop of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in order to undertake detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. The coals that will be exposed during working belong to the Waterloo group of seams of Duckmantian age. Initial examination of the workings has been concentrated on two successive intervals: from the basal Third Waterloo Seam to the Bottom Second Waterloo seam, and the from above the Bottom Second Waterloo seam to the Top Second Waterloo seam. The two inter-seam intervals are approximately 10-12 meters thick. Examination of the coal seams and inter-seam intervals will continue as new faces are exposed, supplemented by exploration drilling data. Initial field observations on the first sections exposed suggest that the two inter-seam intervals represent the infill of lakes formed on a fluvio-lacustrine plain, with negligible marine influence. The strata immediately above the Third Waterloo Seam consist of dark grey fissile shaly mudrocks overlain by an upward coarsening sequence of pale grey siltstones with sandy laminae and current ripples indicating unidirectional tractional flows. These pass upwards into rippled fine sandstones, cut by shallow channels towards the top. The overall inter-seam sequence is interpreted as the deposits of a lacustrine delta system that infilled a shallow lake that was initially anoxic. Once the lake had been infilled, a peat mire was able to form, now represented by the Bottom Second Waterloo Seam. The interval between the Bottom and Top Waterloo Seams contains an upward-coarsening sequence of laminated siltstones, overlain by a series of sharp-based rippled sandstones, each up to about 60 cm thick. The sharp based sandstones are interpreted as being crevasse splay deposits, which would have been fed by a nearby fluvial channel, which has not yet been located. As additional exposures are created during the lifetime of the mine, the temporal, spatial and environmental relationships of the coals and inter-seam strata will be investigated further by recording stratigraphic sections and directional data and producing photo panels. This should enable detailed paleoenvironmental reconstructions for each of the intervals investigated, which will be considered in the light of recent research on analogous ancient and recent environments. Data from adjacent former mines and coal exploration boreholes containing lateral continuations of the intervals examined will then allow the Smalley mine geology to be placed within the regional context of the East Midlands Coalfield, and enable us to consider broad scale paleoenvironmental variation across the area. It is anticipated that by enhancing our understanding of inter-seam deposits, prediction of geological conditions ahead of mining will be improved.

Sian Davies-Vollum, K.; Guion, Paul; Satterfield, Dorothy; Suthren, Roger

2010-05-01

256

ESTIMATION OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A SURFACE COAL MINE USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROSCOPY AND MODELING TECHNIQUES  

Science.gov (United States)

A new measurements methodology has been developed which allows the rapid and efficient measurement of methane (CH4) emissions from surface coal mines. An initial field trial of this methodology has been completed, and results from the field trial revealed that emissions from one ...

257

Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues related to uranium fuel cycle should contact the Technical Cooperation Department of the Agency. Member States interested in knowing more about the Agency's programme on uranium and thorium fuel cycle technologies including mining, milling, purification and environmental issues should contact: Mr. Chaitanyamoy Ganguly

258

CASTE FRAMEWORK AT NATIONAL LEVEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caste is an important element of the Indian political process. It is legitimate. Caste has been inequality creating in Indian society. Therefore its influence on power shaping & Policy Making process. In this sense caste element has got sphere of influence in political process. Relationship between Caste & politics has been more eminent. Caste has been influencing on politics & politics has been influenced by caste. Limitation of Dominant caste at national level: dominant caste has been demanding for representation on national level. But their demands were not accepted by forward castes. The forward caste has been controlling National level power. Dominant caste has been controlling the state level power.Hinduvat Framework has Successes but Caste Framework has Failure. ST'S Community is not related to Caste Politics. Caste framework is Failure to inclusion of all backward Caste. Caste framework had not successful to decided Social & Economic Public Policy. Because of this caste framework is empty so it has no capacity to competing with other frameworks. It has own Sense of Political Efficacy but on national level it made no impact.

PRAKASH PAWAR

2013-04-01

259

Clean Metal Casting; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

260

Optimization of mining methods for steep vein uranium ore deposits of French COGEMA company  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires is currently exploiting several steep vein uranium deposits in France. The upper parts are exploited using the open-cast method, in the lower parts underground mining is used. The veins with a thickness of several meters fill faults caused by tectonic activity. With regard to the low strength of the rocks, wooden supports are used or fills. In the course of the past 25 years several mining methods have been tried of which overhand stoping was selected with an oblique ramp driven in the ore, this mainly for securing operating safety and the profitability of selective exploitation. In overburdens with a low bearing capacity the method of underhand benching in slices was used with a concrete fill and later underhand benching in slices with concrete reinforcing plates. Overhand stoping is being tried with fill and electric self-propelled machines left in the stope and mechanized driving of raises by full profile drilling. (B.S.)

 
 
 
 
261

Longwall mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

NONE

1995-03-14

262

ANÁLISIS DE EXCAVACIONES EN LA MINA SUBTERRÁNEA EL TORO POR MEDIO DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS / FINITE ELEMENTS ANALYSIS FOR UNDERGROUND OPENINGS AT EL TORO MINE.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la mina subterránea El Toro se explota roca calcárea para la fabricación de cemento en la Planta El Cairo, de Cementos Argos S. A. El método de explotación es conocido como realce por subniveles o sublevel stoping , que consiste en la abertura de cámaras mediante perforación y voladura con explos [...] ivos, cada cámara excavada tiene dimensiones de 20m de ancho, 45m de altura y longitudes entre 80 y 120 m, separadas por pilares intermedios de 10 m de espesor, definiendo conjuntos denominados Bloques de explotación. Este artículo presenta el proceso realizado con el fin de modelar y evaluar la distribución de los desplazamientos y de los esfuerzos resultantes de la compleja interacción de los Bloques de explotación. La modelación numérica se realizó con fundamento en la mecánica del medio continuo y por medio de la técnica de los elementos finitos; inicialmente se obtuvo el modelo geomecánico del terreno rocoso y posteriormente el modelo numérico incluyendo las excavaciones. Se evaluaron varias configuraciones geométricas de los Bloques de explotación proyectados, y se concluyó con una propuesta de diseño que ofrece estabilidad del terreno intervenido y permite extraer el mayor volumen posible de reservas minerales. Abstract in english El Toro underground mine is located at Antioquia, Colombia and exploits a limestone deposit through sublevel stopping mining method. The mine was designed with five exploitation levels with 65m high, 20m wide and 120 m long stopes sets. In this work is presented the process to obtain the assessment [...] of the mechanical behavior of the rock mass under stoping effects, the geomechanical and numerical models were obtained and several stopes configurations were evaluated including existing and projected openings. The work concludes with geometrical modification that besides to offer stability of ground, allows to extract greater volume of mineral reserves.

ÁLVARO J., CASTRO CAICEDO.; JUAN E., MONSALVE OLIVEROS..

2007-11-01

263

Symptomatic stent cast.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

Keohane, John

2012-02-03

264

Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

1981-01-01

265

Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

S. Pietrowski

2010-01-01

266

Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

Pietrowski, S.; Gumienny, G.

2010-01-01

267

Influence of continuous casting conditions on grey cast iron structure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the unification of flake graphite morphology in cast iron ingots in conditions of forced convection of liquid metal in the continuous casting mould, which contains electromagnetic stirrer.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations of grey cast iron ingots were used laboratory stand of continuous casting, which contains continuous casting mould with inductor of rotate electromagnetic field.To investigations were made metallographic researches on ...

Szajnar, J.; Stawarz, M.; Wro?bel, T.; Sebzda, W.; Grzesik, B.; Ste?pien?, M.

2010-01-01

268

Image analysis applied to quantitative evaluation of chromatic impact generated by open-pit quarries and mines  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important environmental impacts resulting from opencast mining, and especially quarries, is the visual impact. Evaluation of this impact considers two aspects: first, the area occupied by the quarry as seen by an observer from a specific place, and, second, the chromatic contrast existing between landscape and exploitation. In this study we develop a methodology to assess the chromatic impact in an objective and comparable form. To assess this impact we developed a method based on image analysis that allows us to obtain from a picture or image its equivalent as a function of chromatic impact, according to the sensibility of the human eye to different wavelengths. The methodology was applied to the Martinenca limestone quarry (Alcanar, Tarragona) and to Cerro Kori Kollo mine, La Joya district (Bolivia).

Pinto, Victor; Font, Xavier; Salgot, Miquel; Tapias, Jose; Mañá, Tomas

2002-01-01

269

Cost and sensitivity analysis for uranium in situ leach mining. Open file report Oct 79-Mar 81  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of an assessment of uranium in situ leach mining costs through the application of process engineering and discounted cash flow analysis procedures. A computerized costing technique was developed to facilitate rapid cost analyses. Applications of the cost model will generate mine life capital and operating costs as well as solve for economic production cost per pound U3O8. Conversely, rate of return may be determined subject to a known selling price. The data bases of the cost model were designed to reflect variations in Texas versus Wyoming site applications. The results of applying the model under numerous ore deposit, operating, well field, and extraction plant conditions for Texas and Wyoming are summarized in the report. Sensitivity analysis of changes in key project parameters have also been tested and are included

270

Simulator for bucket wheel excavators in brown coal open mining of RWE Power AG; Simulator fuer Schaufelradbagger in Braunkohlentagebauen der RWE Power AG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the three large open pits Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) uses bucket wheel excavators, conveyor systems and spreaders that provide a continuous mass flow of the production side to the damping site of the opencast mine or the coal bunker respectively. On the world market there hardly exist paragons of solutions for the construction and commissioning of technical innovations of this conveyor technology. Consequently, the eligible technical and technological solutions have to be newly created. Therefore RWE Power AG developed an innovative simulator for bucket wheel excavators. The implementation takes place in a phased approach in which each stage has its own benefits for the company.

Mittmann, Robert; Niess, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Frechen-Habbelrath (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue / Abt. PCZ-E Betriebsfuehrungssysteme; Rosenberg, Heinrich [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Tagebauplanung und -genehmigung

2011-05-15

271

Thin Wall Iron Castings; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified

272

Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopacková, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

2011-11-01

273

Quality of the joint between cast steel and cast iron in bimetallic castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents conception and production method of skeleton composite castings with use of cast steel G35CrSiMnMoNi skeletoncasting and chromium cast iron EN-GJN-XCr15 filling. Working elements in winning machines and devices, which work in intensiveaberasive wear i.e. liner of exhausters, percussive and ram hammers, are destination of bimetallic castings. Skeleton geometry was basedon three-dimensional symmetrical cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian coordinatesystem. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. In rangeof studies were casted cast steel skeletons with chromium cast iron filling and based on metallographic research on light and scanningelectron microscope was made quality assessment of joint in bimetallic castings. Moreover in range of studies was used microanalysisof chemical composition in transition zone of cast steel-cast iron joint.

M. Cholewa

2008-10-01

274

Reinforcement of sloping banks in open cast mines: analysis of stability and dimensions from block models. Final report; Renforcement des talus de mines a ciel ouvert: analyse de stabilite et dimensionnement par models de blocs. Rapport final  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Resoblok software is a powerful computing tool which allows simulation of fracturing in rock formations from actual or statistically defined data. Combined with a method of analysis of the stability of isolated blocks, it becomes a means of predicting risks of instability and enables the calculation of a suitable bolt-propping system to remedy the problem. In general the choice of a bolt-propping plan is made by analysing various possible alternatives. The criterion used is the minimisation of the numbers and size of unstable blocks, but economic considerations and complementary technical solutions (grillage and concreting) are also taken into account. The relatively simple calculation method used speeds up the analysis of stability, and permits the study of various method of bolting for various types of fracturing geometries. Application to actual situations should be carried out progressively, comparing the model results with observations and measurements in situ, as well as continuously improving knowledge of the fracturing, the mechanical characteristics and the hypotheses of the calculation.

Paquette, Y. [INERIS, Paris (France)

1997-12-31

275

Surface mined land reclamation works in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses the environmental impacts of open-pit mining and goes on to describe reclamation practices on mined lands, mentioning the costs and the environmental legislation involved. It gives details of afforestation projects carried out at several open-pit sites in Turkey. 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Mamurekli, D. [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

1997-11-01

276

30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386 Mineral...Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

2010-07-01

277

Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, {sup 222}Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated {sup 226}Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced {sup 222}Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on {sup 222}Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, {sup 226}Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence {sup 222}Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on {sup 222}Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence {sup 222}Rn flux densities considerably.

Lawrence, Cameron E. [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, PO Box 150, 2 George Street, Brisbane Q 4000 (Australia)], E-mail: cameron.lawrence@bhpbilliton.com; Akber, Riaz A. [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, PO Box 150, 2 George Street, Brisbane Q 4000 (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, PO Box 461, Darwin NT 0801 (Australia); Martin, Paul [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, PO Box 461, Darwin NT 0801 (Australia); International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2009-01-15

278

Estimation of radiation exposure to the population of Arad, following the opening of the 'Sedeh-Zohar' phosphate mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During a national survey of rock phosphate deposits in 1981, a large and rich field was discovered in the vicinity of Arad. This new deposit, known as 'Sedeh-Zohar', is spread over an area of some 100 km2 and has been estimated to contain about 200 million tons of high quality raw material. At the request of Negev Phosphate Ltd., an estimation of the radiation exposure dose to the population of Arad, was undertaken. Rock phosphates in the Negev contain several naturally occuring radioisotopes, mainly uranium (about 150 ppm) and traces of thorium and potassium. The mining operations of these phosphate deposits and their subsequent industrial use will no dout lead to the release of radioactivity into the atmosphere, and some of it may reach the city of Arad. The average annual exposure dose from natural radioactivity has been estimated as 2mSv (200 mrem/y). It was found that the natural background radiation in Arad is at least as high as the overall world average values of 2000 ?Sv/y (200 mrem/y), which includes all possible external and internal exposures. The overall addition of 70 ?Sv/y (7 mrem/y) to the population of Arad, due to the operation of the mining facility at Sede-Zohar, would constitute only about 3.5% more background radiation, within the range of regional fluctuations in the natural background

279

Performance of micromegas detectors in the CAST Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment is searching for axions coming from the Sun. Inside transverse magnetic fields, axions can be converted into X-rays, which can be detected by X-ray detectors. The expected energy of the signal in CAST is in the 1-10 keV range. Low noise and low background detectors are necessary to increase the sensitivity of the experiment. Micro Mesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors have been used in CAST since the beginning, providing good energy and spatial resolution for CAST's needs. CAST has been intensely studying micromegas detectors to develop new technologies. Initially, CAST detectors consisted of a micromegas, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and a Charged Couple Device (CCD), however the improvements in micromegas technologies encouraged CAST to replace the TPC with 2 new micromegas detectors. In some periods during CAST run, ultra low background has been observed in one of the micromegas detectors and it is being investigated through simulations and laboratory tests carried out at Canfranc Underground Laboratory. If this low background is indeed not a systematic effect, it can open new possibilities on rare event searches.

280

Performance of micromegas detectors in the CAST Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment is searching for axions coming from the Sun. Inside transverse magnetic fields, axions can be converted into X-rays, which can be detected by X-ray detectors. The expected energy of the signal in CAST is in the 1-10 keV range. Low noise and low background detectors are necessary to increase the sensitivity of the experiment. Micro Mesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors have been used in CAST since the beginning, providing good energy and spatial resolution for CAST's needs. CAST has been intensely studying micromegas detectors to develop new technologies. Initially, CAST detectors consisted of a micromegas, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and a Charged Couple Device (CCD), however the improvements in micromegas technologies encouraged CAST to replace the TPC with 2 new micromegas detectors. In some periods during CAST run, ultra low background has been observed in one of the micromegas detectors and it is being investigated through simulations and laboratory tests carried out at Canfranc Underground Laboratory. If this low background is indeed not a systematic effect, it can open new possibilities on rare event searches.

Yildiz, S. C.; Aune, S.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gómez, H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Papaevangelou, T.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Data Mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

Benoit, Gerald

2002-01-01

282

Text Mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

Trybula, Walter J.

1999-01-01

283

Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

284

Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

2014-08-01

285

Continuous roll casting of aluminium alloys – casting parameters analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main goal of the paper was to present the influence of casting parameters on casting conditions and interference of casting parameters on the final strip characteristics such as constant strip thickness, surface quality and roughness of aluminum alloys sheet 6,30 to 6,50 mm thick. The study shows that casting speed, roll force and roll gap should have the greatest influence on the final strip thickness, and that the examined parameters agree well with the theoretical standpoints.

Krstic? Vukelja, E.; Duplanc?ic?, I.; Lela, B.

2010-01-01

286

Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope...

Labisz, K.; Dobrzan?ski, L. A.; Konieczny, J.

2008-01-01

287

Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia  

Science.gov (United States)

Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 ?m - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle concentrations are the highest in January and February, being the correlation between the TSP and PM10 measurements not as strong during this time period. This could be associated with the spatial and temporal variability of wet deposition as well as a larger mechanical and eolic resuspension of particles. We found that precipitation drastically reduces the levels of particulate matter. In order to describe the effect of wet deposition, a mathematical model was developed based on a first order relaxation proportional to the precipitation rate. Daily average concentrations and daily accumulated precipitation were used in this model, which showed high concentration reductions even for low precipitation levels essentially for all stations. Monthly precipitation values showed a better correlation with TSP concentrations. Finally, we found evidence of a significant decrease in global radiation due to particulate matter, particularly during the dry season, which could potentially affect farming and agricultural activities in the region.

Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

2012-12-01

288

Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

289

An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x108m3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

290

An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 108m3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.)

291

Electroradiography of cast products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technique for X-ray radiography of cast products of complex configuration of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and their alloys using control action of electric field on electroradiographic plate photoreceptor are described. Flaw detector based on application of this technique is suggested. Results of investigation of optimal test conditions for St.3 steel and duralumin are presented

292

Wear resistance of cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

S. Pietrowski

2008-10-01

293

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

294

Effects of limes and residual ash on the recultivation characteristics of sulfate-acid tertiary sediments of brown coal mining in North Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open-cast mining in North Hessen (Borken region) caused tertiary sediments to be dumped on the surface. The overburden is characterized by high pyrite and marcasite concentrations and a low nutrient content. Acration of the material causes oxidation of the pyrite and, in consequence, acidification of the substrate. In these extremely poor soils, revegetation by natural sucession will result in a very sparse vegetation. To permit direct revegetation without laying a new layer of topsoil, commercial limes and two industrial residual ashes were mixed with the overburden. (orig.)

295

Effects of limes and residual ash on the recultivation characteristics of sulfate-acid tertiary sediments of brown coal mining in North Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open-cast mining in North Hessen (Borken region) caused tertiary sediments to be dumped on the surface. The overburden is characterized by high pyrite and marcasite concentrations and a low nutrient content. Acration of the material causes oxidation of the pyrite and, in consequence, acidification of the substrate. In these extremely poor soils, revegetation by natural succession will result in a very sparse vegetation. To permit direct revegetation without laying a new layer of topsoil, commercial limes and two industrial residual ashes were mixed with the overburden. (orig.)

296

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

297

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

2012-06-01

298

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa

2012-06-01

299

Influence of continuous casting conditions on grey cast iron structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the unification of flake graphite morphology in cast iron ingots in conditions of forced convection of liquid metal in the continuous casting mould, which contains electromagnetic stirrer.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations of grey cast iron ingots were used laboratory stand of continuous casting, which contains continuous casting mould with inductor of rotate electromagnetic field.To investigations were made metallographic researches on scanning electron microscope and investigations of usable properties i.e. measurements of hardness and machinability.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show possibility of unification of flake graphite morphology in cast iron structure, and distribution of hardness on cross-section of ingot and its machinability.Research limitations/implications: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of introduced method of continuous casting with use of electromagnetic field in industrial tests.Practical implications: The work presents method of unification of structure and properties, which are particularly important in continuous casting. Uniform morphology of flake graphite in structure of cast iron ingots for automobile industry is very important in viewpoint of machinability.Originality/value: Contributes to improvement in quality of grey cast iron continuous casted ingots.

J. Szajnar

2010-03-01

300

Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 ÷ 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce the cast iron liquidus temperature and decrease of recalescence temperature of graphite-eutectic crystallization in compare with initial cast iron. Control of casts can be carried out by ultrasonic method. In plain cast iron, ferritic-pearlitic microstructure is obtaining. Additives of 1,5% Cu ensure pearlitic structure.

S. Pietrowski

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0.09±0.01 and 0.10±0.04 mg/kg respectively in the rice grain endosperm. The adaptation of native rice plants, combined with bioaccumulation ratios of 1±0.6 to 1.4±0.7 calculated for Cd transfer to the rice grain endosperm, and maximum Cd transfer factors of 4.3±2.1 to the plant roots, strongly suggest a continuous input of some toxic metals from coal-mining operations to agricultural lands in the region of Cam Pha. In addition, our results imply a sustained absorption of metals by native rice plant varieties, which may lead to metal accumulation (e.g., Cd) in human organs and in turn to severe disease. PMID:23990254

Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Th? Bích; Gieré, Reto

2013-11-01

302

Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

2012-10-01

303

Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys  

Science.gov (United States)

While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better 'buy-to-fly' ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means.

Tien, J. K.; Borofka, J. C.; Casey, M. E.

1986-01-01

304

Characterisation of Organic Matter and Carbon Cycling in Rehabilitated Lignite-rich Mine Soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open-cast lignite mining in the Lusatian mining district resulted in rehabilitated mine soils containing up to four organic matter types: (1) recent plant litter, (2) lignite deposited by mining activity, (3) carbonaceous ash particles deposited during amelioration of the lignite-containing parent substrate and (4) airborne carbonaceous particles deposited during contamination. The influence of lignite-derived carbon types on the organic matter development and their role in the soil carbon cycle was unknown. This paper presents the findings obtained during a six year project concerning the impact of lignite on soil organic matter composition and the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem. The organic matter development after rehabilitation was followed in a chronosequence of rehabilitated mine soils afforested in 1966, 1981 and 1987. A differentiation of the organic matter types and an evaluation of their role within the ecosystem was achieved by the use of 14C activity measurements, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis of plant litter compounds. The results showed that the amount and degree of decomposition of the recent organic matter derived from plant material of the 30 year old mine soil was similar to natural uncontaminated forest soil which suggests complete rehabilitation of the ecosystem. The decomposition and humification processes were not influenced by the presence of lignite. On the other hand it was shown that lignite, which was thought to be recalcitrant because of its chemical structure, was part of the carbon cycle in these soils. This demonstrates the need to elucidate further the stabilisation mechanisms of organic matter in soils

305

AMCC casting development, volume 2  

Science.gov (United States)

PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

1995-01-01

306

Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

1998-11-01

307

29 CFR 570.60 - Occupations in connection with mining, other than coal (Order 9).  

Science.gov (United States)

...Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT...located in those areas of open-cut metal mines where mining and...quarries; in or about open-cut mines, open quarries...plants where quarried stone is cut, sanded and further...

2010-07-01

308

DentalCast  

Science.gov (United States)

DentalCast is a network of Internet radio and video that brings the latest information about dental technology and clinical techniques to your computer or MP3 Player. DentalCast offers both Audio and Video episodes that can be accessed directly from your PC or users can subscribe to either or both audio and video via iTunes. Episodes available include: recognizing sleep apnea patients in your practice; Discussion of how a new dental product comes to the market; video of denture waxup techniques; and Dental Anxiety: An Integrative Approach to Treatment â to name only a few. These video and audio podcasts will be useful to those studying to be in the dental fields as well as for those teaching or practicing.

2008-02-27

309

Mining with microbes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the open-quotes bioleachingclose quotes of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as open-quotes absorbantsclose quotes of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs

310

Volume MLS Ray Casting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading ef...

Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gael; Meyer, Miriah D.; Bacher, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

2008-01-01

311

Metal casting extended assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997, the Industrial Assessment Center program of the US Department of Energy initiated Extended Assessments as an option for some of their in-plant assessments. Intended for larger, more complex manufacturing facilities, the multi-day Extended Assessment allows the plant assessment team to explore more complex recommendations with the intent of encouraging major process and equipment changes. In this paper the authors describe the results of Extended Assessments at plants in the Metal Casting Industry, one of the DOE Industries of the Future. They visited five plants, two foundries and three die casting plants, with combined annual sales of $134 million and a combined annual production volume of 35,300 tons. The recommendations offered potential savings to each plant of an average $417,000 or 1.5% of average gross sales. A number of generalizations can be observed based on the assessments in the cast metals industry. First is that many of the smaller firms in this industry have been slow to adopt innovative technology. Off the shelf technologies are available that will help these firms reach the 21st Century. The concept of remelt of metal or scrap in the plant is an operation that can be improved. They found approximately two pounds of metal melted for every pound shipped. Finally, many opportunities exist outside of the core plant operations to reduce operating costs

312

Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Finally, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

Tang Hongtao

2014-09-01

313

Contemporary art casting’s education in Guangdong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the practical experience of establishing three art casting laboratories in three different colleges of Guangdong, this paper focuses on the development of contemporary art casting’s education. By analyzing the reason for the shortage of professionals nowadays and the characteristics of modern foundry industry in the Pearl River Delta, the authors try to find out what kind of knowledge structures a modern foundry industry professional should have. Then, from the viewpoint of education, the authors introduce how to combine the art casting laboratory and the creative art casting course as a new teaching pattern, on the one hand, to attract more students to study casting technology, on the other hand, to train them to be qualified professionals for the modern foundry industry.

Wu Chunmiao

2012-02-01

314

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

T. Wróbel

2011-01-01

315

Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

1995-08-01

316

UNA APROXIMACIÓN A LA PLANEACIÓN MINERA A CIELO ABIERTO DESDE UN ENFOQUE BASADO EN DECISIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE / AN APPOXIMATION TO THE OPEN PIT MINE PLANNING APPROACH BASED ON DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta en primer lugar una descripción del proceso de planeamiento minero desde un punto de vista clásico y su relación con los actuales procesos de planeamiento minero que tienen como base la optimización en sus diferentes etapas. Seguidamente, se realiza un acercamiento a los [...] procesos de planeación minera a cielo abierto desde un enfoque basado en decisiones bajo incertidumbre. Por último, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de los artículos encontrados clasificándolos en cinco categorías: Modelamiento geológico; Planeamiento minero; Evaluación financiera; Decisiones bajo incertidumbre y modelos de optimización. Abstract in english This article first presents a description of the mine planning process from a classical view and its relation to existing mine planning processes that are based on optimization in its various stages. Then be made an approach to planning processes open pit mining from an approach based on decisions u [...] nder uncertainty. Finally, it performs a critical analysis of the items found divided into five categories: geological models, mine planning, financial evaluation, decisions under uncertainty and optimization models.

GIOVANNI, FRANCO SEPÚLVEDA; JOHN WILLIAN, BRANCH BEDOYA; PATRICIA, JARAMILLO ÁLVAREZ.

2010-11-30

317

Mine transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A roundup of developments in mine transportation in South Africa is presented, including details of: the Nalva rail hopper; a mining camera and video transmission system; Cummins' diesel engines; the 'Hippo' - a hopper and a grizzly; a weighline system; the Dresser 4000 wheel loader; rigid dump trucks; and the ERF 6X4 super heavy hauler. 8 figs.

1992-01-01

318

Contemporary art casting’s education in Guangdong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the practical experience of establishing three art casting laboratories in three different colleges of Guangdong, this paper focuses on the development of contemporary art casting’s education. By analyzing the reason for the shortage of professionals nowadays and the characteristics of modern foundry industry in the Pearl River Delta, the authors try to find out what kind of knowledge structures a modern foundry industry professional should have. Then, from the viewpoint of educat...

Wu Chunmiao; Ji Qing

2012-01-01

319

Análisis in situ de la cantera de caliza usando análisis por activación neutrónica de gammas inmediatos / In situ analysis of limestone open cut mine using prompt gamma neutron analysis activation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la caracterización in situ de las perforaciones de voladura en las canteras de Atocongo y Pucará de Cementos Lima S.A. por análisis por activación neutrónica de gammas inmediatos (Prompt Gamma Neutron Analysis Activation, PGNAA). Esta técnica muestrea el volumen que está alrededor de la p [...] erforación y provee resultados del análisis en tiempo real y que son representativos. Esta información es útil para determinar el modelo geofísico de la cantera. La técnica PGNAA permite obtener resultados de campo de la concentración de determinados elementos de interés tales como el SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO y SO3. Las pruebas de campo realizadas han probado que el sistema puede ser de gran utilidad para la caracterización de las canteras de caliza. Abstract in english In situ characterization of the blast holes has been done in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results fo [...] r a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAAsystem gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO y SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines.

César, Zanabria; Rafael, Medina; Leoncio R., Gilvonio; Marco, Munive; Óscar, Baltuano; José L., Solís.

320

Análisis in situ de la cantera de caliza usando análisis por activación neutrónica de gammas inmediatos / In situ analysis of limestone open cut mine using prompt gamma neutron analysis activation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la caracterización in situ de las perforaciones de voladura en las canteras de Atocongo y Pucará de Cementos Lima S.A. por análisis por activación neutrónica de gammas inmediatos (Prompt Gamma Neutron Analysis Activation, PGNAA). Esta técnica muestrea el volumen que está alrededor de la p [...] erforación y provee resultados del análisis en tiempo real y que son representativos. Esta información es útil para determinar el modelo geofísico de la cantera. La técnica PGNAA permite obtener resultados de campo de la concentración de determinados elementos de interés tales como el SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO y SO3. Las pruebas de campo realizadas han probado que el sistema puede ser de gran utilidad para la caracterización de las canteras de caliza. Abstract in english In situ characterization of the blast holes has been done in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results fo [...] r a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAAsystem gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO y SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines.

César, Zanabria; Rafael, Medina; Leoncio R., Gilvonio; Marco, Munive; Óscar, Baltuano; José L., Solís.

2008-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Groundwater impacts of solution mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In some cases the mining of certain minerals can be achieved without the large-scale excavations involved in open pit or shaft mining. Instead, water is used to liquify the desired mineral so that it can be readily removed without disturbing the host medium or intervening deposits. In Texas this solution mining technique is used in the mining of brines, sodium sulfate, sulfur, and uranium. The advantages stem from the nondisturbing nature of the method that leaves the surface and subsurface physically intact. This is advantageous not only during mining, but also upon its termination when there is a minimum restoration requirement of the terrain. However, in some cases these advantages may be somewhat offset when a considerable chemical restoration of a host aquifer is required. The situation is considerably different with the solution (in situ) mining of uranium since these deposits often occur in usable quality groundwater aquifers. There are twenty-eight permitted sites in Texas. Eight have not yet been mined. This paper discusses the solution mining of uranium in Texas

322

Continuous roll casting of aluminium alloys – casting parameters analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of the paper was to present the influence of casting parameters on casting conditions and interference of casting parameters on the final strip characteristics such as constant strip thickness, surface quality and roughness of aluminum alloys sheet 6,30 to 6,50 mm thick. The study shows that casting speed, roll force and roll gap should have the greatest influence on the final strip thickness, and that the examined parameters agree well with the theoretical standpoints.

E. Krsti? Vukelja

2010-04-01

323

Uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. It is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

324

Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

Z. Stradomski

2013-07-01

325

Analysis of reasons causing riser feeding failure in nodular iron castings production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to mold rigidity and metallurgical quality of iron melting, the main reasons causing riser feeding failure in nodular iron castings production are: (a open and cold metal flowing-over risers were adopted; (b riser location was not proper; (c riser was too small or/and not enough high; (d ingates did not freeze up instantly as soon as pouring finished;(e there're isolated hot spots in the casting which are not connected with feeding channel of the riser; (f the feeding channel of castings with small size and thin sections is too narrow for feeding liquid to enter casting; and so on.

ZHOU Gen

2005-11-01

326

Development of soils after reforestation in the course of reclamation of disturbed post-mining sites; Bodenentwicklung nach forstlicher Rekultivierung im Zuge der nachbergbaulichen Inwertsetzung gestoerter Landschaften  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generate spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Comprehensive amelioration and rehabilitation measures were developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. The restoration of surface mining landscapes requires the (re)creation of ecosystems. However, it is still not clear wether these approaches are sustainable. This contribution reports on collaborative research into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 40 years did not show differences compared to stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development on these disturbed areas. In contrast, mine soils are very different compared to non-mined soils of the general region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of recently formed pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was significantly hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for terrestrial ecosystem development starting at 'point zero' on 'terra nova'. (orig.)

Huettl, R.; Bens, O.; Gerwin, W. [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (DE). Forschungszentrum Bergbaulandschaften (FZB); Schneider, B.U.

2004-07-01

327

Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator  

Science.gov (United States)

A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-11-10

328

Evolution of cultural landscape in the Northern Bohemian coal mining region on the background of socio-economic transformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NW part of Bohemia belongs to the most intensely exploited territories, both from the functional and ecological standpoints. In a sense, it is an open air laboratory, offering many topics to be discussed, researched and solved. The author strives to give a sociogeographical outline of the current state, with respect to the landscape evolution. This picture focuses on historical developments in recent decades as well. Rapid economic expansion of the examined territory started in the second half of the 19th century, having followed the pre-industrial period. A similar abrupt change of social and economic structures occurred 100 years later, in the post-war period. It was the growth of open-cast brown coal mining and corresponding activities (especially coal-fired plants) which resulted in large scale environmental disturbances and affected the settlement system and health of the population. Thus, further economic and ecological development should be based on a reclamation of the previous state. 4 refs

329

Assessing the impact on the animal population of the lowering of the ground water level due to brown coal open-pit mining. Tieroekologische Bewertung von Grundwasserabsenkungen durch Braunkohlentagebau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lowering of the groundwater table due to open-pit brown coal mining will adversely effect the dynamics of rivers and lakes, soilbiological processes and the plant and animal communities. Birds, amphibians, carabid beetles and snails were studied in a 520 km{sup 2} area to predict possible effects of a proposed mining project and to assess the impact from a nature conservation as well as from a synecological point of view. Selected species were used as bioindicators, habitat preference of most species was determined and sensitive areas for nature conservation were depicted on a map (scale 1:50,000) using criteria such as rarity of species, local abundance, and results from cluster analysis. (orig.).

Mader, H.J.

1989-01-01

330

The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings.

Opsomming
Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat onderliggend aan die leerpotensiaal en verskeie psigomotoriese metings is, redelik oortuigend gestaaf. ’n Algemene psigomotoriese faktor is nie in die huidige ondersoek gevind nie. Voorstelle is gemaak om die ontwerp- en kriteriumtekortkominge te verbeter.

Deléne Visser

2005-10-01

331

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer is depending on accepted variant plates of alloy steels sort X6Cr13, X12Cr13, X10CrNi18-8 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The verification of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches. Moreover was made computer simulation of solidification of bimetallic layered casting in NovaFlow&Solid software.Findings: The results of studies and their analysis show efficiency of new, innovative technology of corrosion and heat resisting layered castings.Research limitations: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of different material on bearing part of bimetallic layered casting.Practical implications: Prepared bimetallic layered castings according to work out technology can work in conditions, which require from working surface layer of element a high heat resistance and/or corrosion resistance in medium for example of industrial water.Originality/value: The value of this paper resides in new effective method of manufacture of heat resisting castings, mainly for lining of quenching car to coke production

T. Wróbel

2011-04-01

332

New micromegas for axion searches in CAST  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micromegas detectors have been taking data in the CAST experiment since 2002, occupying one opening (out of the two looking for sunrise axions) of the magnet and showing good performance and stability. Currently, three of the four X-ray detectors used in the experiment are micromegas. The new detectors are of the Microbulk technology, which have attracted a lot of attention because of the advantages they present, among them the low-material construction, high radiopurity and good energy resolution. Here, their performance during the last year will be commented. In particular, the low background levels reached in some detectors have triggered a set of studies in order to understand the effect.

333

Skeleton castings dynamic load resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The article is to show selected results of research in a field of new type of cast spatial composite reinforcements. This article shows skeleton casting case as a particular approach to continuous, spatial composite reinforcement.Design/methodology/approach: The research is concerning properties of cast spatial microlattice structures called skeleton castings. In this paper results of impact test of skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell were shown. The selection of internal topology of skeleton casting was based on numerical simulations of stress distribution.Findings: The possibility of manufacturing of geometrically complex skeleton castings without use of advanced techniques was confirmed.Research limitations/implications: With use of computer tomography, analysis of deformation mechanisms was carried out. Different levels of impact energies were usedPractical implications: Spatial skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell confirmed their usefulness as impact energy absorbers.Originality/value: The overall aim of presented research was to determine the mechanisms of skeleton castings deformation processes. Thanks to CT data next step will be to create accurate numerical model for further simulation and design optimization.

M. Cholewa

2013-06-01

334

Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c{sub 11} to m{sub 3} Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r{sup 2} of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka. (author)

Kolker, Allan [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.; Korchemagin, Viktor A.; Shendrik, Tatiana [Department of Mineral Deposits and Ecological Geology, Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, 83000 (Ukraine); Landa, Edward R.; Conko, Kathryn M. [U.S. Geological Survey, 430 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); McCord, Jamey D. [U.S. Geological Survey, 973 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

2009-08-01

335

X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment probing hypothetical particles: the axions, created in the solar core. Inside the transverse magnetic field of the CAST magnet, axions can be converted into x-rays, and be detected by four x-ray detectors at CAST. The expected x-ray signal in CAST is in 1-10 keV range, intensity depending strongly on the coupling constant of axion-photon conversion ga?, which is expected to be low. This requires CAST to have detectors with very low background levels. The CAST Experiment makes use of three Micromesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors, which are gaseous detectors, derived from ideas of Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC). CAST Micromegas detectors show perfect stability, good spatial and energy resolution. The intense study on Micromegas has enabled CAST to understand the nature of its background level, and improve it by a factor of 102 over ten years. New detector design, new readout system, better cosmic veto and addition of x-ray telescope will further improve the background in the next data taking of the experiment. The Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) of CAST is a pn-CCD detector with 200 × 64 pixels. The CAST CCD is coupled to an X-ray telescope, focusing all the parallel x-rays into a 9 mm diameter spot. The CCD will be replaced by the InGrid detector, a special manufactured micromegas detector. It is able to detect single electrons, and the low energy capabilities will open new frontiers on search of axions and other exotic particles. Another option is the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), which is being tested in 2013, and has an energy threshold as low as 250 eV. The CAST experiment is the pioneering helioscope that excludes an important part of axion mass-coupling constant parameter space, and expects to exclude more in the following years. To succeed CAST, a new experiment, the International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being designed and optimised, comprising the construction of a magnet specially built for axion search as well as new detectors that will enable to improve the actual limits by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude.

Yildiz, S. C.

2014-03-01

336

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 5: White Cast Iron (?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2011-08-01

337

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos. Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2011-11-01

338

Recultivation of abandoned lignite mines in East Germany; Wiedernutzbarmachung der stillgelegten Braunkohlentagebaue in Ostdeutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The open-cast lignite mines and beneficiation plants not privatisable because of lack of sales following structural change in the energy industry were grouped in the government-owned Lausitz and Central German Mining Adminstration. The latter is responsible under mining legislation for the prevention of danger and recultivation. The clean-up work is well advanced. An attractive landscape with numerous lakes with a total water area of about 25 000 ha is being developed. A comprehensive concept has been devised for restoration of the water balance following the flooding in the Lausitz with its low rainfall. The flooding is controlled in a central station. So far a total of 11 bn DM has been spent on the clean-up. A further 5 to 6 bn DM will probably still be required. (orig.) [German] Die infolge des Strukturwandels in der Energiewirtschaft wegen Absatzmangels nicht privatisierbaren Braunkohlentagebaue und Veredelungsanlagen wurden in der im Besitz des Bunds befindlichen Lausitzer- und Mitteldeutschen Bergbauverwaltung zusammengefasst. Diese hat die bergrechtliche Verantwortung fuer die Gefahrenabwehr und Wiedernutzbarmachung. Die Sanierungsarbeiten sind weit fortgeschritten. Es entsteht eine attraktive Bergbaufolgelandschaft mit zahlreichen Seen, die insgesamt rund 25 000 ha Wasserflaeche haben werden. Fuer die Wiederherstellung des Wasserhaushalts in der niederschlagsarmen Lausitz ist ein umfassendes Konzept erarbeitet worden. In einer Zentrale wird das Flutungsgeschehen gesteuert. Bisher wurden fuer die Sanierung insgesamt rund 11 Mrd. DM aufgewendet. Weitere 5 bis 6 Mrd. DM werden wohl noch benoetigt. (orig.)

Fritz, W. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutschen Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Berlin (Germany)

2001-10-11

339

Origin of nitrogen in reforested lignite-rich mine soils revealed by stable isotope analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Restoration of the nitrogen cycle is an important step in the recovery of an ecosystem after open-cast mining. Carbon and nitrogen in rehabilitated lignite containing mine soils can be derived from plant material as well as from lignite inherent to the parent substrate. We assessed the use elemental and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements to trace the origin of soil nitrogen and applied these techniques to elucidate the origin of mineral N in the soil and the soil solution. The conceptual approach of this study included physical fractionation in addition to sampling of vegetation and soil from a lignite-containing mine site in Lusatia rehabilitated in 1985 with Pinus Nigra. We studied the elemental and isotopic composition of bulk samples as well as isolated fractions and soil solution. Our data indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the soil samples are the result of mixing between plant material and substrate inherent lignite. {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes may be used as indicators of nitrogen contribution from plants to solid samples as well as soil solution. N-isotope composition of ammonia shows low spatial and interannual variability, despite strong concentration changes. Plant-derived nitrogen contributes in higher amounts to the soil solution compared to the bulk mineral soil. 45 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Abad Chabbi; Mathieu Sebilo; Cornelia Rumpel; Wolfgang Schaaf; Andre Mariotti [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Department of Soil Protection and Recultivation

2008-04-15

340

Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
341

Application of the dedicated wire technique to improve coal mine trolley carrier phone communications. Open file report Nov 79-Dec 81  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A whole-mine experiment to assess the practical feasibility and utility of the dedicated-wire technique to overcome poor trolley carrier phone system performance at a large underground coal mine was designed, performed, and evaluated. The technique involves the use of a single, low-loss, properly terminated, and branched auxiliary wire placed in the rail haulageway. This auxiliary dedicated wire allows signals to electromagnetically couple to the trolley wire-rail transmission line and thereby significantly decrease the overall signal attenuation rate on the trolley wire-rail line. The in-mine dedicated-wire demonstration program and its results, conclusions, and recommendations are described.

Lagace, R.L.; Spencer, R.H.

1981-12-01

342

Scheduled Caste Women: Problems And Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzed the Caste system based on Varnas during the ancient India. It also examined the demerits of caste attached to the present scheduled castes in general and scheduled caste women in particular. The scheduled caste women are disadvantaged by their caste and gender and as such they are subject to exploitation and discrimination by their family members, by their caste people and by forward castes. Hence, there is increase in exploitation, discrimination and violence against the scheduled caste women. The female feticide, illiteracy, gender inequality, Devadasi, Jogini practice, Nude Service to Deity, different types of violence, dowry, child marriage, etc are few of the problems faced by scheduled caste women in present society. Statistics of the violence acts against the scheduled caste women is discussed in the paper and there is need to strictly enforce the legislations passed to protect the violence against scheduled caste women. For this purpose, there is need of enquiry from lady police officials.

Vijayakumar Murthy

2013-12-01

343

Application of the Evaporative Pattern Casting Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Evaporative Pattern Casting process has numerous advantages compared with the conventional bonded-sand casting process. It includes the advantage of requiring no cores, and consequently no casting fin is generated and finishing work is minimized. As a...

A. Yoshikawa, S. Izui

1990-01-01

344

Mining wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US mining industry has generated up to 2 trillion kg of solid waste in a year and accounts for about 40% of the total solid waste generated annually in the US. The EPA has estimated that about 31 trillion kg of mine waste and 13 trillion kg of tailings were accumulated between 1910 and 1981. Virtually all mine wastes are disposed of on site. In the early 1980's the EPA sponsored waste-characterization studies involving waste sampling at 86 mines in 22 states. Mining wastes contain, with the exception of the product recovered, all constituents present in the ore. The excavation and processing of this native material can expose constituents, such as pyrites, that have acid-forming potential. Heavy metals or potentially toxic elements, such as radionuclides, formerly contained in the ore matrix may become mobile in the environment once exposed. In addition, some process reagents, particularly cyanide, may be mixed wi the waste. The EPA's Office of Research and Development and the Office of Solid Waste are actively acquiring and evaluating information germane to the mining-waste issue. 7 refs

345

Casting Freedom, 1860-1862  

Science.gov (United States)

Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

Social Education, 2005

2005-01-01

346

Predicting lifetime of cast parts  

Science.gov (United States)

Life expectancy of cast aluminum machine parts can be predicted accurately from fatigue tests at 78 K on notched specimens of aluminum alloy. Method was developed for rocket engine turbopump parts made of high strength, heat treatable alloy with high silicon content; however, technique is applicable to other aluminum casting alloys.

Cooper, R. A.

1980-01-01

347

Slope stability in surface mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The volume contains a total of 49 invited papers in four sections entitled: rock slope design considerations; case studies in rock slope stability; stability of waste rock embankments; and tailings and heap leaching. Three papers are directly relevant to coal mining: coal mine highwall stability by Ben Seegmiller; construction and operation of a major mined-rock disposal facility at Elkview Coal Corporation, British Colombia by Brent Zeitz; and steepened spoil slopes at Bridger Coal Company, by William Gerhard. The papers were invited in the long time lapse between the 3rd and 4th international conference on stability in open pit mining to supplement earlier proceedings. Immediately following the publication of this volume, a symposium was held in conjunction with the 2001 SME annual meeting in Denver, Colorado, USA.

Hustrulid, W.A.; McCarter, M.K.; Van Zyl, D.J.A. (eds.)

2000-07-01

348

Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

2002-07-30

349

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2009-05-01

350

Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

351

Discover Effective Pattern for Text Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many data mining techniques have been discovered for finding useful patterns in documents like text document. However, how to use effective and bring to up to date discovered patterns is still an open research task, especially in the domain of text mining. Text mining is the finding of very interesting knowledge (or features in the text documents. It is a challenging task to find appropriate knowledge (or features in text documents to help users to find what they exactly want. This paper represent efficient mining algorithm to find particular patterns within a reasonable and acceptable time frame.

A. D. Khade

2014-03-01

352

An evaluation of fiberglass cast application techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrical casts constructed from 2, 3, 4, and 5 inch widths of fiberglass casting material were evaluated for strength in bending using an unstable fracture model. Five-inch casting material produced the strongest casts. The effect of longitudinal splinting with 2-inch fiberglass tape was evaluated in cylindrical casts constructed from 4-inch tape. Casts with splints on the compression side or with splints on both the tension and compression sides were stronger in bending than casts with a single splint on the tension side or casts without splints. PMID:7778250

Wilson, D G; Vanderby, R

1995-01-01

353

Investigating MOOCs through Blog Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

MOOCs (massive open online course) is a disruptive innovation and a current buzzword in higher education. However, the discussion of MOOCs is disparate, fragmented, and distributed among different outlets. Systematic, extensively published research on MOOCs is unavailable. This paper adopts a novel method called blog mining to analyze MOOCs. The…

Chen, Yong

2014-01-01

354

An overview of surface mining in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last two decades, surface mining has witnessed significant expansion. Currently, it contributes more than 70% of the mineral production volume. A number of large and deep open pit mines have come up which are highly capital-intensive. All efforts should be made to increase the productivity by economies of scale, equipment utilisation, optimum slope design and by the adoption of suitable reclamation techniques to avoid environmental degradation. The paper discusses the present scenario in open pit mining and also suggests the ways and means to improve the productivity in the present liberalization period. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

Singh, V.K.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

1996-09-01

355

Technology and mechanization of mine drivage at large depths. [USSR]. Tekhnologiya i mekhanizatsiya vedeniya gornykh rabot na bol'shikh glubinakh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Average mining depth in Soviet coal mines amounts to 475 m; the average mining depth in the Donbass is 605 m. In 170 mines mining depth exceeds 600 m. About 30% of coal output comes from coal seams situated at depths exceeding 600 m. There are 150 deep coal mines (mining depth exceeding 600 m) in the Donbass. In 57 mines mining depth ranges from 800 to 1,000 m; in 16 mines mining depth exceeds 1,000 m. Mining conditions in deep coal mines in the Donbass are evaluated: 33.5% of mines have coal seams prone to rock bursts, 27.3% have a high methane content in coal seams. The following problems associated with coal mining at large depths are analyzed: effects of mining conditions on underground mining (rock strata stress, increased temperature, rock burst hazards, methane content), schemes for deposit opening, deposit development, ventilation systems, systems for mining level, inclined and steep coal seams (longwall mining, advancing faces, retreating faces, long pillar mining), mine drivage and strata control in mine roadways, heading machines, full-face tunneling, mining coal seams prone to rock bursts (methods for forecasting rock bursts), economic analysis of underground mining and mine drivage in deep coal mines, recommendations for new mining systems and new mining equipment for large depths. (5 refs.) (In Russian)

Vidulin, A.E.

1983-01-01

356

The Data Mine  

Science.gov (United States)

The Data Mine website is an excellent place to venture into detailed and complex explorations on data mining. The site is divided up in to five topic areas, or "webs," which include: "Data Mining Software," "Data Mining Events," "Data Mining General/Misc," "People Working in Data Mining," and "Data Mining Companies and Organizations." Visitors are encouraged to add information from their data mining worlds, as well.

Pryke, Andy

2008-01-07

357

Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at ? = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

Gila Notesco

2014-07-01

358

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

Science.gov (United States)

A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

1997-07-29

359

Strip casting apparatus and method  

Science.gov (United States)

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

1988-09-20

360

La hydrogeology en la traditional mining of hydrocarbons, mining new  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Is presented from the point of view of Geosciences, an approach torelations between hydrogeology and mining activities, including those of traditional non - metal deposits of ores and rocks application (underground or open pit), the so-called ''modern mining'' (pickles) and hydrocarbons. Within the traditional mining, hydrogeology participates decisively several aspects, both those related to the feasibility of the projects, water supply for the stage of exploration and exploitation, mineraloductos ácueosand mine operations, such as environmental protection of water resources. In the ''modern mining'' groundwater acquires true character mena when it comes to the use of natural brines, and subject when they are generated by injecting water into an aquifer medium. In the case of hydrocarbons, the spectrum is broader participation at the stage of exploration and exploitation, where the hydrogeology is critical to providing water to camps and processes as well as operations secondary recovery, consumers strongly. From the perspective of environmental protection, are the main protagonists of groundwater the impacts of production, but also the phases are transportation, processing and marketing. They are used in the presentation of case examples of Argentina and Chile, some reflections on the need for an appropriate regulatory framework, especially addressed to Uruguay, and information to protect the population activity production of an unfair detriment, when mining is done responsibly

 
 
 
 
361

Land reclamation in the lignite open pit mining industry of Central and Eastern Europe - a comparative discourse; Rekultivierung im Braunkohlenbergbau Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine vergleichende Betrachtung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comparative discourse on land reclamation in the Central and East European lignite mining regions is based on a complex analysis of the prevailing natural, geological, technological and social conditions. Considering the above conditions, the reclaimed land in the mined-out lignite mines of Central and Eastern Europe will predominantly be used as forests, although farming is also possible under particularly suitable conditions. Some of the land is given over to recreational purposes and integrated into the relevant landscape. Large lakes in residual holes of former lignite mines have only been created in Germany so far, where the special requirements of nature preservation have also been given attention. As regards the planning and financing regulations and the regulations coordinating the use of the post-mining land, there are differences between the individual countries which must be attributed to the rather diverse legal conditions. In general, the tasks associated with recultivation are defined similarly, are based on scientific investigations and are implemented at a very high level. The exchange of experience should be continued also in the future. (orig.)

Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

2003-03-01

362

Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

K. Labisz

2008-08-01

363

The CAST Time Projection Chamber  

CERN Document Server

One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

Autiero, D; Cébrian, S; Carmona, J M; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Davenport, M; Delattre, M; Di Lella, L; Formenti, F; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Irastorza, I G; Lakic, B; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Musa, L; Ortiz, A; Placci, A; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Villar, J A; Zioutas, K

2007-01-01

364

Casting technique for light metal alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Light metal alloys such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc and etc. can be produced in the various forms by casting technique. The casting technique for aluminum is classified as mold casting either using a sand mold or permanent mold; or both. Aluminum alloys casting are the most versatile of all common foundry alloys and generally have the highest castability ratings. Aluminum is adaptable to many of the commonly used casting methods and can be readily cast in metal molds. This work is attempted to investigate the availability and reliability of casting technique in obtaining of finish product. (Author)

365

Chameleon foreCAST  

CERN Document Server

Dark energy models, such as the chameleon, where the acceleration of the expansion of the universe results from the dynamics of a scalar field coupled to matter, suffer from the potential existence of a fifth force. Three known mechanisms have been proposed to restore General Relativity in the solar system and the laboratory, which are the symmetron/Damour-Polyakov effect, the Vainshtein property and the chameleon screening. Here, we propose to probe the existence of chameleons in the laboratory, considering their particle physics consequences. We envisage the resonant and non-resonant production of chameleons in the sun and their back-conversion into X-ray photons in a solar helioscope pipe such as the one used by CAST. A detection of these X-rays would indicate the existence of chameleons. We focus on a template model for the solar magnetic field: a constant magnetic field in a narrow shell surrounding the tachocline. The X-ray photons in a helioscope pipe obtained from back-conversion of the chameleons cre...

Brax, Philippe; Zioutas, Konstantin

2011-01-01

366

Virtualisation of casting engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Fast response to an enquiry, minimization of costs of identification of best-suited process solution, as well as a capacity to tackle new challenges is the shortest description of the requirements posed by the contemporary market of machines and equipment. These, in consequence, called for making use of mathematical models and their solution by means of simulation algorithms.Design/methodology/approach: The notable effectiveness of numerical methods streamlined the production preparation process. Maintaining competitiveness, even more tough because of economic factors, is only possible due to cost-effective operation, high quality and well-timed order completion. These, on the other hand, can be facilitated by a broad application of IT tools aiding production management and preparation.Findings: Integration of systems aiding design processes, systems used for simulating selected elements of technologies, as well as of systems supporting instrumentation manufacturing calls for a need to solve a number of complex problems related to IT, mathematical modelling, logistics and knowledge management. Software packages for a simulation of processes that are indispensable in order to achieve the designed distribution of matter structures and condition are of particular importance.Research limitations/implications: Despite the fact that there is a wide range of software for these purposes available on the market, there is a need to build and integrate into IT systems new purpose-developed solutions customised to technologies applied and non-standard problems.Originality/value: Virtualization of casting engineering

J.S. Suchy

2007-09-01

367

French uranium mining sites remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

368

Computer aided casting methoding of railway system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors prepared the casting technology for the frog. Casting method has been verified by simulation, using MAGMASOFT technique. In multistep simulation it was found that the positioning of casting in the mould feeding and some details of construction must be changed. Finally authors have presented the optimised solution of the technology which eliminates the porosity of casting. Analyses of the distribution of the stress during solidification and cooling in the mould proves that the deformation of casting is acceptable.

St. M. Dobosz

2008-07-01

369

Inoculation of chromium white cast iron  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

Kopycin?ski, D.

2009-01-01

370

Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instantaneous transformation, but occurs in temperature interval. In the casting process the latent heat is moved away by convection and conduction. A number of problems may occur during solidification,...

Zuidema, J.

2005-01-01

371

Selected properties of new „duplex” cast steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper selected properties of new „duplex” cast steel are presented. The new cast steel was devised in HYDRO-VACUUM company in Grudzi?dz, where “duplex” cast steel for pump elements is smelted. The goal was to devise a new grade of “duplex” cast steel of better physicochemical properties and cheaper than now applied. It was demonstrated, that there is the possibility of devising the new grade of “duplex” cast steel. It is characterized by higher mechanical properties, ...

Pietrowski, S.; Gumienny, G.; Masalski, M.

2011-01-01

372

Mining Method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-01

373

Press review of the international mining activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These columns report on news from the mining industry activities: discovery and identification of ore deposits, technological research and development studies, projects and development of ore exploitations, expansion of existing mines, rehabilitation and re-opening of sites, production stopping, environmental regulation, metal industry developments, and economical and political news. This issue reports on some news about the project of exploitation of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit (Saskatchewan, Canada) and about the re-opening of the Stepnogorsk uranium processing plant in Kazakhstan. Two short news deal with the project of exploitation of lignite deposits in Barsingsar (Rajasthan, India) and in Garzweiler (Germany). Several short notes deal with coal mining: start up of the exploitation of the Bontang mine in Indonesia (Kalimantan), expansion of Goedehoop mine in South Africa, of the Burton mine in Australia (Queensland), common development of the neighboring deposits of Oreganal and Correjon Centrale in Colombia, revival of the coal production at Moatize (Mozambique) and closure of the oldest Japanese mine of Miike, and denial of subsidies for the exploitation of Spanish and German coal mines. (J.S.)

374

Application of the principle of optimization in radiation protection in uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium is mined in deep underground low grade deposits in eastern Canada and in shallow high grade deposits in western Canada. The working conditions and resultant radiation exposures in the two areas are quite different. Three examples of cost-benefit analysis applied to uranium mining are discussed: ventilation of an underground mine, shielding of trucks for a high grade open pit mine and decommissioning of a major mine-mill complex. (author)

375

Research Status on Control System of Coal Mine Rescue Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coal mine rescue robot is the device which replaces the rescue workers to detect the environment and rescue victims in mine. And the control system is the core of the coal mine rescue robot and decides the performance of the robot. To design the control system which meets the requirement of coal mine rescue, it is firstly analyzed that requirements of the coal mine rescue robot in this study. Then, it is recommended that the control systems of coal mine robots which have been developed in China and its advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. In the end, we suggest an open control system based on ether net which meets the requirements of the coal mine rescue robot. The outdoor test shows that this control system effective and reliability for coal mine rescue robot.

Liu Jian

2013-01-01

376

Permeability of Aluminium Foams Produced by Replication Casting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The replication casting process is used for manufacturing open-pore aluminum foams with advanced performances, such as stability and repeatability of foam structure with porosity over 60%. A simple foam structure model based on the interaction between sodium chloride solid particles poorly wetted by melted aluminum, which leads to the formation of air pockets (or “air collars”), is proposed for the permeability of porous material. The equation for the minimum pore radius of replicated alu...

Cherny, Maxim L.; Finkelstein, Arcady B.; Furman, Eugeny L.

2012-01-01

377

Development of vacuum die-casting process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the die is prolonged and the productivity is enhanced, as well. Vacuum die-casting process is of great signifi cance in improving the die castings quality and making up the shortcomings of super-high-speed shot casting.

Masashi Uchida

2009-05-01

378

Moon Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students will investigate how to find and mine valuable resources from a simulated lunar surface. They will gather data by spectroscopically locating simulated ilmenite (an iron-titanium oxide mineral), and collect the 'ilmenite' by mining the simulated lunar surface. They will then gather data by using observations while extracting oxygen from the mineral, develop a conclusion based upon their results, and compare individual results to class results to look for patterns. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'Why Return to the Moon Before Going to Mars?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

379

Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

2002-07-30

380

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

2014-03-31