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Sample records for open cast mines

  1. PLANT DIVERSITY OF THE ZHELTOKAMENSKIY OPEN CAST MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarova T.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Floristic structure data of soil algae, lichens, mosses, and vascular plants are given. Rare plant species which are protected at the Ukrainian, European, and International levels were revealed. The species list of trees and bushes was conducted. The soil analysis was carried out by such parameters: pH-value, the maintenance of hygroscopic water, the maintenance of mineral substances. Vegetation biomass on the open cast mines sample areas is defined. Ecological analysis of the biotopes of registered algae species was performed. The ecological analysis of the vascular plants species biotopes was carried out.The estimation of the perspective vegetation pattern was suggested for natural restoration of the open cast mines. The plant species are selected according to the ecological and morphological characteristics for plant rehabilitation and planting of open cast mines.

  2. Land degradation due to open cast mines-a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of open cast mines is increasing day by day in coal production. These open cast mines have direct and visible impacts on land surface. During mining stage, land is damaged and degraded. Excavation of coal and overburden dumping along with other infrastructural development is responsible for this damage and degradation. Impact of land degradation is observed as loss of forest cover, reduction and extinction of wildlife, reduction of agricultural land, destruction of geologic column, soil erosion, hydrological imbalance, socioeconomic problems, etc. in active mining areas. The present paper discusses the extent and impact of land degradation by open cast mining activity in Singrauli coal field. The paper also highlights the extent of land degradation particularly in one of the open cast mining projects of Singrauli coal field. It also suggests certain control measures to minimise the problem. (author)

  3. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  4. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  5. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In laboratory experiments, we tested reactive materials that may speed up the process of bacterial sulfate reduction. In in-situ experiments, we quantified nitrification rates. Based on the results, we are able to suggest promising technical measures that enhance natural attenuation processes at mine dump site and in mining lakes. The natural water cycle in lignite mining landscapes is heavily impacted by human activities. Basically, nature is capable of cleaning itself to a certain extent after mining activities stopped. However, it is our responsibility to support biogeochemical processes to make them more efficient and more sustainable. Isotopic monitoring proved to be an excellent tool for assessing the relevance and performance of different re-cultivation measures for a positive long-term development of the water quality in large-scale aquatic systems affected by the impact of lignite mining.

  6. Turn around management of open-cast lignite mines in Kosovo; Turn Around Management der Braunkohletagebaue im Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehna, U. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Vattenfall Mining Consulting

    2008-03-15

    In their cooperation in turn around management of KEK, Vattenfall Europe Mining Consulting made an important contribution to supporting the Kosovo. In spite of limited resources and a short time available, many practical steps were taken, and effective, sustainable and safe operation of the open-cast mine was achieved. (orig.)

  7. Environmental compatibility investigation of the Garzweiler II open cast mine project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on an EEC directive, the law on the investigation of ecological compatibility came into force in 1990. With the application of these European directives in national law, investigations to determine the ecological compatibility must now be carried out for projects to exploit brown coal. In this connection and in conjunction with the licensing procedure for Garzweiler II, Rheinbraun in 1992 for the first time compiled data on the investigations carried out to determine the ecological compatibility of an open cast mine. The data on these investigations include information on the necessity of the open cast mine and on alternative projects that have been examined, as well as a description of the project in question as regards its nature and extent. As far as the legally specified protected objects are concerned, i.e. people, water, air, nature (animals and plants, soil, climate and landscape) as well as cultural and other material objects, itemized data are furnished on the development and effects of the project and on countermeasures and the planned traffic and transport concept. (orig.)

  8. Seasonal ambient air quality status in two open cast mining projects in east Bokaro coal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air quality monitoring was done at Dhori west and Khasmahal open cast mines of Central Coalfields Limited (CCL) for four seasons in the period from December 1994 to November 1995. Two monitoring stations at each project were established. The observation revealed that at Dhori west project the concentration of NOx and SO2 was less than 80 ?g/m3 while at Khasmahal it was more than 80 ?g/m3 during winter season only. Except in monsoon season the SPM concentration was more than 350 ?g/m3 at all the four stations and it ranged from 369-575 ?g/m3. During the monsoon season the concentration of SPM was between 149 and 338 ?g/m3. At all stations the dust fall rate was maximum during the summer season. It has been concluded that at both the projects efforts are required to be made for reducing SPM content in air. (author)

  9. Sustainable development of lignite production on open cast mines in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko Danicic; Slobodan Mitrovic; Vladimir Pavlovic; Sava Kovacev [Kolubara Metal, Vreoci (Serbia)

    2009-09-15

    Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m{sup 3} of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competitive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revitalization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  11. Standardisation for equipment and conveyors in open-cast lignite mining; Normung fuer Geraete und Bandanlagen des Braunkohlentagebaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickemeier, J. [Ingenieurwesen, Bergbau und Anlagenbau, Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-01-22

    With introduction of the EC machine directive via the 9th Order concerning the Equipment Safety Act the need to draw up standards for open-cast mining equipment and conveyors arose for the lignite mining industry. In the past they were drawn up in the operating plan procedure, which was based predominantly on guidelines of the Chief Mines Inspectorate. The knowledge contained in these principles was used and adapted to the current state of the art in the drafting of the new standards. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Einfuehrung der EG-Maschinenrichtlinie ueber die 9. Verordnung zum Geraetesicherheitsgesetz ergab sich fuer den Braunkohlenbergbau die Notwendigkeit, fuer Tagebaugeraete und Bandanlagen Normen zu erarbeiten. Bisher erfolgte deren Errichtung im Betriebsplanverfahren, das sich ueberwiegend auf Richtlinien des Landesoberbergamts stuetzte. Bei Schaffung der neuen Normen wurde das in diesen Grundlagen enthaltene Wissen uebernommen und dem heutigen Stand angepasst. (orig.)

  12. Groundwater recharge in order to compensate the impacts of sump dewatering of the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Grundwasseranreicherung zum Ausgleich von Suempfungsauswirkungen des Tagebaues Garzweiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forkel, Chrsitian [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Wasserwirtschaft und Wasserwirtschaftliche Planung und Genehmigung; Mueller, Christian [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Langfrist- und Entwaesserungsplanung

    2013-01-15

    RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) annually produces nearly 100 million tons of brown coal in the Rhenish lignite mining district within the triangle of cities formed by Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach (Federal Republic of Germany). The secure production of brown coal requires a drainage of the aquifers above the coal as well as relaxed aquifers beneath the deepest seams of coal. Actually, the sump dewatering being necessary for the operation of the open-cast mining amounts nearly 600 million m{sup 3} per year. The dewatering of the open-cast mining is performed by means of wells which were set up nearly five to ten years prior to the date of coal mining. Due to the ongoing coal mining, continuously new wells have to be set up. Moreover, the centres of drainage or the funnels of sump dewatering, respectively, move with the progress of coal mining. The measures of sump dewatering are optimized by minimizing the amounts and impacts of sump dewatering.

  13. Digging up trouble: the environment, protest and open-cast mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beynon, H.; Cox, A.; Hudson, R. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). ESRC Research Centre on Innovation and Competition

    1999-11-01

    The book examines the history and controversies surrounding UK opencast mining. The authors critically examine a range of issues including key political, social, legal and environmental impacts on the coal sector. They discuss the process of privatisation, impact of environmental regulation, and threats coal imports and gas-fired power generation. Chapter headings are: two industries in one: opencast and deep mining; regulating opencast; opencast mining: the challenge; living with opencast; the state, the public and the inquiry; democracy! what democracy?; changing patterns of protest; new government, new policies; and conclusion.

  14. De recursos naturales a bienes comunes: la minería a cielo abierto / From natural resources to common goods: open -cast mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Milesi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La crisis política e institucional ocurrida en Argentina en 2011 muestra un escenario donde se instaura con fuerza la protesta “desde abajo” corporizada en diversas asambleas populares. En este caso específicamente el interés recae sobre los colectivos sociales que resisten las explotaciones mineras [...] a cielo abierto. Las negociaciones, las luchas, los intereses en juego, las actividades de promoción y los procesos de resistencia, conforman un escenario particular donde los actores sociales y su capacidad de acción dan cuenta de modalidades renovadas de apropiación cultural del ambiente. La recategorización del medio, por parte de las asambleas ambientales, rechazando la designación de recurso natural y sustituyéndola por bien común, permite a estos actores sociales establecer un nuevo anclaje para llevar adelante la lucha. Abstract in english The political and institutional crisis happened in Argentina in 2011 shows a political scene where the protest is restored strongly "from below" embodied in diverse popular assemblies. In this article, the interest specifically relapses on the social groups that resist the open-cast mining. The nego [...] tiations, the fights, the interests in game, the activities of promotion and the processes of resistance, shape a particular scene where the social actors and their capacity of action realize of modalities renewed of cultural appropriation of the environment. The new categorization of the habitat by environmental assemblies, rejecting the designation of natural resource and replacing it by common good, allows these social actors to establish a new anchorage to take forward the fight.

  15. PROSPECTS OF RUBBER CRUMB APPLICATION AS A PART OF DEEP OPEN-CAST MINES ROAD COVERINGS ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khristoforova A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of worn out tires recycling at the mining enterprises is considered. The most important results of influence research of mechanical activation to properties of a rubber crumb and to modified bitumunous concrete properties are discussed

  16. Screening for microbial markers in Miocene sediment exposed during open-cast brown coal mining.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Krišt?fek, Václav; Frouz, Jan; Nováková, Alena; Chro?áková, Alica

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 89, ?. 3-4, (2006), s. 459-463. ISSN 0003-6072 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA526/03/1259; GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : fatty acids * microfungi * mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2006

  17. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljevi? Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  18. Innovative status monitoring of open-cast mining equipment; Innovative Anlagenzustandsueberwachung auf Tagebauanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn [PC-Soft GmbH, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Life cycle cost (LCC) assessment is gaining ground as a method of cost assessment in industrial production. An analysis for various fields of industry showed that the operation, maintenance and repair are the biggest cost factor. The repair cost factor is increasing as plants and equipment are getting older (as they do in mining). The potential for rationalization should be fully exploited, and reserves especially in servicing and maintenance should be utilized. [German] Bei der Betrachtung der Kosten in der industriellen Produktion gewinnt zunehmend die sogenannte LCC-Methode an Bedeutung. Vereinfacht kann gesagt werden es sollten Betriebsanlagen mit einem definierten hohen Leistungsniveau und niedrigen Lebenszykluskosten (Life Cycle Cost, LCC) angeschafft werden, wobei LCC alle Kosten enthaelt die waehrend der Lebensdauer der Betriebsanlagen anfallen. Quer durch unterschiedliche Industrien zeigt sich, dass die weitaus groessten LCC-Anteile auf die Abschnitte 4. Betrieb der Anlage und 5. Wartung und Reparatur entfallen. Wobei sich diese Tendenz bei steigender Lebensdauer der Anlagen noch verstaerkt (die Anlagennutzungszeiten im Bergbau gehoeren zu den laengsten ueberhaupt.). Einzuschaetzen ist weiterhin, dass heute haeufig alle Rationalisierungspotentiale fuer den Betrieb der Anlagen ausgenutzt werden und sich bedeutende Reserven vor allem im Bereich der Wartung und Instandhaltung ergeben. (orig.)

  19. Observation and auscultation of the geotechnical behaviour of a slope in an open cast mine influenced by old underground mining (South-western part of France)

    OpenAIRE

    Soukatchoff, Véronique; Hadadou, Rafik; Driancourt, Didier; Paquette, Yves

    1993-01-01

    The final slopes of a French open pit mine of the "Charbonnage de France" Company which final depth will be 300 metres, have been designed after a Standard geotechnical survey. This one has taken into account the geomechanical, hydrogeological, structural parameters äs well äs the" decohesion", induced by former mining subsidence. However some slopes can locally present risks of slipping (increasing with the depth of the pit) induced by old Underground mining. A methodology has been defined c...

  20. A Complex Use of the Materials Extracted from an Open-Cast Lignite Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryan, Petr; Bu?ko, Zden?k; Mika, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The company Sokolovská uhelná, was the largest producer of city gas in the Czech Republic. After its substitution by natural gas the gasification technology became the basis of the production of electricity in the combine cycle power plant with total output 400 MW. For the possibility of gasification of liquid by- -products forming during the coal gasification a entrained-flow gasifier capable to process also alternative liquid fuels has been in installed. The concentrated waste gas with these sulphur compounds is conducted to the desulphurisation where the highly desired, pure, 96 % H2SO4 is produced. Briquettable brown coal is crushed, milled and dried and then it is passed into briquetting presses where briquettes, used mainly as a fuel in households, are pressed without binder in the punch under the pressure of 175 MPa. Fine brown coal dust (multidust) is commercially used for heat production in pulverized-coal burners. It forms not only during coal drying after separation on electrostatic separators, but it is also acquired by milling of dried coal in a vibratory bar mill. Slag from boilers of classical power plant, cinder form generators and ashes deposited at the dump are dehydrated and they are used as a quality bedding material during construction of communications in the mines of SUAS. Fly ash is used in building industry for partial substitution of cement in concrete. Flue gases after separation of fly ash are desulphurized by wet limestone method, where the main product is gypsum used, among others, in the building industry. Expanded clays from overburdens of coal seams, that are raw material for the production of "Liapor" artificial aggregate, are used heavily. This artificial aggregate is characterized by outstanding thermal and acoustic insulating properties. Przedsi?biorstwo Sokolovska uhelna jest najwi?kszym producentem gazu miejskiego w Republice Czeskiej. Po jego zast?pieniu przez gaz ziemny, technologia gazyfikacji sta?a si? podstaw? do produkcji elektryczno?ci w elektrowni o cyklu mieszanym o ca?kowitej mocy wyj?ciowej 400 MW. W celu umo?liwienia gazyfikacji ciek?ych produktów ubocznych gazyfikacji w?gla, zainstalowano na drodze przep?ywu generator gazu, umo?liwiaj?cy przetwarzanie alternatywnych paliw ciek?ych. Skoncentrowany gaz odlotowy zawieraj?cy zwi?zki siarki odprowadzany jest do instalacji odsiarczaj?cej, gdzie produkowany jest cenny produkt H2SO4, o wysokim stopniu czysto?ci (96%). W?giel brunatny nadaj?cy si? do produkcji brykietów jest kruszony, mielony i suszony, nast?pnie przechodzi przez proces brykietowania w odpowiednich prasach, gdzie formowane s? brykiety, poprzez ich sprasowanie pod ci?nieniem 175 MPa. Brykiety takie wykorzystywane s? powszechnie jako paliwo w gospodarstwach domowych. Drobnoziarniste py?y w?gla brunatnego (paliwa py?owe) wykorzystywane s? na skal? komercyjn? do produkcji ciep?a w paleniskach py?owych. Py?y w?glowe powstaj? nie tylko w trakcie suszenia w?gla po procesie oddzielania w separatorach elektrostatycznych, lecz tak?e w procesie mielenia suszonego w?gla w m?ynach wibracyjnych. ?u?el z kot?ów w konwencjonalnej elektrowni, popio?y z generatorów oraz te osadzaj?ce si? w instalacji podlegaj? wysuszeniu, nast?pnie wykorzystywane s? jako wysokiej jako?ci materia? na pod?o?e w ró?norodnych instalacjach. Popio?y lotne wykorzystywane s? przemy?le budowlanym jako cz??ciowe zamienniki cementu. Po oddzieleni popio?u lotnego, gazy wylotowe kierowane s? do instalacji odsiarczania z wykorzystaniem technologii wilgotnego wapienia, w wyniku tego procesu powstaje gips, wykorzystywany, miedzy innymi, w przemy?le budowlanym. Glinki z warstw nadk?adu nad pok?adami w?gla wykorzystywane s? powszechnie jako surowiec do produkcji sztucznego kruszywa "Liapor', wykazuj?cego wyj?tkowe w?a?ciwo?ci termiczne i d?wi?koizolacyjne.

  1. Geoelectrical surveys for identification and monitoring of AMD in groundwaters influenced by lignite open-cast mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, lignite peak production from the Zwenkau mine was 10 million tons. The Zwenkau mine is part of the central German mining district, located approximately 10 km south of Leipzig. The ratio of both overburden and sumping water to lignite is approximately 2.5:1 m3/ton. Following mine abandonment in 1999, the rising groundwater infiltrated the dump areas as well as the unexploited sedimentary sequence, resulting in significant acid mine drainage (AMD). Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques were used to identify AMD affected lignite open-pit dump areas and adjacent groundwater bodies. The survey techniques included direct current resistivity measurements and direct push based electrical conductivity logging. The paper described the methods and materials used in the geoelectrical surveys and groundwater sampling. It was concluded that both surface and subsurface measurements provided precise imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. From deposit modelling to the mine plan engineering guidance in a Greenfield project for the opening of a lignite open-cast mine during the preparation and development phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to supply the nearby power plant Elbistan B, a new open-cast mine is being developed at the Collolar Field in Turkey. Initial fieldwork began in mid-2007, followed by overburden removal in early 2008 and lignite production in 2009. Several planning studies have been undertaken in order to prepare and undertake the initial work in just under two years, including the establishment of a geological model as a basis for calculating reserves, and for hydrological and geotechnical calculations, leading to a drainage concept and the formulation of requirements made on the slope stability. This paper presented the framework concept for the modelling and discussed the geological modelling and selection of a suitable development plan. The hydrological calculations and planning of drainage measures were also outlined. The more detailed plans for phase two, including the database for hydro-geological modelling, pumping tests and laboratory tests, ground water modelling, and the dewatering concept were also presented. The paper also discussed the determination of geotechnical parameters, calculation methods, and the slope stabilities at the mining and dumping site. It was concluded that regular comparison to plans and calculations on drainage and slope stability must be conducted when planning and operating a mine. 3 figs.

  3. Multi-sensorial collision prevention system for bidirectional identification of accident risks by vehicles in open-cast and deep mines; Integriertes Konzept zur Kollisionsvermeidung zwischen Personen und Fahrzeugen im Untertagebergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Franz; Becker, Stephan [Becker Mining Systems AG, Friedrichsthal (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    On the basis of the gradual exhaustion of the deposits near the surface there is evidence of a clear trend from open-cast to deep mining and thus to workings under difficult geological conditions. Because of the extensive underground road networks in high-output mines and the modern working methods trackless vehicles and mobile equipment are being used to an increasing extent. Many vehicles and personnel are en route at the same time in these road networks, so that collisions with each other or accidents involving persons must be anticipated. Becker Mining Systems has successfully developed a multisensorial collision prevention system for bidirectional identification of accident risks by vehicles in open-cast and deep mines. (orig.)

  4. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nastup Tusimice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the open cast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper. (authors)

  5. Development of biological soil crusts and their influence on soil hydrology in the recultivation area of lignite open-cast mining district in Lower Lusatia (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spröte, R.; Veste, M.; Fischer, T.; Raab, T.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses and lichens are often the first colonizers of substrate and initial soil surfaces. They are an important factor of initial soil formation as they stabilize the substrate and decrease erosion processes. Biological soil crusts accumulate the initial soil organic matter and provide nitrogen fixation. Once settled, the crusts influence the soil water regime by delaying or limiting infiltration through enhanced water repellency. Aim of this study was to compare the influence of biological soil crusts on soil hydrology under conditions on various substrates and of different ages in recultivated areas of the open-cast mining district of Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, NE Germany) with various recultivation aims. In Brandenburg (NE Germany), where the climate is transitional between oceanic and continental and the summers are characterized by generally low of precipitation (mean annual rainfall 559 mm, mean annual temperature 9.3° C) open landscapes provide ideal conditions for biological soil crusts, e. g. on mobile sand dunes in former military training areas and in recultivation areas related to open-cast mining with initial soil development. Here biological soil crusts are commonly found (Spröte et al., 2010). At five study sites in recultivation areas with different reclamation approaches (natural development, pine reforestation, birch reforestation) we defined four types of biological soil crusts: i) cyanobacterial and green algae crusts on the soil surface with no vegetation where dominating sand grains were physically stabilized in their contact zones by this crust type (type 1), ii) cyanobacteria and green algae partially filled in the matrix pores and enmeshed sand grains between sparse vegetation cover (type 2), iii) biological soil crusts with mosses which covered most of the surface between the vegetation (type 3) and (iv) with soil lichens (type 4). We investigated the development of the amount of chlorophyll a which is an indicator for biomass productivity and depends from the species composition and crust type, and the water repellency index which shows the influence of biological soil crusts on hydrological parameters. Additionally, organic matter content (dry combustion) as well as soil pH (soil: H2O = 1:2.5) were determined. Texture was analysed by wet sieving and fractionation pipette method. At all study sites and for all crust types soil pH ranged between 7.2 to 4.7 and decreased from type 1 to type 4. Soil organic matter and chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.3 and 1.7% and from 0.95 to 16.44 mg m-2, respectively, and increased from type 1 to type 4. With few exceptions, water repellency indices ranging between 1.0 and 1.85, followed this trend. Constrarily, infiltration rates decreased from type 1 to type 4. The cause for limited infiltration is the swelling of extracellular polysaccharides in the biological soil crusts (Fischer et al., 2010) and the influence of the particle size distribution and porosity of the substrate with a relatively high content of silt and clay at some study sites. Fischer, T., Veste, M., Wiehe, W. & Lange, P. (2010): Water repellency and pore clogging at early succesional stages of microbiotic crusts on inland dunes, Brandenburg, NE Germany. - Catena, 80, 47-52. Spröte, R.,Fischer, T., Veste, M., Raab, T., Wiehe, W., Lange, P., Bens, O., Hüttl, R.F. (2010): Biological topsoil crusts at early successional stages on Quaternary substrates dumped by mining in Brandenburg, NE Germany. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement 4/2010: 359-370.

  6. Analysis of the planned post-mining landscape of MIBRAG's open-cast mines with regard to a possible environmental impact of alteration processes in mixed dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing body of knowledge with regard to hydro- and geochemical alteration processes in overburden dumps and their impact on groundwater quality in lignite mining and reclamation operations associated with post-mining landscapes in Germany. The operators of the MIBRAG mines have examined issues regarding alteration processes and how they affect the environment and which opportunities exist to actively influence the dumping process. The objectives were to counteract any possible negative impact of the alteration processes. Special emphasis was on the impact caused by oxidation of sulfur containing minerals. This paper presented an analysis of the situation at United Schleenhain Mine and how it reflects on the work to date for MIBRAG's mines. A future outlook was also presented. Specifically, the paper discussed the development of the United Schleenhain mine and the post-mining landscape. The potential for discharge of substances was also evaluated along with acidification. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  7. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  8. Mobile mining technology - surface miners in LAUBAG open-cast mines; Mobile Bergbautechnik - Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von Surface-Minern in Tagebauen der LAUBAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhr [Lausitzer Braunkohle AG (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The applicability of surface miners, especially the MTS 1250, in LAUBAG mines was investigated. Information is presented on their technical implementation and cost aspects. Several exemplary applications were defined and investigated. [German] In der durchgfuehrten Untersuchung wurden die generellen Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Surface Minern, speziell des MTS 1250 in den Tagebauen der LAUBAG betrachtet. Es wurden Aussagen zur technischen Realisierbarkeit getroffen und auch Kostenabschaetzungen vorgenommen. Fuer den Betrieb von Surface Minern in den Lausitzer Tagebauen wurden einige Einsatzfaelle konstruiert und untersucht. (orig.)

  9. Open pit mining of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jackpile--Paquate Mines of the Anaconda Company are on the Laguna Indian Reservation midway between Grants and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The open pit mining of uranium ore at those mines is conducted in three separate operations (stripping, mining, and ore haul)

  10. Carbon accumulation and changes in soil chemistry in reclaimed open-cast coal mining heaps near Sokolov using repeated measurement of chronosequence sites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartuška, Martin; Frouz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 66, 1 /SI/ (2015), s. 104-111. ISSN 1351-0754 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carbon accumulation * changes in soil chemistry * post mining sites * chronosequence Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2014

  11. Effects of soil compaction on Lumbricus terrestris and its possible implications for populations on land reclaimed from open-cast coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of waterlogging on survivorship and soil bulk density on the tunnelling activity of Lumbricus terrestris were analysed in the laboratory. Waterlogging did not effect survivorship but tunnelling activity was negatively related to bulk density. Analysis of soil profiles on sites reclaimed from opencast coal mining showed that on sites where L. terrestris was absent, the soil bulk density in the soil profiles was in excess of that in which this species was capable of burrowing. The role of soil compaction in the development of earthworm communities on reclaimed sites is discussed. 13 references.

  12. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANIL Z CHITADE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This research explains the use of remote sensing (RS, Global positioning system (GPS, and GIS technology for the detection of LULC changes. In this work LULC changes have been detected using remotely sensed images during the period from 1990 to 2010, using Landsat-TM image of year 1990 and Cartosat-I image of year 2010. The above images were rectified and georeferenced using GPS data collected by point positioning mode observations.Ground truthing for the LULC classification accuracy assessment has been done using GPSinstrument. Image analysis operations have been carried out using Erdas Imagine software. Various effects of coal mining activities on the Land use have been highlighted.

  13. Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

  14. Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadj-Hassen, F. [Ecole des Mines de Paris - CGES, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Bienvenu, Y. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CM, 91 - Evry (France); Noirel, J.F. [Charbonnages de France, DTN, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France); Metz, M. [charbonnages de France, ESA, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

  15. The problem of liquidating the buildings of former underground brown coal mines in the Podkru?nohoøí area in connection with the decree of the czech bureau of mines no. 52/1997, collection of laws, and problems of open cast mines in places of their occurrences

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhlich Emil; Hudeèek Vlastimil; Kryl Václav

    2000-01-01

    The contribution deals with the problems of liquidating buildings of former underground mining, especially of shafts of closed and damped mines. It is stated that strict maintaining the Decree of the Czech Bureau of Mines (ÈBÚ) No. 52/1997, Collection of Laws, has its justification for deep and gassy hard coal mines, but it cannot be absolutely valid in the full extent for shallow ore, and mainly brown coal mines. An example of the analysis of shaft depths of the Sokolov District and the liqu...

  16. "Roles for the boys?" Mining cast lists for gender and role distributions over time

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, William; Gallé, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Film and television play an important role in popular culture, however studies that require watching and annotating video are time-consuming and expensive to run at scale. We explore information mined from media database cast lists to explore onscreen gender depictions and how they change over time. We find differences between web-mediated onscreen gender proportions and those from US Census data. We propose these methodologies are a useful adjunct to traditional analysis th...

  17. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  18. Monitoring hazardous open pit mine slope.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2012, C038/1-C038/5. ISBN 978-90-73834-27-9. [EAGE Conference & exhibition incorporationg SPE EUROPEC 2010 /74./. Copenhagen (DK), 04.06.2012-07.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : tiltmeter * slope monitoring * open-pit mine Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  19. Analysis of environmental pollution caused by open cast mining, processing and utilization of salt-containing lignite in the region of Merseburg, and development of technological measures for minimizing pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a potential utilization scheme for salt-containing lignite and the possibilities of its technological realization, the research project was aimed at investigating the possibilities of achieving environmental compatibility in the mining and utilization of salt-containing lignite from the region of Merseburg. The authors evaluated studies, research reports and publications and carried out their own analyses, concerning the components contained in mine water and other problems. The investigations yielded information on a reasonable limitation of the mining area and the diversified removal of mine water. After an analysis of the current state of technological development and measures of environmental control, fluidized-bed combustion and high-pressure gasification are proposed as variants for utilizing salt-containing lignite. Various methods for treating salt-containing mining and process water are proposed, which will have to be assessed for economic efficiency and profitability as a basis for decision-making with respect to their realization. Proposals are presented for further detailed treatment of the problems involved. (orig.)

  20. Casting

    CERN Document Server

    Reikher, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This book is the result of 40 years of the combined authors' experience in mechanical and fluid dynamics engineering. It gives an overview of product and process development from the analytical standpoint. This book has not been intended to revolutionize the casting industry. The principals of fluid dynamics and static mechanics were largely developed in the nineteenth century, but process development still largely remains a trial and error method. This book is intended to underline the principals of strength of materials and fluid dynamics that are the foundation of the casting product and pr

  1. Erosive Wear Behavior of High-Alloy Cast Iron and Duplex Stainless Steel under Mining Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    Centrifugal pumps used in the lignite mines encounter erosive wear problems, leading to a disastrous failure of the pump casings. This paper attempts to evaluate the erosive wear resistance of Ni-Hard 4, high-chromium iron, and Cast CD4MCu duplex stainless steel (DSS), for mining conditions. The prepared test coupons were subjected to an erosion test by varying the impingement velocity and the angle of impingement, under two different pH conditions of 3 and 7, which pertained to the mining conditions. XRD analysis was carried out to confirm the phases present in the alloy. The eroded surface was subjected to SEM analysis to identify the erosion mechanisms. The surface degradation of Ni-Hard 4 and high-chromium iron came from a low-angle abrasion with a grooving and plowing mechanism at a low angle of impingement. At normal impingement, deep indentations resulted in lips and crater formations, leading to degradation of the surface in a brittle manner. A combined extrusion-forging mechanism is observed in the CD4MCu DSS surface at all the impingement angles.

  2. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both of the mines. (author). 10 refs.

  3. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cehlárová

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is “deepened” in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level.

  4. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is 'deepened' in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level. (authors)

  5. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

  6. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  7. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

  8. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  9. Open pit and/or underground mining: a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical analysis of the mining of an ore body by open pit and/or underground methods is discussed. A generalized case history is presented to demonstrate the application of the major factors involved in the analysis, and the effect of a two-tier market is examined. 5 figures

  10. Environmental Management of the Pocos de Caldas Open Pit Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pocos de Caldas mine is located in the district of Caldas, in the southwest of the Minas Gerais state of Brazil. Prior to the startup of the Lagoa Real mine in 2001, it was the only facility in Brazil where uranium concentrate was produced. The facility is an open pit mine with a surface diameter of 1000 m and an average depth of 120 m. Some 47 million m3 of overburdened ore and waste have been mined from the pit. About 1250 tonnes of uranium concentrate were recovered. The mine was closed in 1995, and actions were undertaken by INB to restore adequate environmental conditions to the site. The treatment of water percolating the waste rock pile is placing a burden on the company. The treatment consists of neutralization of the acid water percolate with CaO, recovery of the precipitate and its dumping into the open pit. Experiments have been carried out for the covering of the waste rock pile with native vegetals. The results have been promising. The chemical installation was adapted for the production of rare earth composites from monazite ore. Production is now starting with an installed annual capacity of 450 tonnes of cerium oxide and 1800 tonnes of lantanium chloride. INB is now starting a process which calls for the contracting of a specialized entity for the establishment of a global environmental restauration programme. (author)

  11. Fatigue crack growth in austempered ductile and grey cast irons - stress ratio effects in air and mine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, M.N. [Plymouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mech. and Marine Eng.; Li Wenfong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    1999-06-15

    A study is presented of the effect of stress ratio on fatigue crack growth in grey (GI) and austempered ductile (ADI) cast irons in laboratory air and, for the ADI, in synthetic mine water. Fatigue crack closure was measured by compliance techniques and factored out of the applied {Delta}K values ({Delta}K=K{sub max}-K{sub min}) to give effective stress intensity values. Crack growth rate modelling was then attempted for the laboratory air data using a two-parameter approach ({Delta}K and K{sub max}). This worked well for the ADI, but not for the GI, probably due to the much larger scatter inherent in the fatigue crack growth rates in the latter alloy. Trends in the observed growth rate and closure data for the two alloys are explained in terms of mechanism changes arising from microstructural/crack tip plastic zone interactions, and K{sub max} effects. (orig.) 9 refs.

  12. Preparation of big size open-cell aluminum foam board using infiltration casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lucai

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an infi ltration casting technique for manufacturing big size open-cell aluminum foam boards. The principle and key technologies of infi ltration casting are also analyzed. Based on the previous practice of the small size aluminum foam production, the die for preparing big size aluminum foam boards is designed and manufactured. The experiments on aluminum boards of 300 mm × 300 mm × (20-75 mm, with the pore size ranging from 1.0 to 3.2 mm and average porosity of 60%, have been performed. The experimental results show that a reliable infi ltration process depends critically on the pouring temperature of the molten Al-alloy, the preheated temperature of the mould and salt particles and vacuum. Current research explores the possibility of large-scale manufacturing and application of the aluminum foams.

  13. Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

  14. A Moessbauer spectroscopy study of the corrosion of nodular cast iron in mine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of ductile cast iron in water containing different amounts of chloride ions was investigated under both static and dynamic conditions. Corrosion/time relationships were established for exposure times of up to 30 days. Post-corrosion investigations were performed, employing Moessbauer spectroscopy, optical microscopy and electrochemical techniques. It was found that the nature of the surface corrosion product formed under static conditions differed morphologically and chemically from that formed under dynamic conditions. The latter was a hard layer consisting of a mixture of ?- and ?-FeOOH (situated on an underlying cementite layer), whereas the static tests resulted in a soft, spongy corrosion product, identified as ?-FeOOH. (orig.)

  15. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105...Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22105 Smoking and open flames (IV mines). Smoking or open flames shall not be permitted in a...

  16. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations, mine dimensions, production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 630 Ci/RRY (1 RRY one = 1000-MW(e) reactor operating for 1 year) during mining operations and 26 Ci/RRY/y after abandoment of the mine assuming 100% recovery of U3O8 from the ore, or 700 Ci/RRY and 29 Ci/RRY/y assuming 90.5% recovery

  17. Study on the Law of the Movement and Damage to Slope with the Combination of Underground Mining and Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Xingkui Fang; Gaofeng Ren

    2010-01-01

    Under circumstances in which both underground mining and open-pit mining are employed, the mining effects of two approaches will be superposed and the mining slope will receive several induced stress fields, which makes the sliding mechanism and deformation law of slope rock mass more complicated. This paper, targeting at the east slope of Antaibao Mine with the joint employment of underground mining and open-pit mining, aims to study the moving law of the slope rock mass and the damage mecha...

  18. Erosive Wear Behavior of Nickel-Based High Alloy White Cast Iron Under Mining Conditions Using Orthogonal Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh

    2013-09-01

    Nihard Grade-4, a nickel-bearing cast iron widely used in slurry pumps and hydrodynamic components, is evaluated for its erosive wear response under mining conditions using a statistical approach. Experiments were conducted by varying the factors namely velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH in three levels, using L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance was used to rank the factors influencing erosive wear. The results indicate that velocity is the most influencing factor followed by the angle of impingement, slurry concentration, and pH. Interaction effects of velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH on erosion rate have been discussed. Wear morphology was also studied using SEM characterization technique. At lower angle (30°) of impingement, the erosion of material is by micro fracture and shallow ploughing with the plastic deformation of the ductile austenitic matrix. At the normal angle (90°) of impingement, the material loss from the surface is found because of deep indentation, forming protruded lips which are removed by means of repeated impact of the erodent.

  19. Risk management of the mining authority of North Rhine-Westphalia for left daily openings of the mining; Risikomanagement der Bergbehoerde NRW fuer verlassene Tagesoeffnungen des Bergbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Heinz Roland [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW

    2010-02-15

    A perpetual danger proceeds from the unsecured daily openings of the mining industry. Many pits only are filled with bulk materials. Regarding to the use of budgetary means at preventive investigation measures and protection measures, the mining industry authority North-Rhine Westphalia operates a risk management for abandoned daily openings for which no mine companies or mine owner are at hand. For this, daily openings are classified and evaluated according to certain factors. From this, a list of priority results for preventive investigation measures and safety measurements being processed by the mining industry authority in the next years.

  20. A contribution to open pit hard coal mine waste rock management : comparing sidehill fill with layered dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shakeel

    2013-01-01

    Coal mining is an important economic activity as it covers the energy demands, generates export revenues and creates employment opportunities. Mining can, however, impact the local environment. Different mining operations produce several types of waste materials and one of the major wastes produced by open-pit mines is waste rock, which is dumped at waste rock dumps. The waste rock dumps can impact the environment in several ways. For instance, in Vietnam open-pit mines have disturbed the bea...

  1. Cost analysis of open-pit mining by heap leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs of producing uranium by an open-pit mining using a heap leaching beneficiation operation are analyzed. The selection of a heap leaching operation is dictated largely by the small size of the orebody. The uranium minerals present respond readily to the lixiviant employed permitting some 75 to 80 per cent of the 1200 to 1500 ppm of U3O8 present in the heap to be recovered. Manpower and transportation account for a large proportion of the operating costs. The capital investment employed is equivalent to $ 5 000 000 and the production cost is equivalent to a value in the range $ 10 to $ 15 per pound on U3O8. Of interest is the 11.5 per cent of the overhead costs spent on security

  2. Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

  3. Mining Reviews in Open Source Code for Developers Trail: A Process Mining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mukala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Audit trails are evidential indications of activities performers in any logs. Modern reactive systems such as transaction processing systems, management information systems, decision support systems and even executive management systems log activities of users as they perform their daily tasks for a number of reasons and perhaps one of the most important is security. In order to efficiently monitor and manage privacy and access to information, the trails as captured and recorded in these logs play a pivotal role in this regard. In Open Source realm, however, this is not the case. Although the objective with free software is to allow for access, free distribution and the rights to modify coding, having such audit trails can help to trace and understand how active members of these communities are and the type of activities they perform. In this paper, we propose using process mining to construct logs using as much data as can be found in open source repositories in order to produce a process model, also called a workflow net that graphical depicts the sequential occurrence of developers activities. Our method is exhibited through a simple algorithm called Act-Trace.

  4. GPTIPS 2: an open-source software platform for symbolic data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic P. Searson

    2014-01-01

    GPTIPS is a free, open source MATLAB based software platform for symbolic data mining (SDM). It uses a multigene variant of the biologically inspired machine learning method of genetic programming (MGGP) as the engine that drives the automatic model discovery process. Symbolic data mining is the process of extracting hidden, meaningful relationships from data in the form of symbolic equations. In contrast to other data-mining methods, the structural transparency of the gener...

  5. Peak particle velocity for rockbursts in underground coal mines and for shot-hole explosions in open-pit mines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 46, ?. 1 (2011), s. 104-114. ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : hole-shot explosion * open-pit mine * peak particle velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://www.akademiai.com/content/k3u1334gw21u4x27/

  6. Casting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  7. Dealing with open fire in an underground coal mine by ventilation control techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Sahay; A, Sinha; B, Haribabu; P.K, Roychoudhary.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Open fire in coal mines is one of the most serious threats to miners, as well as to the mine. Open fire can often be effectively dealt with by prompt local action, otherwise it very quickly becomes uncontrollable. In one incident, none of the available open fire control technologies, viz., water del [...] uge and sprinkler systems, high-expansion foam, high-pressure high-stability nitrogen foam, water misting, and ventilation and pressure control techniques, were effective for saving the mine without sealing from surface, since the fuel-rich environment prohibited underground access due to the methane explosion hazard. The authors have developed a methodology for dealing with advanced-stage open fires underground by the application of a modified ventilation control technique. It is based primarily on a better understanding of the behaviour of open fires, proper diagnosis of the problem, application of judicious ventilation control techniques, and selection of suitable fire indices for assessing the status of an open fire. This methodology was used to successfully control an open fire in Surakachhar 3 and 4 incline mine Surakachhar, central India. The fire area was sealed underground and production subsequently resumed in record time. The paper discusses the behaviour of open fires, particulars of the mine, diagnosis of the problem, experimentation methods, and the results obtained.

  8. Opening of the medieval Jeroným Mine in the Czech Republic to the public

    OpenAIRE

    Koøínek Robert; ?ùrek Petr

    2003-01-01

    The beginnings of underground mining in the locality go back to the first half of the 16th century. The mining and sporadic exploitation then continued with many interruptions till the beginning of the 20th century. According to historic data, the depth range of mine workings is approximately 50 m. The opening of the Èistá ? Jeroným complex to the public is designed to be economical with the aim to utilise, e.g. for the purpose of mining tourism, especially a medieval large-volume room that t...

  9. In situ characterization at limestone open pit mine using prompt gamma neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) in situ characterization of blast holes in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. has been performed. This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results for a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAA system gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines. (orig.)

  10. Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley’s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

  11. Open pit mine planning and design. Vol 1. Fundamentals; Vol. 2. CSMine software package and orebodey case examples. 2nd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustrulid, W.; Kuchta, M. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2006-04-15

    This book is designed to be both a textbook and a reference book describing the principles involved in the planning and design of open pit mines. Volume 1 deals with the fundamental concepts involved in the planning and design of an open pit mine. The eight chapters cover mine planning, mining revenues and costs, orebody description, geometrical considerations, pit limits, and production planning, mineral resources and ore reserves, and responsible mining. There is an extensive coverage of environmental considerations and basic economic principles. A large number of examples have been included to illustrate the applications. A second volume is devoted to a mine design and software package, CSMine. CSMine is user-friendly mine planning and design software developed specifically to illustrate the practical application of the involved principles. It also comprises the CSMine tutorial, the CSMine user's manual and eight orebody case examples, including drillhole data sets for performing a complete open pit mine evaluation. 545 ills., 211 tabs.

  12. Confronting the juggernaut of extraction: local, national and transnational mobilisation against the Phulbari coal mine in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfa, Samina; Biggs, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A massive open-cast coal mine was proposed for Phulbari in 1994, with the support of the government and international financial organisations. Threatened by displacement, the apparently powerless community mobilised against the mine. Allied with the national and the transnational activist organisations, they successfully stopped the mine. This remarkable success is the subject of the thesis. This resistance is compared quantitatively with the incidence of protests in 397 other mines in th...

  13. A knowledge-informed chemotype approach to mining the ToxCast/Tox21 chemical-data landscape (WC9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ToxCast and Tox21 chemical libraries currently exceed 2000 and 8000 unique chemicals, respectively, and span a broad diversity of chemical use-types, functionality, and toxicity mechanism and endpoint space. These libraries function as mechanism probes across hundreds of high-th...

  14. Opening of the medieval Jeroným Mine in the Czech Republic to the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koøínek Robert

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of underground mining in the locality go back to the first half of the 16th century. The mining and sporadic exploitation then continued with many interruptions till the beginning of the 20th century. According to historic data, the depth range of mine workings is approximately 50 m. The opening of the Èistá ? Jeroným complex to the public is designed to be economical with the aim to utilise, e.g. for the purpose of mining tourism, especially a medieval large-volume room that together with flooded stoped-out workings forms an inimitable atmosphere underground. This article is focused primarily on geomechanical problems connected with the opening of this complex to the public.

  15. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

    2011-01-01

    Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new appro...

  16. Formation of the composition and properties of dumps on the open-pit mines of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Y. V.; Luk'yanova, S. Y.; Tyuleneva, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012 the total volume of coal mining in the Kuzbass was about 200 million tons, including 116 million tons (60.3%) produced open way, Figure 1. In 2014, it was produced more than 203 million tons of coal. In addition, there is no reason to believe that in the near future volume of coal will decline. Accordingly, the volume of wastewater discharged by enterprises will increase. So, from 2006 to 2009 there was an increase of polluted water discharge coal mines from 217 to 245 million m3. Therefore, the problem of water pollution mines governmental waters and career is very important.

  17. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  18. The using of GPS – RTK technology for creation of the Open – Pit mine basic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mu?ková

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the open – pit mine map with results of the method GPS – RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the open – pit mine in Jakub?ovice nad Odrou is evaluated. The results of comparison written are estimated in the end of the paper as well as some tasks at surveying by means of using GPS –RTK technology in the open pit mine.

  19. Robust models for simultaneous open pit and underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Mining planning is a central problem in the mining business with the goal of setting high revenued exploitation agendas. However, current models lack robustness: they do not consider uncertainty of the future, so the plans are, indeed, recalculated every year according to the new information. This work presents some approaches to solve the above-mentioned problem: at first the current models are exposed, stochastic programming is used then to set up new models considering uncertainity. As a s...

  20. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  1. Emissions reduction by means of continuous open pit mining technology; Emissionsreduzierung durch Einsatz kontinuierlicher Tagebautechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaz, V. [ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany). Abt. Business Development; Mentges, U. [ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany). Vertrieb/Bergbauplanung

    2007-07-01

    A change of system in open pit mining worldwide to continuous open pit mining technology not only leads to a reduction in running operating costs, but in particular to potential savings in CO{sub 2} emissions as well. These savings are being studied in a current research project. In the growing market for raw materials, the combination of newly designed, fully mobile crushing plants with innovative belt conveyor system technology in particular can achieve reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions of the order of up to 150,000 tons per year and per installed system for raw materials extraction, compared to conventional truck transport. (orig.)

  2. The using of GPS – RTK technology for creation of the Open – Pit mine basic map

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka Mu?ková

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the open – pit mine map with results of the method GPS – RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the open – pit mine in Jakub?ovice nad Odrou is eva...

  3. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan, A.; N. Krishnakumar

    2012-01-01

    Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India) resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils). To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study b...

  4. Problems of definitive slopes mining at Doly Nastup Tusimice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instability of slopes influents mining business in many aspects at open-cast mining. The temporary decrease of intended mined volumes due to land slips is common and sometimes there is necessary to change origin-mining plans. It has impact to economy and other essential costs for rehabilitation are required. In case of definitive slopes formation in contact to traffic and communication networks, watercourses and infrastructures of seats stability of slope security there is even more important. Monitoring of rock massive stability plays an important role. Everything which stability of slopes is concerned belongs to essential tasks for mining technicians at open-cast mining. The article explains what ways for definitive slope formation near mining boundary were selected at Severoceske doly j.s.c., Doly Nastup Tusimice mining site. The precautions refer to mining technology, preventive and reconstruction precautions for stabilization of slopes must to solve, are to described. Tasks, which mining engineers, surveyors, geologists and geotechnics have to solve are described. (authors)

  5. Estimation of resuspension of radioactive aerosols in equipment cab of open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In open-pit mining of high grade ores, operators of mining equipment in a pressurized cab are protected from inhaling radioactive aerosols by the use of filtered air through a pre-impactor and a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. At present, a limited amount of scientific information is available on the worker exposure to airborne alpha emitters in the mining of high-grade ores. Four series of field samplings were conducted during the fall of 1980 and the summer of 1981 at a mining site in northern Saskatchewan to investigate the extent of protection an equipment operator has against cab internal exposure to airborne alpha emitters with short and long half-life radionuclides. The variation in the breathing zone concentration of aerosols as a result of resuspension is discussed, however no attempt was made to isolate and investigate the factors and the associated parameters of the aerosol resuspension phenomenon

  6. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  7. GPSS system applied to optimization of technological process of open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The queuing sub-system and the stored sub-system are abstracted as a composed dynamic system from the technological process of open-pit mining. Using the GPSS system the simulation models were established, and by changing the parameters of the models the optimization of the technological process was carried out

  8. Safety aspects in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuels cycle rightly starts with the exploration of uranium and other nuclear materials. Mining is undertaken only after the economic and strategic viability of mining of the uranium is established. The grade of the ore (percentage of uranium) is generally of the order of 0.05 - 0.2% worldwide. There are uranium deposits in the world with much higher uranium content, even as high as 60%. Such deposits are only few in number. The uranium mine may be of open cast or of underground type depending on the size, depth, strike length, grade and other relevant characteristics of the deposit. In either case, mining or subsequent processing of the ore involves exposure of the workers to radiation in addition to the usual industrial hazards to which those in other similar industries are subjected. Generally speaking, the radiological hazards in underground mining are more serious and difficult to tackle than in open cast mines. So the ensuing discussion by default, deals with the underground mining scenario

  9. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary motivation underlying the proposal of polygeneration systems for mine sites is to increase the efficient use of natural resources by combining different technologies and energy resources while satisfying energy service demands. For many mineral producers, particularly in Canada's mining extremes of climate and depth, energy in support of mineral production can be the second largest cost center after labor. A generic methodology is proposed for the design of energy supply systems in mine sites, based on a search for the minimum discounted cost of energy supplied for all feasible different plant configurations. These configurations can be represented within a connectivity matrix which corresponds to a network representation. A Mixed Integer Programming formulation is set out for the multiperiod synthesis and operational planning problem. This is characterized by i) binary variables for the selection of technologies, ii) integer variables for the determination of the number of units installed, and iii) by continuous variables for the representation of energy and economic flows. Through the integration of particular energy supply strategies matching specific mine circumstances (on-grid, remote, degree days, etc) and consideration of technologies that improve energy efficiency, hitherto not considered new technologies and demand management systems or new perspectives on optimal mine site energy supply can be investigated. Some of these investigations identify the economic conditions through which biomass energy feedstocks should be used, for direct heat production, for gasification and providing for Fischer–Tropsch syndiesel manufacture. As well as integrating demand from mobile diesel-fueled plant into an optimization procedure this analysis shows how the techniques can be used to explore economic conditions of threshold prices for biomass (purpose-grown biomass and peat are considered herein) and trucked-in diesel. The methodology also allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  10. Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

  11. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  12. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 ± 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. (authors)

  13. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, E O; Faanu, A; Awudu, A R; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Oppon, O C; Akaho, E H K

    2010-01-01

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 +/- 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. PMID:19767601

  14. Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

  15. Long-term follow-up of DDH patients who underwent open reduction without a postoperative cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepesi, Kálmán; Szücs, Gabriella; Szeverényi, Csenge; Csernátony, Zoltán

    2013-03-01

    We present the results - assessed after bony maturation - of an early anterior approach open reduction performed using our modified technique on 49 hips at 6-24 months of age. We start postoperative functional treatment using a Pavlik harness and an abduction splint, abandoning plaster cast. Secondary surgeries were performed in 11 hips (22.4%) at 3-7 years of age. Our results were 'satisfactory' (Severin Grade I, II) in 96% of the cases. According to the joints' Severin Grade, the total hip replacement probability at an early age is 8.16% in our series. Our principles and practice, introduced in 1980 in terms of secondary surgeries, are in total harmony with the recent literature. PMID:23169320

  16. Reorganization of oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the present conditions of limited demand for oil shale, the Estonian oil shale mining industry is in a state of over capacity. This results in an inefficient use of labor. This working atmosphere has resulted in high production costs per tonne of mined oil shale. To improve economic factors, it is necessary to concentrate production into a limited number of mines working at full capacity and to modernize the mining technology at those mines. A development plan for oil shale mining is proposed. It primarily includes modernization of the prospective mines to be kept in operation and reduction of surface mining at the Sirgala and Narva open cast pits. This will result in conservation of oil shale reserves for 8- 10 years of future production. It is recommended that the resumption of mining in these fields be by underground means. The detailed plan does not call for the untimely closing of mines before the exhaustion of their reserves of oil shale. At the same time, a relatively stable level of mining activity (10-13 million tonnes per year) with minimal investments in the oil shale industry is guaranteed until 2025. (author)

  17. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  18. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: ? Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. ? Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. ? Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. ? Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  19. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 ± 0.32 ?m and ?(ln d) = 0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 ± 0.38 ?m and ?(ln d) = 0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: ? Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. ? SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles ? Particle size distributions of TSP and PM10 are lognormal ? Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar ? Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health

  20. Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryl Václav

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

  1. Analysis of open-pit mines using high-resolution topography from UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Among the anthropogenic topographic signatures on the Earth, open-pit mines deserve a great importance, since they significantly affect the Earth's surface and its related processes (e.g. erosion, pollution). Their geomorphological analysis, therefore, represents a real challenge for the Earth science community. The purpose of this research is to characterize the open-pit mining features using a recently published landscape metric, the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC) (Sofia et al., 2014), and high-resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) derived from drone surveyed topography. The research focuses on two main case studies of iron mines located in the Beijing district (P.R. China). The main topographic information (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) was derived using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique. The results underline the effectiveness of the adopted methodologies and survey techniques in the characterization of the main geomorphic features of the mines. Thanks to the SLLAC, the terraced area given by multi-benched sideways-moving method for the iron extraction is automatically depicted, and using some SLLAC derived parameters, the related terraces extent is automatically estimated. The analysis of the correlation length orientation, furthermore, allows to identify the terraces orientation respect to the North, and to understand as well the shape of the open-pit area. This provides a basis for a large scale and low cost topographic survey for a sustainable environmental planning and, for example, for the mitigation of environmental anthropogenic impact due to mining. References Sofia G., Marinello F, Tarolli P. 2014. A new landscape metric for the identification of terraced sites: the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.06.018

  2. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Vrubel; Stanislav Dejl

    2007-01-01

    Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

  3. An open method for mining steeply dipping brown coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, B.

    1985-02-15

    First the floor layer is removed. Then trenches are tunneled from the surface of the brown coal seam. The slant of the sides of the trenches on the dip side of the deposit is 1 to 2 and from the opposite side, 1 to 1.5. The final result of making the trenches is the formation of a slanted drift which is the front of extracting operations. The number of slanted drifts is a function of the depth of the deposit. Mining is conducted using loosener bulldozers which cut a coal layer 20 centimeters thick by moving it downward along the slanted drift. Then the coal is placed on a conveyor belt by a loader. A scraper which removes the barren rock and transports it to the tailings heaps operates simultaneously with the bulldozer. The proposed method eliminates the possibility of the formation of landslides and makes it possible to selectively extract the mineral coal.

  4. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas, Jose I., E-mail: jhuertas@itesm.mx [Tecnologico de Monterrey, Eduardo Monroy Cardenas No 2000, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico); Huertas, Maria E. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Solis, Dora A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carrera Toluca - Atlacomulco km 14.5. Tlachaloya, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 {+-} 0.32 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.61 {+-} 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 {+-} 0.38 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.55 {+-} 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle size distributions of TSP and PM{sub 10} are lognormal Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health.

  5. Radiation safety aspects of occupational areas at a Brazilian open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the radiation safety aspects of open-pit mining in Brazil and presents results of exposure rate measurements at points located at different work-front sites, primary crushing, static leaching sites and ore storage patio. Results of surface contamination and air monitoring in the hauling trucks and area control cabs are presented. Routine difficulties in trying to comply with the radiation safety procedures required is discussed and suggestions presented

  6. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  7. CLUO: Web-Scale Text Mining System for Open Source Intelligence Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Przemyslaw Maciolek; Grzegorz Dobrowolski

    2013-01-01

    The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT) system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof openl...

  8. Cluo: Web-Scale Text Mining System For Open Source Intelligence Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Maciolek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof openly available information.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix - Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Manual resin application 12 lb/ton. 5. Open molding—shrinkage controlled resins a. Mechanical resin application 18 lb...of gel coat. Manual gel coat application must be included as part of spray gel coat application for compliance...

  10. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. PMID:21195454

  11. Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1998-2001 geotechnical processes in closed underground oil shale mines and open casts were investigated. In addition to kukersite oil shale deposit, the closed Sillamaee uranium (Dictyonema shale) mine was prospected. The main tools and methods included mine plans, aerial photographs and Geographical Information System data. 290 km2 of underground and 130 km2of strip-mined areas were studied. The mining maps of Estonian underground and surface mines were created. The stability of underground mined area, where room-and-pillar method was used, was the main objective of the study. It was studied with the help of aerial photographs, mine drawings, maps of quaternary sediments and mathematical modeling of rock failure. The main results are: 20 % of subsidences remain undiscovered and 42 % of subsidence occurrences have no remarkable influence to the land cover; the probability of subsidence remains and may increase in the case of mine drowning. As several mines will be closed during the next few years, the problems of drowned waste (which were not subjects of this study) are going to be more actual than before: increasing underground water level, pollution of underground water, formation of technogenic water sources, overflooding of reclaimed areas, etc. (author)

  12. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  13. Technology of mobile high-capacity large-size equipment for mining and haulage in sloping seam-like deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulnig, H.

    1982-01-01

    Objective: Transfer of open-cast mining methods to underground mining. Adaptation and further development of earth moving and open-cast mining equipment to the more difficult conditions of underground mining for technical and economic optimization of the drilling, blasting, loading and hauling operations. Working programme: Further development and improvement of hydraulic rock drilling hammers for optimizing the drilling operations. Development of opening shots for maximizing the rounds of shots in deposits consisting of tough material. Testing of hydraulic excavators and adaptation to the confined conditions of undergrund working. Development of a flexible haulage method for underground mining in increasing depths. Testing and further development of heavy-duty trucks as the main means of transportation on ramps with an ascending slope. Improvement of operational safety and job hygiene by means of the newly developed technology. Result: The new technology developed for mobile heavy-duty large-size equipment for mining and haulage permits to work deposits of medium thickness by underground methods with costs and results being comparable to those of open-cast mining. The connection between drilling, blasting, loading and hauling is analyzed.

  14. Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

  15. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  16. A stochastic simulation framework for truck and shovel selection and sizing in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.R., Dindarloo; M., Osanloo; S., Frimpong.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Material handling in open pit mining accounts for about 50% of production costs. The selection and deployment of efficient, safe, and economic loading and haulage systems is thus critical to the production process. The problems of truck and shovel selection and sizing include determination of the op [...] timal number and capacities of haulage and loading units, as well as their allocation and operational strategies. Critical survey and analysis of the literature has shown that deterministic, stochastic, and experimental approaches to these problems result in considerably different outputs. This paper presents a comprehensive simulation framework for the problem of truck and shovel selection and sizing based on the random processes underlying the network-continuous-discrete event nature of the mining operation. The framework builds on previous research in this field and attempts to address limitations of available methodologies in the form of a comprehensive algorithm. To test the validity of the framework a large open pit mine was evaluated. The stochastic processes governing the uncertainties underlying the material loading and haulage input variables were defined and built into the stochastic model. Discrete event simulation was used to simulate the stochastic model. The proposed model resulted in several modifications to the case study.

  17. Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

    Full Text Available There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix - Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../ton. 6. Open molding—gel coat 2 a. Tooling gel coating 22 lb/ton. b. White/off white pigmented gel coating 22 lb/ton. c. All other pigmented gel coating 19 lb/ton. d. CR/HS or high performance gel coat 31 lb/ton. e. Fire retardant gel coat 43 lb/ton. f. Clear production gel coat 27 lb/ton. 7....

  19. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ykateryna D. Duka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

  20. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer? world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

  1. Duality results for stationary problems of open pit mine planning in a continuous function framework

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Griewank; N., Strogies.

    Full Text Available Open Pit Mine Planning problems are usually considered in a Mixed Integer Programming context. Characterizing each attainable profile by a continuous function yields a continuous framework. It allows for a more detailed modeling of slope constraints and other material properties of slanted layers. A [...] lthough the resulting nonlinear programming problems are in general non-convex and non-differentiable, they provide certain advantages as one can directly compute sensitivities of optimal solutions w.r.t. small data perturbations. In this work duality results are derived for the stationary problems of the continuous framework employing an additional condition called convex-likeness.

  2. Casting and dozing recovers deep seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Juliana Mining Co. has combined cast blasting with a team of dozers to maintain a competitive position at its Amos mine in West Virgina. Up to 100 ft of cover is removed with trucks and loaders, and then the pit is bridged, so the upper material can be placed on top of the spoil. Cast blasting creates two major advantages: short distances and downhill pushes. 5 figs.

  3. A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

  4. A zero-one integer programming model for open pit mining sequences

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Gholamnejad.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of short-term production scheduling is to decide which blocks of ore and waste to mine in which time period (shift, days, weeks or months) so that several operational and geometrical constraints can be satisfied simultaneously. Since 1960s several mathematical programming approaches were dev [...] eloped for solving production scheduling problems that are based on a combination of various operational research approaches such as linear programming (LP), integer programming (IP), dynamic programming (DP), etc. A number of models have been developed in the past three decades but some models have limited application especially to geometrical mining constraints. One of the geometrical constraints is block accessibility. All blocks must be accessible to mining equipments on the same bench. In this paper a binary integer programming model is developed in order to incorporate block accessibility constraints in an efficient manner. This mathematical model insures that each block has been open and can be loaded and transported easily by shovels and trucks

  5. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of Daxin uranium mine of China - 59073

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Daxin Uranium Mine is an small open pit mine. Its contaminated facilities include open pit 87620 m2, East waste rock pile 71710 m2, west waste rock pile 57828 m2, ore transfer station and industrial fields 9370 m2, building and structure 26600 m2, equipment 246 pieces, plastic conduit 3000 m. steel conduit 2500 m2 and road for transporting ores 1020 m. The integrated decommissioning programmes are presented: uranium extraction, slope stabilization, clear-up, backfill, reshape, covering, re-vegetation, dismantlement/ demolishment, decontamination, re-smelting, waste water treatment. (authors)

  6. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5?×?10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

  7. Modelling financial risk in open pit mine projects: Implications for strategic decision-making

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.A., Abdel Sabour; G., Wood.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decisions in the mining industry are made under multiple technical and market uncertainties. Therefore, to reach the best possible decision, based on information available, it is necessary to integrate uncertainty about the input variables and model financial risk of the project's merit me [...] asures. However, this rovides few useful insights to decision-makers unless accompanied by modeling management responses to uncertainty resolutions. It is widely acknowledged that conventional decision-support methods based on static, no-change, discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques such as net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) tend to provide inaccurate value estimates. This could mislead the strategic decision-making process and result in significant value losses. This paper aims to model financial risk related to uncertainty about market variables such as metal prices and foreign exchange rates. Other sources of risk that are related, for example, to geology and production costs are not considered in this work. The article outlines a flexible financial model that integrates uncertainty about market variables and management flexibility to react to uncertainty resolutions into mine project valuation using a real-options valuation technique based on Monte Carlo simulation. Significance of information generated from this simulation-based flexible valuation model to the strategic decision-making process is tested using an illustrative case study of a Canadian mining project. The project is a typical multi-metal, open pit mine that produces copper and gold. In this case, there are three uncertain market variables, which are: copper and gold prices and US$/CAN$ exchange rate. Financial valuations are carried out using both the conventional static DCF method and a flexible real-options model. In the flexible model, management flexibility to decide whether to go ahead with the next expansion or terminate production operations is integrated. Results show how the flexible financial model can enhance the decision-making process.

  8. Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID): protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler Christoph; Luntz Steffen; Bruckner Thomas; Rossion Inga; Stengel Dirk; Bartl Christoph; Gebhard Florian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabilization for six week...

  9. Background gamma terrestrial dose rate in Nigerian functional coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the background terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates at different indoor and outdoor locations on the surfaces of Okpara underground and Okaba open cast mines in Nigeria were made. Two duly calibrated low-level gamma survey metres were held 1 m above the ground surface for these measurements. Measurements were also made at various locations inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine. Results indicate that the indoor background gamma radiation is comparable for both mining environments. The mean outdoor gamma dose rate determined for the Okaba mining environment is 10.4 nGy h-1 as against 11.7 nGy h-1 for Okpara. The ranges are 8.5-16.5 nGy h-1 for the Okpara measurements and 7.5-14.0 nGy h-1 for Okaba. Thus, the outdoor gamma dose rates appear to be generally lower at the Okaba open cast mine than at Okpara. The indoor dose rate values range from 11.0 to 17.0 nGy h-1 in both environments. These indoor measurements have nearly the same mean values 14.4 and 14.5 nGy h-1 for Okpara and Okaba environments, respectively. The indoor to outdoor dose rate ratio is 1.2 for Okpara and 1.4 for Okaba. These values are in consonance with the corresponding ratio given in literature. Dose rate measurements inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine are higher than the surface indoor measurements ranging from 13.5 to 20.5 nGy h-1 with a mean of 16.5 nGy h-1. The higher dose rate values measured in the mine tunnel are attributable to the concentration of radon in the 'closed' environment of the mine tunnel. (authors)

  10. Background gamma terrestrial dose rate in Nigerian functional coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokobia, C E; Balogun, F A

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the background terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates at different indoor and outdoor locations on the surfaces of Okpara underground and Okaba open cast mines in Nigeria were made. Two duly calibrated low-level gamma survey metres were held 1 m above the ground surface for these measurements. Measurements were also made at various locations inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine. Results indicate that the indoor background gamma radiation is comparable for both mining environments. The mean outdoor gamma dose rate determined for the Okaba mining environment is 10.4 nGy h(-1) as against 11.7 nGy h(-1) for Okpara. The ranges are 8.5-16.5 nGy h(-1) for the Okpara measurements and 7.5-14.0 nGy h(-1) for Okaba. Thus, the outdoor gamma dose rates appear to be generally lower at the Okaba open cast mine than at Okpara. The indoor dose rate values range from 11.0 to 17.0 nGy h(-1) in both environments. These indoor measurements have nearly the same mean values 14.4 and 14.5 nGy h(-1) for Okpara and Okaba environments, respectively. The indoor to outdoor dose rate ratio is 1.2 for Okpara and 1.4 for Okaba. These values are in consonance with the corresponding ratio given in literature. Dose rate measurements inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine are higher than the surface indoor measurements ranging from 13.5 to 20.5 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 16.5 nGy h(-1). The higher dose rate values measured in the mine tunnel are attributable to the concentration of radon in the 'closed' environment of the mine tunnel. PMID:14978296

  11. PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

  12. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of a uranium mine in Guangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close-out of projects of a mine in Guangxi province of China includes open pit,east and west waste rock piles, ore transfer station, industrial fields, buildings, ore transporting road, and equipment and conduits. The following remediation limits are introduced: environment penetrating radiation dose rate and 222Rn flux of open pit and waste rock piles, 226Ra specific activity of soil and individual dose. Remediation objective and programme are discussed in details. Remediation effects are evaluated. (authors)

  13. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  14. The theoretical principles of dealing with allochthonous disruptions during the mining of minerals in open-pit mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembecki, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Disruptions of the mineral mining process are associated with the rock massif, the climate and the placement of the production equipment and the receptacle of the finished product. The influence of the physiomechanical properties of the rock massif may be reduced by the corresponding selection of overburden and mine workings. Warnings of disruptions caused by climatic phenomena may be produced by studying their periodicity and comparing them to the periodicity of mine operations using a mathematical model. It is recommended that differential monthly schedules for mining be established or that measures be taken to produce a constant monthly volume of specific product. A comparison of the production cycles to the final product receipt cycles using a deviation analysis makes it possible to determine the minimum consumption with maximum productivity. All the problems were solved using a theory of stochastic processes.

  15. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  16. Causal Inferences from Mining ToxCast Data and the Biomedical Literature for Molecular Pathways and Cellular Processes in Cleft Palate (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-five chemicals in the ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) dataset have been linked to cleft palate based on data from ToxRefDB (rat or rabbit prenatal developmental toxicity studies) or from literature reports. These compounds are structurally diverse and thus likely to...

  17. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  18. Forecast of Water Quality In Mining Lakes When Used As Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, W.; Ehret, B.; Mazur, K.; Grünewald, U.

    The area of investigation is located in the Lusatian lignite mining region (Saxonia/ Germany). Until 1990 an excessive open- cast lignite mining was carried out resulting in a regional water deficit of about 13 billion m3. Since 1990 (until now) extensive rehabilitation measures in the formerly open cast lignite mining areas have been re- alized. To compensate the ecological damages it is planned to use these open- cast mines as lakes in future nature protection areas and as water reservoirs in the catch- ment of the river Spree. Some of the open- cast mines are already flooded and most of them show pH- values lower 3.5 and sulphate concentrations greater than 500 mg/ l. There is a fear that the use of the residual pits as storage reservoirs will originate a fur- ther acidification and mineralisation of the water and so cause a deterioration of water quality. The fact that the reservoirs will be used to ensure the ecological required min- imum discharge in the receiving water course Spree gives emphasis to the importance of this developement. Our goal is the investigation of these effects, show the influence of water management on water quality in mining reservoirs and connected groundwa- ter and surface water systems. Exemplary the water and matter balance of the reservoir system >Lohsa< will be described. To show the effects of groundwater - surface wa- ter interaction the presentation focuses on the parameterisation of the developed and used models: a numeric regional groundwater model, geochemical models for matter transport and pyrite oxidation, water resource balance model Spree. Finally the mod- elling results and computational approaches will be presented as 35 years forecasting time series of essential water quality parameters.

  19. Problems connected with a landfill location on former open mines areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymowicz, B.; Malicka, M.; Wisniewski, W. [OBREM, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Proper location and construction works on the area of a future landfill are essential in order to provide an easy exploitation routine and post landfilling recultivation. Landfill location on former open mines areas has always been the most desirable variant. That is why it is important to discuss all the points for and against this option. The arguments `for`, are often economically supported, as such landfill can be organised at lower cost and it makes legislation of already existing wild landfills easier. The arguments `against` are connected with potential dangers to environment in case the landfill is not constructed in a proper way. That is why each case should be considered individually, taking into account all existing arguments. It can bring about construction of a safe landfill which will not lead to any future environmental damages difficult in neutralisation. 17 refs., 1 tabs.

  20. VIABILIDAD DE LA EXTRACCIÓN DE CARBONES A CIELO ABIERTO. CASO MINA LA MARGARITA / OPEN PIT COAL EXPLOTATION VIABILITY. MARGARITA MINE CASE OF STUDY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JULIA, VELOZA; JORGE, MOLINA; HUMBERTO, MEJIA.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la viabilidad, planeamiento y diseño de una nueva explotación a cielo abierto de carbón en la mina La Margarita S.A., con recursos carboníferos superficiales calculados en 440.139,7 ton. Se logró dimensionar, diseñar y evaluar económicamente con tres diferentes métodos de explo [...] tación: Cortas, Contorno y Terrazas. Para el método de Cortas el Valor Presente Neto (VPN) fue de 817,5 de Contorno 518,5 y Terrazas 645,2 dado en millones de pesos ($) colombianos corrientes del 2004 y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR) para Cortas: 78,33%, Contorno 34,0% y Terrazas 38,62. Estos indicadores sirvieron para seleccionar el método de Cortas, el cual fue ajustado con cierto detalle, ya que fue necesario trabajar conjuntamente dos frentes para hacerlo viable. Como valor agregado para el proyecto se hizo una evaluación general ambiental, que es de vital importancia para la explotación. Se dan recomendaciones para minimizar los impactos más importantes tales como la flora, fauna, aire, suelo, aguas. De cada una de ellas se plantean medidas ya sean de mitigación, control o prevención. Se espera que este trabajo sirva como soporte técnico - económico para el desarrollo de una nueva extracción de carbón a cielo abierto dentro de la mina La Margarita. Abstract in english This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for “La Margarita” mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation was possible by three exploitation methods: (Multiple bench, Open Cast [...] contour, and Terraces). Net Present Values (NVP) were calculated: $C 817,5; $C 518,5 and $C 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $C 2380 are equivalent to $US 1) and Rate of Return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. In addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. It is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the Margarita Mine

  1. Mined-out areas need not sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia's most important mineral resource - oil-shale or kukersite - has been mined for long years. In spite of the decrease in oil-shale production over recent years, mining for this important raw material of the power and chemical industries will have to be continued. For various reasons, in the near future the prevalent role will be played by underground mining. Unfortunately, this method, as well as open-cast pit mining, has done much damage to nature in North-East Estonia. The best measure to lower the cost and diminish the negative effects of mining will probably be filling the shafts and pits with either mechanical gangue or some petrifying material. Experiments carried out in the Viru and Kivioli mines have yielded good results; the sinking of the ground lessens, the mining losses of oil-shale and the pollution of ground water are reduced and the ground water cone of depression is narrowed. At the same time the application of this method also has some negative aspects: it increases the cost of production and creates a need for procuring additional machinery. (author)

  2. Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

  3. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The adverse effects on human health could be mitigated by redirecting the extraction of drinking water in the Bolnisi mining region to areas locating at a sufficient distance from the polluted stream. High investment in preventive actions will become exclusively cheaper than remediation of contaminated groundwater. With out preventive remediation, the situation can be expected only to get worse.

  4. Pattern-Based Web Mining Using Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Tang Wu; Yuefeng Li

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many data mining techniques have been proposed for fulfilling various knowledge discovery tasks in order to achieve the goal of retrieving useful information for users. Data mining techniques include association rule mining, frequent itemset mining, sequential pattern mining, maximum pattern mining and closed pattern mining. However, how to effectively exploit the discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of Web mining. In this study, we...

  5. Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurcakova K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

  6. Environmental protection of uranium mines and mills in India: regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining and milling involves mining of the uranium ore from underground or open cast mine and chemically processing of the mined out ore to recover the uranium values. The storage of excavated waste rock, the disposal of radium containing mine water to water bodies, the venting out of radon containing mine exhaust to the open atmosphere constitute the environmental radiological hazards from a uranium mine. After chemical processing of the ore in a mill, the bulk of the radioactivity originally present in the ore along with the added chemicals finds its way in the mill tailings. Therefore, it warrants adequate safety measures for protection of the environment from the adverse effects of chemicals and radioactivity. These safety aspects of the uranium mines and mills and the impact on the environment are reviewed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), the national regulatory body of India. This paper discusses the regulatory framework, regulatory issues associated with uranium mines and mills and the safety stipulations laid down during the consenting process of the new projects so that the environment around uranium mine and mill is adequately protected. (author)

  7. Engineering application of thrust block analysis in slope stability problems in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.N., Karparov; M.F., Handley.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical limit equilibrium methods are suspected to be ineffective in predicting the potential for highwall failure in many instances in coal mines around the world. Slope engineers have for many years recognized a block thrust failure mechanism for slope failures, but little work had been done [...] before 2000 to explain the actual mechanisms which must be responsible for the failure. The main reason for this is that limit equilibrium methods implicitly assume rigid blocks, and the resulting force equations must be satisfied everywhere simultaneously for them to have any meaning. This paper will show that the material involved in the slope failure is not rigid; indeed it undergoes considerable permanent deformation during failure. This observation allows the authors to treat the block boundaries independently, because they need not maintain a constant spatial relationship with one another, as is assumed in other methods. To enable analysis of this type the authors assume that the weight of the blocks is evenly distributed. This is reasonable, because the slope material is not strong enough to be self-supporting without some sort of constraint, or strong enough to be able to apply point loads to the surrounding material. The purpose of this paper is to extend the practical application of the analytical method developed from mechanism studies to provide an objective assessment of the risk of slope failure, and therefore guidelines for more stable slope designs. This work is based on studies carried out on two failures in an open pit coal mine in South Africa, and provides a methodology to assess the potential for failure more objectively than is possible with currently accepted methods, while at the same time remaining sufficiently simple to allow a 'back of the cigarette box' assessment by geotechnical engineers on site.

  8. A comparison of limit equilibrium and numerical modelling approaches to risk analysis for open pit mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.T., Chiwaye; T.R., Stacey.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis is an important step in the design of rock slopes in open pit mining. Risk is defined as the product of the probability of slope failure and the consequences of the failure, and is generally evaluated in terms of safety and economic risk. Most of the risk analysis done at present is ba [...] sed on the use of limit equilibrium (LE) techniques in evaluating the probability of failure (POF) of the slopes. The approach typically makes use of full Monte Carlo simulations of the limit equilibrium models, with all uncertain variables randomly varied. The number of required simulations is generally over a thousand, at times as high as 20 000, in order to produce statistically valid results of the POF. Such an approach is clearly not practical when using numerical modelling programs due to the high computational effort required. This paper explores the impact of using numerical modelling instead of the traditional LE techniques in evaluating the probability of slope failure. The difference in the overall assessed risk, in terms of economic impact, for the mining operation is then evaluated. With numerical models, approximate methods are used in the calculation of the probability of failure instead of full Monte Carlo simulations. This paper will use a method called the response surface methodology (RSM) for estimating the POF from numerical analyses. Simple slope models were used to verify the accuracy of the RSM method by comparing the results with those obtained from full Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that there is good agreement between the POF values computed using full Monte Carlo simulation and those obtained using the RSM method. Finally, the use of numerical modelling in the assessment of risk is shown to bring a significant difference in the result compared with that from LE methods. One of the reasons for the difference is that LE models tend to underestimate the failure volumes and hence the consequences of slope failure.

  9. The suitable of utilization the opening spaces of browncoal and ore mines for the waste deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer Viliam

    2000-01-01

    In the conection with the transformation of non economical metal mining in Slovakia nowadays possibilities of secondary utilization of mine underground spaces for unmining purposes are analyzed. This paper presents the technical Aspects and the Possibilities for the undergrounding deposition of waste materials on the slowak mining works on the brown coal and metalic raw materials mines. This problems are in the last year still more solution and with the positive results too. The specific poin...

  10. Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarula Kang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level during different years (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC, and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers. Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km, and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km. Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

  11. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

  12. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

  13. A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

  14. Design and selection criteria of surface continuous miners for open pit mining, using Turkish coal mine as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, N.; Balci, C.; Acaroglu, O.; Tuncdemir, H.; Eskikaya, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1998-07-01

    The use of surface continuous miners enables the effective design of mining operations. By changing the cutting depth of the operational drums it is possible to mine seams with different characteristics, i.e. different calorific values, ash contents etc. This paper, which is the result of a research project sponsored by NATO Science for Stability programme (TU-Excavation Project), discusses the design parameters of cutting experiments carried out on coal samples taken from the Mil-Ten Coal Company. The physical and mechanical characteristics of the coal samples were first determined and the samples subjected to cutting tests in a laboratory. For various tool spacings and cutting depths tool, forces in three directions and specific energy values were measured using a shaping machine, a force dynamometer and an advance data acquisition system. The cut material was subjected to sieve analysis and the results analysed to see if a surface continuous miner could be used in a coal mine in the Istanbul area. 2 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64°?N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine. PMID:23315154

  16. Dozers, draglines, and cast blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, P.

    1988-11-01

    The technique of cast blasting coupled with pre-splitting has been mastered by the Black Butte Coal Co's mine in southwest Wyoming. This mine has a highwall 180 ft high and half a mile long. It uses two Bucyrus-Erie 1570 76 cu yd. draglines which work two pits up to 250 ft deep with Dresser doozers working below; the dozers assist the dragline by dozing the sheer wall clean and feeding material from the key to the dragline. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., van Rensburg; L., Melis.

    Full Text Available Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate [...] highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

  18. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  19. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  20. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; C. Rapiejko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  1. The coal mining industry in Vietnam and its challenges; Steinkohlenbergbau in Vietnam und seine Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Per Nicolai; Pateiro Fernandez, Jose B.; Ahmad, Shakeel [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I; Cramer, Thomas; Deissmann, Guido [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Fuchsschwanz, Marcus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geotechnik

    2010-04-15

    The province of Quang Ninh in the north of Vietnam is the most important coal mining region in the country. The NBCC (Nui Beo Coal Company) operates several open-cast mines. Large quantities of overburden have to be removed and dumped in the immediate environment. The creation of these heaps up to 300 m high is accompanied by many environmental problems. In particular ground and surface waters are contaminated by ''acid mine drainage''. Furthermore, large emissions chiefly in the form of dust occur as a result of the working and dumping depending on the season. In addition the stability of the heaps is sometimes greatly endangered. In the German-Vietnamese Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam (RAME) the aspects of coal mining with an effect on the environment are dealt with in various sub-associations and protective measures worked out jointly. (orig.)

  2. Ancient and medieval mining engineering in the southwest of the iberian peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work provides a summary of our knowledge about the old mining works in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus in the light of recent investigations, always bearing in mind the descriptions of these ancient mining works made by engineers and geologists in the XIX and the XX centuries, we have been able to systematize the prehistoric and proto historic mining works and provide evidence for the existence of underground mining during these remote times, when it was believed that only open-cast extraction took place. In the same way we have looked into all the types of mining works documented from the Roman period to the present day and been able to distinguish a continued use of these during the Middle Ages at a time when, until recently, they were considered hardly to exist. (Author) 41 refs.

  3. Various effects of mining on groundwater quality and resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining excavations intercept groundwater flow, often down to considerable depth. Indeed groundwater frequently causes serious difficulties during the development and operation of mines, particularly where the style of the permeability is such that sudden high rates of inflow occur in an apparently random fashion. While the effects are quite evident on the mining environment, the effects of the large distortions on the natural pattern of groundwater flow orientation and chemical quality, on the environment at large, are often longer term and more suitable. Measurable effects, and sometimes contamination, may take some time to appear. While deep-mining of most types usually has the most noticeable involvement with groundwater, quarrying and open cast mining can also cause conspicuous effects on groundwater level and quality as observed in the Tobago mineral sand mining area of New South Wales Australia. In this case the main problem was elevated concentrations of dissolved iron. In Germany, opencast mining of lignite causes extreme drawdown of surrounding groundwater levels, one effect of which is to make the abstraction of public groundwater supplies significantly more expensive. More exotic developments such as solution mining have effects on both groundwater and aquifer, but luckily such operations are few at the moment. The most serious and widespread environmental effects of mining however emanate from the disposal or storage of spoil and groundwater tends to be especially badly effected. Geotechnical problems such as subsidence may be a further effect of groundwater abstraction for mine dewatering, and there is much evidence that the lesser degrees of deformation due to mining on the surrounding rocks can enhance permeability. This note briefly reviews the interaction of mining and groundwater with reference to case history data. 6 refs., 2 refs., 1 tab

  4. Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

  5. The suitable of utilization the opening spaces of browncoal and ore mines for the waste deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Viliam

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the conection with the transformation of non economical metal mining in Slovakia nowadays possibilities of secondary utilization of mine underground spaces for unmining purposes are analyzed. This paper presents the technical Aspects and the Possibilities for the undergrounding deposition of waste materials on the slowak mining works on the brown coal and metalic raw materials mines. This problems are in the last year still more solution and with the positive results too. The specific points of the paper addresed in this report deal with charakterization of the waste from the point of view one coal power plant. Are charakterized their preparation and laboratory methods, but the hydrogelogical and geotechnical problems too. Ending this paper is describe one of the possibilty of the Informatik system for underground waste storage (UAE. On the relation of this problem are in the paper described the more technical aspects from point of view one brown coal mining area. Together with the problem of possibilities of storage mining in underground has been the technical consulting system soluted (WBS. Technological and temporary storage of waste and utility materials without the relation to the mining technology are described too. The mining waste management (UAE in metal and brown coal mines may in future be rather perspective industrial area of enterprising which if, it is rigthly orientated, will make possible at least the partial iprovement of the living environment.

  6. Uranium in mining waters of kaolin open pit in Zarow (Lower Silesia); methodology of determination and genetic remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method of determination of uranium 238 and 234 in mining waters of Andrzej kaolin open pit in Zarow (Lower Silesia) is presented. The method is based on independent measurements of alpha and beta radiation intensities by means of a liquid scintillation spectrometer ?/?. The initial volume of water sample was 3 dm3, then it was diminished by chemical preparation to 6 cm3, and then 12 cm3 of scintillator was added. The lower limit of detection (for the measurement time of 8 h) for both 234U and 238U amounted to 0.02 Bq/dm3. For determination of the uranium content in ferruginous sediments precipitating from mining waters of the above-mentioned open pit, gamma ray spectrometry was used. The obtained results may be viewed as a contribution to studies on anomalous uranium concentration within this kaolin deposit. The elevated uranium content, in comparison with its average concentration in the Earth crust, is characteristic for parent rocks of Andrzej kaolin deposit, which are granitoids of Strzegom-Sobotka massif. In connection with it, the high uranium content can be observed not only in kaolin and weakly kaolinised granitoids from the deposit in question, but also in mining waters genetically related with them

  7. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mine land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2015-08-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants and termites) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration and seepage. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end-goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, soil macrofauna are typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions are required to quantify (i) macrofauna - soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  8. Microbial activity in reclaimed and unreclaimed post-mining sites near Sokolov ( Czech Republic).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Helingerová, M.; Frouz, Jan; Šantr??ková, H.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 36, ?. 6 (2010), s. 768-776. ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/01/1055; GA ?R GA206/09/1642; GA MŠk 2B08023; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : open-cast coal mining * forest reclamation * primary succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  9. Method for casting thin metal objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  10. A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.

    2009-01-01

    Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

  11. Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

  12. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)). PMID:25783226

  13. Project solution for land reclamation and spatial arrangement of the 'Srebro' open pit mine at the Fruška Gora National Park

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Vuji& #263; ; J., Cveji& #263; ; I., Miljanovi& #263; ; A., Petrovski.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of stone (trachyte) at the 'Srebro' open pit mine, located on the northern slopes of the Fruška Gora National Park (Serbia) central area begun in 1964. Stone exploitation in this locality does not endanger the environment in an ecological sense, does not pose a threat to plants and [...] animals, and apart from the terrain configuration changes, it did not leave behind permanent consequences to the environment. Projects for permanent cessation of mining operations and for land reclamation and spatial arrangement were completed in these circumstances. The paper gives a short review of the condition at the open pit mine; furthermore, the key problems and basic demands are presented, together with a concept of technical and biological land reclamation and the spatial arrangement of the mining complex.

  14. Ankle Injury Management (AIM): design of a pragmatic multi-centre equivalence randomised controlled trial comparing Close Contact Casting (CCC) to Open surgical Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients over 60 years

    OpenAIRE

    Willett, K.; Keene, DJ; Morgan, L; GRAY, B; Handley, R; Chesser, T.; Pallister, I; Tutton, E; Knox, C; Lall, R; BRIGGS, A; Lamb, SE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ankle fractures account for 9% of all fractures with a quarter of these occurring in adults over 60 years. The short term disability and long-term consequences of this injury can be considerable. Current opinion favours open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) over non-operative treatment (fracture manipulation and the application of a standard moulded cast) for older people. Both techniques are associated with complications but the limited published research indicates higher c...

  15. Mining in open pits - state-of-the art and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzodka, K.; Kraus, P.; Sagner, R. (Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Geotechnology and Mining Section)

    1993-05-01

    Describes equipment used for the surface mining of soft rock, e.g., coals and compacted rock. Continuously operating mining machines in conjunction with continuous down-stream conveyor transport are being used more and more. Whilst bucket wheel excavators are primarily used for soft rock, those of a compact design can be found in compacted rock. Continuous surface miners in particular can be used for selective mining in compacted rock. In hard rock, other processes have to be applied. In-pit crusher systems offer clear operating cost advantages. Two large semi-mobile crushing plants at two copper mines, namely at Chuquicamata, Chile, and Kolwezi, are presented here. 20 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Open Data Platform for Knowledge Access in Plant Health Domain : VESPA Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Turenne, Nicolas; Andro, Mathieu; Corbière, Roselyne; Phan, Tien T.

    2015-01-01

    Important data are locked in ancient literature. It would be uneconomic to produce these data again and today or to extract them without the help of text mining technologies. Vespa is a text mining project whose aim is to extract data on pest and crops interactions, to model and predict attacks on crops, and to reduce the use of pesticides. A few attempts proposed an agricultural information access. Another originality of our work is to parse documents with a dependency of t...

  17. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  18. Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured, and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbates this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest. The paper documents the process of conducting a comprehensive literature search for work that has been done in duplicate checking/filtering, narrowing the information to a workable subset, then mining the subset for the techniques, trials, and errors that have been documented. In the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure that was developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information; the paper also provides metrics on results that have been studied in controlled trials and relates that to analyst productivity. Duplicate and Near Duplicate Detection - The AKDS system provides duplicate assessment based in part on the IMatch algorithm devised by Abdur Chowdhury. The algorithm operates by taking a series of normalized 'slices' of terms from a frequency ordered bag of words document and applying the SHA1 hashing function. The process then evaluates the document hashes to identify documents that have similar content and for which subsequent documents do not have any new or unique information. Both the size and offset of the frequency 'slice' that is hashed determine the level of discrimination that is applied. Based on a system's requirements, the identical or nearly identical information (near duplicates) can be kept in the system and clustered; these document clusters can be used as an effective way to minimize how much information is presented to system users. When a user's query returns documents that are members of such a cluster, the most representative or 'best' document may be displayed to the user and the near duplicates would be initially hidden from the user. Conversely, if there is no perceived value in maintaining all of the documents, the near duplicates can also be deleted from the system. This can be accomplished in an automated manner by comparing the number of coinciding hashes while accounting for their slice size and offset in the term frequency based representation from which they were derived. The user may then specify a threshold-based degree of hash matching, above which documents may be automatically rejected. This module is particularly useful for systems that are evaluating large volumes of unstructured textual data such as Internet search engine queries that have a tendency to return the same or similar documents from multiple sources; this module has also proven to be effective in identifying documents where multiple versions have only slight modifications for which the end user would gain little utility beyond the initial document reviewed. Irrelevant Information (Spam) Filtering - The system evaluates document features to identify documents that contain little, if any, utility. This process utilizes the See5 decision tree algorithm developed by Ross Quinlan to determine whether the prevale nt f

  19. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  20. Feasibility and applicability of hydraulic mining and transport in underground noncoal mines. Open file report 21 Aug 80-20 Aug 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies and evaluates deposits of noncoal minerals in the United States that are most amenable to be mined underground hydraulically and transported hydraulically. A method was developed to screen and compare mineral deposits including economic comparisons. The most applicable minerals for hydraulic mining by borehole monitor jets from underground entries are soft uranium sandstones in locations where water is available. This method with hydrotransport could improve the safety, health, and economy of underground uranium mines. Soft oil-bearing sandstones could be mined and transported by this method more safely than by other underground mining methods

  1. Cooperation with emerging countries in advanced mining training programmes involving an industrial partner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources (CESMAT) is a Higher Education Institution in France to train and perform the upper management personnel working in mining, throughout the world. The program of study is comprised of seven separate year long study programs, a network of some 2 300 former students from a hundred countries with whom regular contact is maintained, and a permanent think tank unit that concentrates on the training of mining sector managers. The guiding principle for CESMAT is that cooperation and training hold a special position in French policy concerning relations with mineral producing countries. Seven programmes have been progressively developed on minerals prospecting and processing, resources evaluation, open cast mining techniques, mining economics, impact of mining on environment, management of closure of mining activities and the role of the State. These programmes bring together ten to twelve engineers or geologists who have already had professional experience. For non-French speakers, a language-training phase of three months may precede the programs. The following specializations are currently being offered: - Ore Prospecting and Mineral Processing - Nancy School of Geology - CESEV, - Treatment of Industrial Evolutions and Changes - CESTEMIN, - Geostatistical Analysis of Ore Deposits - Paris School of Mines - C.F.S.G., - Open Cut Mining Operations - Paris School of Mines - CESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining Projects - Paris School of Mines - CESPROMIN, - Mine Safety and Environments - Ales School of Mines - CESSEM, - Mines Public Administration - Paris School of Mines - CESAM. Teaching is done both by Institute professors and by public and private sector industry experts. These instructors rely heavily on technical visits and on practical case studies. One specific example is the student research project mentored by specialists in the field, which is oriented directly to circumstances in the student's country. The participation of students in each program is attested to by means of an official certificate. In some cases, this may be accompanied by a diploma from the host school. Tuition for the courses, which runs (around 15 000 Euro/year) may be covered by CESMAT for students affiliated with public or private mining organizations from foreign, mineral producing countries. Scholarships are also available from French organizations, sources in the student's country of origin, or international organizations such as the EU, UNESCO, UNPD and others. CESMAT has also built partnerships with mining companies (VALE in Brazil, CODELCO in Chili and AREVA in France) which contribute to sponsor trainees for living cost during their studies in France. AREVA is developing uranium exploration and mining in many countries and has signed cooperation agreement with the government of these countries to provide them technical and financial support for capacity building in partnership with the French school of mines. (author)

  2. Landscaping and ecology in the lignite mining area of Maritza-East, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the future mining concept of the open-cast mine Trojovano-North, Bulgaria which is presented in this paper was prepared in close cooperation with Bulgarian specialists. It particularly takes into account ecological aspects. The mining concept clearly shows that economy and ecology can be combined usefully. The advantages are, among others, reduced occupation of land, avoiding of river and village translocation and the efficient use of chernozems for topsoil. Various landscape elements are used for the improvement of the ecological conditions in this intensively agricultural area. The illustrated measures show that the mining impacts on nature can be limited, minimized and balanced. It is possible to win the required public acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  4. CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY (CAST) PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Hull, Christopher

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations.

  5. Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

  6. Geophysical control system of radiation-hygienic coal quality, to be mined by open method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the system of geophysical control of radiation-hygienic quality of Urtuisky brow-coal deposit coal, created in Priargunsky industrial mine-chemical association. Coal of the above-mentioned deposit is characterized by high content of natural radionuclides. The system is noted for monitoring of natural radionuclide level in initial coal and in products of its burning at all stages of technological process of mining, transportation and utilization of fuel, with the use of gamma methods (logging, sampling, rapid analysis

  7. Mining in Germany 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers were presented on the following subjects: Mining in the new German states; Development of knowledge-based consulting systems for waste disposal and mine savitation operations; Advantages and drawbacks of underground leaching of uranium ores - proposals for environmentally compatible termination of mining operations; Backfilling of open shafts; The final operation plan -legal fundamentals of mine abandonment; stability assessment of subsurface workings of the Ehrenfriedersdorf tin mine and conclusions for safety measures; Experience and problems of landscaping measures for abandoved mines in densely populated areas; Performance of pipeless shaft drilling machines in hard and extremely hard rock; subsurface tunnelling in subsidence areas; Selective cutters in potassium mining in Alsace-Rock salt mining at Bernburg; Problems of stabilisation of abandoned shafts in potassium mines in central Germany. Six of the papers have been recorded as separate entries in this database. (orig./HS)

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  9. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  10. igm Robots with laser measurement for an economic repair welding of equipment components of open-pit minings; igm-Roboter mit Laservermessung zum wirtschaftlichen Reparaturschweissen von Tagebauausruestungsteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wihsbeck, Martin [igm Robotersysteme AG, Wiener Neudorf (Austria); Wache, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Spremberg (Germany). Schwarze Pumpe; Springfeld, Peter

    2012-08-15

    In the Lusatian area,Vattenfall Europe AG prosecutes four open-pit minings whose lignite directly is supplied to power stations. A quarter of Germany's total electricity supply is based on lignite. The lignite mining in the area of the Lusatian open-pit minings is particularly efficient due to the horizontal orientation of the Lusatian coal seams. The movable components of the overburden conveyor bridges as well as the bucket wheel excavators and bucket ladder dredgers are subject to a tremendous wear. It is not economically feasible to refurbish certain wear parts. Such parts include Turas corners. In order to refurbish such Turas corners nevertheless, the Austrian company igm robot system AG (Wiener Neudorf, Austria) offers a welding robot.

  11. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  12. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github.com and stackoverflow.com. These popular, developer-centric websites have powerful application-programmer interfaces, and follow an open-data policy. In this regard, these sites offer a web-accessible reservoir of information that can be tapped to study questions such as: which open source software projects are eminent in the various geoscience fields? What are the most popular programming languages? How are they trending? Are there any interesting temporal patterns in committer activities? How large are programming teams and how do they change over time? What free software packages exist in the vast realms of related fields? Does the software from these fields have capabilities that might still be useful to me as a researcher, or can help me perform my work better? Are there any open-source projects that might be commercially interesting? This evaluation strategy reveals programming projects that tend to be new. As many important legacy codes are not hosted on open-source code-repositories, the presented search method might overlook some older projects.

  13. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently. PMID:23851585

  14. AC flame-proof motors for underground mining of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, A.K. (BHEL, Hardwar (India))

    1994-01-01

    Extensive mechanisation of coal mining is needed. The new economic policy of globalisation and technology upgradation will not only enhance coal demand but will compel the mining industry to go for modern technologies. The proportion of output from underground mining compared to opencast will have to be moderated to keep pace with the demand, productivity and price of coal. AC and DC motors and generators have been used in equipment like excavators, shovels, draglines, OB drills, mine-winders etc. for open cast mining. Safety is a major consideration for underground mines, where fire and roof collapse, water logging and explosive/inflammable atmosphere are common. AC flame proof induction motors are considered most suitable drives for coal-cutting, conveyors, power packs, fans, pumps etc. in the underground mines. 80% of coal reserves in India are underground. Present production from underground mines is about 1/3rd of total coal output. The traditional manual and partly mechanised Bord and Pillar methods, are used. The modern mechanised technique is Long Wall Face, responsible for 65% of underground output the world over. LWF methods were introduced in India in 1978. As per the projections of 70s, some 90 LWFs should have been operating, but only some 18-20 can be counted. These are contributing an output of the order of 4% of total production from underground operations. Liberalised new policy is expected to facilitate the import of equipment, but the development of indigenous equipment for Long Wall Faces is also expected to be favoured when it comes to initial capital investment, standardisation, availability of maintenance spares and resultant price of coal. The paper describes the developments and scope of application to coal sector, in the area of Electrical Machines, in particular the AC flame proof induction motors for underground mining, in the context of changed scenario. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

  16. [Organic substances in the artificial forest ecosystems created on overburden dumps of open-cut coal mines in Middle Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugale?, L S

    2010-01-01

    The stock and structure of organic substances in the pine tree plantations on the overburden dumps of open-cut coal mines in Middle Siberia have been determined. It has been shown that the forming forest biogeocenoses differ from the natural phytocenoses and soils of the forest landscapes in the structure of the carbon pool and its distribution between the vegetation and soil components. In artificial forest ecosystems, the bulk of the plant component is accumulated in the aboveground part of the forest stand (40-59%). The aboveground grass cover contains only 0.1-1.4% of the total phytomass stock of the ecosystem. The annual accumulation of organic substances in the initial soils amounts to 0.28-1.45 t/ha. PMID:20799651

  17. Ancient and medieval mining engineering in the southwest of the iberian peninsula; Ingenieria minera antigua y medieval en el suroeste iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Macias, J. A.; Delgado Dominguez, A.

    2011-07-01

    This work provides a summary of our knowledge about the old mining works in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus in the light of recent investigations, always bearing in mind the descriptions of these ancient mining works made by engineers and geologists in the XIX and the XX centuries, we have been able to systematize the prehistoric and proto historic mining works and provide evidence for the existence of underground mining during these remote times, when it was believed that only open-cast extraction took place. In the same way we have looked into all the types of mining works documented from the Roman period to the present day and been able to distinguish a continued use of these during the Middle Ages at a time when, until recently, they were considered hardly to exist. (Author) 41 refs.

  18. Technical developments in uranium mining and milling in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uranium mining in India made a formal beginning with formation of Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. in October 1967. In accordance with the mandate of producing and meeting the uranium requirement of the country, UCIL has continuously upgraded the technology and operating practices with regard to its core activities - uranium ore mining, processing and disposal of tailings. Jaduguda underground mine in Singhbhum east district of Jharkhand (Eastern India) was commissioned in 1968. Regular mining operations started with the sinking of a fully lined vertical shaft and equipping the same with two winders which support a cage and a skip. This was followed by commissioning of Bhatin mine in 1986, Narwapahar mine in 1995, Turamdih mine in 2003, and Bagjata mine in 2008. New mines adopt decline method of entry and use of track less equipment in cut-and fill method of stoping. Vertical shafts provide access to deeper levels for ore and men and material hoisting. Banduhurang, the first open cast uranium mine of the country was commissioned in Jan 2009. New mine at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh and underground mine at Mohuldih in Jharkhand are under construction. The mine at Tummalapalle has been planned with three declines along the apparent dip of the orebody and breast stoping method using trackless equipment. At Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh, room and pillar method of stoping is proposed for underground mines with deployment of low profile drilling and loading-dumping equipment. The conventional way of processing of uranium ore in India is through hydro-metallurgical route followed by acid leaching and MDU precipitation. Jaduguda plant commissioned in 1968 has been expanded in two phases and 3rd phase expansion is underway. The plant at Turamdih encompasses new equipment and monitoring systems like apron feeder, horizontal belt filter, high rate thickener, particle size monitor etc. Both Jaduguda and Turamdih plants are designed to produce magnesium diuranate (MDU) as the final product. Through in-house research, precipitation of uranium peroxide (UO4, H2O) as final product is under implementation. Since 2007, the plant at Tummalapalle is under construction which will adopt alkali leaching (under pressure) route. The operating underground uranium mines of the country are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings. The finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is disposed in engineered impoundment facility, called tailings pond. The first two tailings ponds at Jaduguda are full and are under reclamation. The third pond is in use now. The tailings pond at Turamdih has been designed with some improved floor lining to prevent any downward movement of effluent. The proposed open cast mine at KPM in Meghalaya is also being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings and backfill material. At Lambapur uranium project, thickened tailings disposal system has been proposed where small dykes shall be built to contain tailings. The uranium ore mining and processing technology in India has come a long way in emulating global practices which has helped to develop the low grade deposits in cost effective and eco-friendly manner. This sector is now ready to acquire overseas uranium properties in order to expand the production base. (author)

  19. SONDY : An Open Source Platform for Social Dynamics Mining and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guille, Adrien; Favre, Cécile; Hacid, Hakim; Zighed, Djamel Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes SONDY, a tool for analysis of trends and dynamics in online social network data. SONDY addresses two audiences: (i) end-users who want to explore social activity and (ii) researchers who want to experiment and compare mining techniques on social data. SONDY helps end-users like media analysts or journalists understand social network users interests and activity by providing emerging topics and events detection as well as network analysis functionalities. To this end, the ...

  20. Development of improved seatbelt systems for surface mining equipment. Open file report (final) 1980-81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, L.E.; Hoffman, A.G.

    1981-10-30

    Tasks required in the development of Improved Seatbelt Systems included a literature and information search, development and test of a prototype seatbelt system, production of field test systems, field tests and evaluation of the field test results. Field test seatbelt systems were of a retractable sheathed design having automatic locking and manual locking features. Results indicate mining equipment operator acceptance of seatbelts were enhanced by the design features of the improved seatbelt systems.

  1. The application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

  2. Closed aluminium skeleton casting

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dziuba-Ka?u?a; M. Cholewa

    2008-01-01

    In this miclc authors showcd method for rnanuraauring of skeleton castings with continuous cxtcmal surfacc. Wall lhickncss of thcexternal surface was 6 mm. Thc cxprirnental casting was rnanulacturcd in order to verify lhc rcsults of fitling mould cavity which wcreohtaincd by numerical simu tation. Thc alurninosilicarc core was ad to pducc cxpcrimntal aluminum skelaon castings wilhdimensions or (1 15x65~13 6) mm. Expximental casting was manufactured with elevated temperature of mwld (370 K). L...

  3. High quality casting materials

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper briefly presents results of the new developed high quality cast materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following materials are: hypereutectoid cast steel with various microstructure modular graphite obtained in as-cast condition (raw state), ductile cast iron of bainite-martensitic carbides structure obtained in a raw state, aluminum bronzes and silumins with additives of: chromium, molybdenum, wolfram, vanadium.Findings: These alloys are characterized primarily by sign...

  4. Caste and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Dayabati

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste relations and caste identities have overarching dimensions in the day-to-day politics of the study villages. Though caste almost ceases to operate in relation to strict religious strictures, under econo...

  5. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  6. Emerging trend of uranium mining: The Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Singhbhum Thrust Belt of Jharkhnad, a low-grade large tonnage deposit at Banduhurang is being planned for exploitation soon. After the initial evaluation and computerised orebody modeling, open-pit mining method has been considered as the most favourable option. Uranium orebody explored at Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh have been planned for development by both open cast and underground mining methods. A large sandstone hosted uranium deposit at Domiasiat, spread over two distinct blocks has been found within a depth of about 45m. Pre-mining activities are also set to begin in a few more deposits where the exploration is in advance stage and some reserves have already been identified. A large uranium reserve has already been established within the carbonate host rock at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh. New mining technologies are emerging where all the strenuous mining activities are automated. Development of cutting technology in place of conventional drilling and blasting, use of electronic detonators, environment friendly explosives etc are some the areas of future development. New mines have been planned with deployment of energy efficient electro-hydraulic equipment. The only uranium ore processing plant of the country at Jaduguda, in operation since 1968 is based on acid leaching technology. The final product of this plant is magnesium diuranate or yellow cake. Jaduguda plant has been expanded twice to treat the ore of Bhatin and Narwapahar mines. In the coming years, ore of Bagjata mine will also be fed to this plant. A new plant at Turamdih is being set-up to treat the ore planned to be produced from Turamdih and Banduhurang mines. The flowsheet of this plant is similar to that of Jaduguda. Another new plant at Seripalli has been planned in Andhra Pradesh to treat the ore of Lambapur-Peddagattu mine. A plant near the mine site at Domiasiat in Meghalya will be constructed with some modified process technology because of different ore characteristics. Followed by conventional grinding, the thickened slurry of sandstone will undergo two stages of leaching - weak acid (WAL) and strong acid (SAL). Resulting filtrate will be clarified, concentrated in ion exchange and precipitated along with magnesia as magnesium diuranate. A plant based on alkali-leaching technology is being proposed at Tummalapalle to treat the carbonate bearing host rock. Resolving the process know-how for alkaline leaching of Tummalapalle ore is now the emerging area for research and development. The uranium ore in India are generally of low grade, which necessitates production and processing of large quantity of ore. This results in generation of large volume of solid waste and effluent. The operating underground uranium mines of the area are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings generated during the ore processing. As the mining work progresses, the void created are sequentially backfilled utilizing about 50% of the deslimed neutralized tailings. Only the finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is stored in tailings pond separating it from the public domain. The only tailings pond of the country at Jaduguda with natural high hills on three sides and a very sound impoundment arrangement, has been progressively expanded to accommodate the tailings generated from Jaduguda plant. Tailings management at new sites: New underground mines in Singhbhum will have provisions of backfilling utilizing coarser fraction of tailings. The tailings pond proposed at Turamdih will be designed in line with Jaduguda tailings pond. The tailings pond at Seripalli is being envisaged with thickened tailings disposal system. The proposed open cast mine at Domiasiat is being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings as backfill material after artificial lining at the pit bottom. The finer fraction of the tailings will be impounded in the tailings pond to be constructed adjacent to the plant. The new tailings ponds are being envisaged with sound impermeable artificial liner at the floor to pr even

  7. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2007-09-15

    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  8. Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 24 February 1977 (NODC Accession 7700458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from August 29, 1975 to...

  9. Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

  10. Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID: protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiler Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabilization for six weeks is a simple, convenient, and ubiquitously available intervention. In contrast, ORIF requires hospitalization, but allows for functional rehabilitation. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials, it remains unclear whether ORIF leads to better functional outcomes one year after injury than closed reduction and casting. Methods/Design ORCHID (Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius is a pragmatic, randomized, multi-center, clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms. It is planned to include 504 patients in 15 participating centers throughout Germany over a three-year period. Patients are allocated by a central web-based randomization tool. The primary objective is to determine differences in the Short Form 36 (SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS between volar locked plating and closed reduction and casting of intraarticular, comminuted distal radius fractures in patients > 65 years of age one year after the fracture. Secondary outcomes include differences in other SF-36 dimensions, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH instrument. Also, the range of motion in the affected wrist, activities of daily living, complications (including secondary ORIF and revision surgery, as well as serious adverse events will be assessed. Data obtained during the trial will be used for later health-economic evaluations. The trial architecture involves a central statistical unit, an independent monitoring institute, and a data safety monitoring board. Following approval by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, conduct and reporting will strictly adhere to national and international rules, regulations, and recommendations (e.g., Good Clinical Practice, data safety laws, and EQUATOR/CONSORT proposals Discussion To our knowledge, ORCHID is the first multicenter RCT designed to assess quality of life and functional outcomes following operative treatment compared to conservative treatment of complex, intra-articular fractures of the distal radius in elderly patients. The results are expected to influence future treatment recommendations and policies on an international level. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN76120052 Registration date: 31.07.2008; Randomization of first patient: 15.09.2008

  11. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1997-07-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  14. Mining the Geophysical Research Abstracts Corpus: Mapping the impact of Free and Open Source Software on the EGU Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    Text mining is commonly employed as a tool in data science to investigate and chart emergent information from corpora of research abstracts, such as the Geophysical Research Abstracts (GRA) published by Copernicus. In this context current standards, such as persistent identifiers like DOI and ORCID, allow us to trace, cite and map links between journal publications, the underlying research data and scientific software. This network can be expressed as a directed graph which enables us to chart networks of cooperation and innovation, thematic foci and the locations of research communities in time and space. However, this approach of data science, focusing on the research process in a self-referential manner, rather than the topical work, is still in a developing stage. Scientific work presented at the EGU General Assembly is often the first step towards new approaches and innovative ideas to the geospatial community. It represents a rich, deep and heterogeneous source of geoscientific thought. This corpus is a significant data source for data science, which has not been analysed on this scale previously. In this work, the corpus of the Geophysical Research Abstracts is used for the first time as a data base for analyses of topical text mining. For this, we used a sturdy and customizable software framework, based on the work of Schmitt et al. [1]. For the analysis we used the High Performance Computing infrastructure of the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam, Germany. Here, we report on the first results from the analysis of the continuous spreading the of use of Free and Open Source Software Tools (FOSS) within the EGU communities, mapping the general increase of FOSS-themed GRA articles in the last decade and the developing spatial patterns of involved parties and FOSS topics. References: [1] Schmitt, L. M., Christianson, K.T, Gupta R..: Linguistic Computing with UNIX Tools, in Kao, A., Poteet S.R. (Eds.): Natural Language processing and Text Mining, Springer, 2007. doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-754-1_12.

  15. A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for source and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of automatic textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This paper describes is a multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morpho-Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence, cycling through all the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Once reduced to its Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form, referred to its language independent entry inside a sectorial multilingual dictionary, each tagged lemma is used as descriptor and possible seed of clustering. The automatic classification of results is made by Unsupervised Classification schema. By Multilingual Text Mining, analysts can get an overview of great volumes of textual data having a highly readable grid, which helps them discover meaningful similarities among documents and find any nuclear proliferation and safeguard related information. Multilingual Text Mining permits to overcome linguistic barriers, allowing the automatic indexation and classification of documents, whatever it might be their language, letting international agents cut through the information labyrinth. (author)

  16. Language to Completion: Success in an Educational Data Mining Massive Open Online Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott; McNamara, Danielle S.; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Barnes, Tiffany; Bergner, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Completion rates for massive open online classes (MOOCs) are notoriously low, but learner intent is an important factor. By studying students who drop out despite their intent to complete the MOOC, it may be possible to develop interventions to improve retention and learning outcomes. Previous research into predicting MOOC completion has focused…

  17. Canga biodiversity, a matter of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirycz, Aleksandra; Castilho, Alexandre; Chaparro, Cristian; Carvalho, Nelson; Tzotzos, George; Siqueira, Jose O

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian name canga refers to the ecosystems associated with superficial iron crusts typical for the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG) and some parts of Amazon (Flona de Carajas). Iron stone is associated with mountain plateaux and so, in addition to high metal concentrations (particularly iron and manganese), canga ecosystems, as other rock outcrops, are characterized by isolation and environmental harshness. Canga inselbergs, all together, occupy no more than 200 km(2) of area spread over thousands of km(2) of the Iron Quadrangle (MG) and the Flona de Carajas, resulting in considerable beta biodiversity. Moreover, the presence of different microhabitats within the iron crust is associated with high alpha biodiversity. Hundreds of angiosperm species have been reported so far across remote canga inselbergs and different micro-habitats. Among these are endemics such as the cactus Arthrocereus glaziovii and the medicinal plant Pilocarpus microphyllus. Canga is also home to iron and manganese metallophytes; species that evolved to tolerate high metal concentrations. These are particularly interesting to study metal homeostasis as both iron and manganese are essential plant micro-elements. Besides being models for metal metabolism, metallophytes can be used for bio-remediation of metal contaminated sites, and as such are considered among priority species for canga restoration. "Biodiversity mining" is not the only mining business attracted to canga. Open cast iron mining generates as much as 5-6% of Brazilian gross domestic product and dialog between mining companies, government, society, and ecologists, enforced by legal regulation, is ongoing to find compromise for canga protection, and where mining is unavoidable for ecosystem restoration. Environmental factors that shaped canga vegetation, canga biodiversity, physiological mechanisms to play a role, and ways to protect and restore canga will be reviewed. PMID:25505476

  18. Use of Knowledge-informed Chemotypes to Explore the ToxCast/Tox21 Chemical-Data Landscape (OpenTox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ToxCast and Tox21 chemical libraries currently exceed 3000 and 9000 unique chemicals, respectively, and span a broad diversity of chemical use-types, functionality, and toxicity mechanism and endpoint space. These libraries function as mechanism probes across hundreds of hig...

  19. Mining technology and policy issues 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

  20. Expandable pattern casting research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Expandable Pattern Casting (EPC) Process is a developing foundry technology that allows designers the opportunity to consolidate parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. An air gauging system was developed for measuring foam patterns; exact shrinkage depended on type and density of the foam. Compaction studies showed that maximum sand densities in cavities and under overhangs are achieved with vibrational amplitudes 0.001-0.004 in., and that sand moved most freely within a few inches of the top free surface. Key to complete mold filling while minimizing casting defects lies in removing the foam decomposition products. The most precise iron castings were made by EPC in four commercial EPC foundries, with attention paid to molding and compaction. EP cast 60-45-12 ductile iron had yield strengths, ultimate strengths, and elastic modulus similar to conventionally cast ductile iron cast from the same ladle.

  1. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes such kind of relationship of a well established course at the Technical University of Denmark using statistical methods. Keyphrase extraction tool was used to find the main topics of students' comments, bas...

  2. DYNAMIC MODELLING APPROACH FOR WEB USAGE MINING USING OPEN WEB RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    B. NAVEENA DEVI; O. SREEVANI

    2010-01-01

    Predicting of users browsing behavior is an important technology of E-commerce application. The prediction results can be used for personalization. Building proper web site, improving marketing strategy , promotion, product supply, getting marketing information, forecasting market trends and increasing the competitive strength of enterprises etc., In this paper proposed system used open web resources practical e-business data sets for the development of innovative e-business applications with...

  3. New casting coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project the results of the researches about the influence of the four types of ceramic coatings of the evaporating patterns (on the basis of talc, mullite, zircon and cordierite) on the talc of the Lost Foam process and the castings quality are presented. For the valid evaluation of the results, some parallel examinations of the quality of castings obtained by casting in sand were carried out. (Original)

  4. Forecasting the Ocean's Optical Environment Using the BioCast System

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Keith Jolliff; Sherwin Ladner; Richard Crout; Paul Lyon; Kenneth Matulewski; Robert A. Arnone; David Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast) system is a model that provides the US Navy with short-term forecasts of the ocean's optical environment. The forecasts are required to support a broad spectrum of naval operations, including mine countermeasure, anti-submarine, and expeditionary warfare operations. The BioCast system works by treating any geo-referenced surface ocean optical property provided via the US Navy's satellite data processing systems as a prognostic state variable. BioCast will...

  5. The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

    1987-01-01

    A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years. PMID:3667473

  6. Ambient airborne radioactivity measurements in the vicinity of the Jackpile open pit uranium mine New Mexico. Technical note (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the results of several radiological surveys conducted in the vicinity of the Jackpile Open Pit Uranium Mine in New Mexico. During June 1976, ambient radon-222 concentrations were measured at eleven locations, seven of which appear to have been at representative background radon levels - averaging 0.50 + or - 0.033 pCi/l. The other four locations had average radon levels in excess of this typical background level; however, the highest measured radon concentration was 2.7 pCi/l. The arithmetic average ambient radon progeny working level obtained indoors at the Laguna Tribal Building appeared to be at a representative background level of 0.0049 + or - 0.00045 WL. The arithmetic average ambient working levels obtained at the Paguate Community Center and the Jackpile Housing were 0.035 + or - 0.0038 and 0.015 + or - 0.0025 WL, respectively. Ambient airborne particulate radioactivity concentrations measured outdoors at Old Laguna appear to be at typical background levels; however, other locations exhibited higher annual average concentrations for the naturally-occurring radionuclides

  7. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2014-04-29

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  8. Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S. [Inst. of Crystal Growth Berlin (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

  9. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  10. DYNAMIC MODELLING APPROACH FOR WEB USAGE MINING USING OPEN WEB RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. NAVEENA DEVI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicting of users browsing behavior is an important technology of E-commerce application. The prediction results can be used for personalization. Building proper web site, improving marketing strategy , promotion, product supply, getting marketing information, forecasting market trends and increasing the competitive strength of enterprises etc., In this paper proposed system used open web resources practical e-business data sets for the development of innovative e-business applications with in a short period of time to achieve dynamical and statistical analysis result to the enterprise.

  11. Solution mining economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of application of in-situ solution mining of uranium is described and areas of competition with open pit and underground mining identified. The influence of high interest rates and dollar inflation on present values and rate of return is shown to be minimized by low capitalization and short construction lead times typical of in-situ leaching ventures. A scheme of three major project account divisions is presented and basic parameters necessary for mine planning are listed. 1979 cost ranges and useful methods of estimation of capital and operating costs are given for the in-situ uranium mining method

  12. Fatigue Assessment of Cast Components : Influence of Cast Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Björkblad, Anders

    2008-01-01

     This thesis is on the fatigue assessment of cast components with special attention to defects. The primary material in view is nodular cast iron, but also cast steel is considered. However, the fatigue behaviour is in principle valid for general use on other cast metals.The first two papers is about general cast material behaviour in fatigue loading. The materials considered are a high strength alloyed cast steel and a medium strength nodular cast iron. It is concluded that cast defects is t...

  13. Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbate this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest (referred to as Spam in this document). This paper focuses on the identification and removal of duplicate, near-duplicate information and Spam in the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy. To that end, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information. In this paper, these concepts are referred to as duplicate and near duplicate detection and irrelevant information (Spam) filtering. (author)

  14. The brown coal open mining. Significance, planning, operation, technology, environment; Der Braunkohlentagebau. Bedeutung, Planung, Betrieb, Technik, Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann-Delius, Christian [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Rohstoffgewinnung ueber Tage und Bohrtechnik; Drebenstedt, Carsten [TU Freiberg (Germany). Inst. Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Muellensiefen, Klaus (eds.) [RWE Power AG, Bergheim-Niederaussem (Germany). Sparte Tagebau; Stoll, Rolf Dieter

    2009-07-01

    The book under consideration deals with the general complex of the production of brown coal in the open mining considering the actual state of the art in theory and practice. A current monograph of this kind does not exist at present. Therefore, the publishers have the goal, to work on and arrange a general survey of the topic in particular in the background of a clearly greater importance of the lignite mining in the federal Republic of Germany. The technical book generally is addressed to persons who want to get a comprehensive overview according to the sector of raw material extraction and energy industry. The emphasis of the view is on the large producing districts in the Federal Republic of Germany: Lausitz, Central Germany and Rhineland. With few examples, the authors also report on other interesting aspects of production techniques outside of the Federal Republic of Germany. The topics reach from the development of deposits over the planning preparation of the brown coal production including the legal fundaments, the operation and the technology up to the aspects of the resettlement and recultivation as well as environmental protection. [German] ''Der Braunkohlentagebau'' behandelt den Gesamtkomplex der Gewinnung von Braunkohle im Tagebau zum heutigen Stand in Theorie und Praxis. Eine aktuelle Monographie dieser Art gibt es derzeit nicht. Daher haben sich die Herausgeber das Ziel gesetzt, die erforderliche Gesamtschau des Themas zu bearbeiten und zusammenzustellen und dies insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund einer deutlich groesseren Bedeutung des Braunkohlenbergbaus im vereinigten Deutschland. Das vorliegende Fachbuch richtet sich ganz allgemein an Personen, die sich einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber diesen Sektor der Rohstoffgewinnung und der Energiewirtschaft verschaffen wollen. Im Besonderen soll es Mitarbeitern, die bereits in den entsprechenden Unternehmen, in der Zulieferindustrie oder bei Genehmigungsbehoerden taetig sind, dienen. Darueber hinaus ist es fuer Studierende der Ingenieur- und speziell der Rohstoffwissenschaften und damit zukuenftige Fuehrungskraefte im Bergbau oder von artverwandten Industrien gedacht. Der Schwerpunkt der Betrachtung liegt auf den heute foerdernden grossen Revieren in Deutschland: Lausitz, Mitteldeutschland und Rheinland. Mit wenigen Beispielen wird jedoch auch auf andere interessante Aspekte von Gewinnungstechniken ausserhalb der deutschen Grenzen eingegangen. Der Themenbogen spannt sich von der Entstehung der Lagerstaetten ueber die planerische Vorbereitung der Braunkohlengewinnung einschliesslich der rechtlichen Grundlagen, den Betrieb und die Technik bis zu den Aspekten der Umsiedlung und Rekultivierung sowie des Umweltschutzes. (orig.)

  15. A case study of a large open pit uranium AML [Abandoned Mine Land] Project Gas Hills, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Abandoned Mine Lands Program (AML), authorized under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides funding for the abatement of health and safety hazards on lands disturbed by mining prior to enactment of the Act. A good example of the implementation of the AML Program in Wyoming is the A-8 Pit. The reclamation site is located in the East Gas Hills Uranium Mining District of Wyoming. Reclamation activities include selective handling of 3.5 million cubic yards of backfill, controlling pit dewatering and water treatment, installing second order drainage channel and riprap control structures, and salvaging sufficient coversoils and topsoils for site revegetation

  16. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes such kind of relationship of a well established course at the Technical University of Denmark using statistical methods. Keyphrase extraction tool was used to find the main topics of students' comments, based on which the qualitative feedback was transformed into quantitative data for further statistical analysis. Application of factor analysis helped to reveal the important issues and the structure of the data hidden in the students' written comments, while regression analysis showed that some of the revealed factors have a significant impact on how students rate a course.

  17. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  18. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Written by leading experts in their respective fields, Solidification and Casting provides a comprehensive review of topics fundamental to metallurgy and materials science as well as indicates recent trends.From an industrial perspective, the book begins with chapters on the casting techniques most commonly used in industry today. It then describes the underlying science fundamental to solidification mechanisms, including fluid flow, the effects of cooling rates, modern simulation, and modelling methods in use and their application in various casting scenarios. Next, the authors consider the microstructure of cast materials and their defects, and explore how different casting processes can control these parameters. The book concludes with the most recent developments in the field and discusses new processes and materials, such as novel alloys and composites, metallic glasses, ceramics, and superconducting oxides.

  19. Expendable Pattern Casting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The expendable pattern casting (EPC) process is a potential casting process breakthrough which could dramatically improve the competitiveness of the U.S. foundry industry. Cooperatively supported by U.S. Industry and the Department of Energy and managed by the American Foundrymen's Society, a project was started in May 1989 to develop and optimize expendable pattern casting technology. Four major tasks were conducted in the first phase of the project. Those tasks involved: (1) reviewing published literature to determine the major problems in the EPC process; (2) evaluating factors influencing sand flow and compaction; (3) evaluating and comparing casting precision obtained in the EPC process with that obtained in other processes; and (4) identifying critical parameters that control dimensional precision and defect formation in EP castings.

  20. Integration of UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Three-Dimensional Mapping and Monitoring of Open-Pit Mine Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Tong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical framework for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS with application to open-pit mine areas, which includes UAV image and TLS point cloud acquisition, image and cloud point processing and integration, object-oriented classification and three-dimensional (3D mapping and monitoring of open-pit mine areas. The proposed framework was tested in three open-pit mine areas in southwestern China. (1 With respect to extracting the conjugate points of the stereo pair of UAV images and those points between TLS point clouds and UAV images, some feature points were first extracted by the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT operator and the outliers were identified and therefore eliminated by the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC approach; (2 With respect to improving the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery, the ground control points (GCPs surveyed from global positioning systems (GPS and the feature points extracted from TLS were integrated in the bundle adjustment, and three scenarios were designed and compared; (3 With respect to monitoring and mapping the mine areas for land reclamation, an object-based image analysis approach was used for the classification of the accuracy improved UAV ortho-image. The experimental results show that by introduction of TLS derived point clouds as GCPs, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery can be improved. At the same time, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on GCPs form the TLS derived point clouds is close to that based on GCPs from the GPS survey. The results also show that the TLS derived point clouds can be used as GCPs in areas such as in mountainous or high-risk environments where it is difficult to conduct a GPS survey. The proposed framework achieved a decimeter-level accuracy for the generated digital surface model (DSM and digital orthophoto map (DOM, and an overall accuracy of 90.67% for classification of the land covers in the open-pit mine.

  1. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war es, die durch spektrometrische Erfassungsmethoden der Fernerkundung erhaltenen Ueberfliegungsdaten mittels konventioneller petrographischer, mineralogischer und geochemischer Analytik zu kalibrieren, um der Bergbauindustrie eine wirkungsvolle Methode zu liefern, welche es ermoeglicht, die riesigen Kippenareale des Tagebaubergbaus mit geringem zeitlichen und personellen Aufwand aussagesicher zu klassifizieren, die Sachverhalte mit hoher Genauigkeit raeumlich zuzuordnen und so einer geeigneten Nutzung zuzufuehren. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag dabei in der Charakterisierung der hydro- und geochemischen Veraenderungen in den Kippensedimenten des im mitteldeutschen Raum suedlich von Leipzig aufgeschlossenen Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau. Die Erfassung dieser Daten spielt in Hinblick auf eine Rekultivierung und Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials der Tagebaulandschaft eine entscheidende Rolle. (orig.)

  2. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  3. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes....

  4. Regulatory processes associated with metal-mine development in Alaska: A case study of the Red Dog Mine. Open File Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, J.E.; Cocklan-Vendl, M.

    1992-09-01

    Regulatory processes associated with development of a world class lead-zinc mine, Red Dog Mine, in northwestern Alaska were reviewed and evaluated. Informal interviews with key project personnel, consultants, and agency field and permitting specialists provided perspective on the regulatory successes and failures of the project. Due to potential impacts to air quality, water quality, wetlands, and National Park lands, an Environmental Impact Statement was required. By developing a comprehensive baseline of information on the existing environment to aid in minimizing impacts during project siting/design and through regular coordination of evolving project plans with regulatory agencies, the mine developers were able to acquire necessary permits in a timely and cost effective manner. The only major exceptions occurred when inadequate information was collected on dispersal of airborne particulates, rates of surface water run-off, and groundwater quality. These deficiencies resulted in the need for emergency design changes, unscheduled construction, additional environmental monitoring costs, and delays in issuance of the NPDES permit.

  5. A collection of open source applications for mass spectrometry data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Óscar; Ovelleiro, David; Gay, Marina; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2014-10-01

    We present several bioinformatics applications for the identification and quantification of phosphoproteome components by MS. These applications include a front-end graphical user interface that combines several Thermo RAW formats to MASCOT™ Generic Format extractors (EasierMgf), two graphical user interfaces for search engines OMSSA and SEQUEST (OmssaGui and SequestGui), and three applications, one for the management of databases in FASTA format (FastaTools), another for the integration of search results from up to three search engines (Integrator), and another one for the visualization of mass spectra and their corresponding database search results (JsonVisor). These applications were developed to solve some of the common problems found in proteomic and phosphoproteomic data analysis and were integrated in the workflow for data processing and feeding on our LymPHOS database. Applications were designed modularly and can be used standalone. These tools are written in Perl and Python programming languages and are supported on Windows platforms. They are all released under an Open Source Software license and can be freely downloaded from our software repository hosted at GoogleCode. PMID:25055762

  6. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    ANIL Z CHITADE; S K KATYAR

    2010-01-01

    Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S) has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC) due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This resea...

  7. Optical and elektron microscopy and GC/MS studies in identification of tree stumps from the Bílina open cast mine, Most Basin. Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Matysová, Petra; Trejtnarová, Hana; Mach, K.; Šulc, Alexandr; ?ermák, Ivo

    Porto Alegre : International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) and The Society for organic Petrology (TSOP), 2009. P46/89. [Joint 61st ICCP/26th meeting, Gramado/Porto Alegre/ Brazil , September 19th-26th 2009, Advances in Organic Petrology and Organic Geochemistry. 19.09.2009-26.09.2009, Gramado] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : tree stumps * huminite * biomarkers Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  8. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  9. Clean Metal Casting; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

  10. A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Generally speaking, up to 80% of electronic data is textual and most valuable information is often hidden and encoded in pages which are neither structured, nor classified. The availability of huge amount of data available in the open sources leads to the well-identified nowadays paradox: an overload of information means no usable knowledge. Besides, open source texts are - and will be - written in various native languages, but these documents are relevant even to non-native IAEA speakers. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for type (scientific article, patent, free textual document), source (Internet/Intranet, database, etc), protocol (HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, GOPHER, IRC, NNTP, etc) and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of focused crawling, textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This task undoubtedly requires remarkable efforts. This poster describes is a multimedia content gathering, multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. Its focused crawling aims to crawl only the subset of the web pages related to a specific category, in order to find only information of interest and improve quality in documents gathering. The focused crawling algorithm builds a model for the context within which topically relevant pages occur on the web, typically capturing link hierarchies within which valuable pages occur, as well as model content on documents that frequently co-occur with relevant pages. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morphological, Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. The languages supported are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, but the system can be fully integrated on demand with other languages such as Arabic, Russian, simplified Chinese, etc. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence and, for each word, the Slot Grammar parser draws on the word's slot frames to cycle through the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Each slot structure can be partially or fully instantiated and it can be filled with representations from one or more statements to incrementally build the meaning of a statement. This includes most of the treatment of coordination, which uses a method of 'factoring out' unfilled slots from elliptical coordinated phrases. The parser - a bottom-up chart parser - employs a parse evaluation scheme used for pruning away unlikely analyses during parsing as well as for ranking final analyses. By including semantic information directly in the dependency grammar structures, the system relies on the lexical semantic information combined with functional application rules. The detected terms and phrases are then extracted, reduced to their Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form. Once referred to their language independent entry inside the sectorial multilingual dictionary, they are used as descriptors for documents and possible seeds of clustering. Then final system users can search document by keywords combined by boolean operators, or by typing their own query in Natural Language, expressed using normal conversational syntax. Traditional Boolean queries, while precise, require strict interpretation that can often exclude information that is relevant to u

  11. Forest ecosystem development in post-mining landscapes: a case study of the Lusatian lignite district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Weber, Edwin

    2001-08-01

    The restoration of surface mining landscapes requires the (re)creation of ecosystems. In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generated spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Amelioration and rehabilitation measures have been developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. However, it is still not clear whether these approaches are sustainable. This paper reports on collaborative research work into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 35 years did not show differences when compared with stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development. For example, soil organism abundance and activity at minesites had already reached levels typical of non-mined sites after about 20-30 years. In contrast, mine soils are very different from non-mined soils of the test region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil organic carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for forest ecosystem development starting at "point zero" on " terra nova".

  12. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  13. Mining project of the Taja Margaritas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the study of a mining project designed to determine the feasibility of open-pit mining in uranium deposits along the Pena Blanca mountain ridges in Taja Margaritas, is presented. (author)

  14. Thin Wall Iron Castings; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified

  15. Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

  16. Web Mining Functions in an Academic Search Application

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyalatha SIVARAMAKRISHNAN; Balakrishnan, Vijayakumar

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with Web mining and the different categories of Web mining like content, structure and usage mining. The application of Web mining in an academic search application has been discussed. The paper concludes with open problems related to Web mining. The present work can be a useful input to Web users, Web Administrators in a university environment.

  17. Method of casting aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  18. Skeleton castings dynamic load resistance

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cholewa; J. Szajnar; T. Szuter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article is to show selected results of research in a field of new type of cast spatial composite reinforcements. This article shows skeleton casting case as a particular approach to continuous, spatial composite reinforcement.Design/methodology/approach: The research is concerning properties of cast spatial microlattice structures called skeleton castings. In this paper results of impact test of skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell were shown. The selection of interna...

  19. Sealant tests to control radon emanation in a uranium mine. Open file report sep 79-dec 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a field-test program to determine the effectiveness of a polymeric wall sealant to reduce the escape of naturally occurring radioactive gas radon from the walls of an underground uranium mine into the ventilation air

  20. Casting AISI 316 steel by gel cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of producing AISI 316 steel components from their powders and avoiding their compaction is analyzed. A casting technique is tested that is similar to gel casting, used for ceramic materials. In the initial stage, the process consists of the formulation of a concentrated barbotine of powdered metal in a solution of water soluble organic monomers, which is cast in a mold and polymerized in situ to form a raw piece in the shape of the cavity. The process can be performed under controlled conditions using barbotines with a high monomer content from the acrylimide family. Then, the molded piece is slowly heated until the polymer is eliminated, and it is sintered at temperatures of 1160oC to 1300oC under a dry hydrogen atmosphere, until the desired densities are attained. The density and micro structure of the materials obtained are compared with those for the materials compacted and synthesized by the conventional processes. The preliminary results show the feasibility of the process for the production of certain kinds of structural components (CW)

  1. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco César Rodrigues de Araújo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sorte a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática.This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and quality targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  2. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões / A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco César Rodrigues de, Araújo; Marcone Jamilson Freitas, Souza.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sort [...] e a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and qua [...] lity targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  3. Exploitation study of the ore-body ''Tigre III''. Open-cut design and study of high-recovery underground mining method for the Tigre III ore-body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first carries out an analysis for the purpose of determining the limiting sterile/ore ratio for open-cut and underground mining in the specific filling case of Tigre III. In this connection it considers a high-recovery method of underground mining (involving the use of cemented hydropneumatic chambers), a general mine plan covering access, transport, ventilation and removal of ore as well as auxiliary services relating to the Tigre III ore body as a whole. The costs of this method of mining are determined for purposes of comparison with the open-cut method. Similarly, the limiting sterile/ore ratio is taken as the basis for an analysis of different types of pit and a design suited to the limiting ratio is adopted. As a final solution the paper favours a method which combines open-cut and underground mining. It proposes the use of the open-cut method up to the limiting ratio (in accordance with the pit design chosen) and of underground method (by the filling chamber method) for the rest of the area. (author)

  4. A spatial decision support system for the optimal environmental reclamation of open-pit coal mines in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Pavloudakis; M. Galetakis; C. Roumpos [Public Power Corporation of Greece - Mines Division, Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    Mine reclamation is an integral part of the mineral development process. The selection of land use after the mine closure is a difficult decision, which is complicated further because of the variety of parameters that must be taken into account trying to provide the local community with a viable development plan. Conventional methods used for reclamation planning are characterised by the lack of data integration and by time-consuming analysis. In this study, we propose a spatial decision-support system (SDSS) that minimises these problems, as data integration and analysis are offered within one computerised environment. A geographical information system and multi-criteria decision-making methods, based on binary integer linear programming models, have been integrated to select the appropriate land use in different parts of a post-mining area taking into account social, technical, economic, environmental and safety criteria. The proposed SDSS was used for the selection of the optimal landscape reclamation strategy of the Amynteon lignite surface mine located at West Macedonia Lignite Centre, Northern Greece. On the basis of developed mine maps, the model variables are assessed and incorporated into the objective optimisation function. Emphasis is placed on the spatial diversification of the model variables. The application demonstrates that the decision-support system allows the mining company to determine in an efficient way the specific land use (agricultural land, forest, recreational area and industrial zone) that is considered the most suitable for every part of the study area.

  5. Land recycling at selected old industrial sites as an opportunity for structural change in the mining regions in eastern Germany; Flaechenrecycling ausgewaehlter Industriesstandorte als Chance zum Strukturwandel der Bergbauregionen in Ostdeutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, W. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Berlin/Senftenberg (Germany). Abt. Umweltschutz/Oekologie/Arbeitssicherheit; Steinhuber, U. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Berlin/Senftenberg (Germany). Abt. Unternehmenskommunikation; Ebersbach, K. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Immobiliengesellschaft (LMEG), Berlin (Germany).

    2004-10-14

    The open-cast mines and sites of lignite upgrading and the chemical plants and engineering works interlinked with mining of the lignite determined the structure of the regions because of the economic factors and size of the land as well as the employment potential. The use for specific purposes of the land on former mining sites as well as the guarantee of the safe subsequent use and elimination of hazards - which emanate in particular from industrial sites - by the LMBV constitute the important basis for revitalisation of the former mining sites. The continuous use of sites for industrial and/or commercial purposes promotes the revitalisation of the old sites and derelict industrial sites and thus prepares the reintegration of these potentials in the economic cycle. It is a prerequisite for relocation of trade and industry with primary and secondary employment effects, for diversification of the economic structure. It is thus a positive contribution to the structural changes in the regions. (orig.)

  6. Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lásara Fabrícia Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas.In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, have been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

  7. Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto / Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lásara Fabrícia, Rodrigues; Luiz Ricardo, Pinto.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em [...] heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, hav [...] e been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

  8. Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues related to uranium fuel cycle should contact the Technical Cooperation Department of the Agency. Member States interested in knowing more about the Agency's programme on uranium and thorium fuel cycle technologies including mining, milling, purification and environmental issues should contact: Mr. Chaitanyamoy Ganguly

  9. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia, Kvitko; Eliane, Bandinelli; João A.P., Henriques; Vanina D., Heuser; Paula, Rohr; Fernanda R. da, Silva; Naye Balzan, Schneider; Simone, Fernandes; Camile, Ancines; Juliana da, Silva.

    Full Text Available Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the footwear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of [...] workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p

  10. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  11. Scheduled Caste Women: Problems And Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumar Murthy; Jaikishan Thakur

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzed the Caste system based on Varnas during the ancient India. It also examined the demerits of caste attached to the present scheduled castes in general and scheduled caste women in particular. The scheduled caste women are disadvantaged by their caste and gender and as such they are subject to exploitation and discrimination by their family members, by their caste people and by forward castes. Hence, there is increase in exploitation, discrimination and violence against the s...

  12. Identification of a Hidden Volcano in an Open-pit Coal Mine by Gravity Survey, NW Bohemia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2014, Tu PA2 03/1-Tu PA2 03/5. ISBN 978-94-6282-027-2. [Near Surface Geoscience 2014 - 20th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Athens (GR), 14.09.2014-18.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : hidden volcano * coal mine * gravity survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  13. Wear resistance of cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2008-01-01

    In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  14. Educational data mining using jmp

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq Hussain; Prof. G.C. Hazarika

    2014-01-01

    Educational Data Mining is a growing trend in case of higher education. The quality of the Educational Institute may be enhanced through discovering hidden knowledge from the student databases/ data warehouses. Present paper is designed to carry out a comparative study with the TDC (Three Year Degree) Course students of different colleges affiliated to Dibrugarh University. The study is conducted with major subject wise, gender wise and category/caste wise. The experimental ...

  15. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    T. Wróbel; M. Cholewa; S. Tenerowicz

    2011-01-01

    In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness betwe...

  16. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  17. Quality of the joint between cast steel and cast iron in bimetallic castings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cholewa; S. Tenerowicz; T. Wróbel

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents conception and production method of skeleton composite castings with use of cast steel G35CrSiMnMoNi skeletoncasting and chromium cast iron EN-GJN-XCr15 filling. Working elements in winning machines and devices, which work in intensiveaberasive wear i.e. liner of exhausters, percussive and ram hammers, are destination of bimetallic castings. Skeleton geometry was basedon three-dimensional symmetrical cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors...

  18. ANÁLISIS DE EXCAVACIONES EN LA MINA SUBTERRÁNEA EL TORO POR MEDIO DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS / FINITE ELEMENTS ANALYSIS FOR UNDERGROUND OPENINGS AT EL TORO MINE.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ÁLVARO J., CASTRO CAICEDO.; JUAN E., MONSALVE OLIVEROS..

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En la mina subterránea El Toro se explota roca calcárea para la fabricación de cemento en la Planta El Cairo, de Cementos Argos S. A. El método de explotación es conocido como realce por subniveles o sublevel stoping , que consiste en la abertura de cámaras mediante perforación y voladura con explos [...] ivos, cada cámara excavada tiene dimensiones de 20m de ancho, 45m de altura y longitudes entre 80 y 120 m, separadas por pilares intermedios de 10 m de espesor, definiendo conjuntos denominados Bloques de explotación. Este artículo presenta el proceso realizado con el fin de modelar y evaluar la distribución de los desplazamientos y de los esfuerzos resultantes de la compleja interacción de los Bloques de explotación. La modelación numérica se realizó con fundamento en la mecánica del medio continuo y por medio de la técnica de los elementos finitos; inicialmente se obtuvo el modelo geomecánico del terreno rocoso y posteriormente el modelo numérico incluyendo las excavaciones. Se evaluaron varias configuraciones geométricas de los Bloques de explotación proyectados, y se concluyó con una propuesta de diseño que ofrece estabilidad del terreno intervenido y permite extraer el mayor volumen posible de reservas minerales. Abstract in english El Toro underground mine is located at Antioquia, Colombia and exploits a limestone deposit through sublevel stopping mining method. The mine was designed with five exploitation levels with 65m high, 20m wide and 120 m long stopes sets. In this work is presented the process to obtain the assessment [...] of the mechanical behavior of the rock mass under stoping effects, the geomechanical and numerical models were obtained and several stopes configurations were evaluated including existing and projected openings. The work concludes with geometrical modification that besides to offer stability of ground, allows to extract greater volume of mineral reserves.

  19. Bulk metallic glass tube casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. ? Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. ? Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. ? Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

  20. Treatment of low-energy tibial shaft fractures: plaster cast compared with intramedullary nailing

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, J. A. K.; Honkonen, S. E.; Koivisto, A.-M.; Järvinen, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed data from 87 patients who had displaced closed or open grade I simple or spiral wedge tibial shaft fractures caused by low-energy impact. Fifty-four patients were treated with plaster cast and 33 with intramedullary locking nail (IMLN). Delayed union only occurred in 8 patients after plaster cast treatment. Forty-two patients in the IMLN group and one in the plaster cast group suffered from anterior knee pain. Final treatment outcome, healing time, hospitalization time and duratio...

  1. Heat treatment in high Cr white cast iron Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, A. F.; Crnkovic, O. R.; Canale, L. C. F.

    2001-02-01

    Wear resistance of high Cr white cast irons can be improved by means of heat treatment. This type of cast iron alloy may present a microstructure with retained austenite. The amount of retained austenite changes with the applied heat treatment, which will have an influence on wear properties. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of several parameters such as quenching and tempering temperatures and subzero treatment in the wear performance of the high Cr white cast iron Nb alloy. In this way, the performance was evaluated using pin-on-disc abrasion test. The worn surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the main wear mechanisms were identified. The microstructural characterization was also performed with carbide identification. This Fe alloy has proven to be good for applications in mining and alcohol-sugar industries.

  2. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  3. Image analysis applied to quantitative evaluation of chromatic impact generated by open-pit quarries and mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Victor; Font, Xavier; Salgot, Miquel; Tapias, Jose; Mañá, Tomas

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important environmental impacts resulting from opencast mining, and especially quarries, is the visual impact. Evaluation of this impact considers two aspects: first, the area occupied by the quarry as seen by an observer from a specific place, and, second, the chromatic contrast existing between landscape and exploitation. In this study we develop a methodology to assess the chromatic impact in an objective and comparable form. To assess this impact we developed a method based on image analysis that allows us to obtain from a picture or image its equivalent as a function of chromatic impact, according to the sensibility of the human eye to different wavelengths. The methodology was applied to the Martinenca limestone quarry (Alcanar, Tarragona) and to Cerro Kori Kollo mine, La Joya district (Bolivia).

  4. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hongtao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Finally, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

  5. Metal casting extended assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the Industrial Assessment Center program of the US Department of Energy initiated Extended Assessments as an option for some of their in-plant assessments. Intended for larger, more complex manufacturing facilities, the multi-day Extended Assessment allows the plant assessment team to explore more complex recommendations with the intent of encouraging major process and equipment changes. In this paper the authors describe the results of Extended Assessments at plants in the Metal Casting Industry, one of the DOE Industries of the Future. They visited five plants, two foundries and three die casting plants, with combined annual sales of $134 million and a combined annual production volume of 35,300 tons. The recommendations offered potential savings to each plant of an average $417,000 or 1.5% of average gross sales. A number of generalizations can be observed based on the assessments in the cast metals industry. First is that many of the smaller firms in this industry have been slow to adopt innovative technology. Off the shelf technologies are available that will help these firms reach the 21st Century. The concept of remelt of metal or scrap in the plant is an operation that can be improved. They found approximately two pounds of metal melted for every pound shipped. Finally, many opportunities exist outside of the core plant operations to reduce operating costs

  6. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  8. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 108m3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.)

  9. Contemporary art casting’s education in Guangdong

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Chunmiao; Ji Qing

    2012-01-01

    Based on the practical experience of establishing three art casting laboratories in three different colleges of Guangdong, this paper focuses on the development of contemporary art casting’s education. By analyzing the reason for the shortage of professionals nowadays and the characteristics of modern foundry industry in the Pearl River Delta, the authors try to find out what kind of knowledge structures a modern foundry industry professional should have. Then, from the viewpoint of educatio...

  10. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The winning of uranium ore is the first stage of the fuel cycle. The whole complex of questions to be considered when evaluating the profitability of an ore mine is shortly outlined, and the possible mining techniques are described. Some data on uranium mining in the western world are also given. (RB)

  11. Data Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  12. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  13. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Hongtao; Zhou Jianxin; Wang Lin

    2014-01-01

    A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for th...

  14. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  15. Metal Casting- A Review Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about the trends of Al/Al alloys based metal casting . It reviews the historical events of metal matrix composites (MMCs, produced in casting industries. After a brief introduction on properties of metal matrix composites. Processing and the developments of the metal matrix composites have been discussed at length. On the basis of above said subject, the future research needs in metal matrix composites on the basis of applications of the casting in industry was discussed.

  16. X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment probing hypothetical particles: the axions, created in the solar core. Inside the transverse magnetic field of the CAST magnet, axions can be converted into x-rays, and be detected by four x-ray detectors at CAST. The expected x-ray signal in CAST is in 1-10 keV range, intensity depending strongly on the coupling constant of axion-photon conversion ga?, which is expected to be low. This requires CAST to have detectors with very low background levels. The CAST Experiment makes use of three Micromesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors, which are gaseous detectors, derived from ideas of Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC). CAST Micromegas detectors show perfect stability, good spatial and energy resolution. The intense study on Micromegas has enabled CAST to understand the nature of its background level, and improve it by a factor of 102 over ten years. New detector design, new readout system, better cosmic veto and addition of x-ray telescope will further improve the background in the next data taking of the experiment. The Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) of CAST is a pn-CCD detector with 200 × 64 pixels. The CAST CCD is coupled to an X-ray telescope, focusing all the parallel x-rays into a 9 mm diameter spot. The CCD will be replaced by the InGrid detector, a special manufactured micromegas detector. It is able to detect single electrons, and the low energy capabilities will open new frontiers on search of axions and other exotic particles. Another option is the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), which is being tested in 2013, and has an energy threshold as low as 250 eV. The CAST experiment is the pioneering helioscope that excludes an important part of axion mass-coupling constant parameter space, and expects to exclude more in the following years. To succeed CAST, a new experiment, the International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being designed and optimised, comprising the construction of a magnet specially built for axion search as well as new detectors that will enable to improve the actual limits by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude.

  17. Process Mining Versus Intention Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabandelou, Ghazaleh; Hug, Charlotte; Deneckere, Rebecca; Salinesi, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Process mining aims to discover, enhance or check the conformance of activity oriented process models from event logs. A new field of research, called intention mining, recently emerged. This new field has the same objectives than process mining but specifically addresses intentional process models. This paper aims to highlight the differences between these two fields of research and illustrates the use of mining techniques on a dataset of event logs, to discover an activity process model as ...

  18. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Stradomski; Stachura, S; G. Stradomski

    2013-01-01

    The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is ...

  19. Skeleton castings dynamic load resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article is to show selected results of research in a field of new type of cast spatial composite reinforcements. This article shows skeleton casting case as a particular approach to continuous, spatial composite reinforcement.Design/methodology/approach: The research is concerning properties of cast spatial microlattice structures called skeleton castings. In this paper results of impact test of skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell were shown. The selection of internal topology of skeleton casting was based on numerical simulations of stress distribution.Findings: The possibility of manufacturing of geometrically complex skeleton castings without use of advanced techniques was confirmed.Research limitations/implications: With use of computer tomography, analysis of deformation mechanisms was carried out. Different levels of impact energies were usedPractical implications: Spatial skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell confirmed their usefulness as impact energy absorbers.Originality/value: The overall aim of presented research was to determine the mechanisms of skeleton castings deformation processes. Thanks to CT data next step will be to create accurate numerical model for further simulation and design optimization.

  20. Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

  1. Characterisation of Organic Matter and Carbon Cycling in Rehabilitated Lignite-rich Mine Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-cast lignite mining in the Lusatian mining district resulted in rehabilitated mine soils containing up to four organic matter types: (1) recent plant litter, (2) lignite deposited by mining activity, (3) carbonaceous ash particles deposited during amelioration of the lignite-containing parent substrate and (4) airborne carbonaceous particles deposited during contamination. The influence of lignite-derived carbon types on the organic matter development and their role in the soil carbon cycle was unknown. This paper presents the findings obtained during a six year project concerning the impact of lignite on soil organic matter composition and the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem. The organic matter development after rehabilitation was followed in a chronosequence of rehabilitated mine soils afforested in 1966, 1981 and 1987. A differentiation of the organic matter types and an evaluation of their role within the ecosystem was achieved by the use of 14C activity measurements, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis of plant litter compounds. The results showed that the amount and degree of decomposition of the recent organic matter derived from plant material of the 30 year old mine soil was similar to natural uncontaminated forest soil which suggests complete rehabilitation of the ecosystem. The decomposition and humification processes were not influenced by the presence of lignite. On the other hand it was shown that lignite, which was thought to be recalcitrant because of its chemical structure, was part of the carbon cycle in these soils. This demonstrates the need to elucidate further the stabilisation mechanisms of organic matter in soils

  2. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 ?m - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle concentrations are the highest in January and February, being the correlation between the TSP and PM10 measurements not as strong during this time period. This could be associated with the spatial and temporal variability of wet deposition as well as a larger mechanical and eolic resuspension of particles. We found that precipitation drastically reduces the levels of particulate matter. In order to describe the effect of wet deposition, a mathematical model was developed based on a first order relaxation proportional to the precipitation rate. Daily average concentrations and daily accumulated precipitation were used in this model, which showed high concentration reductions even for low precipitation levels essentially for all stations. Monthly precipitation values showed a better correlation with TSP concentrations. Finally, we found evidence of a significant decrease in global radiation due to particulate matter, particularly during the dry season, which could potentially affect farming and agricultural activities in the region.

  3. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos. Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

  4. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 5: White Cast Iron (?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

  5. Grid-enabling data mining applications with DataMiningGrid: An architectural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovski, V.; Swain, M.; Kravtsov, V.; Niessen, T.; Wegener, D.; Kindermann, J.; Dubitzky, W.

    2008-01-01

    The DataMiningGrid system has been designed to meet the requirements of modern and distributed data mining scenarios. Based on the Globus Toolkit and other open technology and standards, the DataMiningGrid system provides tools and services facilitating the grid-enabling of data mining applications without any intervention on the application side. Critical features of the system include flexibility, extensibility, scalability, efficiency, conceptual simplicity and ease of use. The system has ...

  6. International data-sharing for radiotherapy research: An open-source based infrastructure for multicentric clinical data mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive, multifactorial data sharing is a crucial prerequisite for current and future (radiotherapy) research. However, the cost, time and effort to achieve this are often a roadblock. We present an open-source based data-sharing infrastructure between two radiotherapy departments, allowing seamless exchange of de-identified, automatically translated clinical and biomedical treatment data

  7. Scheduled Caste Women: Problems And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Murthy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the Caste system based on Varnas during the ancient India. It also examined the demerits of caste attached to the present scheduled castes in general and scheduled caste women in particular. The scheduled caste women are disadvantaged by their caste and gender and as such they are subject to exploitation and discrimination by their family members, by their caste people and by forward castes. Hence, there is increase in exploitation, discrimination and violence against the scheduled caste women. The female feticide, illiteracy, gender inequality, Devadasi, Jogini practice, Nude Service to Deity, different types of violence, dowry, child marriage, etc are few of the problems faced by scheduled caste women in present society. Statistics of the violence acts against the scheduled caste women is discussed in the paper and there is need to strictly enforce the legislations passed to protect the violence against scheduled caste women. For this purpose, there is need of enquiry from lady police officials.

  8. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

  9. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ghosh

    2001-02-01

    Microsegregation gets eliminated significantly if subsequent hot working and/or annealing are done on cast products. Macrosegregation however persists, causing problems in quality, and hence, has to be attended to. Microsegregation is a consequence of rejection of solutes by the solid into the interdendritic liquid. Scheil’s equation is mostly employed. However, other equations have been proposed, which take into account diffusion in solid phase and/or incomplete mixing in liquid. Macrosegregation results from movements of microsegregated regions over macroscopic distances due to motion of liquid and free crystals. Motion of impure interdendritic liquid causes regions of positive macrosegregation, whereas purer solid crystals yield negative macrosegregation. Flow of interdendritic liquid is primarily natural convection due to thermal and solutal buoyancy, and partly forced convection due to suction by shrinkage cavity formation etc. The present paper briefly deals with fundamentals of the above and contains some recent studies as well. Experimental investigations in molten alloys do not allow visualization of the complex flow pattern as well as other phenomena, such as dendrite-tip detachment. Experiments with room temperature analogues, and mathematical modelling have supplemented these efforts. However, the complexity of the phenomena demands simplifying assumptions. The agreement with experimental data is mostly qualitative. The paper also briefly discusses centreline macrosegregation during continuous casting of steel, methods to avoid it, and the, importance of early columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) as well as the fundamentals of CET.

  10. Continuous casting of hollow billets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous casting technology of hollow billets has been developed for near-net-shape casting of pipe. A cylindrical water cooled copper mould was used as a core to make a hole at the center of the round billet, while the hot-top casting technique was applied in order to provide space for the submerged entry nozzle and to cast tube blanks of thin wall thickness. A pilot scale casting of a 160mm-diameter billet, which has a 100mm-diameter hole, was conducted and the metallurgical investigation of the billet quality and the numerical analysis were performed to determine the optimum casting conditions. The hot-top casting technique, in which the induction heating (IH) of the oscillating ceramic mould stabilizes the solidification start level, enables both the smooth surface and the thin wall thickness of the hollow billet. The combination of the IH type hot-top casting technique and a water cooled copper mould, create a favourable condition at the shell exterior for generating equiaxed crystal as both fluid flow and thermal conditions, promote high equiaxed structure ratio and elimination of macrosegregation in hollow billets. (author)

  11. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  12. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

  13. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  14. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Th? Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0.09±0.01 and 0.10±0.04 mg/kg respectively in the rice grain endosperm. The adaptation of native rice plants, combined with bioaccumulation ratios of 1±0.6 to 1.4±0.7 calculated for Cd transfer to the rice grain endosperm, and maximum Cd transfer factors of 4.3±2.1 to the plant roots, strongly suggest a continuous input of some toxic metals from coal-mining operations to agricultural lands in the region of Cam Pha. In addition, our results imply a sustained absorption of metals by native rice plant varieties, which may lead to metal accumulation (e.g., Cd) in human organs and in turn to severe disease. PMID:23990254

  15. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  16. SaarTech and ParkTeknik successfully open lignite mine; SaarTech und ParkTeknik nehmen erfolgreich Braunkohlenbergwerk in Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Y. [ParkTeknik Elektrik Sanayi ve Ticaret AS (ParkTeknik) (Turkey); Ziegler, M. [ParkTeknik Elektrik Sanayi ve Ticaret AS (ParkTeknik) (Turkey)]|[SaarTech GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany). Projektgruppe Cayirhan

    1998-04-09

    Cayirhan is the first privatisation project in the Turkish deep lignite mining industry. Fields B and C are being worked by cooperation between SaarTech GmbH and the Turkish companies Park Holding as and Park Energie Ltd. The contribution describes the geology and strategraphy of fields B and C as well as the layout. The coal seams are worked by the double-unit face method with double-drum shearers. Selection of the technical equipment (shield supports, coalgetting machines, face conveyors, chain conveyors, belt conveyors, infrastructure, power supply and drivage technology) is described for the B field opened up in mid-1997. The first double-unit face has now been operating successfully both economically and technically for over six months. A performance test over 60 days exceeded the requirements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Cayirhan ist das erste Privatisierungsprojekt im tuerkischen Braunkohlentiefbau. Der Abbau der Felder B und C erfolgt in Zusammenarbeit SaarTech GmbH und der tuerkischen Firmen Park Holding AS und Park Energie Ltd. Der Beitrag stellt Geologie und Stratigraphie der Felder B und C sowie den Zuschnitt dar. Abgebaut wird im Doppelstrebverfahren mit Doppelwalzenladern. Fuer das Mitte des Jahres 1997 in Betrieb genommene B-Feld wird die Auswahl der technischen Ausruestung dargelegt (Schildausbau, Gewinnungsmaschinen, Strebfoerderer, Kettenfoerderer, Bandanlagen, Infrastuktur, Energieversorgung und Vortriebstechnik). Der erste Doppelstreb ist nun ueber ein halbes Jahr wirtschaftlich und technisch erfolgreich im Einsatz. Ein Leistungsversuch ueber 120 d uebertraf die Anforderungen. (orig.)

  17. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2 greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  18. Mining with microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the open-quotes bioleachingclose quotes of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as open-quotes absorbantsclose quotes of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs

  19. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A

    1998-02-01

    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  20. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  1. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolker, Allan [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.; Korchemagin, Viktor A.; Shendrik, Tatiana [Department of Mineral Deposits and Ecological Geology, Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, 83000 (Ukraine); Landa, Edward R.; Conko, Kathryn M. [U.S. Geological Survey, 430 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); McCord, Jamey D. [U.S. Geological Survey, 973 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c{sub 11} to m{sub 3} Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r{sup 2} of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka. (author)

  2. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  3. 78 FR 54674 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gold Rock Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Midway Gold US, Inc. (Midway) proposes to construct and operate an open-pit gold mining operation, which would include...quality created by the initiation of mining at the Gold Rock Mine Project. (g)...

  4. Quantitative NDT structuroscopy of cast iron castings for vehicles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skrbek, B.; Tomáš, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 6, 3-4 (2011), s. 293-305. ISSN 1741-8410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic method * structuroscopy * cast iron * clutch disks Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  5. Mining automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.N. (ed.) (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). College of Engineering)

    1990-08-01

    26 papers on mining automation are presented under the session headings: guidance, remote control and robotics; communications and safety; recent developments in mining and automation; and sensors and computer vision. The mailing addresses of the principal authors are included in an appendix.

  6. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  7. EDUCATIONAL DATA MINING USING JMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Hussain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational Data Mining is a growing trend in ca se of higher education. The quality of the Educational Institute may be enhanced through discovering hidden knowledge from the student databases/ data warehouses. Present paper is designed to carry out a comparative study with the TDC (Three Year Degr ee C ourse students of different colleges affiliated to Dibrugarh University. The study is conducted with major subject wise, gender wise and category/caste wise. The experimental results may be visualized with Scatterplot3D, Bubble Plot, Fit Y by X, Run Chart, Control Chart etc. of the SAS JMP Software

  8. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (?)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-01-01

    Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application ...

  9. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 5: White Cast Iron (?)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-01-01

    Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application ...

  10. Groundwater impacts of solution mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some cases the mining of certain minerals can be achieved without the large-scale excavations involved in open pit or shaft mining. Instead, water is used to liquify the desired mineral so that it can be readily removed without disturbing the host medium or intervening deposits. In Texas this solution mining technique is used in the mining of brines, sodium sulfate, sulfur, and uranium. The advantages stem from the nondisturbing nature of the method that leaves the surface and subsurface physically intact. This is advantageous not only during mining, but also upon its termination when there is a minimum restoration requirement of the terrain. However, in some cases these advantages may be somewhat offset when a considerable chemical restoration of a host aquifer is required. The situation is considerably different with the solution (in situ) mining of uranium since these deposits often occur in usable quality groundwater aquifers. There are twenty-eight permitted sites in Texas. Eight have not yet been mined. This paper discusses the solution mining of uranium in Texas

  11. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  12. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. It is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  13. Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

  14. Discover Effective Pattern for Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Khade, A. D.; A. B. Karche

    2014-01-01

    Many data mining techniques have been discovered for finding useful patterns in documents like text document. However, how to use effective and bring to up to date discovered patterns is still an open research task, especially in the domain of text mining. Text mining is the finding of very interesting knowledge (or features) in the text documents. It is a challenging task to find appropriate knowledge (or features) in text documents to help users to find what they exactly want...

  15. UNA APROXIMACIÓN A LA PLANEACIÓN MINERA A CIELO ABIERTO DESDE UN ENFOQUE BASADO EN DECISIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE / AN APPOXIMATION TO THE OPEN PIT MINE PLANNING APPROACH BASED ON DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GIOVANNI, FRANCO SEPÚLVEDA; JOHN WILLIAN, BRANCH BEDOYA; PATRICIA, JARAMILLO ÁLVAREZ.

    2010-11-30

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta en primer lugar una descripción del proceso de planeamiento minero desde un punto de vista clásico y su relación con los actuales procesos de planeamiento minero que tienen como base la optimización en sus diferentes etapas. Seguidamente, se realiza un acercamiento a los [...] procesos de planeación minera a cielo abierto desde un enfoque basado en decisiones bajo incertidumbre. Por último, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de los artículos encontrados clasificándolos en cinco categorías: Modelamiento geológico; Planeamiento minero; Evaluación financiera; Decisiones bajo incertidumbre y modelos de optimización. Abstract in english This article first presents a description of the mine planning process from a classical view and its relation to existing mine planning processes that are based on optimization in its various stages. Then be made an approach to planning processes open pit mining from an approach based on decisions u [...] nder uncertainty. Finally, it performs a critical analysis of the items found divided into five categories: geological models, mine planning, financial evaluation, decisions under uncertainty and optimization models.

  16. Análisis in situ de la cantera de caliza usando análisis por activación neutrónica de gammas inmediatos / In situ analysis of limestone open cut mine using prompt gamma neutron analysis activation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Zanabria; Rafael, Medina; Leoncio R., Gilvonio; Marco, Munive; Óscar, Baltuano; José L., Solís.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización in situ de las perforaciones de voladura en las canteras de Atocongo y Pucará de Cementos Lima S.A. por análisis por activación neutrónica de gammas inmediatos (Prompt Gamma Neutron Analysis Activation, PGNAA). Esta técnica muestrea el volumen que está alrededor de la p [...] erforación y provee resultados del análisis en tiempo real y que son representativos. Esta información es útil para determinar el modelo geofísico de la cantera. La técnica PGNAA permite obtener resultados de campo de la concentración de determinados elementos de interés tales como el SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO y SO3. Las pruebas de campo realizadas han probado que el sistema puede ser de gran utilidad para la caracterización de las canteras de caliza. Abstract in english In situ characterization of the blast holes has been done in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results fo [...] r a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAAsystem gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO y SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines.

  17. Niobium in gray cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for utilization of niobium in gray cast iron is appraised and reviewed. Experiments described in literature indicate that niobium provides structural refinement of the eutectic cells and also promotes pearlite formation. (Author)

  18. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  19. Analysis of Videos using Tile Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Calders, Toon; Fromont, Elisa; Jeudy, Baptiste; Thanh Lam, Hoang

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how mining top-k largest tiles in a data stream under the sliding window model can be useful for (real-time) analysis of videos and, in particular, for tracking. We first explain how a track- ing problem can be cast into a stream pattern mining problem. We then show some preliminary results on tracking in the particular context where both the objects and the camera are moving and where the user does not specify the regions of interest in the first frames of the videos.

  20. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kopyci?ski

    2009-01-01

    It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  1. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyci?ski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  2. Low-alloy constructional cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bartocha; J. Kilarski; J. Sucho?; Baron, C.; J. Szajnar; K. Janerka

    2011-01-01

    Production of constructional casting competitive for welded structure of high-strength steel first of all required high metallurgical quality of cast steel. Assumptions, methodology and results of investigation which the aim was determination of the most advantageous: configuration and parameters of metallurgical treatments and ways to modify, in aspects of reach the low-alloy cast steel of the highest quality as possible, are presented. A series of low-alloy cast steel melts modeled on cast ...

  3. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting:

    OpenAIRE

    Zuidema, J

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instantaneous transformation, but occurs in temperature interval. In the casting process the latent heat is moved away by convection and conduction. A number of problems may occur during solidification,...

  4. Copper alloys in investment casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rzadkosz; Zych, J; A. Garbacz-Klempka; M. Kranc; J. Kozana; M. Pi?ko?; J. Kolczyk; ?. Jamrozowicz; Stolarczyk, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents research results in the field of casting technology of copper and copper alloys using the investment casting technology, both from historical as well as modern technology perspective. The analysis of exemplary elements of the old casting moulds is included, as well as the Bronze Age casts. The chemical content of various copper alloys was determined and the application of lost wax method was confirmed in the Bronze Age workshop. At present, investment casting method is use...

  5. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP)

  6. Virtualisation of casting engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Suchy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fast response to an enquiry, minimization of costs of identification of best-suited process solution, as well as a capacity to tackle new challenges is the shortest description of the requirements posed by the contemporary market of machines and equipment. These, in consequence, called for making use of mathematical models and their solution by means of simulation algorithms.Design/methodology/approach: The notable effectiveness of numerical methods streamlined the production preparation process. Maintaining competitiveness, even more tough because of economic factors, is only possible due to cost-effective operation, high quality and well-timed order completion. These, on the other hand, can be facilitated by a broad application of IT tools aiding production management and preparation.Findings: Integration of systems aiding design processes, systems used for simulating selected elements of technologies, as well as of systems supporting instrumentation manufacturing calls for a need to solve a number of complex problems related to IT, mathematical modelling, logistics and knowledge management. Software packages for a simulation of processes that are indispensable in order to achieve the designed distribution of matter structures and condition are of particular importance.Research limitations/implications: Despite the fact that there is a wide range of software for these purposes available on the market, there is a need to build and integrate into IT systems new purpose-developed solutions customised to technologies applied and non-standard problems.Originality/value: Virtualization of casting engineering

  7. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  8. Current meter and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 01 December 1977 (NODC Accession 7800741)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean from August 29, 1975...

  9. A New Data Mining Approach Combined with Extension Set and Rough Set

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-hang Tang; Wen-bin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Extension data mining is a product combining extenics with data mining. Establishing the extenics provides a new idea and method for data mining and opens up a new research direction for data mining. Using the extenics method of combining the data mining technology not only can access to static knowledge, but also can dig to realization of knowledge. By using the theory and method of Extenics, it can mine the knowledge from database which is relative to solve contradictory problems. And the k...

  10. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.; van Dongen, B.F.; Kindler, Ekkart; Günther, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing proc...

  11. Mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US mining industry has generated up to 2 trillion kg of solid waste in a year and accounts for about 40% of the total solid waste generated annually in the US. The EPA has estimated that about 31 trillion kg of mine waste and 13 trillion kg of tailings were accumulated between 1910 and 1981. Virtually all mine wastes are disposed of on site. In the early 1980's the EPA sponsored waste-characterization studies involving waste sampling at 86 mines in 22 states. Mining wastes contain, with the exception of the product recovered, all constituents present in the ore. The excavation and processing of this native material can expose constituents, such as pyrites, that have acid-forming potential. Heavy metals or potentially toxic elements, such as radionuclides, formerly contained in the ore matrix may become mobile in the environment once exposed. In addition, some process reagents, particularly cyanide, may be mixed wi the waste. The EPA's Office of Research and Development and the Office of Solid Waste are actively acquiring and evaluating information germane to the mining-waste issue. 7 refs

  12. SCHEDULED CASTE FARMERS: A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhara Apparaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Scheduled castes are backward castes in Hyderabad-Karnataka region. As such, farmers belonged to scheduled castes are poor and facing many of the social problems in society. To explore the problems of scheduled caste farmers, the present interview based survey was made in Aland taluka of Kalaburagi district. Totally 400 scheduled caste farmers were surveyed to collect the primary data. It is highlighted from the study that the scheduled caste farmers are facing many problems due to their castes and poverty. Though welfare schemes are formulated for their development, the farmers were not gained benefits from these schemes and lack of awareness is the major reasons for not gaining such benefits. Hence, it is essential to increase awareness about farmers’ and scheduled caste welfare schemes among the scheduled caste farmers.

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  14. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  15. History of mirror casting, figuring, segmentation and active optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noethe, Lothar

    2009-08-01

    Since the invention of the telescope the mirrors in reflecting telescopes have evolved from small pieces of polished speculum to sophisticated, computer-controlled systems. This review describes the major problems with the casting, figuring and support of these mirrors, and how fundamental inventions like depositing a silver layer on glass or electronic devices like computers opened the path to new solutions for fabricating larger mirrors with improved performance.

  16. Incline caving as a massive mining method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.D., Munro.

    Full Text Available Finsch Mine is a kimberlite diamond mine located at Lime Acres in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The mine was founded in 1961 and started surface mining in 1964. Underground production commenced in 1990 using a modified blast-hole open stoping method for the mining of Blocks 1, 2 and 3. [...] Block 4 is currently being mined as a block cave. The process of identifying and optimizing a method to mine the Block 5 orebody started in 1991, and in 2006 incline caving was identified as being technically feasible. This paper aims to document the process employed in developing this method by the Block 5 pre-feasibility team as well as discuss the technical challenges encountered during this process. The paper commences with a history of Finsch Mine and highlights the complex geology and threat of sidewall failure that prompted the decision to use block caving as the mining method for Block 4. A literature study of mines that implemented mining methods upon which the incline cave was conceptualized is then presented. These practices were then used to form the basis for the designs on which the initial geotechnical modelling was done and built upon through an iterative process of modelling and design changes. The ventilation of the mining area, initial productivity simulation results, and the applicability of automation and comminution processes in the incline cave are also presented. The paper concludes with an investigation into some of the challenges of the mining method, and shows that that incline caving is a technical option available for further investigation in determining the optimal mining method to be employed at Block 5, Finsch Diamond Mine.

  17. Investigating MOOCs through Blog Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    MOOCs (massive open online course) is a disruptive innovation and a current buzzword in higher education. However, the discussion of MOOCs is disparate, fragmented, and distributed among different outlets. Systematic, extensively published research on MOOCs is unavailable. This paper adopts a novel method called blog mining to analyze MOOCs. The…

  18. Research progress on squeeze casting in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Squeeze casting is a technology with short route, high efficiency and precise forming, possessing features of casting and plastic processing. It is widely used to produce high performance metallic structural parts. As energy conservation and environmental protection concerns have risen, lightweight and high performance metal parts are urgently needed, which accelerated the development of squeeze casting technology over the past two decades in China. In this paper, research progress on squeeze casting alloys, typical parts manufacturing and development of squeeze casting equipment in China are introduced. The future trend and development priorities of squeeze casting are discussed.

  19. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the di...

  20. Modelling of Tape Casting for Ceramic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Functional ceramics find use in many different applications of great interest, e.g. thermal barrier coatings, piezoactuators, capacitors, solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysis cells, membranes, and filters. It is often the case that the performance of a ceramic component can be increased markedly if it is possible to vary the relevant properties (e.g. electrical, electrochemical, or magnetic) in a controlled manner along the extent of the component. Such composites in which ceramic layers of different composition and/or microstructure are combined provide a new and intriguing dimension to the field of functional ceramics research. Advances in ceramic forming have enabled low cost shaping techniques such as tape casting and extrusion to be used in some of the most challenging technologies. These advances allow the design of complex components adapted to desired specific properties and applications. However, there is still only very limited insight into the processes determining the final properties of such components. Hence, the aim of the present PhD project is to obtain the required knowledge basis for the optimized processing of multi-material functional ceramics components. Recent efforts in the domain of ceramic processing are generally focused on the control of the microstructure while the importance of shaping is often underestimated. Improved performance requires the design and shaping of both controlled architectures and microstructures. Novel functionally graded ceramic materials may be formed by multilayers or adjacent grading of different ceramic materials. Such grading is often desired for optimal performance. An example is when there is a gradient in temperature or chemical environment along the component during operation; in this case the properties of each section of the component should be optimized for the local environment by grading. The grading may be between entirely different ceramic materials or merely a minor compositional alteration within one type of material. However, there are several challenges to be met for the successful fabrication of such complex structures. Rheological properties play an extremely important role for the co-processing of more than one material. Only by matching the rheological properties of the different pastes, a reproducible and well defined gradient composite will be formed. Tape casting involves the casting of a slurry onto a flat moving carrier surface. The slurry passes beneath a knife edge (doctor blade) as the carrier surface advances along a supporting table. The solvents evaporate to leave a relatively dense flexible sheet that may be stored on rolls or stripped from the carrier in a continuous process. Today, multilayers are achieved by laminating layers of different materials on top of each other. The challenge is to be able to tape cast layers of different materials simultaneously both stratified in the horizontal and in the lateral direction. Understanding how to achieve that and perfection of such a technique will open up a large variety of applications. General challenges with this process is, as mentioned, controlling the rheological properties of the slurries/pastes as they strongly affect the process and the quality of the final product, maintaining uniform composition during the process and controlling/understanding the shrinkage in drying and sintering. Furthermore, understanding the tape delamination and film cracking of multilayers as well as of interface fracture modes in multilayers is also an important topic that needs to be considered and understood. In the present PhD thesis the focus is on the numerical modelling of the tape casting process of functionally graded ceramic materials for fuel cell applications as well as magnetic refrigeration. Models to simulate the shaping of monolayer/multilayer and graded materials by tape casting are developed. The emphasis is on analyzing the entry flow of multiple slurries from the reservoir into the doctor-blade region as well as the exit region where a free surface (meniscus) forms. This encompasses a

  1. Occupational health and safety of workers in Saskatchewan uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, 1400 workers are employed directly by the uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan, where there are diverse mining conditions ranging from the underground mine of Eldorado Nuclear Limited to the shallow open pit of Cluff Mining. These different operating conditions present varied problems associated with occupational health and safety and concomitant solutions to reducing worker exposure to radiation. This paper examines legislation and regulatory procedures that assure the health and safety of the worker

  2. Systematic Selection and Application of Backfill in Underground Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Masniyom, Manoon

    2009-01-01

    The use of backfill in underground mining is increasing due to need for systematic backfilling of mine openings and workings to avoid surface damage, increase safety and contribution to sustainable mining. This study is to investigate backfill materials and new methods suited for systematic selection and application of backfill in underground mines. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special a...

  3. Centrifugal slip casting of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in layered and functionally gradient materials has emerged because of the increasing demand for high-performance engineering materials. Many techniques have been used to produce layered and functionally gradient components. Common examples include thermal spray processing, powder processing, chemical and physical vapor deposition, high-temperature or combustion synthesis, diffusion treatments, microwave processing and infiltration. Of these techniques, powder processing routes offer excellent microstructural control and product quality, and they are capable of producing large components. Centrifugal slip casting is a powder-processing technique combining the effects of slip casting and centrifugation. In slip casting, consolidation takes place as fluid is removed by the porous mold. Particles within the slip move with the suspending fluid until reaching the mold wall, at which point they are consolidated. In centrifugation, particles within the slip move through the fluid at a rate dependent upon the gravitational force and particle drag

  4. Coastal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  5. Development of a New Membrane Casting Apparatus for Studying Macrovoid Defects in Low-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanyong; Hwang, Sun-Tak; Krantz, William B.; Greenberg, Alan R.; Khare, Vivek; Zartman, Jeremiah; Todd, Paul W.

    2002-01-01

    A new membrane-casting apparatus is developed for studying macrovoid defects in polymeric membranes made by the wet- and dry-casting process in low-gravity. Macrovoids are large (10-50 micron), open cavities interspersed among the smaller pores in the substructure under the gelled skin surface layer of the cast membrane. Although their occurrence is considered endemic to the wet- and dry-casting process since they can lead to compaction or skin rupture in the membrane process, recent studies suggest several useful applications such as transdermal and osmotic drug delivery systems, miniature bioreactors, etc. However, lack of knowledge about the macrovoid formation mechanism is an obstacle to further development of applications using them. An on-going debate is the role of the surface-tension-driven solutocapillary convection during macrovoid formation. The rapid growth of macrovoids within 1-5 seconds and the high polymer concentration in and near macrovoids make it difficult to explain the mechanism of macrovoid growth by diffusion alone, which is the widely accepted hypothesis proposed by Reuvers et al. The hypothesis advanced by our research group can explain this rapid growth via a mechanism that involves diffusion from the casting solution in the meta-stable region to the macrovoid enhanced by solutocapillary convection induced by the steep nonsolvent concentration gradient in the vicinity of the macrovoid. Since macrovoid growth is hypothesized to be the interplay of a solutocapillary-induced driving force counteracted by viscous drag and buoyancy, eliminate the latter provides a means for testing this hypothesis. Moreover, free convection mass transfer in the nonsolvent immersion bath used to cause phase-separation in membrane casting complicates developing a model for both the wet-casting process and macrovoid growth. The low-g environment minimizes gravitationally induced free convection thereby permitting a tractable solution to the ternary diffusion equations that characterize membrane formation. NASA's Parabolic Flight Research Aircraft provides a small window of low-g (approximately 25 s) that can be used to study macrovoid development in both wet- and dry-cast membranes if an appropriate casting apparatus is used. This casting apparatus should be able to cast the membrane in both low- and high-g in a manner so that essential one-dimensional mass transfer conditions are achieved to insure lateral uniformity in the membrane. The apparatus used in previous research on membrane casting in low-gravity was operated with the plunger driven mechanism. The spring-loaded plunger pushes the bottom block containing the polymer casting solution well directly under the absorbent chamber located in the upper stationary block. However, membranes made via this casting apparatus often displayed lateral nonuniformities that precluded obtaining quantitative information on the macrovoid growth process. Thus, it was necessary to determine the reason for these structural irregularities observed in the low-g casting apparatus. Both experimental as well as computer simulation studies of the low-g casting apparatus established that the impulsive action of the plunger caused the undesired structural nonuniformities. The simulation results showed that the width-to-depth aspect ratio of the shallow well that contains the casting solution in this apparatus was not an important factor in minimizing this problem. Even for a 40:1 (width : depth) aspect ratio, any convection induced by the horizontal motion of the interface of the casting solution will be damped out within 6.25x10(exp 4) seconds. However, the experimental studies revealed that the impulsive motion of the plunger caused a 'sloshing' of the casting solution that had to be eliminated. Therefore, the plungerdriven mechanism was changed to a cam-driven mechanism that did not cause any impulsive motion of the casting solution. Other refinements to this new membrane-casting apparatus include provision for removing the membranes from the casting wells in a less destructive manner.

  6. Forecasting the Ocean's Optical Environment Using the BioCast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Keith Jolliff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast system is a model that provides the US Navy with short-term forecasts of the ocean's optical environment. The forecasts are required to support a broad spectrum of naval operations, including mine countermeasure, anti-submarine, and expeditionary warfare operations. The BioCast system works by treating any geo-referenced surface ocean optical property provided via the US Navy's satellite data processing systems as a prognostic state variable. BioCast will then ingest operational ocean model velocity forecasts and calculate the three-dimensional optical property (pseudo-tracer transport. BioCast verification statistics generated via forecast comparison to "next-day" satellite images show superior performance over 24-hour persistence of composite satellite data. Future operational modifications to BioCast, such as complex internal transformation submodels, must demonstrate superior performance to the established benchmark metrics and/or persistence over the operational forecast time horizon. Future BioCast applications will expand to include an interface with three-dimensional system performance simulation techniques that will predict how specific US Navy sensors will perform in the ocean's optical environment.

  7. Mechanism of the slope failure of horizontal thick coal seam under the condition of combined mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian-Quan Liu; Jian-Ming Zhu; Jin-Yan Feng; You Lu; Jian-Ping Wu [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    Using two methods of numerical simulation and similar simulation, the failure problems of an open-pit slope under the condition of combining open-pit mining with underground mining were analyzed and discussed. The results show that the failure of an open-pit slope is a gradual process. In order to guarantee that normal open-pit mine production works well, the explored boundary must be controlled properly by the vertical stature of safe mining. By analysis of a similar simulation, the mining order can be optimized. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2003-05-01

    Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity. PMID:12593955

  9. SE 12-03 Oceanographic: CTD Casts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD casts were conducted twice daily (prior to sunrise and after sunset) along the survey trackline. The terminal depth of all casts was 1000 m.

  10. SE 09-01 Oceanographic: CTD Casts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD casts were conducted twice daily (before sunrise and after sunset) along the survey trackline. All casts were to 1000 m depth.

  11. SE 13-03 Oceanographic: CTD Casts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD casts were conducted twice daily (prior to sunrise and after sunset) along the survey trackline. The terminal depth of all casts was 1000 m.

  12. La hydrogeology en la traditional mining of hydrocarbons, mining new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is presented from the point of view of Geosciences, an approach torelations between hydrogeology and mining activities, including those of traditional non - metal deposits of ores and rocks application (underground or open pit), the so-called ''modern mining'' (pickles) and hydrocarbons. Within the traditional mining, hydrogeology participates decisively several aspects, both those related to the feasibility of the projects, water supply for the stage of exploration and exploitation, mineraloductos ácueosand mine operations, such as environmental protection of water resources. In the ''modern mining'' groundwater acquires true character mena when it comes to the use of natural brines, and subject when they are generated by injecting water into an aquifer medium. In the case of hydrocarbons, the spectrum is broader participation at the stage of exploration and exploitation, where the hydrogeology is critical to providing water to camps and processes as well as operations secondary recovery, consumers strongly. From the perspective of environmental protection, are the main protagonists of groundwater the impacts of production, but also the phases are transportation, processing and marketing. They are used in the presentation of case examples of Argentina and Chile, some reflections on the need for an appropriate regulatory framework, especially addressed to Uruguay, and information to protect the population activity production of an unfair detriment, when mining is done responsibly

  13. The heat treatment of Fermanal cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    F. Binczyk; A. Smoli?ski; J. Szymszal

    2007-01-01

    The study discloses the results of microstructural examinations, testing of magnetic properties and hardness measurements as cast and after heat treatment conducted on the Fermanal cast steel. A characteristic feature of this cast steel is its density lower by about 10% than the density of carbon cast steel [4]. It has been proved that the factor deciding about the composition of microstructure (fraction of ferrite and austenite) is the content of aluminium. The matrix totally austenitic is p...

  14. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    A. Drotlew; B. Piekarski

    2010-01-01

    The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for th...

  15. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  16. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    OpenAIRE

    A. Issagulov; Kulikov, V.; D. Issagulova; E. Shcherbakova; A. Kuszhanova

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  17. Standard digital reference images for inspection of aluminum castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These digital reference images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in aluminum-alloy castings. The castings illustrated are in thicknesses of 1/ 4 in. [6.35 mm] and 3/4 in. [19.1mm]. 1.2 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aluminum-alloy castings when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of aluminum-alloy castings, refer to Reference Radiographs E 155. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and he...

  18. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  19. An ecosystem approach to evaluate restoration measures in the lignite mining district of Lusatia/Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Lignite mining in Lusatia has a history of over 100 years. Open-cast mining directly affected an area of 1000 km2. Since 20 years we established an ecosystem oriented approach to evaluate the development and site characteristics of post-mining areas mainly restored for agricultural and silvicultural land use. Water and element budgets of afforested sites were studied under different geochemical settings in a chronosequence approach (Schaaf 2001), as well as the effect of soil amendments like sewage sludge or compost in restoration (Schaaf & Hüttl 2006). Since 10 years we also study the development of natural site regeneration in the constructed catchment Chicken Creek at the watershed scale (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2013). One of the striking characteristics of post-mining sites is a very large small-scale soil heterogeneity that has to be taken into account with respect to soil forming processes and element cycling. Results from these studies in combination with smaller-scale process studies enable to evaluate the long-term effect of restoration measures and adapted land use options. In addition, it is crucial to compare these results with data from undisturbed, i.e. non-mined sites. Schaaf, W., 2001: What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering 17, 241-252. Schaaf, W. and Hüttl, R. F., 2006: Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air and Soil Pollution - Focus 6, 253-264. Schaaf, W., Bens, O., Fischer, A., Gerke, H.H., Gerwin, W., Grünewald, U., Holländer, H.M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Mutz, M., Schloter, M., Schulin, R., Veste, M., Winter, S. & Hüttl, R.F., 2011: Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174, 229-239. Schaaf, W., Elmer, M., Fischer, A., Gerwin, W., Nenov, R., Pretsch, H. and Zaplate, M.K., 2013: Feedbacks between vegetation, surface structures and hydrology during initial development of the artificial catchment `Chicken Creek'. Procedia Environmental Sciences 19, 86-95.

  20. Inoculation Effects of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fra?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solidification sequence of graphite eutectic cells of A and D types, as well as globular and cementite eutectics. The morphology of eutectic cells in cast iron, the equations for their growth and the distances between the graphite precipitations in A and D eutectic types were analyzed. It is observed a critical eutectic growth rate at which one type of eutectic transformed into another. A mathematical formula was derived that combined the maximum degree of undercooling, the cooling rate of cast iron, eutectic cell count and the eutectic growth rate. One type of eutectic structure turned smoothly into the other at a particular transition rate, transformation temperature and transformational eutectic cell count. Inoculation of cast iron increased the number of eutectic cells with flake graphite and the graphite nodule count in ductile iron, while reducing the undercooling. An increase in intensity of inoculation caused a smooth transition from a cementite eutectic structure to a mixture of cementite and D type eutectic structure, then to a mixture of D and A types of eutectics up to the presence of only the A type of eutectic structure. Moreover, the mechanism of inoculation of cast iron was studied.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

  2. Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Solar Axion Telescope, CAST, aims to shed light on a 30-year-old riddle of particle physics by detecting axions originating from the 15 million degree plasma in the Sun 's core. Axions were proposed as an extension to the Standard Model of particle physics to explain why CP violation is observed in weak but not strong interactions.

  3. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  4. Studies of the transition zone in steel – chromium cast iron bimetallic casting

    OpenAIRE

    S. Tenerowicz; J. Sucho?; M. Cholewa

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors presented the results of transition zone studies on steel – cast iron interface in bimetallic casting. During the investigations cylindrical castings with different diameter were prepared of cast iron with steel rods placed in the center. From each bimetallic casting a microsection was prepared for microhardness tests and metalographic analysis, consisting of transition zone measurement, point and linear analysis as well as quantitative analysis.

  5. Treatment of acid mine lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Schipek, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Mining of lignite in Lusatia has a long history of over 100 years. The extracted brown coal is utilized to generate electricity in three large power plants: Jänschwalde, Boxberg, and Schwarze Pumpe. With an annual carbon dioxide (CO2) output of approximately 50 million tons, these power plants are among Germany’s large-scale CO2 emitters. The environmental impact from open-pit mining is of a considerable degree and currently poses a challenging problem. The groundwater deficit in 1990 was ...

  6. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  7. Selected properties of new „duplex” cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny; M. Masalski

    2011-01-01

    In this paper selected properties of new „duplex” cast steel are presented. The new cast steel was devised in HYDRO-VACUUM company in Grudzi?dz, where “duplex” cast steel for pump elements is smelted. The goal was to devise a new grade of “duplex” cast steel of better physicochemical properties and cheaper than now applied. It was demonstrated, that there is the possibility of devising the new grade of “duplex” cast steel. It is characterized by higher mechanical properties, similar wear resi...

  8. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  9. Investment Casting of Near-gamma TiAl intermetallic alloys.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zem?ík, L.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Do?ekalová, Kate?ina

    Nancy : Ecole de Mine de Nancy, 2007 - (Lee, P.; Mitchell, A.; Bellot, J.; Jardy, A.), s. 1-6 ISBN N. [LMPC 2007. Nancy (FR), 02.09.2007-05.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA106/07/0762; GA ?R(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : titanium aluminides * investment casting * refractory crucible Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  10. Copper alloys in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research results in the field of casting technology of copper and copper alloys using the investment casting technology, both from historical as well as modern technology perspective. The analysis of exemplary elements of the old casting moulds is included, as well as the Bronze Age casts. The chemical content of various copper alloys was determined and the application of lost wax method was confirmed in the Bronze Age workshop. At present, investment casting method is used for manufacturing high-quality casts, especially products for power engineering that is why it demands respecting very rigorous technological requirements. The casts were characterised based on microstructure research, chemical composition and conductivity in relation to oxygen content.

  11. Fabrication of sacrificial anode cathodic protection through casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum is one of the few metals that can be cast by all of the processes used in casting metals. These processes consist of die casting, permanent mold casting, sand casting (green sand and dry sand), plaster casting, investment casting, and continuous casting. Other processes such as lost foam, squeeze casting, and hot isostatic pressing are also used. Permanent mold casting method was selected in which used for fabricating of sacrificial anode cathodic protection. This product was ground for surface finished and fabricated in the cylindrical form and reinforced with carbon steel at a center of the anode. (Author)

  12. Rapid casting and new technologies in investment casting

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Marcela Sánchez R; Carlos Julio Cortés Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a manufacturing process which is different to traditional methods as material is not removed or formed but added to obtain the designed pieces. It is not lust used for manufacturing finished products but in manufacturing tooling for speeding up other manufacturing processes. This paper introduces rapid prototyping as a support technique for the lost wax process (investment casting). It gives a brief description of the different techniques implemented to date and materials...

  13. Recycling process of casting molds applying to precision castings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Drajewicz; Pytel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present work relates to investigations about the possibility of recycling and producing sinters from ceramic molds. These molds are applied for producing precise single crystal casts of nickel based superalloys to elements witch are applied to the hot section of aircraft jet engines.Design/methodology/approach: The processes of milling were carried out using the vibratory mill Herzog HSM 100H and the planetary grinder Pulverisette 7 - Fritsch Company. The measurements of all kind...

  14. Men and their land. The mining sites of the Mokta French Company in Lozere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet summarizes the history of the mining activity in the Lozere district (France) devoted to the extraction of uranium ores. This activity started in 1957 with the open cast exploitation of the Cellier deposit which lasted 35 years and produced 4200 t of uranium from 5800000 t of ore. The exploitation was performed by the French Company of Uranium Ores (CFMU). The uranium crisis started in 1962 and led to an increase of prospecting activities. The crisis ended with the first oil crack in 1973 and the uranium demand and prices grew up until 1979 when the Three Mile Island reactor accident occurred. The second crisis that followed led to the development of new recovery processes such as the heap lixiviation process. In 1980, the CFMU became the French Company of Mokta (CFM) and in 1986, the CFM became a 100% daughter company of the Cogema group. The exploitation of the Bondons mine ended in 1989 and the program of site rehabilitation started. The document focusses on the environmental aspects of this program, the reforestation, the drainage of surface waters and the control of water quality. (J.S.)

  15. Radon-222 concentration into caves and mining regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of Radon-222 concentrations in caves, open pit mining, underground mining and some Brazilian uranium prospecting areas, were presented in this work. The Radon-222 concentration values in the underground mine were the highest, with a mean of 1112 Bq.m-3, while the uranium open pit mining and prospecting regions situated in areas of high background radiation have presented an average concentration of 261 Bq.m-3. The results emphasize the importance of ventilation practices for reducing occupational radiation exposure of workers by inhalation

  16. Vicarious liability for mine safety and health violations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, W.K. [Smith, Heenan and Althen, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 does not regulate employers, rather, it focuses on the {open_quotes}operator{close_quotes} of the mine in designating responsibility for the safety and health of miners. In the past few years, the number of independent contractor employees in the mining industry, and the number of accidents involving such employees, has increased. This article examines the evolution of the enforcement and regulatory focus on the {open_quotes}operator{close_quotes} and how liabilities for mining violations have been determined.

  17. Data mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

  18. Disposal in mines and salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mined underground space for storage and disposal of hazardous materials has a long history of successful application in industrial societies. The current technology for storing hazardous waste in underground openings allows the disposal or storage of a wide range of wastes. Conventional mines can store packaged, dry, nonexplosive, nonflammable, zero-vapor-pressure wastes. Solution mines can store nonreactive liquids and slurries in bulk form; no packages are required. Design considerations for use of conventional mines include mine type, depth, rock mechanics, layout and access, safety, ventilation, and surface facilities. Considerations for solution mines are depth range, rock mechanics, layout and access, safety, cavern discharges, and surface facilities. Case studies and evaluations have been conducted for mines in Germany, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Canada. Case studies for solution mines were conducted in Canada, Holland, Texas, Louisiana, and New York. Environmental effects of the process are highly variable depending on the mine type, waste, and handling. The EPA has sponsored studies and development projects in recent years covering the fields of encapsulation, storage, and fixation technologies. Present studies, tests, and demonstrations for nuclear-waste storage are continuing in salt, basalt, tuff, and crystalline-rock formations. 14 refs., 3 figs

  19. Mining revival

    OpenAIRE

    Lusty, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In relation to its size the United Kingdom (UK) is remarkably well-endowed with mineral resources as a result of its complex geological history. Their extraction and use have played an important role in the development of the UK economy over many years and minerals are currently worked at some 2100 mine and quarry sites. Production is now largely confined to construction minerals, primarily aggregates, energy minerals and industrial minerals including salt, potash, kaolin and fluorspar, altho...

  20. Search for chameleons with CAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Christensen, F.; Collar, J. I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Desch, K.; Dermenev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Hailey, C.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakobsen, A.; Jakov?i?, K.; Kaminski, J.; Karuza, M.; Kavuk, M.; Kr?mar, M.; Krieger, C.; Krüger, A.; Laki?, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubi?i?, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J. A.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; Brax, P.; Lavrentyev, I.; Upadhye, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (?m) and to photons (??) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of ?? ?1011 for 1

  1. Search for chameleons with CAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anastassopoulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a search for (solar chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST. This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (?m and to photons (?? via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of ???1011 for 1

  2. Search for chameleons with CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Arik, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (?m) and to photons (??) via the Primako eect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of ???1011 for 1 < ?m < 106.

  3. Search for chameleons with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakov?i?, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Kr?mar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Laki?, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubi?i?, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  4. Caste differentiation in lower termites

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Social insects are prominent model organisms of evolutionary biology. Their castes are an example of phenotypic plasticity and differential gene expression produces strong differences among their traits. The highly structured life of social insects is characterized by reproductive division of labor and complexity of communication. For instance, in social Hymenoptera or termites the presence of a reproductive inhibits the development of other reproductives within the nest. These feedback mecha...

  5. Rubber molds for investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project is to investigate different types of molding rubbers used for investment casting. The level of shape complexity which can be achieved by using these rubber molds is also studied. It was almost impossible to make complex shapes molds using metal molds, in that cases rubber molds are very important because they arc flexible and give accurate and precise part dimensions. Turbine blades are hi-tech components with air-foil geometries that have close dimensional tolerances. They are made of super-alloys and manufactured by investment casting. The final blade profile depends upon the dimensional accuracy in each of the processing steps. In the present work experimental study for the production of high quality low cost castings of turbine blades using rubber molds and injected wax patterns is presented. Natural Rubber molds and wax patterns from these molds were made. Different types of molding rubbers were studied including natural rubber, silicone rubber and liquid silicone rubber. It was found that by using rubber molds we can make most complex shape with very less finishing required. The shrinkage was 12% as compared to original master pattern. Rubber molds were made using laboratory hot press. Three layers of rubber above and below the master pattern. After that vulcanization was done by giving temperature and pressure. (author)

  6. Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithms for Data Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimek, Arthur; Assent, Ira

    2014-01-01

    Discovering clusters in subspaces, or subspace clustering and related clustering paradigms, is a research field where we find many frequent pattern mining related influences. In fact, as the first algorithms for subspace clustering were based on frequent pattern mining algorithms, it is fair to say that frequent pattern mining was at the cradle of subspace clustering—yet, it quickly developed into an independent research field. In this chapter, we discuss how frequent pattern mining algorithms have been extended and generalized towards the discovery of local clusters in high-dimensional data. In particular, we discuss several example algorithms for subspace clustering or projected clustering as well as point out recent research questions and open topics in this area relevant to researchers in either clustering or pattern mining

  7. Sentinel Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This thesis introduces the novel concept of sentinel rules (sentinels). Sentinels are intended to represent the relationships between the data originating from the external environment and the data representing the critical organizational performance. The intention with sentinels is to warn business users about potential changes to Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and thereby facilitate corrective action before such a change becomes a reality. Specifically, sentinels are rule relationships at the schema level in a multidimensional data cube. These relationships represent changes over time in certain measures that are followed by a change in a user defined critical measure, typically a KPI. An important property of a sentinel is bi-directionality, which means that the change relationship holds in the complement direction, since a sentinel with the bi-directional property has a higher chance of being causal rather than coincidental. Sentinels can vary in complexity depending on the number of measures that are included in the rule: Regular sentinels represent relationships where changes in one measure lead to changes in another within a given time frame. Generalized sentinels represent relationships between changes in multiple measures leading to changes in a given measure within a given time frame. Multidimensional sentinels combine the schema and the data levels, meaning that each measure change in the rule can hold for either subsets or the entire cube. A generalized sentinel could for example notify users that revenue might drop within two months if an increase in customer problems combined with a decrease in website traffic is observed, whereas a multidimensional sentinel could warn users that revenue might drop within two months if an increase in customer complaints in USA (drilldown into geography dimension) combined with a decrease in the money invested in customer support for laptop computers (drilldown into product dimension) is observed. The work leading to this thesis progressed from algorithms for regular sentinel mining with only one source and one target measure, into algorithms for mining generalized and multidimensional sentinels with multiple source measures. Furthermore, the mining algorithms became capable of automatically fitting the best warning periods for a given sentinel. Aside from expanding the capabilities of the algorithms, the work demonstrates a significant progression in the efficiency of sentinel mining, where the latest bitmap-based algorithms, that also take advantage of modern CPUs, are 3–4 orders of magnitude faster than the first SQL-based sentinel mining algorithm. This work also led to the industrial implementation of sentinel mining in the commercial software TARGIT BI Suite, which attracted the attention of leading industry analysts. In short, the work in this thesis has turned sentinel mining from a theoretical idea into concrete, highly efficient algorithms, and in addition it has demonstrated sentinels to be useful and unique.

  8. Data mining and business analytics with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ledolter, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Collecting, analyzing, and extracting valuable information from a large amount of data requires easily accessible, robust, computational and analytical tools. Data Mining and Business Analytics with R utilizes the open source software R for the analysis, exploration, and simplification of large high-dimensional data sets. As a result, readers are provided with the needed guidance to model and interpret complicated data and become adept at building powerful models for prediction and classification. Highlighting both underlying concepts and practical computational skills, Data Mining

  9. Who gains from deep-sea mining?

    OpenAIRE

    Foders, Federico

    1985-01-01

    The issue at stake at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea was a new international distribution of ocean wealth along the lines of the so-called New International Economic Order. The best example of interventionism on the international mineral markets is the Convention's regime to govern seabed mining. This paper presents empirical estimates in an attempt to identify net winners and net losers resulting from ocean mining both under the Convention and under open access, an...

  10. Uranium mills and mines environmental restoration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENRESA and ENUSA have dismantled and restored a uranium mill in Andujar (Andalucia), a uranium facility based on open pit mining and plant in La Haba (Extremadura) and 19 old uranium mines in Andalucia and Extremadura. The Andujar Uranium Mill was operated from 1959 to 1981 and has been restorated between 1991 and 1994. The site included the tailings pile and the processing plant. The Haba Uranium Site included the Plant (operating from 1976 to 1999), four open-pit mines (operating from 1966 to 1990), the heaps leaching and the tailings dam and has been restorated between 1992 and 1997. The 19 abandoned uranium mines were developed by underground mining with the exception of two sites, which were operated by open pit mining. Mining operations started around 1959 and were shutdown in 1981. There was a great diversity among the mines, in terms of site conditions. Whereas in some sites there was little trace of the mining works, in other sites large excavations, mining debris piles, abandoned shafs and galeries and remaining surface structures and equipment were encountered. (author)

  11. Proposal of an environmental sustainability index for open-pit mines using landscape fragmentation indicators / Proposta de um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental para minas a céu aberto com o uso de indicadores de fragmentação de paisagem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Vargas E, Silva; Rodrigo, Peroni.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A percepção dos impactos ambientais das atividades econômicas pela sociedade é subjetiva e muitas vezes afeta negativamente a imagem de certos setores econômicos como a mineração. Para não ser subjetiva, a avaliação de impactos ambientais deve se embasar em indicadores ambientais claros e criteriosa [...] mente selecionados. Para demonstrar que a sustentabilidade da mineração a céu aberto é comparável a outras atividades econômicas, foi criado um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental composto do consumo de água e energia combinado com um indicador de fragmentação de paisagem construído com o uso de sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento. Para ilustrar a metodologia, foi realizado um estudo comparativo em um período de 10 anos entre a maior mina de minério de ferro brasileira, N5W, com o maior município produtor de soja, Sorriso, no Mato Grosso. Abstract in english The perception of the environmental impacts caused by economic activities is subjective and usually negatively affects the image of an extractive sector such as mining. In order to avoid this, the environmental impact assessment must be supported by clear and well-selected environmental indicators. [...] An index of sustainability was created to demonstrate that open-pit mining is comparable to other economic activities. The index is composed by of environmental indicators like water and energy consumption combined with an indicator of landscape fragmentation, using remote sensing data and geoprocessing. A comparative study considering a ten-year period was carried out with the biggest iron ore mine in Brazil, N5W, and the largest Brazilian soybean producer, the Sorriso County, in the Mato Grosso State to illustrate the methodology.

  12. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  13. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  14. Analysis of Pfizer compounds in EPA's ToxCast chemicals-assay space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Falgun; Greene, Nigel

    2014-01-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the ToxCast program in 2007 with the goal of evaluating high-throughput in vitro assays to prioritize chemicals that need toxicity testing. Their goal was to develop predictive bioactivity signatures for toxic compounds using a set of in vitro assays and/or in silico properties. In 2009, Pfizer joined the ToxCast initiative by contributing 52 compounds with preclinical and clinical data for profiling across the multiple assay platforms available. Here, we describe the initial analysis of the Pfizer subset of compounds within the ToxCast chemical (n = 1814) and in vitro assay (n = 486) space. An analysis of the hit rate of Pfizer compounds in the ToxCast assay panel allowed us to focus our mining of assays potentially most relevant to the attrition of our compounds. We compared the bioactivity profile of Pfizer compounds to other compounds in the ToxCast chemical space to gain insights into common toxicity pathways. Additionally, we explored the similarity in the chemical and biological spaces between drug-like compounds and environmental chemicals in ToxCast and compared the in vivo profiles of a subset of failed pharmaceuticals having high similarity in both spaces. We found differences in the chemical and biological spaces of pharmaceuticals compared to environmental chemicals, which may question the applicability of bioactivity signatures developed exclusively based on the latter to drug-like compounds if used without prior validation with the ToxCast Phase-II chemicals. Finally, our analysis has allowed us to identify novel interactions for our compounds in particular with multiple nuclear receptors that were previously not known. This insight may help us to identify potential liabilities with future novel compounds. PMID:24328225

  15. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  16. Experimental economics for web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Tagiew, Rustam; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Amroush, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a step towards research infrastructure, which makes data from experimental economics efficiently usable for analysis of web data. We believe that regularities of human behavior found in experimental data also emerge in real world web data. A format for data from experiments is suggested, which enables its publication as open data. Once standardized datasets of experiments are available on-line, web mining can take advantages from this data. Further, the que...

  17. Rapid casting and new technologies in investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Sánchez R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping is a manufacturing process which is different to traditional methods as material is not removed or formed but added to obtain the designed pieces. It is not lust used for manufacturing finished products but in manufacturing tooling for speeding up other manufacturing processes. This paper introduces rapid prototyping as a support technique for the lost wax process (investment casting. It gives a brief description of the different techniques implemented to date and materials used for making articles as part of the lost wax process.

  18. Newly developed vacuum differential pressure casting of thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanpu DONG

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The newly designed vacuum differential pressure casting (VDPC unit was introduced, by which the capability of the VDPC process to produce thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings, that are free from oxides, gas pore and shrinkage cavity and thus enhance overall part quality, was studied. Experimental results were compared with those of traditional gravity pouring and vacuum suction casting. The first series of experiments were focused on investigating thecastability of thin section Al-alloy casting. In the second series of experiments the metallographic evidence, casting strength and soundness were examined. Finally, case studies of very interesting thin walled complicated casting applications were described. The advantages of the described technique have made possible to produce thin walled complicated Al-alloy casting (up to a section thickness of 1 mm, which is not practical for gravity pouring and vacuum suction casting.

  19. Ferritic-austenitic cast steel - selected problems

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Stradomski

    2011-01-01

    The author has been involved in the problems occurring in the manufacture of ferritic-austenitic cast steel castings for many years. The author’s remarks and investigation results reported in this article will enable potential manufacturers to determine their own technical capabilities and structural determinants related to the chemical composition of material, which are crucial to the good quality of a casting. Particular emphasis should be laid on the role of enhanced carbon content, the pr...

  20. Model castings with composite surface layer - application

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szajnar; P. Wróbel; T. Wróbel

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in foundingprocess a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase inhardness and aberasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generallyapplied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying). In range of studies was mad...

  1. Quality control of cast brake discs

    OpenAIRE

    Stawarz, M.

    2008-01-01

    The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in part...

  2. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early wr...

  3. Thermal gradient analysis of solidifying casting

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sucho?; M. Cholewa; M. Kondracki

    2008-01-01

    For description of casting solidification and crystallization process the thermal derivative analysis (TDA) is commonly used. Besides the process kinetics considered in TDA method to describe the solidification process, the thermal gradient analysis can be also used for this purpose [1, 2]. In conducted studies analysis of thermal gradient distribution inside the solidifying wedge casting was shown which enabled determination of heat flow intensity on casting section.

  4. Creep-resistant austenitic cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    B. Piekarski; J. Kubicki

    2008-01-01

    The study reviews the reference literature and gives some results of own investigations concerning changes of phase composition that take place in creep-resistant austenitic cast steel of two generations due to an ageing treatment. The cast steel of the first generation contains in its chemical composition only the alloying additives like nickel, chromium and silicon. Compared with the first group, the chemical composition of the second generation cast steel has been enriched with additions o...

  5. New progresses of Chinese art casting

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese art casting with 5 000 years history has been rapidly developed in recent ten years. This benefits from the great development of Chinese economy, the large-scale urban construction and transformation, the increasing demands for the cultural work of art, the loose religious environment and the expanding international market. The Art Casting Technical Committee of China Foundry Association has been established for 10 years. Almost 90 art casting enterprises joined in the organizatio...

  6. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    OpenAIRE

    HAN Hai; XIE Cheng-mu; ZHAO Jia-qi

    2005-01-01

    The development and research of casting titanium alloy and its casting technology, especially its application in aeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of moulding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problem and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  7. Change Detection over Sokolov Open-Pit Mining Area, Czech Republic, Using Multi-Temporal HyMAP Data (2009-2010).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojík, P.; Kopá?ková, V.; Zelenková, K.; Mišurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanuš, Jan; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben-Dor, E.

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2011 - (Bruzzone, L.), 81800T ISBN 9780819488077. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 8180). [Conference on Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XVII. Prague (CZ), 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/09/1989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : spectral change * coal mining * change detection * HyMap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Biological and chemical development of mining lakes. Status report 1998/1999. Data acquisition, methods, trends; Biologische und chemische Entwicklung von Bergbaurestseen. Statusbericht 1998/1999. Bestandsaufnahme, Methoden und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, K.; Tuempling, W. von (eds.)

    2000-07-01

    Acidification of mining lakes in central Germany and the Lausitz was investigated for three aspects: 1.) biological dynamics and material effects on plancton abundance and variety; 2.) Chemical and microbiological interactions between sediments influenced by mining (authochthone, allochthone) and water phase 3. 3.) Limnological and hydrochemical development of water systems in abandoned mining areas with a view to environmental quality and/or utilisation. The following objects were investigated. a) Goitsche open-cast mine (Bitterfeld district); b) Lake 111 (Koyne/Pllessa district), - Lakes 107, 117 (Koyne/Plessa district), Lake b (Schlabendorf-Nord district). [German] Kernproblem in den Braunkohlengebieten der neuen Bundeslaender ist die Versauerung von Bergbauseen. Die Bearbeitung des Verbundprojektes konzentriert sich in den Bergbaufolgelandschaften der Regionen Mitteldeutschland und Lausitz auf bergbaulich gestoerte und in Veraenderung befindliche Oberflaechenwasser-Systeme. Arbeitziele sind 1.) die Vertiefung der Kenntnisse zur biologischen Dynamik und zum stofflichen Einfluss auf die Diversitaet und Abundanz von Plankton in sauren Bergbauseen 2) Untersuchungen zu spezifischen Wechselwirkungen (chemisch, mikrobiologisch) zwischen bergbaulich beeinflussten Sedimenten (autochthon, allochthon) und der Wasserphase 3. Betrachtungen der limnologischen und hydrochemischen Entwicklung der Wassersysteme in Bergbaufolgelandschaften hinsichtlich Umweltqualitaetszielen und/oder Nutzungszielen. Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes werden von den Sektionen Gewaesserforschung, Hydrogeologie, Analytik, Bodenforschung und Umweltmikrobiologie in Mitteldeutschland und der Lausitz folgende Objekte bearbeitet: a) Tagebaukomplex Goitsche (Bitterfelder Revier) und b) Restloch 111 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch 107, 117 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch B (Revier Schlabendorf-Nord). (orig.)

  9. Slope modification of open pit wall using a genetic algorithm - case study: southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K., Goshtasbi; M., Ataei; R., Kalatehjary.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a genetic algorithm is used in a heavily jointed rock mass in order to investigate the critical circular slip surface and modification of slope surface. This method was applied to the southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine. The mine is the largest bauxite deposit in Iran, [...] located to the northeast of the town of Jajarm in the Khorasan province. Estimated reserve of bauxite in this deposit is about 160 million tonnes. Field and laboratory investigations were conducted in order to determine rock mass behaviour. A genetic algorithm code that uses the Simplified Bishop method as an objective function was developed for finding the safety factor of circular slip surfaces. Sensitivity analysis was applied to determine the optimum values of the genetic algorithm variables, such as population size, selection method, crossover and mutation rates. After finding the critical circular slip surface, slope modification is carried out by removing unstable sections from marked critical slip surfaces, and this process is repeated until the last unsafe section is removed. Based on this code, modification occurred during 7 steps, by reaching a safety factor of 1.3 in the last step. Finally, the modified slope angle of the southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine was determined to be 48.44 degrees.

  10. Cast Iron And Mineral Cast Applied For Machine Tool Bed - Dynamic Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K?pczak N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron and mineral cast are the materials most often used in the machine structural elements design (bodies, housings, machine tools beds etc.. The materials significantly differ in physical and mechanical properties. The ability to suppress vibration is one of the most important factors determining the dynamic properties of the machine and has a significant impact on the machining capabilities of a machine tool. Recent research and development trends show that there is a clear tendency to move away from the traditional iron casting to the mineral casting, due to better dynamic properties of the latter. However mineral cast as a structural material for the whole machine tools bed turns out to be insufficient due to its poor mechanical strength properties. The best solution should benefit from the advantages of the cast iron and mineral cast materials while minimizing their drawbacks. The paper presents numerical modal analysis of two lathe beds: the first one made of gray cast iron and the second one made of hybrid connection of cast iron and mineral cast. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the dynamic properties of two bodies of similar shapes made in the traditional (cast iron and innovative hybrid (cast iron and mineral cast technology. In addition, an analysis of the static structure rigidity of the two beds was performed. During the simulation studies it was found a significant increase in dynamic stiffness and static rigidity of the machine tool body made of hybrid connection of cast iron and mineral cast. The results of numerical simulations have confirmed the desirability of using hybrid construction because the dynamic properties of such a body are more advantageous in comparison with the conventional body made of cast iron.

  11. Computer precision simulation for titanium casting centrifugal mold filling of prescision titanium castings

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Daming; Li, Xin(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing, China); Geving AN

    2004-01-01

    Computer simulation codes were developed based on proposed mathematical model for centrifugal mold filling processes and previous computer software for 3D mold filling and solidification of castings. Sample simulations were implemented for mold filling processes of precision titanium castings under gravity and different centrifugal casting techniques. The computation results show that the alloy melt has a much stronger mold filling ability for thin section castings unde a centrifugal force fi...

  12. The structure of abrasion-resisting castings made of chromium cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kopyci?ski; Guzik, E.; S. Piasny

    2011-01-01

    In this study presents the analyse of chrome iron cast structure (as-cast condition) which are used in rugged conditions abrasion-percussive and high temperature. While producing the casts of chrome iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technologi cal process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Cr alloy Ni, Mo or Cu and then proper heat treatment leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. Then it is possible to develop high mechanical properties which...

  13. Enrichment of Casting Surface in Founding Process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szajnar; P. Wróbel; T. Wróbel

    2007-01-01

    A lot of cast steel and cast iron properties, also usable, depend on physical and chemical properties of surface layer, such as: hardness, corrosion resistance, abrasive wear resistance. The paper presents directly method of surface enrichment on casting in founding process. Layer in form of high-speed steel HS 18–0–1plate was placed on G25CrSiMnMoNi 4–4–4–2,5–4 cast steel hammer of crusher. To investigations it was used light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Microanalysis of chem...

  14. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  15. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for...

  16. Ductile iron castings fabricated using metallic moulds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features and suitability of high requirements ductile iron castings production using metallic moulds have been studied in the present work. The structural and mechanical properties of the produced castings have been analysed and compared to the corresponding ones but fabricated using green sand moulds according to a conventional production process. The higher cooling rate in the metallic moulds is the main cause for the appearance of the detected structural changes in castings. The mechanical and microstructural properties obtained directly on castings are remarkable due to the higher nodule count among other factors. Finally, the benefits and inconveniences found in this kind of production methodology using metallic moulds are also discussed. (Author)

  17. REDUCING DEFECTS ON STONE CRUSHER CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Subrahmanyam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal casting involves pouring molten metal into a mould containing a cavity of the desired shape to produce a molten product. Foundry industry suffers from poor quality and productivity due to the large number of process parameters, combined with lower penetration of manufacturing automation and shortage of skilled workers compared to other industries. Global buyers demand defect-free castings and strict delivery schedule, which foundries are finding it very difficult to meet. The casting is then removed from the mould and excesses material is removed, often using shot blasting, grinding or welding processes. The product may then undergo a range of processes such as heat treatment, polishing and surface coating or finishing. Unfortunately, this is not an easy task, since casting process involves complex interactions among various parameters and operations For achieving the defect free casting, Design of Casting process is very necessary. By fallowing the sequence of designed steps, the designed casting will be prepared. In this work, we present a 3-step approach to casting defect identification, analysis and rectification. Casting the defects will be identified Visual inspection, MPI (magnetic particle inspection, U.T (ultrasonic testing, R.T (Radiographic testing, and Final inspection. By all these inspections defects need to be diagnosed such as correctly for appropriate remedial measures, otherwise new defects may be introduced. Some defects diagnosed as cracks, Undersurface cracks, External slag inclusions, shrinkages, gas generated defects. These defects will be analyzed and rectification processes fallowed, so finally defects will reduced.

  18. Aluminium Alloy Cast Shell Development for Torpedoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sand-cast aluminium alloy cylindrical shells were developed for the advanced experimental torpedo applications. The components had intricate geometry, thin-walled sections, and stringent property requirements. The casting defects, such as shrinkage, porosity, incomplete filling of thin sections, cold shuts, inclusions and dimensional eccentricity, etc were found inthe initial castings trials. improvements in casting quality were achieved through modified methodology, selective chilling, risering, and by introducing ceramic-foam filters in the gatingsystem. The heat-treated and machined components met radiographic class I grade C/E standards, mechanical properties to BS1490 specifications, and leakage and hydraulic pressure testrequirements relevant for such applications.

  19. Papers of the CIM Toronto 2005 mining industry conference and exhibition : Mining rocks. Online ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference highlighted technical innovations and best business practices within Canada's mining industry. It provided an opportunity for geologists, engineers and mine operators to exchange the latest information concerning innovations, challenges and discoveries in the mining industry in Canada and internationally. A session on mine management focused on underground mining operations, maintenance engineering, open-pit operations and geotechnical engineering. A session on current projects focused on the activities involved with developing properties from the exploration phase through to production. Mine economics, geology, mine design and management practices were highlighted along with technology and advanced systems, underground technologies, open-pit technologies, metallurgy, and developments in mineral processing. The presentations also addressed the issue of how to ensure the development of mineral resources so they continue to be integrally important to Canada's economic prosperity. Some of the challenges facing the industry include environmental, community, human resource and automation issues. The trade show allowed leading equipment and service providers to exhibit the latest tools and equipment driving mine production. The exhibition included technology that has contributed to environmental, geotechnical, production, maintenance and processing performance and safety. More than 43 technical papers were presented at the conference, of which 5 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  1. Spray casting project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  2. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  3. Corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Marie; Cai, Zhuo; Oda, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Toru

    2005-05-01

    It has recently been found that alloying with copper improved the inherently poor grindability and wear resistance of titanium. This study characterized the corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. Alloys (0.9 or 3.5 mass % Cu) were cast with the use of a magnesia-based investment in a centrifugal casting machine. Three specimen surfaces were tested: ground, sandblasted, and as cast. Commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V served as controls. Open-circuit potential measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air + 10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium deaerated by N(2) + 10% CO(2). Polarization resistance (R(p)), Tafel slopes, and corrosion current density (I(corr)) were determined. A passive region occurred for the alloy specimens with ground and sandblasted surfaces, as for CP Ti. However, no passivation was observed on the as-cast alloys or on CP Ti. There were significant differences among all metals tested for R(p) and I(corr) and significantly higher R(p) and lower I(corr) values for CP Ti compared to Ti-6Al-4V or the alloys with Cu. Alloying up to 3.5 mass % Cu to Ti-6Al-4V did not change the corrosion behavior. Specimens with ground or sandblasted surfaces were superior to specimens with as-cast surfaces. PMID:15744719

  4. The project of the mining method for the exploatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Viliam

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This part of monography in a short form deals with the project of the block stoping mining - Open chamber stoping from sublevel drifts. In the paper is described the needs of mining method for tetrahedrite ores in Rož?ava – Strieborná vein. The proposal block mining method is a very efficient, because use the LHD –system mechanization. The putting of this mechanization in the block enable relative high stope output achieve.

  5. The project of the mining method for the exploatation

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer Viliam

    1998-01-01

    This part of monography in a short form deals with the project of the block stoping mining - Open chamber stoping from sublevel drifts. In the paper is described the needs of mining method for tetrahedrite ores in Rož?ava – Strieborná vein. The proposal block mining method is a very efficient, because use the LHD –system mechanization. The putting of this mechanization in the block enable relative high stope output achieve.

  6. High time to address the issue of territorial limits: the case of the CSA opencast mine; Sbornik, Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In 1991 the Czech Government passed Decree No. 444, whose purpose was to identify the final territorial limits for the advance of individual open cast mines and their external dumps. The greatest impact was caused by discontinuation of the advance of CSA mine, which was to stop in front of the Horni Jiretin/Cernice villages. This way, not only the possibility to extract high quality coal reserves in the central part of the coal based was disabled, but electricity production in thermal power plants was also time-limited at the same time. In 2004, National Energy Policy was developed and approved through a governmental resolution. Within the recommended variant of this policy it is proposed to reconsider the territorial mining limits as, unless they are partially lifted, it will not be possibly to fully satisfy the fuel consumption of thermal power plants. Some of the objections raised about the Territorial Development Plan for the Ustecky Region and ways of overcoming them are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Arsenic, copper and zinc occurrence at the Wangaloa coal mine, southeast Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste piles, created from open cast coal mining activities at the abandoned Wangaloa mine in SE Otago, have exposed pyrite (FeS2) to atmospheric conditions. This has led to the acidification of the surface tailings and nearby drainage waters (acid mine drainage, AMD). Mobilisation of trace metals arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) has occurred, partly as a result of the low pH levels (ca. pH 2-4), leading to elevated concentrations of these metals in receiving waters. Authigenic pyrite deposited in a marginal marine coal-forming environment is enriched in As with levels reaching up to 100 ppm. Copper and Zn in solid solution are not elevated above background levels in either coal measures or associated pyrite. Water discharges, sediments, waste rock and background samples were sampled and analysed during the driest (summer) and wettest (winter) seasons of 1998 and 1999. During the winter season, water discharging from the waste piles contained up to 0.7 ppm (mg/kg) As, as measured in 1998. During the 1999 wettest season, no such levels of As were observed, with the highest level attaining 0.07 ppm As. Copper and Zn were locally elevated in waters, with Zn concentrations reaching 1 ppm. During the summer season of 1999, only one sampling site recorded elevated metal concentrations. Adverse effects from the remnant waste piles appear to be highly localised due to downstream natural remediation processes occurring in a wetland area. The absence of strongly elevated metal concentrations during the drier season is a result of strongly depressed water levels within the waste piles. Flushing of acid and metals occurs when the water levels increase with the onset of the winter season. During the summer season, pyrite within the waste piles has been readily decomposing from the increased availability and transport of atmospheric oxygen

  8. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  9. Energy use in selected metal casting facilities - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppich, Robert E. [Eppich Technologies, Syracuse, IN (United States)

    2004-05-01

    This report represents an energy benchmark for various metal casting processes. It describes process flows and energy use by fuel type and processes for selected casting operations. It also provides recommendations for improving energy efficiency in casting.

  10. Data mining and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; D'Mello, Sidney; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Pardos, Zachary A; Rosé, Carolyn P

    2015-01-01

    An emerging field of educational data mining (EDM) is building on and contributing to a wide variety of disciplines through analysis of data coming from various educational technologies. EDM researchers are addressing questions of cognition, metacognition, motivation, affect, language, social discourse, etc. using data from intelligent tutoring systems, massive open online courses, educational games and simulations, and discussion forums. The data include detailed action and timing logs of student interactions in user interfaces such as graded responses to questions or essays, steps in rich problem solving environments, games or simulations, discussion forum posts, or chat dialogs. They might also include external sensors such as eye tracking, facial expression, body movement, etc. We review how EDM has addressed the research questions that surround the psychology of learning with an emphasis on assessment, transfer of learning and model discovery, the role of affect, motivation and metacognition on learning, and analysis of language data and collaborative learning. For example, we discuss (1) how different statistical assessment methods were used in a data mining competition to improve prediction of student responses to intelligent tutor tasks, (2) how better cognitive models can be discovered from data and used to improve instruction, (3) how data-driven models of student affect can be used to focus discussion in a dialog-based tutoring system, and (4) how machine learning techniques applied to discussion data can be used to produce automated agents that support student learning as they collaborate in a chat room or a discussion board. PMID:26263424

  11. Heavy metal pollution in mine-soil-plant system in S. Francisco de Assis - Panasqueira mine (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Candeias, Carla; Melo, Rita; Ávila, Paula Freire; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The active Panasqueira mine is a tin–tungsten (Sn–W) mineralization hosted by metasediments with quartz veins rich in ferberite. The economic exploitation has been focused on wolframite, cassiterite and chalcopyrite. The mineralization also comprises several sulphides, carbonates and silver sulphosalts. The mining and beneficiation processes produces arsenic-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings and open air impoundments that are the main source of pollution in the surroun...

  12. SURVEY ON HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK TRAFFIC ANALYSIS WITH SUPERVISED AND UNSUPERVISED DATA MINING TECHNIQUES?

    OpenAIRE

    D.Jayachitra; Dr. J. Jebamalar Tamilselvi?

    2014-01-01

    Network Traffic Analysis (NTA) in heterogeneous networks is one of the emerging research areas receiving substantial attention from both the research community and traffic analyzers. Many tasks in NTA can be naturally cast in a supervised and unsupervised learning model. Many supervised classification models and unsupervised clustering learning models in data mining have been proposed for heterogeneous network. Due to the importance of network traffic analysis in data mining research with the...

  13. The Influence of Selected Cast Parameters on Quality of Joint in Layered Castings

    OpenAIRE

    T. Wróbel; M. Cholewa

    2012-01-01

    In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working p...

  14. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    OpenAIRE

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness be...

  15. Low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast

    OpenAIRE

    Che Xin; Wang Di; Chen Lijia

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue failure is one of the main failure forms of Al-Si-Cu-Mg aluminum alloys. To feature their mechanical aspect of fatigue behavior, the low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys at room temperature was investigated. The experimental results show that both permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys mainly exhibit cyclic strain hardening. At the same total strain amplitude, the die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy shows higher cyclic deformation resis...

  16. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ganapathi Babu; A.Komali; V.Mythry; A.S.K Ratnam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

  17. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  18. Decision Tree Based Routine Generation (DRG) Algorithm: A Data Mining Advancement to Generate Academic Routine and Exam-time Tabling for Open Credit System

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiqur Md. Rahman; Sheik Shafaat Giasuddin; Rashedur M. Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze techniques for academic routine and exam time table generation for open credit system. The contributions of this paper are multi-folds. Firstly, a technique namely Decision tree based Routine Generation (DRG) algorithm is proposed to generate an academic routine. Secondly, based on the DRG concept, Exam-time Tabling algorithm (ETA) is developed to implement conflict free exam-time schedule. In open credit course registration system any student may choose a...

  19. Spatial Bimetallic Castings Manufactured from Iron Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a conception for manufacturing method of skeleton castings with composite features was shown. Main application of such castings are the working organs of machines subjected to intensive abrasive and erosive wear. Skeleton geometry was based on three-dimensional cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian co-ordinate system. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. For bimetallic castings preparation two Fe based alloys were used: L25SHMN cast steel for skeleton substrate and ZlCr15NiMo cast iron for working part of the casting. In presented work obtained structure was analyzed with indication of characteristic regions. Authors described phenomena occurring at the alloys interface and phases in transition zone. A thesis was formulated concerning localization of transition zone at the cast iron matrix – cast steel reinforcement interface. Direction of further studies were indicated.

  20. Structural examinations of selected copper castings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rzadkosz; A. Garbacz-Klempka; M. Kranc

    2010-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine the copper metallurgy and casting, taking into account both the historical problems of copper fab-rication as well as modern technology. Examinations were carried out on copper from archaeological sites and on copper produced nowa-days as cast parts for the power engineering industry.

  1. Roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is investigation of the ability of the high speed roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy. Appropriate twin roll caster to cast the 5182 strip was researched.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was an unequal diameter twin roll caster and a vertical type high speed twin roll caster equipped with mild steel rolls without parting material.Findings: are that the vertical type high speed twin roll caster was effective to cast 5182 strip at high speed. 5182 could be cast at 10 times higher speed than a conventional twin roll caster for aluminium alloy. 5182 could be cast by the mild steel roll using no-parting material without sticking.Research limitations/implications: is that ability of casting of the wide strip, that is wider than 600 mm, could not be investigated.Practical implications: 600 mm-width 5182 strip could be cast and this width is enough for some structural parts. 5182 could be cast into the strip at high productivity and low energy using the economy equipment and no-consumable good.Originality/value: The method to make economy sheet metal of aluminium alloy is imported. The economy alloy and economy process are essential to get economy aluminium alloy sheet.

  2. Model castings with composite surface layer - application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in foundingprocess a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase inhardness and aberasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generallyapplied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. In range of studies was made cast steel test castings withcomposite surface layer, which usability for industrial applications was estimated by criterion of hardness and aberasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral and quality of joint cast steel – (Fe-Cr-C. Based on conducted studies a thesis, that composite surface layer arise from liquid state, was formulated. Moreover, possible is control of composite layer thickness and its hardness by suitable selection of parameters i.e. thickness of insert, pouring temperature and solidification modulus of casting. Possibility of technology application of composite surface layer in manufacture of cast steel slide bush for combined cutter loader is presented.

  3. Casting of Titanium and its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Saha

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Titaniuni and its alloys have many applications in aerospace, marine and other engineering industries. Titanium requires special melting techniques because of its high reactivity at elevated temperatures and needs special mould materials and methods for castings. This paper reviews the development of titanium casting technology.

  4. EST2uni: an open, parallel tool for automated EST analysis and database creation, with a data mining web interface and microarray expression data integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST collections are composed of a high number of single-pass, redundant, partial sequences, which need to be processed, clustered, and annotated to remove low-quality and vector regions, eliminate redundancy and sequencing errors, and provide biologically relevant information. In order to provide a suitable way of performing the different steps in the analysis of the ESTs, flexible computation pipelines adapted to the local needs of specific EST projects have to be developed. Furthermore, EST collections must be stored in highly structured relational databases available to researchers through user-friendly interfaces which allow efficient and complex data mining, thus offering maximum capabilities for their full exploitation. Results We have created EST2uni, an integrated, highly-configurable EST analysis pipeline and data mining software package that automates the pre-processing, clustering, annotation, database creation, and data mining of EST collections. The pipeline uses standard EST analysis tools and the software has a modular design to facilitate the addition of new analytical methods and their configuration. Currently implemented analyses include functional and structural annotation, SNP and microsatellite discovery, integration of previously known genetic marker data and gene expression results, and assistance in cDNA microarray design. It can be run in parallel in a PC cluster in order to reduce the time necessary for the analysis. It also creates a web site linked to the database, showing collection statistics, with complex query capabilities and tools for data mining and retrieval. Conclusion The software package presented here provides an efficient and complete bioinformatics tool for the management of EST collections which is very easy to adapt to the local needs of different EST projects. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at http://bioinf.comav.upv.es/est2uni. This site also provides detailed instructions for installation and configuration of the software package. The code is under active development to incorporate new analyses, methods, and algorithms as they are released by the bioinformatics community.

  5. Calibration of Numerical Model Applied to a Shear Zone Located on a Slope in an Open Pit Mine—Case History

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Moraes da Gama; Bruno C. R. da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The instability of a pit mine slope diagnostic caused by the slipping of a localized deep shear zone is described. The slope was designed on ultra basic, serpentine and metabasite rock formations with an angle varying from 40 to 45 de- grees. The perturbed slope zone was classified as RMR 12 and the non-perturbed zone as RMR 75. The boundary of these zones is defined as the shear zone. The pit slope was field mapped in detail and the mechanical properties of the rock were obtained through a l...

  6. Optimization of casting conditions for heat and abrasion resistant large grey iron castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Lee

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation technology was applied for optimizing the casting design and conditions in large cast iron castings for marine engine. By the simulation of mold filling and solidification sequences the problems of the previous casting conditions were analyzed and marked improvements for large cylinder liner parts were derived from these results. Especially the amount and positions of chills were optimized to increase the mechanical properties and to minimize the shrinkage and microporosity in the castings. Ultrasonic testing, penetration testing and mechanical property testing were carried out for the parts with the modified casting conditions. It showed that no defects in the castings were found and the productivity could be distinctly increased.The mechanical properties satisfied also the specification demanded.

  7. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.

  8. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  9. Overview of Digital Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Xinming Lu; Lina Yi; Xuedong Du; Jiangtao Ji

    2010-01-01

    At the background of developing digital mine rapidly, this study discusses the main contents of digital mine and gives brief descriptions of the components of digital mine. It also introduces the development of 3D technology in detail, describes the present developments and the existing problems of digital mine and shows the direction for creating a safe, high-yield and high-efficiency digital mine.

  10. A Simple Method for Making Diagnostic Casts for Dental Implants Using Acrylic Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Siadat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple implants in the same jaw requires a detailed knowledge of abutment angulation. The position and angulation of the abutments play an important role in treatment planning and fabrication of the custom tray. Therefore diagnostic casts thatcontain cover screws may cause problems during implant therapy.The current article describes a technique for making a preliminary cast with acrylic custom abutments in order to help the clinician select an appropriate impression technique and evaluate the location and angulations of the implant bodies. This method can also aid the technician to provide adequate and proper space for the fabrication of an open custom tray.

  11. University of Queensland mine tailings investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was undertaken into an area contaminated with uranium tailings located at the site of a former pilot mill at the University of Queensland Experimental Mine Site. The extent of the radiological contamination was assessed and the contaminant pathways away from the Mine Site evaluated. A health risk assessment was made and decontamination options examined. Removal of the tailings from the Mine Site to the nearest uranium mine tailings impoundment was the preferred option. Mary Kathleen Uranium Ltd was in the final stages of rehabilitation of its tailings sites and the open-cut mining method used there had left an open pit which was considered suitable as a repository for low specific activity tailings from the University. The tailings were transported there by truck and their removal has resulted in a successful decontamination of the area. It can be expected that as now the contaminant inputs into the groundwater have been removed, contaminant levels in the groundwater will attenuate with time on the floodplain at the Experimental Mine Site. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Design of Overall Slope Angle and Analysis of Rock Slope Stability of Chadormalu Mine Using Empirical and Numerical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Rasouli Maleki; Mohammad Mahyar; Kambiz Meshkabadi

    2011-01-01

    In engineering projects associated with rock mechanic science like open pit mines, assessment and slope stability of mine walls is one of the important performance in generate of these structures. Estimating and knowledge of stable slope angle is one of main parts that should be occurring to special attention in open pit mines studies phase. Considering the importance of economic costs in mining issues, the need for appropriate design slope angle that can cause an adverse minimize project cos...

  13. Oil sands mining and materials handling technology in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehata, M. [Krupp Canada Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The vast oil sands deposits of Northern Alberta in Canada constitute an estimated reserve potential of more than 1.6 trillion barrels of bitumen. 175 billion barrels of those deposits are recoverable with existing technology, and 35 billion barrels are accessible by open pit mining. ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik, through its subsidiary Krupp Canada, has provided key equipment for oil sands open pit mining for decades. (orig.)

  14. Selection and heat treatments of materials for caterpillar links of brown coal mining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajczyk, A.; Pekalska, L.; Pekalski, G. (Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland))

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the L35GSM alloy cast steel developed and patented in Poland (patent No 50346, 1966). Steel composition is the following: carbon content 0.32-0.40%, manganese content 1.20-1.40%, silicon content 0.60-0.80%, molybdenum content 0.30-0.40%, maximum phosphorus content to 0.030%, maximum sulfur content to 0.030%. Laboratory tests of the alloy cast steel and records of wear and service life of machine parts of bucket wheel excavators used in brown coal surface mines in Poland show that the L35GSM alloy cast steel could replace Hadfield manganese cast steel used for manufacturing caterpillar links. The L35GSM alloy cast steel is less expensive and is characterized by mechanical properties similar to the Hadfield cast steel. The L35GSM steel is characterized by a higher resistance to wear on soft ground than that of the Hadfield cast steel. The L35GSM alloy cast steel is also characterized by better machinability and better welding properties. Its properties are easily controlled by surface hardening or by heat treatments. 19 refs.

  15. Countermeasures for increasing sequence continuous casting; Renchu kinosei taikabutsu zaishitsu, kozo kaizen ni yoru renrenchusu kojosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Masato; Shinagawa, Hiroaki; Kamada, Ryuji; Hiraga, Yutaka; Hara, Takayasu [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    In the second continuous casting line of Kure Iron Works, Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. improvement of the continuous casting counts per tundish was attempted for a target of max. 20. The results are as follows: (1) Non-SiO{sub 2} conversion of material for the long nozzle immersed part: About 20% improvement of durability compared with a conventional material to clear 0.059 mm/min of the targeted erosion speed when 20 CCC/TD is realized, (2) Durability improvement of SN plate: About 20% durability improvement was attained compared with a conventional material by the adoption of a non-SiO{sub 2} material, (3) Erosion resistance improvement of the immersed nozzle slug line part: Castable period was extended to 1 ch life improvement by increasing zirconia content, (4) Rise of stopper full open position: The rise of the full open position produced less variation of melt level than the conventional structure without increase of the SN opening, enabling plugging prevention between the stopper head and the upper nozzle which was an objective of this improvement, (5) Structure improvement of the upper nozzle: This improvement successfully prevented leaks from damage of the casting stop nozzle metal case and enabled casting under low gas flow even in TD nozzle plugging. These improvements gave a possibility to achieve max. 20 CCC/TD. (NEDO)

  16. Preliminary assessment of the zooplankton community composition in a region under the influence of a uranium mine (Caldas, Southeastern Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit consists of an open cast mine (CM), its mining waste areas, facilities for the physical treatment of the ore, and a chemical treatment plant for uranium extraction. At CM, the processes of acid drainage create effluents, which are treated by chemical processes and, thereafter, disposed of in Antas dam. The objective of the present study was to make an inventory of zooplanktonic and describe the physicochemical characteristics of site CM and at the site of treated effluents disposal (site 41), located at Antas dam. Water samples were collected in October/08 and January/09, in order to describe the abiotic variables and the zooplankton community. The average values of conductivity at sites CM and 41 were 2415 and 422 ?/cm2, respectively. Values of pH at site CM remained acid, whereas, at site 41 we recorded values near neutrality. The concentrations of total nutrients at both sampling sites were higher in the rainy season. Zooplankton species richness present at site CM was lower than at site 41, and there were only two identified species Bosmina sp and Keratella americana. At site 41 we recorded more species, mainly of the Rotifera. Among Cladocera, we identified two species, regarding Copepoda, the orders Cyclopoida and Calanoida were present. At site CM the density values were lower compared to site 41. The preliminary assessment of the zooplankton community showed lower values of species richness and density at site CM, what may be probably explained by the adverse environmental conditions for zooplankton community. (author)

  17. Extremely acidic mine lake ecosystems in Lusatia (Germany) : characterisation and development of sustainable, biology-based acidity removal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are approximately 500 infilled open-cast lignite pits in Germany that are extremely acidic because of high concentrations of dissolved metals, mostly iron and aluminium. The mining lakes have pH values of 2.4 to 3.4 and also have high sulphate concentrations. Efforts are being made to neutralize the lakes for recreational purposes. The acidity can be removed from the lakes in an economical and environmentally sustainable manner by flooding through diversion of neutral, nutrient-rich river water. This paper described the living conditions of the acidic mining lakes in the Lausitz region of Germany and summarized the benefits of the controlled eutrophication approach to enhance natural, self-sustaining processes for acid neutralization. Compared to infilling with river water, eutrophication increases lake productivity and removes acidity through sediment bound and water column biologically-mediated processes. The study involved basic research on particle transport in streams and lakes, pelagic food web interactions and submerged macrophyte metabolism. It also looked at the role of wetlands, bacterial interactions at the water-sediment interface, and modelling. It was shown that the addition of phosphorus and carbon to the water column can enhance primary production. Future studies will examine environmentally acceptable treatment strategies that offer an alternative to chemical treatment. 20 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  18. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U3O8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U3O8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  19. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author).

  20. Latest advances and developments in aluminum shape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. The mechanical properties of aluminum castings strongly depend upon their microstructure constituents and particularly cast defect population and distribution. To produce quality castings with quantifiable properties, the key is to control multi-scale defects and microstructure in the casting. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME approach is also discussed. The most effective way to optimize the processes and achieve the desirable mechanical properties is through the development and exploitation of robust and accurate multi-scale computational models.

  1. Porosity inside a metal casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pores and voids often form in metal castings on Earth (above) making them useless. A transparent material that behaves at a large scale in microgravity the way that metals behave at the microscopic scale on Earth, will help show how voids form and learn how to prevent them. Scientists are using the microgravity environment on the International Space Station to study how these bubbles form, move and interact. The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox aboard the International Space Station uses a transparent material called succinonitrile that behaves like a metal to study this problem. Video images sent to the ground allow scientists to watch the behavior of the bubbles as they control the melting and freezing of the material. The bubbles do not float to the top of the material in microgravity, so they can study their interactions.

  2. Environmental geology of the Summitville mine, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Atkinson, William W.

    1994-01-01

    Although altered and mineralized rocks at Summitville mine in Colorado contain minimal amount of sulfide minerals, acid mine problems existed primarily because of the pervasive alteration of the surrounding rocks, through hydrothermal process, to highly siliceous and argillized rocks that are incapable of buffering acidic waters during weathering. The problems are compounded by the continued exposure of altered and mineralized rocks in open pit, heap leach pad and waste piles to oxygenated waters. Inadequate subsurface structural control and underground mine workings also greatly affect water quality and the location of acid mine drainage output. It is expected that with these initial results, geological studies on constrained acid-generation from ore and altered rocks will be pursued.

  3. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  4. NWIS Measurements for uranium metal annular castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes measurements performed with annular uranium metal castings of different enrichments to investigate the use of 252Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurements as a means to quantify the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in the casting. This work in FY 97 was sponsored by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the DOE Office of Technology Development Programs. Previous measurements and calculational studies have shown that many of the signatures obtained from the source-driven measurement are very sensitive to fissile mass. Measurements were performed to assess the applicability of this method to standard annular uranium metal castings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant under verification by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using the Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor. Before the measurements with different enrichments, a limited study of source-detector-casting moderator configurations was performed to enhance the correlated information. These configurations consisted of a casting with no reflector and with various thicknesses of polyethylene reflectors up to 10.16 cm in 2.54 cm steps. The polyethylene moderator thickness of 7.62 cm was used for measurements with castings of different enrichments reported here. The sensitivity of the measured parameters to fissile mass was investigated using four castings each with a different enrichment. The high sensitivity of this measurement method to fissile mass and to other material and configurations provides some advantages over existing safeguards methods

  5. Decree 2006-265/PRN of 18 August 2006 fixing the modalities of mining law application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decree fixes modalities of applying ordinance 93-16 of 2 march 1993 concerning mining law in Niger Republic and its subsequent modified text. Any petitioner, owner of mining title, prospecting authorization, opening and mining quarry, sub-leaser shall have an office in Niger Republic and notify it to the Minister of Mines and energy. each licence or lease is based on an agreement between the government and the society. Any change of status, capital or personnel of the company shall be noted to the Minister of Mines and energy. The company shall pay fiscal duties and respect rules and regulations concerning mines and quarries health and safety

  6. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity

  7. Desert towns for Niger's uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An illustrated report gives information on uranium mining carried out since 1968 at Arlil in the Niger Republic, where there are appreciable uranium deposits. The discovery of these and other deposits in the vicinity caused the opening up of a distant part of the Sahara. The problems which arise from the industrial structure for the settlement and development of the country are described. (UA)

  8. Cracks in high-manganese cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reasons which account for the formation of in service cracks in castings made from Hadfield steel were discussed. To explain the source of existence of the nuclei of brittle fractures, the properties of cast steel were examined within the range of solidification temperatures, remembering that feeding of this material is specially difficult, causing microporosity in hot spots. This creates conditions promoting the formation of microcracks which tend to propagate during service conditions involving high dynamic stresses, and explains why the cracks are mainly characterized by a brittle nature. The reason for crack formation in service are micro-porosities formed during casting solidification.

  9. Roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T; M. Mtsuo; D. Kunigo; Hatanaka, Y; R. Nakamuta; Watari, H; S. Kumai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is investigation of the ability of the high speed roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy. Appropriate twin roll caster to cast the 5182 strip was researched.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was an unequal diameter twin roll caster and a vertical type high speed twin roll caster equipped with mild steel rolls without parting material.Findings: are that the vertical type high speed twin roll caster was effective to cast 5182 strip at high speed....

  10. Improved Slip Casting Of Ceramic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Vasquez, Peter; Hicks, Lana P.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique of investment slip casting developed for making precise ceramic wind-tunnel models. Needed in wind-tunnel experiments to verify predictions of aerothermodynamical computer codes. Ceramic materials used because of their low heat conductivities and ability to survive high temperatures. Present improved slip-casting technique enables casting of highly detailed models from aqueous or nonaqueous solutions. Wet shell molds peeled off models to ensure precise and undamaged details. Used at NASA Langley Research Center to form superconducting ceramic components from nonaqueous slip solutions. Technique has many more applications when ceramic materials developed further for such high-strength/ temperature components as engine parts.

  11. CAST with its micromegas detector installed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) uses a prototype LHC dipole magnet to search for very weakly interacting neutral particles called axions, which should originate in the core of the Sun. The magnet converts the solar axions to photons which are then detected by an X-ray detector based on Micromegas technology. CAST's Micromegas detector has now been installed. Photos 01 02: General view of the CAST experiment with the Micromegas detector in place. Photo 03: Close-up of the micromegas set-up.

  12. Creep-resistant austenitic cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews the reference literature and gives some results of own investigations concerning changes of phase composition that take place in creep-resistant austenitic cast steel of two generations due to an ageing treatment. The cast steel of the first generation contains in its chemical composition only the alloying additives like nickel, chromium and silicon. Compared with the first group, the chemical composition of the second generation cast steel has been enriched with additions of niobium and/or titanium.

  13. COST AND SCHEDULE FOR DRILLING AND MINING UNDERGROUND TEST FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, D. W.

    1980-09-01

    Cost estimates and lead times are calculated for a mining and drilling program to establish underground test facilities at depths of 300, 700 and 1500 metres. Estimates are provided for establishing the facility in an existing mine and in a mine opened for the facility. The Stripa test facility in Sweden is used as a model in this study for the facility design and the drilling program. Cost estimates and lead time range from just less than $1.5 million and 10 months for an existing mine at 300 metres to $15 million and 58 months for a new mine at 1500 metres. Lithologies of granite, high-grade metamorphic rock. sedimentary rock with argillaceous strata at the depth of the facility. and tuffaceous rock were considered; the effect of lithology on the cost and schedule of opening a test facility was found to be relatively insignificant.

  14. Reversing design methodology of investment casting die profile based on ProCAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Yangqing

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Turbine blade is one of the critical components of aircraft engine. The performance of the engine depends on the shape and dimensions of components, but superalloy blade material cannot be easily machined. Although investment casting is an ideal process for such net-shape components, it requires an accurate determination of the casting-die profile. In this paper, a reversing design methodology for investment casting die using ProCAST is proposed. By combining the methods of simplifying grid files and quick sorting, the efficiency of sorting and matching can be largely improved. Further, the mould/die cavity anti-deformation system can be easily built. With ProCAST, the optimized die profile for investment casting can be established.

  15. Low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Xin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is one of the main failure forms of Al-Si-Cu-Mg aluminum alloys. To feature their mechanical aspect of fatigue behavior, the low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys at room temperature was investigated. The experimental results show that both permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys mainly exhibit cyclic strain hardening. At the same total strain amplitude, the die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy shows higher cyclic deformation resistance and longer fatigue life than does the permanent mold cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. The relationship between both elastic and plastic strain amplitudes with reversals to failure shows a monotonic linear behavior, and can be described by the Basquin and Cof?n-Manson equations, respectively.

  16. Use of freeze-casting in advanced burner reactor fuel design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, A. L.; Yablinsky, C. A.; Allen, T. R. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Burger, J.; Hunger, P. M.; Wegst, U. G. K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 8000 Cummings Hall, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper will detail the modeling of a fast reactor with fuel pins created using a freeze-casting process. Freeze-casting is a method of creating an inert scaffold within a fuel pin. The scaffold is created using a directional solidification process and results in open porosity for emplacement of fuel, with pores ranging in size from 300 microns to 500 microns in diameter. These pores allow multiple fuel types and enrichments to be loaded into one fuel pin. Also, each pore could be filled with varying amounts of fuel to allow for the specific volume of fission gases created by that fuel type. Currently fast reactors, including advanced burner reactors (ABR's), are not economically feasible due to the high cost of operating the reactors and of reprocessing the fuel. However, if the fuel could be very precisely placed, such as within a freeze-cast scaffold, this could increase fuel performance and result in a valid design with a much lower cost per megawatt. In addition to competitive costs, freeze-cast fuel would also allow for selective breeding or burning of actinides within specific locations in fast reactors. For example, fast flux peak locations could be utilized on a minute scale to target specific actinides for transmutation. Freeze-cast fuel is extremely flexible and has great potential in a variety of applications. This paper performs initial modeling of freeze-cast fuel, with the generic fast reactor parameters for this model based on EBR-II. The core has an assumed power of 62.5 MWt. The neutronics code used was Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) transport code. Uniform pore sizes were used in increments of 100 microns. Two different freeze-cast scaffold materials were used: ceramic (MgO-ZrO{sub 2}) and steel (SS316L). Separate models were needed for each material because the freeze-cast ceramic and metal scaffolds have different structural characteristics and overall porosities. Basic criticality results were compiled for the various models. Preliminary results show that criticality is achievable with freeze-cast fuel pins despite the significant amount of inert fuel matrix. Freeze casting is a promising method to achieve very precise fuel placement within fuel pins. (authors)

  17. Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca C. Rooney; Bayley, Suzanne E.; Schindler, David W.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release betwe...

  18. Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Diabetic Neuropathy | What is a Total Contact Cast? What is a total contact cast? A total contact cast is a cast used to treat ulcers (serious, deep sores) on a person’s foot. It consists of a fiberglass shell that fits around your leg and foot very ...

  19. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mack?; M. Horá?ek

    2012-01-01

    The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to theproduction of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out whatdimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mouldproduction, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the pr...

  20. Recent developments of InteCAST software and its applications on special castings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianxin; Liu, Ruixiang; Liliang CHEN

    2005-01-01

    With the development of computer technology, foundry CAE technology has made rapid progress. Commercial software packages of casting process simulation, therefore, have become more and more practical. This paper introduces both the recent developments and some applications of InteCAST software, a commercial numerical simulation software package for foundry industry, with more than 120 customers all over the world. The function modules of InteCAST8.0 and some new techniques, such as uneven mes...