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1

PLANT DIVERSITY OF THE ZHELTOKAMENSKIY OPEN CAST MINES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Floristic structure data of soil algae, lichens, mosses, and vascular plants are given. Rare plant species which are protected at the Ukrainian, European, and International levels were revealed. The species list of trees and bushes was conducted. The soil analysis was carried out by such parameters: pH-value, the maintenance of hygroscopic water, the maintenance of mineral substances. Vegetation biomass on the open cast mines sample areas is defined. Ecological analysis of the biotopes of registered algae species was performed. The ecological analysis of the vascular plants species biotopes was carried out.The estimation of the perspective vegetation pattern was suggested for natural restoration of the open cast mines. The plant species are selected according to the ecological and morphological characteristics for plant rehabilitation and planting of open cast mines.

Yarova T.A.

2012-11-01

2

Land degradation due to open cast mines-a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of open cast mines is increasing day by day in coal production. These open cast mines have direct and visible impacts on land surface. During mining stage, land is damaged and degraded. Excavation of coal and overburden dumping along with other infrastructural development is responsible for this damage and degradation. Impact of land degradation is observed as loss of forest cover, reduction and extinction of wildlife, reduction of agricultural land, destruction of geologic column, soil erosion, hydrological imbalance, socioeconomic problems, etc. in active mining areas. The present paper discusses the extent and impact of land degradation by open cast mining activity in Singrauli coal field. The paper also highlights the extent of land degradation particularly in one of the open cast mining projects of Singrauli coal field. It also suggests certain control measures to minimise the problem. (author)

3

Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

1995-12-01

4

Post-stripping processes and the landscape of mined areas in Estonian oil shale open casts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study describes creating a digital map of oil shale surface mining technology and evaluating mining influences on the landscape. The data from the digital map of the Sirgala open cast show a constant increase in the overburden thickness. Overburden material thickness influences directly the future landscape but it also sets limits to stripping equipment parameters and productivity. The present open cast landscape was divided into four classes: afforested area, area with poor vegetation, graded area, and spoils. The second purpose of the study is saving information in an easily accessible form for the future. For this purpose geographic information system for mining is used. (author)

5

Operational monitoring of Garzweiler II open-cast mine; Betriebsueberwachung Tagebau Garzweiler II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution describes the construction of the new operational monitoring system with its central process control system, communication infrastructure, and surface buildings of the Garzweiler II open-cast mine. The central monitoring and control system serves all unmanned belt conveyor systems of the open-cast mine and is also a communication and coordination center for open pit operation. It is manned 24 hours every day and thus also serves as a control office to call in case of emergencies or fires. (orig.)

Gau, W. [RWE Power AG, Technikzentrum Tagebaue, Frechen (Germany); Hennessen, B. [RWE Power AG, Zentrale Koeln (Germany); Scheiff, F. [RWE Power AG, Tagebau Garzweiler, Grevenbroich (Germany)

2006-10-15

6

Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

7

Research into the competitiveness of underground and open cast mines of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports on an assessment carried out of the competitiveness of mining coal in the Kuznetsk basin, for the coke oven market and for power generation. It was found that there was much room for improvement in productivity in most mines. Production costs were lower in some open-cast mines than in underground mines, perhaps because of expenses of land reclamation and other ecological measures. Little investment is allocated for this. Some coal preparation plants were found to have the potential for increased operation without additional investment. Coals of the Kuznetsk Basin do not contain sulphur and can be considered a superior fuel, but the problem of coal packing, advertising and market research is still acute. There is much room for improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises.

Trushina, G.S.; Krasilnikov, B.V. [Kuzbass State Engineering University (Russian Federation)

1996-05-01

8

Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In laboratory experiments, we tested reactive materials that may speed up the process of bacterial sulfate reduction. In in-situ experiments, we quantified nitrification rates. Based on the results, we are able to suggest promising technical measures that enhance natural attenuation processes at mine dump site and in mining lakes. The natural water cycle in lignite mining landscapes is heavily impacted by human activities. Basically, nature is capable of cleaning itself to a certain extent after mining activities stopped. However, it is our responsibility to support biogeochemical processes to make them more efficient and more sustainable. Isotopic monitoring proved to be an excellent tool for assessing the relevance and performance of different re-cultivation measures for a positive long-term development of the water quality in large-scale aquatic systems affected by the impact of lignite mining.

Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

2014-05-01

9

Suspended sediment load below open-cast mines for ungauged river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Placer mines are located in river valleys along river benches or river ancient channels. Frequently the existing mining sites are characterized by low contribution of the environmental technologies. Therefore open-pit mining alters stream hydrology and sediment processes and enhances sediment transport. The most serious environmental consequences of the sediment yield increase occur in the rivers populated by salmon fish community because salmon species prefer clean water with low turbidity. For instance, placer mining located in Kamchatka peninsula (Far East of Russia) which is regarded to be the last global gene pool of wild salmon Oncorhynchus threatens rivers ecosystems significantly. Impact assessment is limited by the hydrological observations scarcity. Gauging network is rare and in many cases whole basins up to 200 km length miss any hydrological data. The main purpose of the work is elaboration of methods for sediment yield estimation in rivers under mining impact and implementation of corresponding calculations. Subjects of the study are rivers of the Vivenka river basin where open-cast platinum mine is situated. It's one of the largest platinum mines in Russian Federation and in the world. This mine is the most well-studied in Kamchatka (research covers a period from 2003 to 2011). Empirical - analytical model of suspended sediment yield estimation was elaborated for rivers draining mine's territories. Sediment delivery at the open-cast mine happens due to the following sediment processes: - erosion in the channel diversions; - soil erosion on the exposed hillsides; - effluent from settling ponds; - mine waste water inflow; - accident mine waste water escape into rivers. Sediment washout caused by erosion was estimated by repeated measurements of the channel profiles in 2003, 2006 and 2008. Estimation of horizontal deformation rates was carried out on the basis of erosion dependence on water discharge rates, slopes and composition of sediments. Soil erosion on the exposed hillsides was estimated taking into account precipitation of various intensity and solid material washout during this period. Effluent from settling ponds was calculated on the basis of minimum anthropogenic turbidity. Its value is difference in background turbidity and minimal turbidity caused by effluent and waste water overflow. Mine waste water inflow was estimated due to actual data on water balance of purification system. Accident mine waste water escape into rivers was estimated by duration and material washout during accidents data measured during observation period. Total suspended sediment yield of rivers draining mine's territory is the sum of its components. Total sediment supply from mining site is 24.7 % from the Vivenka sediment yield. Polluted placer-mined rivers contribute about 35.4 % of the whole sediment yield of the Vivenka river. At the same time the catchment area of these rivers is less than 0.2 % from the whole Vivenka catchment area.

Kuksina, L.

2011-12-01

10

Environmental compatibility investigation of the Garzweiler II open cast mine project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on an EEC directive, the law on the investigation of ecological compatibility came into force in 1990. With the application of these European directives in national law, investigations to determine the ecological compatibility must now be carried out for projects to exploit brown coal. In this connection and in conjunction with the licensing procedure for Garzweiler II, Rheinbraun in 1992 for the first time compiled data on the investigations carried out to determine the ecological compatibility of an open cast mine. The data on these investigations include information on the necessity of the open cast mine and on alternative projects that have been examined, as well as a description of the project in question as regards its nature and extent. As far as the legally specified protected objects are concerned, i.e. people, water, air, nature (animals and plants, soil, climate and landscape) as well as cultural and other material objects, itemized data are furnished on the development and effects of the project and on countermeasures and the planned traffic and transport concept. (orig.)

11

THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL, PETROGRAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE SLOPE STABILITY IN THE OPEN CAST MINE OF GRADNA  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining techn...

Ivan Tomaši?; Zoran Peh

1992-01-01

12

Calorific value and amounts of oil shale delivered to power plants from mines and open casts in 1968-1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper provides the information about the fuel supply of Estonian oil shale fired power plants over the years 1968-1997. The data about the amounts and calorific value (as determined in the calorific bomb) of oil shale delivered to Estonian power plants by mines and open-casts are presented. (author)

13

New construction of the motorway A44 on a fresh open-cast mining dump; Neubau der A 44 auf einer frischen Tagebaukippe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the extensive mass movement, the open-cast mining Garzweiler migrates continuously from east to west. Beginning in 2006, the area of the original route of the A44 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Holz was integrated in the open-cast mining. The section between these two autobahn junctions was closed to the traffic. The flows of traffic were redirected onto the A61 autobahn. In 2017 the open-cast mining Garzweiler will approach the eastern side of the A61 autobahn. A further movement of this open-cast mining to the west in 2017 will make the section of the A61 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Wanlo unusable. The A44 autobahn will need to be expanded to six lanes. This is associated with the new construction or the reconstruction of the autobahn junctions Jackerath and Holz. Within the autobahn junction Jackerath the new A44 autobahn crosses the route of the autobahn A61 nearly perpendicular and goes ahead to a 7 km long left turn in the current working area of the open-cast mining Garzweiler. From this perspective, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the construction of the A44 autobahn on a fresh open-cast mining dump.

Vogt, N.; Heyer, D.; Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik; Dahmen, D.; Karcher, C.; Vinzelberg, G. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Gebirgs- und Bodenmechanik

2012-11-01

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Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

15

Geoelectrical surveys for monitoring acid mine drainage in groundwater at abandoned open-cast lignite mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques (DC resistivity measurements, Direct Push based electrical conductivity logging) were used to identify and localize acid mine drainage (AMD) at former lignite mining areas and adjacent groundwater bodies in Central Germany. Geoelectrical surface measurements are a fast and high-resolution survey method for the identification and discrimination of subsurface sections with different electrical properties. The method is based on a current injection by a pair of electrodes and electrical potential measurements by a second pair of electrodes. An electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface can be measured by the ratio of injected currents and measured potentials. Moreover, electrical conductivity logging (EC-logging) was applied along the profile line of the geoelectrical surface measurement. A direct-push machine was used to push a GeoProbe® Wenner-Probe attached to a rod string into the ridges of mining dumps for recording vertical electrical resistivity profiles. The main objective has been the comparison between the superficial resistivity measurements and the results from in-situ downhole EC-logging for identifying the presence of AMD. Both, surface and subsurface measurements yielded in a precise and corresponding imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. A good correlation of the results obtained by these non- to minimal invasive investigation techniques with conventional (i.e. groundwater sampling) approaches could be proven.

Stollberg, R.; Hirsch, M.; Weiss, H.

2013-05-01

16

THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL, PETROGRAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE SLOPE STABILITY IN THE OPEN CAST MINE OF GRADNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining technology was observed in the area. The local control of hydrogeologic properties, as well as climatic fluctuations of temperature and precipitation on the slope stability, was also recognized. It turned out that the structural relationships, characteristic of the manifold cataclased dolomite, stimulated the development of local instabilities, particularly during the period of low temperatures affecting the process of ground-water accumulation. When the temperatures are worm, the ground-water circulation is slow, exerting only the small-scale influence on the local instabilities.

Ivan Tomaši?

1992-12-01

17

Hydrological observation network for determination of water budget in open cast mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring and measurement programs are generally oriented towards answering a certain question. Every measurement approach has to consider the specific peculiarities of the investigated object, i.e. monitoring and measurement setups are based on Hypotheses and modelling aspects. The interaction between the measurement and the modelling concept bears the key to identify the governing factors of predominant processes. In the Lusatian mining district the landscape and water budget are heavily affected by pen cast lignite mining operations since many decades. For instance, the groundwater depression cone due sumping amounted to 2100 m2/d in the early 90s. The impacts of mining operations upon the natural water budget in form of sump drainage and water transfer from adjacent catchments are serious and pose severe consequences to the water resources management. The hydrological observation network included meteorological measurements (precipitation, global radiation, humidity, wind speed and direction), lake level by pressure probes, TDR probes, tensiometers and a seepage gravity lysimeter. The field observation resulted in a modelling concept where modules for actual evapotranspiration, soil water movement and surface runoff were specified and coupled with each other.

Biemelt, D.; Schapp, A.; Grünewald, U.

2009-04-01

18

Reclamation of the sites of open cast coal mining activity at the HBCM (Houilleres du Bassin du Centre et du Midi, France)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Collieries of the Centre and South (HBCM) have a long experience with open cast mining. They have, in collaboration with Ineris and specialists like Siras, applied a policy of reclamation of the former sites. They also have adopted for their present operations certain techniques which permit their restoration as fast as the extraction progresses. 7 photos

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Conceptional operational environmental protection on the example of spoil buffering in the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Konzeptioneller betrieblicher Umweltschutz am Beispiel der Abraumpufferung im Tagebau Garzweiler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rhenish lignite mining area in the area enclosed by the three cities of Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach is characterized by three long-term oriented open-pit mines with an annual production of 100 million tons. From this amount, nearly 90 million tons are used to supply four large power plants with a capacity of 10,700 MW and an annual electricity production of about 78 TWh. In the Rhenish lignite mining operation environmental protection has very different facets, and therefore requires individual concepts for the solution and implementation. An example is the mining field Garzweiler with distinct concentrations of pyrite sulfur. In order to address this issue comprehensively, four main fields of research and development fields will be met since the 1990ies covering the areas of chemical mechanisms of action, appropriate remedies and countermeasures as well as dealing with the technical solution and the integration into the open-cast mining operation.

Kwasny, Juergen [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany)

2011-08-15

20

Hearing Threshold, Loss, Noise Levels and Worker’s Profiles of an Open Cast Chromite Mines in Odisha, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The aims of the study were to describe the noise levels at an open cast chromite mine in Odisha, India, and the hearing threshold of its workers and to associate their hearing loss with their age, work station and length of employment at the mine. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the hearing threshold of chromite mine workers. Audiometric data from 500 subjects was collected at the mines’ hospital in the Sukinda Valley of Jajpur, Odisha, India. The latest audiometry data available for the period 2002 to 2008 was used in the analysis. Audiometric screening was performed using an audiometer (TRIVENI TAM-25 6025A) in a quiet environment by qualified technicians, audiologists or physicians. Tests were conducted on the subjects after they had completely rested for 16 hours or more after their day shift. Results: A maximum of 262 subjects (52.4%) were employed in the work zone area and a minimum of 2 subjects (0.4%) had less than 5 years working experience. The age of the subjects ranged from 29 to 59 years and their working experience ranged from 4 to 37 years. The subjects’ average mean hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz were 21.53 dBA, 23.40 dBA and 21.90 dBA, respectively. The maximum Leq and L90 levels exceeded the prescribed limits for commercial, residential and silence zones. The maximum Leq levels exceeded 95 dBA for large and medium heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs), both outside and at the operator’s position. Hearing loss due to the subjects’ work experience was found to be greater than that attributable to age and workstation. Conclusion: In our study population, the maximum noise levels for large and medium HEMMs and inside the cabins of HEMMs were found to be more than 95 dBA. This indicates that operators in this particular chromite mine at Odisha, India were exposed to noise levels exceeding 95 dBA for more than 10% of the monitoring time. The subjects’ hearing loss was also found to increase for every 10-year age interval and that for every 5 years of work experience at high fence. The subjects’ age and experience are significantly associated with hearing loss at all levels for frequencies of 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kHz, with older and more experienced workers having a higher incidence of hearing loss. PMID:23613650

Kerketta, Sunamani; Gartia, Rajendra; Bagh, Somanath

2012-01-01

21

Groundwater recharge in order to compensate the impacts of sump dewatering of the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Grundwasseranreicherung zum Ausgleich von Suempfungsauswirkungen des Tagebaues Garzweiler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) annually produces nearly 100 million tons of brown coal in the Rhenish lignite mining district within the triangle of cities formed by Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach (Federal Republic of Germany). The secure production of brown coal requires a drainage of the aquifers above the coal as well as relaxed aquifers beneath the deepest seams of coal. Actually, the sump dewatering being necessary for the operation of the open-cast mining amounts nearly 600 million m{sup 3} per year. The dewatering of the open-cast mining is performed by means of wells which were set up nearly five to ten years prior to the date of coal mining. Due to the ongoing coal mining, continuously new wells have to be set up. Moreover, the centres of drainage or the funnels of sump dewatering, respectively, move with the progress of coal mining. The measures of sump dewatering are optimized by minimizing the amounts and impacts of sump dewatering.

Forkel, Chrsitian [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Wasserwirtschaft und Wasserwirtschaftliche Planung und Genehmigung; Mueller, Christian [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Langfrist- und Entwaesserungsplanung

2013-01-15

22

Surface miner 3000 SM/3800 SM - a new machine for open-cast mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 3000 SM/3800 SM surface mining machine made by Wirtgen GmbH is described its working principles, mining performance, operations to date, application possibilities, fundamental requirements of deposits, combination with supporting transport systems and comparison with conventional technology. 5 references.

Goergen, H.; Arnold, L.; Tuschhoff, H.

1984-12-01

23

Construction of the new material distribution point in the open-cast mining. Inden from a geotechnical point of view; Bau des neuen Bandsammelpunktes im Tagebau. Inden aus geotechnischer Sicht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rhenish lignite mining area with the three open-cast minings Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden is located between the three cities Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach. Here, up to 100 million tons of brown coal is produced annually. The stocks of lignite amount to 3.24 billion tons. 20-25 million tons of lignite is produced annually in the open-cast mining Inden. In order to explore the further activities of the open-cast mine Inden with respect to the coal mining, the material distribution point had to be moved to a site in the north of the location Lamersdorf. The commissioning of the material distribution point took place in June 2008.

Weuffel, Michael; Wilden, Ulrich [RWE Power AG, Abteilung PCS-GE, Bergheim (Germany); Nendza, Matthias [Geotechnisches Buero Prof. Dr.-Ing. H. Duellmann, Aachen (Germany)

2013-05-15

24

Assessment of radioactivity associated with a low ore grade open cast mine at Banduhurang, Jharkhand, India and estimation of occupational exposure to the miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative behavior of 222Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha (LL?) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in 2006-2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (?g) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m-3 with respective geometric standard deviations (?g) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m-3 and ?g of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 ?Gy h-1 with respective ?g were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 ?Gy h-1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively. The ?g of LL? activity was observed to be 16 mBq m-3 with ?g of 1.9 mBq m-3. The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to 1.41 mSv y-1, which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y-1. (author)

25

Measures to reduce acidification of overburden material in Garzweiler II open-cast mine; Umsetzung von Massnahmen zur Verminderung der Abraumversauerung im Tagebau Garzweiler II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overburden material of the Garzweiler open-cast mine has a high pyrite content, so measures to prevent pyrite oxidation are required. At Garzweiler I, the first system for lime addition in dependence of production volumes and pyrite concentrations was installed successfully. On the basis of the information gained with this system, a new system was constructed that will serve the overburden of Garzweiler II. Construction of the new system accompanied construction of the new Garzweiler II belt conveyor turntable. Projecting, construction and commissioning were successful, and the system is currently starting regular operation. (orig.)

Eyll-Vetter, M. [Abt. Tagebauplanung und Umweltschutz, RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); Drijver, J. den [Abt. Energie- und Umweltpolitische Instrumente, RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); Michalak, U. [Technische Dienste, Maschinentechnik, RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); Kwasny, J. [Tagebau Garzweiler, RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany)

2006-10-15

26

A Complex Use of the Materials Extracted from an Open-Cast Lignite Mine  

Science.gov (United States)

The company Sokolovská uhelná, was the largest producer of city gas in the Czech Republic. After its substitution by natural gas the gasification technology became the basis of the production of electricity in the combine cycle power plant with total output 400 MW. For the possibility of gasification of liquid by- -products forming during the coal gasification a entrained-flow gasifier capable to process also alternative liquid fuels has been in installed. The concentrated waste gas with these sulphur compounds is conducted to the desulphurisation where the highly desired, pure, 96 % H2SO4 is produced. Briquettable brown coal is crushed, milled and dried and then it is passed into briquetting presses where briquettes, used mainly as a fuel in households, are pressed without binder in the punch under the pressure of 175 MPa. Fine brown coal dust (multidust) is commercially used for heat production in pulverized-coal burners. It forms not only during coal drying after separation on electrostatic separators, but it is also acquired by milling of dried coal in a vibratory bar mill. Slag from boilers of classical power plant, cinder form generators and ashes deposited at the dump are dehydrated and they are used as a quality bedding material during construction of communications in the mines of SUAS. Fly ash is used in building industry for partial substitution of cement in concrete. Flue gases after separation of fly ash are desulphurized by wet limestone method, where the main product is gypsum used, among others, in the building industry. Expanded clays from overburdens of coal seams, that are raw material for the production of "Liapor" artificial aggregate, are used heavily. This artificial aggregate is characterized by outstanding thermal and acoustic insulating properties. Przedsi?biorstwo Sokolovska uhelna jest najwi?kszym producentem gazu miejskiego w Republice Czeskiej. Po jego zast?pieniu przez gaz ziemny, technologia gazyfikacji sta?a si? podstaw? do produkcji elektryczno?ci w elektrowni o cyklu mieszanym o ca?kowitej mocy wyj?ciowej 400 MW. W celu umo?liwienia gazyfikacji ciek?ych produktów ubocznych gazyfikacji w?gla, zainstalowano na drodze przep?ywu generator gazu, umo?liwiaj?cy przetwarzanie alternatywnych paliw ciek?ych. Skoncentrowany gaz odlotowy zawieraj?cy zwi?zki siarki odprowadzany jest do instalacji odsiarczaj?cej, gdzie produkowany jest cenny produkt H2SO4, o wysokim stopniu czysto?ci (96%). W?giel brunatny nadaj?cy si? do produkcji brykietów jest kruszony, mielony i suszony, nast?pnie przechodzi przez proces brykietowania w odpowiednich prasach, gdzie formowane s? brykiety, poprzez ich sprasowanie pod ci?nieniem 175 MPa. Brykiety takie wykorzystywane s? powszechnie jako paliwo w gospodarstwach domowych. Drobnoziarniste py?y w?gla brunatnego (paliwa py?owe) wykorzystywane s? na skal? komercyjn? do produkcji ciep?a w paleniskach py?owych. Py?y w?glowe powstaj? nie tylko w trakcie suszenia w?gla po procesie oddzielania w separatorach elektrostatycznych, lecz tak?e w procesie mielenia suszonego w?gla w m?ynach wibracyjnych. ?u?el z kot?ów w konwencjonalnej elektrowni, popio?y z generatorów oraz te osadzaj?ce si? w instalacji podlegaj? wysuszeniu, nast?pnie wykorzystywane s? jako wysokiej jako?ci materia? na pod?o?e w ró?norodnych instalacjach. Popio?y lotne wykorzystywane s? przemy?le budowlanym jako cz??ciowe zamienniki cementu. Po oddzieleni popio?u lotnego, gazy wylotowe kierowane s? do instalacji odsiarczania z wykorzystaniem technologii wilgotnego wapienia, w wyniku tego procesu powstaje gips, wykorzystywany, miedzy innymi, w przemy?le budowlanym. Glinki z warstw nadk?adu nad pok?adami w?gla wykorzystywane s? powszechnie jako surowiec do produkcji sztucznego kruszywa "Liapor', wykazuj?cego wyj?tkowe w?a?ciwo?ci termiczne i d?wi?koizolacyjne.

Buryan, Petr; Bu?ko, Zden?k; Mika, Petr

2014-12-01

27

From old lignite mining pits to new lakes. The example of rehabilitation of the former open-cast mining facilities at Berzdorf, Germany; Von alten Gruben zu neuen Seen am Beispiel des Tagebaues Berzdorf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (LMBV) is project executor for the largest landscaping construction site in Europe. LMBV rehabilitates former open-cast mining facilities, as well as decommissioned coal-upgrading plants, to provide promising future areas for industrial complexes, and for landscapes that will attract a great number and variety of tourism developments. LMBV executes projects for the elimination of dangers as a result of the rising of groundwater to its former and natural level. In this context, the German Federal States involved in past and present lignite mining support extensive measures for enhancement of the standard of future use at the new lakes in Central Germany and in the Lausitz Region. This presentation shows the rehabilitation activities of LMBV as project executor in a great range of activities, by explaining the rehabilitation and transformation of the former lignite mining facilities in Berzdorf, Germany, in creation of the future Berzdorf Lake. (orig.)

Kolba, Manfred [LMBV mbH, Sanierungsbereich Lausitz, Senftenberg (Germany)

2009-09-15

28

Geoelectrical surveys for identification and monitoring of AMD in groundwaters influenced by lignite open-cast mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1989, lignite peak production from the Zwenkau mine was 10 million tons. The Zwenkau mine is part of the central German mining district, located approximately 10 km south of Leipzig. The ratio of both overburden and sumping water to lignite is approximately 2.5:1 m3/ton. Following mine abandonment in 1999, the rising groundwater infiltrated the dump areas as well as the unexploited sedimentary sequence, resulting in significant acid mine drainage (AMD). Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques were used to identify AMD affected lignite open-pit dump areas and adjacent groundwater bodies. The survey techniques included direct current resistivity measurements and direct push based electrical conductivity logging. The paper described the methods and materials used in the geoelectrical surveys and groundwater sampling. It was concluded that both surface and subsurface measurements provided precise imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. 3 refs., 5 figs.

29

The problem of liquidating the buildings of former underground brown coal mines in the Podkru?nohoøí area in connection with the decree of the czech bureau of mines no. 52/1997, collection of laws, and problems of open cast mines in places of their occurrences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contribution deals with the problems of liquidating buildings of former underground mining, especially of shafts of closed and damped mines. It is stated that strict maintaining the Decree of the Czech Bureau of Mines (ÈBÚ No. 52/1997, Collection of Laws, has its justification for deep and gassy hard coal mines, but it cannot be absolutely valid in the full extent for shallow ore, and mainly brown coal mines. An example of the analysis of shaft depths of the Sokolov District and the liquidation of some shafts of the Most Coal Company, joint-stock company in Most is adduced. Moreover, the liquidation of objects of development and preparatory workings of former underground mines using the open-cast mining method and related problems are discussed in the contribution.

Fröhlich Emil

2000-12-01

30

50 years of brown coal open cast ''Konin''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history as well as present condition of brown coal mine ''Konin'' located in Central Poland are presented. In 1994 about 13380 million tons of coal were extracted from this open cast and 95% of it was burnt in power plants. The prognosis of future production up to 2020 is given and the program of mine restructurization is described. 3 ills

31

Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nastup Tusimice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently the open cast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper. (authors)

32

Analysis of the planned post-mining landscape of MIBRAG's open-cast mines with regard to a possible environmental impact of alteration processes in mixed dumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been an increasing body of knowledge with regard to hydro- and geochemical alteration processes in overburden dumps and their impact on groundwater quality in lignite mining and reclamation operations associated with post-mining landscapes in Germany. The operators of the MIBRAG mines have examined issues regarding alteration processes and how they affect the environment and which opportunities exist to actively influence the dumping process. The objectives were to counteract any possible negative impact of the alteration processes. Special emphasis was on the impact caused by oxidation of sulfur containing minerals. This paper presented an analysis of the situation at United Schleenhain Mine and how it reflects on the work to date for MIBRAG's mines. A future outlook was also presented. Specifically, the paper discussed the development of the United Schleenhain mine and the post-mining landscape. The potential for discharge of substances was also evaluated along with acidification. 1 tab., 5 figs.

33

Linkage of spreaders an the LWL infrastructure of the control room Garzweiler II in the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Anbindung der Absetzer an die LWL-Infrastruktur des Leitstandes Garzweiler II im Tagebau Garzweiler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Rhenish mining area nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were produced annually. The conveyors are connected with each other and with the central process control system. The control of the plant is performed by a control room. In light of the retrofitting of the band control center for the open-cast mining Garzweiler a broadband communication network based on OTN (Open Transport Network) was established. The connection of the spreader to the infrastructure of the control room via OTN nodes was performed in the years 2006 to 2010. Six spreaders as well as the associated belt grinding carriages can be connected to the central control of the band control station.

Dueren, Daniel [RWE Power Aktiengesellschaft, Grevenbroich (DE). Tagebau Garzweiler, Infrastruktur Elektrotechnik - Technische Unterstuetzung (PCG-IE-T)

2011-12-15

34

Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.

2011-07-01

35

Reclamation of the sites of open cast coal mining activity at the HBCM (Houilleres du Bassin du Centre et du Midi, France). Reamenagement des sites d'exploitation charbonniere a ciel ouvert aux HBCM (Houilleres du Bassin du Centre et du Midi, France)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Collieries of the Centre and South (HBCM) have a long experience with open cast mining. They have, in collaboration with Ineris and specialists like Siras, applied a policy of reclamation of the former sites. They also have adopted for their present operations certain techniques which permit their restoration as fast as the extraction progresses. 7 photos.

Paquette, Y.; Laversanne, J.; Louvert, B.

1993-03-01

36

Problems of environmental geotechniques in the utilisation and flooding of Berzdorf open cast mine, Upper Lusitania; Umweltgeotechnische Problemstellung bei der Nutzung und Flutung des Braunkohletagebaues Berzdorf/Oberlausitz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lignite mining and processing are characteristic industries and landscaping factors in the Lusitanian region. Land reclamation measures have been going on for several decades, with good results. This is a very complex task which makes great demands on all parties concerned. Mining geotechnics has an important part here if a harmonious landscape is to be achieved. The complexity of the task is illustrated by the Berzdorf mining lake south of Goerlitz, directly on the Polish border. (orig.)

Griessl, D.; Tynior, R. [G.U.B. Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH Zwickau (Germany); Lucke, B. [LMBV GmbH, Hoyerswerda (Germany)

2005-07-01

37

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This research explains the use of remote sensing (RS, Global positioning system (GPS, and GIS technology for the detection of LULC changes. In this work LULC changes have been detected using remotely sensed images during the period from 1990 to 2010, using Landsat-TM image of year 1990 and Cartosat-I image of year 2010. The above images were rectified and georeferenced using GPS data collected by point positioning mode observations.Ground truthing for the LULC classification accuracy assessment has been done using GPSinstrument. Image analysis operations have been carried out using Erdas Imagine software. Various effects of coal mining activities on the Land use have been highlighted.

ANIL Z CHITADE

2010-12-01

38

Moment tensor inversion of single-hole mining cast blasts  

Science.gov (United States)

We carried out a controlled field experiment to characterize the single-hole shots typically used in multishot mining blasts. Eight single-hole mining shots were detonated on an overburden bench, and near-source (49-154 m) ground accelerations were recorded. The sources were characterized by their cylindrical geometry, proximity (6 m) to an 11-m vertical free face and the Earth's free surface, and lack of confinement at the horizontal free surface and the vertical free face. Charge sizes ranged from 59 to 296 kg. The ground motion data, supplemented with standard refraction data, were used to constrain the local velocity model. The resultant Green's functions and the observational data were used to invert for the second-order, time-dependent source moment tensors with a frequency domain method. Despite the large isotropic component (~80 per cent), the source moment tensors show a significant degree of asymmetry among the diagonal components. The first peak of the vertical component M33 is 39 per cent (+/-15 per cent) larger than the first peaks of the two horizontal components, which have similar amplitudes. This observation cannot be explained by the cylindrical geometry of the source or the presence of the vertical free face in the source region. The complex source time history, an associated spectral peak and the increase of the degree of asymmetry with time among diagonal moment tensor components are indicative of secondary source effects. Together with the source asymmetry, they could be explained by the effects of a vertical spall source that includes both the vertical cast of the burden and, more importantly, the vertical spallation of the strata around the source. The horizontal cast of the burden was not resolved in the inverted source moment tensors, possibly due to their long period and low seismic efficiency. Although the off-diagonal moment tensor components are much smaller than the diagonal components, they contribute significantly to the seismic wave generation. Further studies are required to interpret their generating mechanisms.

Yang, Xiaoning; Stump, Brian W.; Pearson, D. Craig

1999-12-01

39

Study of Internal Dump Stability of Dudhichua Open Cast Project, Northern Coalfields Limited, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Dudhichua Open Cast Project is one of the prestigious projects of Northern Coalfields Limited, India; with total mineable coal reserves of approximately 400 million tonnes and corresponding 1,700 million m3 volume of waste rock i.e. overburden material. Accommodating this waste dump masses in the limited space of the de-coaled portion of the quarry is considered as one of the major challenges to the mine operators. It has been reported that this mine is facing frequent slope failures of waste rock dumps which is of great concern to the mine management in view of unsafe working condition. To tackle the above problem, a detailed investigation was carried out to propose a stable dump profile which will cater to the land economics and safety aspects of the mine. A detailed investigation along with recommendation of optimum design for dragline dump profile along with shovel-dumper-dump profile is presented in this paper.

Sengupta, S.; Roy, I.

2015-01-01

40

40 CFR Appendix - Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC...  

Science.gov (United States)

...HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and...Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Other...HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and...limit is a 1 . . . 1. Open molding—corrosion-resistant...

2010-07-01

41

30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20021 Abandoned mine openings....

2010-07-01

42

30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20021 Abandoned mine openings. Upon abandonment of a...

2010-07-01

43

Treatment of old disused mine openings  

OpenAIRE

According to French regulations, the main objectives for the treatment of old abandoned mines consist of : preventing collapses and dangerous subsidence, controlling mine gas emissions and closing old abandoned mine openings. In the Herault coal basin, underground exploitation started very early, in particular by the way of shallow adits dug in hillsides. Today more than 600 adits have been listed on old maps but a lot of them have not yet been precisely located. Charbonnages de France and IN...

Didier, Christophe; Wojtkowiak, Francis; Salmon, Romuald; Barriere, Jean-paul; Gaget, P.

1998-01-01

44

Study on slope engineering in China open pit coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper briefly introduces the main content of a study on slope engineering in Chinese open pit coal mines. This paper also discusses the applications of open pit mining and surrounding rock stability, water pressure control in slope, controlled mining technology, slope monitoring and measurement, and other R & D results in obtaining optimum mining conditions, increasing mine economic benefits and mine safety and production with certain mine operation cases. 2 refs., 8 figs.

Ma Xinming; Hou Qiyuan; Rui Yongqing [Central Coal Mining Research Institute (China). Fushun Branch

1994-12-31

45

Continuous cast width control using a data mining approach  

OpenAIRE

Twelve per cent chrome ferritic (non-stabilised) stainless steel cast at the continuous caster at Columbus Stainless exhibited notable differences in the width change between consecutive heats. The reason for these differences is related to the fact that the steel is in a dual phase region between austenite and ferrite during the solidification stages of the continuous casting process. A model was developed and is currently used as a production tool to predict the width change of a 12% chr...

Beer, P. G.; Craig, K. J.

2008-01-01

46

Stability of deep open casts; Statecznosc glebokich wyrobisk odkrywkowych  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The landslides which took place in Belchatow /Central Poland/ as well as in Berzdorf and Turow brown coal open casts located at German-Polish boarder and having similar geologic conditions are described and compared. The mechanism of landslide is analysed and the necessity of further studies on this problem is stressed. 3 figs., ill.

Dmitruk, S. [Politechnika Wroclawska, Wroclaw (Poland)

1994-12-01

47

Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

48

The problem of liquidating the buildings of former underground brown coal mines in the Podkru?nohoøí area in connection with the decree of the czech bureau of mines no. 52/1997, collection of laws, and problems of open cast mines in places of their occurrences  

OpenAIRE

The contribution deals with the problems of liquidating buildings of former underground mining, especially of shafts of closed and damped mines. It is stated that strict maintaining the Decree of the Czech Bureau of Mines (ÈBÚ) No. 52/1997, Collection of Laws, has its justification for deep and gassy hard coal mines, but it cannot be absolutely valid in the full extent for shallow ore, and mainly brown coal mines. An example of the analysis of shaft depths of the Sokolov District and the li...

Fröhlich Emil; Hudeèek Vlastimil; Kryl Václav

2000-01-01

49

40 CFR 63.5810 - What are my options for meeting the standards for open molding and centrifugal casting operations...  

Science.gov (United States)

...meeting the standards for open molding and centrifugal casting operations...Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Options...meeting the standards for open molding and centrifugal casting operations...meet the standards for open molding or centrifugal...

2010-07-01

50

Analysis of environmental pollution caused by open cast mining, processing and utilization of salt-containing lignite in the region of Merseburg, and development of technological measures for minimizing pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from a potential utilization scheme for salt-containing lignite and the possibilities of its technological realization, the research project was aimed at investigating the possibilities of achieving environmental compatibility in the mining and utilization of salt-containing lignite from the region of Merseburg. The authors evaluated studies, research reports and publications and carried out their own analyses, concerning the components contained in mine water and other problems. The investigations yielded information on a reasonable limitation of the mining area and the diversified removal of mine water. After an analysis of the current state of technological development and measures of environmental control, fluidized-bed combustion and high-pressure gasification are proposed as variants for utilizing salt-containing lignite. Various methods for treating salt-containing mining and process water are proposed, which will have to be assessed for economic efficiency and profitability as a basis for decision-making with respect to their realization. Proposals are presented for further detailed treatment of the problems involved. (orig.)

51

Official opening of new mine in Northern Saskatchewan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cluff Mining's uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan was officially opened 1981 April 2. General information is provided, with emphasis on worker safety and environmental protection. (N.D.H.)

52

77 FR 16863 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Mapping and Records of Opening...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...adjacent mines and mines approaching the...areas of active or abandoned mines. Section 75.372 requires underground mine...

2012-03-22

53

Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both of the mines. (author). 10 refs.

Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

1998-12-01

54

Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining  

OpenAIRE

Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

Amankwah, Henry

2011-01-01

55

Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

2009-07-01

56

Concept for using automatically generated SABAS equipment position data in the context of the updating of the official mine map by the example of the open-cast mine Hambach; Konzept zur Nutzung automatisch generierter SABAS-Geraetepositionsdaten im Rahmen der Fortfuehrung des Gewinnungsrisses (Betriebsrisses) am Beispiel des Tagebaus Hambach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To underpin the competitiveness of lignite mining, it is necessary to keep the specific mining costs of lignite at a constantly low level and, if required, adjust them to the market by initiating further rationalization measures. As far as the classical mine surveying tasks are concerned, this means utilizing systematically the potential offered by new surveying processes and techniques. It was against this backdrop that RWE Power AG started the SATAMA (satellite-supported mine surveying and mass calculation) project in 1995/96 with the object of automating terrestrial and photogrammetric mine surveys and updating them close to real time. In this first project, feasibility was demonstrated successfully. The target of the follow-up project SABAS (satellite-assisted excavator operation control) is to use this experience and equip the mining machines in the Hambach and Garzweiler opencast mines of RWE Power AG with the corresponding GPS technology. This article reports on the currently implemented subproject ''Further processing of the SABAS data for updating of the official mine map (automated mine survey)''. (orig.)

Guder, W.; Weber, P. [RWE Power AG, Niederzier (Germany). Tagebau Hambach; Schulte, R.; Holzheim, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen, Bergschadenkunde und Geophysik im Bergbau

2004-06-01

57

Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development  

OpenAIRE

Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber an...

Ivana Cehlárová; Michal Cehlár

2007-01-01

58

Ecological risk assessment of open coal mine area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coal mine areas in China have the serious conflicts between resources exploitation and ecology safety, therefore the coal mine ecological risk assessment is an important problem which relates to the sustainability of coal mines to regions and the whole country. In this study, open coal mine area serves as researching object, heavy metals, soil erosion and coast are screened out as risk resources, soil wireworm as the receiver of heavy metals risk, biotope ecosystem as the receiver of soil erosion and coast risk; ecological indexes are calculated with species background index, biological diversity index and natural degree index, ecological friability indexes are calculated with soil fertility index, plant coverage, plant species diversity index, soil wireworm index and maturity index, and the typical coal mine area assessment indexes system is established. In addition, the regional ecological risk assessment is conducted on the friable ecological system of Fuxin Haizhou open coal mine area. Examples are researched of Haizhou open coal mine, the coal mine risk distribution is established, and foundations are provided for the administrative decision-making. PMID:18301998

Xi-jun, Ma; Zhao-hua, Lu; Jian-long, Cheng

2008-12-01

59

IMPROVEMENT IN DETERMINATION OF AN AVERAGE MINE OPENING PROFILE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determination of air current resistance in a mine opening with allowable error depends very much on knowing the exact values of its geometric characteristics, i.e. length, cross-section, and perimeter. Eventual error in determining an opening profile grows when calculating the resistance by raising to the third power. The paper describes the construction of a portable device for illumination of cross-sectional area for taking photographs. Determination of geometric characteristics of an average stage profile of a mine opening is analytically and graphically presented herewith by application of F3/U relation of measured profiles.

Vladimir Renduli?

1992-12-01

60

Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

61

A Novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for Executing Data Mining tasks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining services on grids is the need of today’s era. Workflow environments are widely used in data mining systems to manage data and execution flows associated to complex applications. Weka, one of the most used open-source data mining systems, includes the Knowledge-Flow environment which provides a drag-and-drop inter-face to compose and execute data mining workflows. It allows users to execute a whole workflow only on a single compute on the basis of simplicity. There are several workflows in today’s scene. Most data mining workflows include several independent branches that could be run in parallel on a set of distributed machines to reduce the overall execution time. In this paper we proposed a novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for executing data mining tasks. Our algorithm contains five phases 1 Authentication 2 Reading Database3 Define the minimum support 4 Subset Find 5 Prune phase. Finally our algorithm shows better performance showing the simulation result.

Asif Ali

2011-09-01

62

Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

63

Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

Hartley, Larry

64

Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

65

Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

Savilow, Bill

66

Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

67

Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

Savilow, Bill

68

Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

Savilow, Bill

69

Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes opening of several coal pits with aim to prolong ate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in this paper. (Author)

70

Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes to open several pits of coal with aim to prolongate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in thi paper. (Author)

71

Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

72

Uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

73

Mining chemical information from open patents  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Linked Open Data presents an opportunity to vastly improve the quality of science in all fields by increasing the availability and usability of the data upon which it is based. In the chemical field, there is a huge amount of information available in the published literature, the vast majority of which is not available in machine-understandable formats. PatentEye, a prototype system for the extraction and semantification of chemical reactions from the patent literature has ...

Jessop David M; Adams Sam E; Murray-Rust Peter

2011-01-01

74

Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  

OpenAIRE

Reclaimed mine soils (RMS) which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe) reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L). Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control p...

Wojciech Krzaklewski; Marcin Pietrzykowski

2010-01-01

75

Preparation of big size open-cell aluminum foam board using infiltration casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an infi ltration casting technique for manufacturing big size open-cell aluminum foam boards. The principle and key technologies of infi ltration casting are also analyzed. Based on the previous practice of the small size aluminum foam production, the die for preparing big size aluminum foam boards is designed and manufactured. The experiments on aluminum boards of 300 mm × 300 mm × (20-75 mm, with the pore size ranging from 1.0 to 3.2 mm and average porosity of 60%, have been performed. The experimental results show that a reliable infi ltration process depends critically on the pouring temperature of the molten Al-alloy, the preheated temperature of the mould and salt particles and vacuum. Current research explores the possibility of large-scale manufacturing and application of the aluminum foams.

Wang Lucai

2008-11-01

76

30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening...reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening...reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...of a new underground coal mine, and a mine...has been abandoned or...

2010-07-01

77

Main trends in scientific-research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is given to main trends in research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts of Priargunsky mine-chemical association. Develops and introduced principally new design solutions and technologies in the field of open mining, underground mining, as well as in-situ and heap leaching, are described

78

Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

79

30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75...permanently closed, or abandoned for less than 90...

2010-07-01

80

Erosive Wear Behavior of Nickel-Based High Alloy White Cast Iron Under Mining Conditions Using Orthogonal Array  

Science.gov (United States)

Nihard Grade-4, a nickel-bearing cast iron widely used in slurry pumps and hydrodynamic components, is evaluated for its erosive wear response under mining conditions using a statistical approach. Experiments were conducted by varying the factors namely velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH in three levels, using L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance was used to rank the factors influencing erosive wear. The results indicate that velocity is the most influencing factor followed by the angle of impingement, slurry concentration, and pH. Interaction effects of velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH on erosion rate have been discussed. Wear morphology was also studied using SEM characterization technique. At lower angle (30°) of impingement, the erosion of material is by micro fracture and shallow ploughing with the plastic deformation of the ductile austenitic matrix. At the normal angle (90°) of impingement, the material loss from the surface is found because of deep indentation, forming protruded lips which are removed by means of repeated impact of the erodent.

Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh

2013-09-01

81

Description and evaluation of measures to reduce overburden water acidification at Garzweiler open-cast mine (operated by RWE Power AG, Rhenish Brown Coal District, Germany); Darstellung und Evaluierung der Minderungsmassnahmen zur Kippenwasserversauerung im Tagebau Garzweiler der RWE Power AG (Rheinisches Braunkohlenrevier, Germany)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to groundwater extraction and aeration in the mine, a partly oxidation of pyrite minerals is observed by lignite mining. After rebound of the groundwater level an acidification and pollution of the water with pyrite oxidation products will be the result. To mitigate the later groundwater pollution, low amount of crushed limestone is added to the overburden before dumping since 1998. To optimise this limestone addition, the knowledge of the real content of oxidised pyrite is necessary. In the lignite mine Garzweiler an average oxidised pyrite content of 0.039 weight % was determined by elaborated investigations. Altogether, a sufficient limestone addition to neutralise the released acidity was determined with different methods between 1999 and 2004. A successful realisation of the mitigation is proved. (orig.)

Wisotzky, F.; Lenk, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

2006-07-01

82

Dealing with open fire in an underground coal mine by ventilation control techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Open fire in coal mines is one of the most serious threats to miners, as well as to the mine. Open fire can often be effectively dealt with by prompt local action, otherwise it very quickly becomes uncontrollable. In one incident, none of the available open fire control technologies, viz., water del [...] uge and sprinkler systems, high-expansion foam, high-pressure high-stability nitrogen foam, water misting, and ventilation and pressure control techniques, were effective for saving the mine without sealing from surface, since the fuel-rich environment prohibited underground access due to the methane explosion hazard. The authors have developed a methodology for dealing with advanced-stage open fires underground by the application of a modified ventilation control technique. It is based primarily on a better understanding of the behaviour of open fires, proper diagnosis of the problem, application of judicious ventilation control techniques, and selection of suitable fire indices for assessing the status of an open fire. This methodology was used to successfully control an open fire in Surakachhar 3 and 4 incline mine Surakachhar, central India. The fire area was sealed underground and production subsequently resumed in record time. The paper discusses the behaviour of open fires, particulars of the mine, diagnosis of the problem, experimentation methods, and the results obtained.

N, Sahay; A, Sinha; B, Haribabu; P.K, Roychoudhary.

2014-06-01

83

Use of computers for mine engineering: 1. Modernization at the Fushun West open pit coal mine, PRC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Fushun West Open Pit mine in the People's Republic of China, a coal seam 40-140 m thick is being worked. Oil shale is also produced. There are plans to increase annual production of coal and oil shale to 5 Mt and 8 Mt, respectively, from the present 3.5 Mt and 4.5 Mt. Current mining methods are described. Designs for the modernisation programme are being carried out by Fluor Engineers and the China National Coal Development Corporation. This paper gives details of the new material handling system design. The slope conveyor system design used Fluor's computer program BELT.

Tooker, G.E.

1985-02-01

84

Land recycling. Integrated utilisation of land of former mining sites; Flaechenrecycling. Integrierte Flaechennutzung ehemaliger Bergbaustandorte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The redevelopment, securing and design of subsequent landscapes of former mining sites under mining law is carried out, initially under the Federal Mining Act to ensure public safety and order on the former sites and areas as well as orderly design with due consideration of public law. This contribution focuses on the recultivation in the eastern German open-cast lignite mining industry and on climatic and social functions in the mobilisation of the potentials of derelict sites. (orig.)

Klapperich, Herbert [Inst. fuer Geotechnik der TU Bergakademie Freiberg und CiF e.V., Freiberg/Berlin/Aachen (Germany); Drebenstedt, Carsten [Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau der TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Werner, Claudia [FG Raumbezogene Informationsverarbeitung und Modellbildung (RIM) der TU Dortmund und CiF e.V., Dortmund (Germany)

2009-10-22

85

Determining a life of mine truck requirement model for Isibonelo Colliery  

OpenAIRE

One of the key elements that set mining apart from most industries is the level of capital intensity. Mining requires high levels of capital investment at both mine construction and operation stages. As the world economic climate continues to show patterns of uncertainty the manner in which capital is deployed comes into question. Isibonelo Colliery an open cast operation of Anglo American Thermal Coal has asked the question of how capital should be deployed until the end of its life of mine....

Manchest, Carlyn

2012-01-01

86

Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

Drew Cottle

2014-09-01

87

Cast iron - a predictable material  

OpenAIRE

High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI) or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process s...

Sturm, Jorg C.; Guido Busch

2011-01-01

88

Open-pit coal mines: anthropogenic stressors and vegetation succession  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the spoil heaps, i.e. in the waste dumps of the soil removed in open-pit coal mining, the emergence and development of spontaneous vegetation is a prerequisite for 'bringing them to life', i.e. for development of flora and fauna. Here, the diversity of plants is the result of locally different conditions - often extreme ones (such as drought and overheating of the surface, toxicity of the substrate, erosion, etc.). At initial stages, phytocenoses, which are not rich in the number of species and which usually have a dominant edificator species, emerge here. The abiotic stress in the spoil heaps is a regular and predictable phenomenon. The theory of primary strategies, represented by the relations of stress, disturbance and competition, was applied. A general diagram of succession development of vegetation in the spoil heaps in the North Bohemia has been prepared; the basic concept is the concept of C-S-R strategies here. The stress-tolerant taxa are determined by the conditions of these anthropogenic areas, i.e. these species are diagnostic indicators for an environment strongly burdened with stress factors (S-strategists). On the other hand, there are species well adapted to unpredictable disturbances (R-strategists); these often include field weeds and ruderal plants. Competitive C-strategists grow in the relatively stable habitats of spoil heaps areas. They are able to resist stress and disturbance only with difficulties. The C-S-R life strategies represent intersections based on the principle of the compromise of profits and losses.

Novak, J.; Steklova, J.; Ceska, J. [Czech University of Life Science Prague, Prague (Czech Republic)

2009-07-01

89

Opening of the medieval Jeroným Mine in the Czech Republic to the public  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The beginnings of underground mining in the locality go back to the first half of the 16th century. The mining and sporadic exploitation then continued with many interruptions till the beginning of the 20th century. According to historic data, the depth range of mine workings is approximately 50 m. The opening of the Èistá ? Jeroným complex to the public is designed to be economical with the aim to utilise, e.g. for the purpose of mining tourism, especially a medieval large-volume room that together with flooded stoped-out workings forms an inimitable atmosphere underground. This article is focused primarily on geomechanical problems connected with the opening of this complex to the public.

Koøínek Robert

2003-09-01

90

Occupational exposure to dust in open pit mining. A short review  

OpenAIRE

A literature review concerning the scientific knowledge of all the key factors related to respirable crystalline silica dustexposure was conducted and a chronological evolution of the state-of-the-art knowledge that can respond to questionsraised by the development of the work done in quarries and opencast mines is presented, based on bibliographic research.Findings assert that exposure to silica dust is the most frequent and dangerous hazard in open pit mining. Some aspectsmeet consensus ami...

Maria Matos; João Santos Baptista; Miguel Tato Diogo

2012-01-01

91

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/reha...

Duka, Ykateryna D.; Ilchenko, Svetlana I.; Kharytonov, Mykola M.; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.

2011-01-01

92

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)  

OpenAIRE

Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new app...

Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

2011-01-01

93

Report on anthracite open pit mining: a feasibility study. Part IV. Environmental reclamation. Report Exhibit No. 4. [245 references  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Mahanoy Creek Watershed study, the estimated reduction in acid mine drainage was under 50 percent. It appears possible that open pit mining of those areas previously devastated by mining, which still have large reserves of coal, followed by good reclamation by a mining company, could alleviate many environmental problems of these areas. The economic feasibility of such a plan, including mining and reclamation and possible relocation costs, has been examined in Exhibits 1, 2, and 3 of this report. Should a mining operation prove itself to be financially feasible, it would provide significant savings to the Commonwealth in on-going pollution costs or costs of palliative reclamation.

Knight, C.G.; Gatrell, N.

1976-05-01

94

Land reclamation policy after open pit coal mining in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is presented of the results of land reclamation activities in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district, and the principles are outlined of the long-term plan for ecosystem restoration in that region. (J.B.)

95

The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

96

Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

2014-05-01

97

Mining principles in the situation of Dolni Rozinka Uranium Mines deposit with respect to protection of open pits and mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three surface and a network of underground monitoring points were established for assessing the impact of extracting oblique and steep ore zones and veins in the uranium ore deposit at Dolni Rozinka on the surrounding massif and on the earth surface. On the basis of these in-situ measurements and the results of modelling using equivalent materials and mathematical modelling and the evaluation of practical experience in the excavation of mines in this deposit new techniques were designed for protecting installations and buildings from the impacts of mining activities. The distance and size of limit angles of the mining effect were determined which allowed to considerably limit the range of existing safety pillars and thereby to reduce the volume of utility minerals whose excavation had previously been restricted. (B.S.)

98

A knowledge-informed chemotype approach to mining the ToxCast/Tox21 chemical-data landscape (WC9)  

Science.gov (United States)

ToxCast and Tox21 chemical libraries currently exceed 2000 and 8000 unique chemicals, respectively, and span a broad diversity of chemical use-types, functionality, and toxicity mechanism and endpoint space. These libraries function as mechanism probes across hundreds of high-th...

99

Open mining Garzweiler II. Monitoring for the environment; Braunkohlentagebau Garzweiler II. Monitoring fuer die Umwelt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The open mining Garzweiler II lies few kilometers far away from the nature park Schwalm-Nette (Federal Republic of Germany). Therefore, preventive measures and a monitoring were specified in its approval. With this program, the relations between water management and ecology are observed, evaluated and controlled in the next century.

Levacher, Dorothee [Landesamt fuer Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen (Germany)

2009-07-01

100

GPSS system applied to optimization of technological process of open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The queuing sub-system and the stored sub-system are abstracted as a composed dynamic system from the technological process of open-pit mining. Using the GPSS system the simulation models were established, and by changing the parameters of the models the optimization of the technological process was carried out

101

Simulation of the casting process - a powerful tool for enhanced design of the cutting teeth in surface mining  

OpenAIRE

Recent development in the computer simulation technology caused a tremendous influence on a rapid prototyping in casting process. These computational tools facilitate engineering work and urge moulding verification in foundries. Among dedicated software packages the MAGMASoft is selected for availability reasons. Its effectiveness is proved with the simulation of moulding process of the cutting teeth for a bucket wheel excavator Use of MAGMASoft enables a shortcut to a forceful and durable pr...

Slavkovic, R.; Jugovic, Z.; Kozak, D.; Veg, A.; Radisa, R.; Dragicevic, S.; Popovic, M.

2013-01-01

102

Early detection of open fires and spontaneous combustion in mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Systems for testing for microconcentrations of CO in mine air which use multichannel flexible pipes, which suck air samples from several points of the mine to the surface to a stationary gas analyzer (approximately 100 such installations are presently in operation) are common in the coal mines of Great Britain. Such systems are completely suitable for determining the early stages of spontaneous combustion of coal, but as a result of the high inertia, they do not make it possible to detect a starting exogenic fire in a timely manner. Other instruments are being developed or are already in use for these purposes. Ionization smoke detectors, for instance, are widely used (approximately 2,000 units). Portable Firant instruments, which identify the temperature fluctuations in a ventilation jet, are being built and tested in fire protection systems in conveyor drifts. Fides instruments with metal oxide, semiconductor sensing elements, which determine the microconcentration of CO and other gaseous combustion products, are undergoing mine tests. Fire gallery tests showed that such instruments are capable of detecting glowing coal which burns at a speed of 5 grams per minute in an air stream of 1,100 cubic meters per minute. The Fidesco instrument with an electromagnetic sensing element performs the same functions as the Fides gas analyzer. The portable Emcor instrument (with a weight of 2 kilograms) is designed for identifying CO in ranges of 0 to 50 or 0 to 500 parts per million and is equipped with a digital, liquid crystal indicator pannel, and with an output for switching in a system for remote measurement of an emergency signaling system. The instrument is powered by two dry elements which last for 3 months of continuous operation. Certain other developments which are in the stage of laboratory testing are also reported.

Hornsby, C.D.; Makower, A.D.

1983-01-01

103

Settlements due to groundwater extraction for open-cast mining using the example of the Rhenish lignite-mining region  

OpenAIRE

Tagebaureviere unterliegen großräumig Setzungen, die sich aufgrund der betriebsbedingten Sümpfungsmaßnahmen einstellen: Absenkung und Wiederanstieg des Grundwasserspiegels verursachen durch die in den betroffenen Schichten wegfallende bzw. wieder einsetzende Auftriebswirkung des Grundwassers vertikale Bodenbewegungen im Gelände. Zu deren Berechnung wird ein analytisches Prognosemodell hergeleitet, das auf grundlegenden bodenmechanischen Modellen zur Abbildung des Kompressions- und Konsol...

Giese, Steffen

2010-01-01

104

Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi  

OpenAIRE

Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India) resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils). To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this s...

Karthikeyan, A.; Krishnakumar, N.

2012-01-01

105

Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

1065-10-01

106

Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

107

Problems of definitive slopes mining at Doly Nastup Tusimice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The instability of slopes influents mining business in many aspects at open-cast mining. The temporary decrease of intended mined volumes due to land slips is common and sometimes there is necessary to change origin-mining plans. It has impact to economy and other essential costs for rehabilitation are required. In case of definitive slopes formation in contact to traffic and communication networks, watercourses and infrastructures of seats stability of slope security there is even more important. Monitoring of rock massive stability plays an important role. Everything which stability of slopes is concerned belongs to essential tasks for mining technicians at open-cast mining. The article explains what ways for definitive slope formation near mining boundary were selected at Severoceske doly j.s.c., Doly Nastup Tusimice mining site. The precautions refer to mining technology, preventive and reconstruction precautions for stabilization of slopes must to solve, are to described. Tasks, which mining engineers, surveyors, geologists and geotechnics have to solve are described. (authors)

108

Gastropods as indicators of the ecological impact of the lowering of the ground water level due to projected open-pit brown coal mines. Gastropoden als Indikatorgruppe fuer die Bewertung von Grundwasserabsenkungen durch geplante Braunkohlentagebaue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible effects on the biocoenosis caused by changed ground water tables due to open-cast mining were investigated during 1984/85 in the planned brown coal areas Garzweiler II and Inden II (Rheinisches Braunkohlenrevier). Among others, gastropods were recorded to point out moisture depending and endangered coenosis. According to the composition of moisture indicators and endangered species the sites were assigned to three categories of sensitivity. A cluster analysis supported these assessments. The prediction for most of the investigated sites is an irreversible damage and long-lasting threatening of the coenosis in case of a manipulated water balance. (orig.).

Willecke, S. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Naturschutz und Landschaftsoekologie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

109

Assessment of the possible reuse of MSW coming from landfill mining of old open dumpsites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study addresses the theme of recycling potential of old open dumpsites by using landfill mining. Attention is focused on the possible reuse of the residual finer fraction (Lactuca sativa) do not emphasize adverse effects to the growth of the plant species, except the bioassay with V. faba, which showed a dose-response effect. The new developed chronic bioassay test with Spartium junceum showed a good adaptation to stress conditions induced by the presence of the mined landfill material. In conclusion, the conducted experimental activities demonstrated the suitability of the material to be used for different purposes. PMID:24412012

Masi, S; Caniani, D; Grieco, E; Lioi, D S; Mancini, I M

2014-03-01

110

Early detection of open fires and spontaneous combustion in mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous monitoring of CO by means of tube bundle systems has found widespread acceptance in UK mines for the detection of spontaneous combustion of coal. General fire detection relies on shaft monitors. Both systems are based on infra-red analysers like the Unol instrument that can be installed underground. In recent years, British laboratories have developed and adapted several devices based on other principles: ionisation, semi-conductors, electrochemical cells, thermistors for detection of 'thermal noise', infra-red imagers. These instruments are briefly described.

Hornsby, C.D.; Makower, A.D.

1983-01-01

111

Simulation of the casting process - a powerful tool for enhanced design of the cutting teeth in surface mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent development in the computer simulation technology caused a tremendous influence on a rapid prototyping in casting process. These computational tools facilitate engineering work and urge moulding verification in foundries. Among dedicated software packages the MAGMASoft is selected for availability reasons. Its effectiveness is proved with the simulation of moulding process of the cutting teeth for a bucket wheel excavator Use of MAGMASoft enables a shortcut to a forceful and durable product, without internal cavities and micro-porosity. Such advancement of the moulding process is described in this paper.

R. Slavkovic

2013-07-01

112

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

2011-02-15

113

Safety aspects in uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear fuels cycle rightly starts with the exploration of uranium and other nuclear materials. Mining is undertaken only after the economic and strategic viability of mining of the uranium is established. The grade of the ore (percentage of uranium) is generally of the order of 0.05 - 0.2% worldwide. There are uranium deposits in the world with much higher uranium content, even as high as 60%. Such deposits are only few in number. The uranium mine may be of open cast or of underground type depending on the size, depth, strike length, grade and other relevant characteristics of the deposit. In either case, mining or subsequent processing of the ore involves exposure of the workers to radiation in addition to the usual industrial hazards to which those in other similar industries are subjected. Generally speaking, the radiological hazards in underground mining are more serious and difficult to tackle than in open cast mines. So the ensuing discussion by default, deals with the underground mining scenario

114

Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

Kryl Václav

1998-06-01

115

Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste  

OpenAIRE

In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

Kryl Václav

1998-01-01

116

Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

Martin Vrubel

2007-06-01

117

Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

118

CLUO: Web-Scale Text Mining System for Open Source Intelligence Purposes  

OpenAIRE

The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT) system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof...

Przemyslaw Maciolek; Grzegorz Dobrowolski

2013-01-01

119

CLUO: Web-Scale Text Mining System for Open Source Intelligence Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT system, which extracts and analyzes signi?cant quantitiesof openly available information.

Przemyslaw Maciolek

2013-01-01

120

Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

2012-04-01

121

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

Adel Badri

2011-09-01

122

Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

1059-10-01

123

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka

2011-05-01

124

Flooding of the lignite mining industry in the south of Leipzig; Flutungskonzept des Braunkohlenbergbaus im Suedraum von Leipzig  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production mines and redeveloped mines are operating successfully together in the south of Leipzig. Since 1997 the worked-out-cavities of the Werben, Zwenkau, Cospuden, Markkleeberg, Stoermthal, Witznitz and Haselbach open-cast mines have been flooded with the water drained from the Schleenhain and Profen open-cast mines. This is the most economical solution both for MIBRAG as the mining company and for LMBV as redevelopment company. After successful flooding for ten years the nature of the drained water has changed. To enable continuation of water transfer in the existing way the DGFZ was commissioned to work out a consensual solution. The resulting LMBV-MIBRAG preferred variant for the new flooding concept led to the water transfer agreement, which was signed by both parties in April 2009. (orig.)

Benthaus, Friedrich-Carl [Lausitzer- und Mitteldeutsche Bergbauverwaltungs-Gesellschaft (LMBV) mbH, Senftenberg (Germany). Geotechnik/Wasserwirtschaft; Tienz, Bernd-Stephan [Lausitzer- und Mitteldeutsche Bergbauverwaltungs-Gesellschaft (LMBV) mbH, Leipzig (Germany). Planung Mitteldeutschland; Jolas, Peter [Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH (MIBRAG), Theissen (Germany). Geologie/Hydrologie; Reichel, Michaela [Grundwasser-Zentrum Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

2009-12-17

125

Problem and cooperation requests at Ombilin coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article profiles the Ombilin coal mine, located the centre of Sumatra island, Indonesia. The concession area is about 154,9932 km{sup 2} and is divided into nine coal fields. Ombilin coal has a Hardgrove index of 40-45, ash content 5%, sulphur content {+-}0.5% and a calorific value of 6900-7100 kcal/kg. Both open cast and underground mining are used at Ombilin. The article profiles historical aspects of Ombilin coal production and the underground longwall mining. Problems encountered include geologic problems in the underground mines, transportation problems in the underground mines, transportation problems and the repair and maintenance of heavy equipment in the opencast mines. Technical cooperation has been received from Japan. Further cooperation is required to improve production, technology and management. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Sunardi, A. (PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Assam Indonesia (Indonesia))

1992-05-01

126

Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia  

Science.gov (United States)

Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event: rainfall depth, rainfall intensity in fifteen minutes and in two hours, peak discharge, runoff coefficient, dry time duration before the event and flood duration. The calculation of suspended sediment yield (SSY) at different time scales gives an evaluation of the pollution delivered to the creeks and lagoon and of the water management and sediment trap efficiency. An extreme rainfall event (December 25th, 2011) of 500 mm in 26 hours yielded downstream more suspended sediment than all the floods of the previous monitored period. This highlights the threshold effects in runoff and erosion response in these open mining areas.

Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

2014-05-01

127

Back-analysis and design review of a failed slope at an open-pit coal mine, Mpumalanga, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Mining activity in open-pit mines may change material properties over time and as a result, shear strengths are reduced and may lead to slope failures. It is therefore important to design slope geometries with an acceptable probability of failure. In the event of slope failure occurring, the process of back-analysis to determine material properties at failure may lead to slope redesign for safety reasons. A case study is presented from the back-analysis performed on a slope fai...

Selomane, Mmathapelo Annah

2012-01-01

128

Duality results for stationary problems of open pit mine planning in a continuous function framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open Pit Mine Planning problems are usually considered in a Mixed Integer Programming context. Characterizing each attainable profile by a continuous function yields a continuous framework. It allows for a more detailed modeling of slope constraints and other material properties of slanted layers. Although the resulting nonlinear programming problems are in general non-convex and non-differentiable, they provide certain advantages as one can directly compute sensitivities of optimal solutions w.r.t. small data perturbations. In this work duality results are derived for the stationary problems of the continuous framework employing an additional condition called convex-likeness.

A. Griewank

2011-01-01

129

Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad

2014-03-01

130

Evaluation of hydrologic isolation from evidence in mine openings in igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Maritime Provinces of Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conditions in the mines inspected ranged from very wet to very dry. The Heath Steele Mine certainly provided an example of severe leakage through either the country rock, the ore, or both. By way of contrast, the Brunswick Mine is very dry, particularly at the 2800 foot level. A note of caution is raised by this dissimilarity, inasmuch as the local geologic setting for both mines is very much alike. The Buchans Mine also provided evidence of dry conditions at the depth inspected (3215 ft). The Ming Mine at Baie Verte is also nearly dry with a decrease in water leakage with depth. It seems reasonable to tentatively conclude that mined openings in the rock types investigated (volcanics and sediments metamorphosed to a low or subgreen schist facies and intensely deformed) would provide hydraulic isolation at depths on the order of 2800-3200 feet below the surface or greater. It is disturbing to have found one mine that is very wet at shallow depths and to have received reports of some water problems in shaft construction. This report in conjunction with other more comprehensive studies should provide a point of departure for more detailed studies of the nature and causes of hydraulic isolation provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks. 27 figs

131

Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas  

Science.gov (United States)

In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and allows an easy exploration of the data to assess its quality and suitability for a specific task. More complex remote sensing image analysis is performed through 3rd party software, which is dynamically integrated into a Web Processing Service (WPS). With an increasing data volume the transmission becomes a key problem for a WPS processing this raster data. Here the Moving Code principle embedded in the 52North WPS implementation (MÜLLER et al. 2013) is applied to engage this problem by flexibly sending processes to the WPS which is directly coupled with the data on a server. The required parameters to control the processing are entered via an interface within the web portal. The Moving Code approach not only contributes to improving web processing for big data sets but it also makes it easier to integrate external executable programs into a WPS. As a result the proposed framework of web services and a web portal successfully combines various open source technologies to integrate all of the gathered vector and raster data as well as the analysis methods developed during the GMES4Mining project into a spatial data infrastructure and to enable access to them through a web browser. References: BENECKE, N., ZIMMERMANN, K., MÜTERTHIES, A., PAKZAD, K., TEUWSEN, S., GARCÍA MILLÁN, V., KATELOE, J., PREUßE, A., PEBESMA, E. & T. PRINZ (2013): GMES4Mining: GMES-based geoservices for mining areas. In: Proceedings of the XV International ISM Congress, September 2013, Aachen, Germany. MÜLLER, M., BERNARD, L. & D. KADNER (2013): Moving code - Sharing geoprocessing logic on the Web. In: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 83: 193-203.

Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

2014-05-01

132

Recultivated mining surfaces enhance the value of landscapes. Rekultivierte Bergbauflaechen erhoehen den Landschaftswert  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The destruction of our landscapes comes under many guises. The author focusses on the direct damage caused by mining and associated activities. The so-called raw soils originated from (1) raw material extraction like the open-cast mining and quarrying for lignite, ores, rocks and earths; (2) construction of dams; (3) land-filling and tipping (dumping of wastes); (4) derelict industrial sites (demolition of old industrial buildings). (orig.)

Rumpf, K.

1993-08-01

133

PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

2012-07-01

134

Remote sensing for investigations of woodlands impacted by lignite open surface mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a long term monitoring concept for post-mining landscapes and mine surroundings as ordered by the company MIBRAG requires different preliminary studies. Objectives of these methodologically oriented analyses presented were the recording of ecologically relevant parameters, their changes and of possible effects caused by the mining activities in the flood plains of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder' situated between the open surface lignite mines 'Vereinigtes Schleenhain' and 'Profen' south of Leipzig. Besides other information, repeatedly generated satellite data of the SPOT system was prepared for research of various vegetation types, selected by certain criteria for a long term monitoring. The satellite data analysis methodology and research findings are presented. The generation of radiometrical and comparable data records using the atmosphere correction software 'ATCOR' as part of the image processing system 'ERDAS IMAGINE' and the evaluation of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index NDVI are important parts of the analysis. Based on deciduous woodland maps near the rivers of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder', which were categorised as ecologically valuable, statistical analyses were made using the vegetation status evaluated by remote sensing. As a result, tendencies of vegetation change are demonstrated. To obtain more details about special relations between vegetation development and remote sensing data, further research is necessary involving spectral features of deciduous plant canopy and their causalities. Future gathering of high-precision geometric and radiometric (digital airborne) data is one way of reaching more detailed information of the objects in question. The high geometric accuracy of digital camera data (by DMC) and the color bands are benefits for the mining company which can now replace regular air-borne surveying made with analogous technology up until recently. Furthermore, it allows to analyse these digital data simultaneously as to thematic questions in the areas of geo-technology, geology or ecology and, thus, create synergies. (orig.)

Pilarski, M. [ILV-Fernerkundung GmbH, Teltow (Germany); Lohstraeter, O. [Abteilung Markscheidewesen, MIBRAG mbH, Theissen (Germany)

2005-02-01

135

Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

136

Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

137

The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling [...] . Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves and provides input into the Letseng overall business plan. The process of defining the key inputs for the entire mine planning process is discussed, which covers: ? Slope design as an input ? Diamond price inputs ? Operating and capital cost inputs ? Generation of pit shells ? Selection of an optimum pit shell and interim cutbacks using operational scenarios ? Sensitivity analysis on the selected optimum pit shell. ? Slope design criteria in the detailed design ? Split shell vs concentric pit design ? Practical mining widths to determine cutback design ? Pit design process in the GEMS software package. ? Development of scheduling scenarios in the XPAC software package ? Planning through mining production bottlenecks. ? Company-level NPV model ? Comparing scenarios and input of the different schedule scenarios into the company NPV model.

A., Madowe.

138

Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

2011-11-01

139

Cast iron - a predictable material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer? world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

Jorg C. Sturm

2011-02-01

140

Background gamma terrestrial dose rate in Nigerian functional coal mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of the background terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates at different indoor and outdoor locations on the surfaces of Okpara underground and Okaba open cast mines in Nigeria were made. Two duly calibrated low-level gamma survey metres were held 1 m above the ground surface for these measurements. Measurements were also made at various locations inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine. Results indicate that the indoor background gamma radiation is comparable for both mining environments. The mean outdoor gamma dose rate determined for the Okaba mining environment is 10.4 nGy h-1 as against 11.7 nGy h-1 for Okpara. The ranges are 8.5-16.5 nGy h-1 for the Okpara measurements and 7.5-14.0 nGy h-1 for Okaba. Thus, the outdoor gamma dose rates appear to be generally lower at the Okaba open cast mine than at Okpara. The indoor dose rate values range from 11.0 to 17.0 nGy h-1 in both environments. These indoor measurements have nearly the same mean values 14.4 and 14.5 nGy h-1 for Okpara and Okaba environments, respectively. The indoor to outdoor dose rate ratio is 1.2 for Okpara and 1.4 for Okaba. These values are in consonance with the corresponding ratio given in literature. Dose rate measurements inside the mine tunnel at the Okpara mine are higher than the surface indoor measurements ranging from 13.5 to 20.5 nGy h-1 with a mean of 16.5 nGy h-1. The higher dose rate valy h-1. The higher dose rate values measured in the mine tunnel are attributable to the concentration of radon in the 'closed' environment of the mine tunnel. (authors)

141

Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID): protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabiliza...

Seiler Christoph; Luntz Steffen; Bruckner Thomas; Rossion Inga; Stengel Dirk; Bartl Christoph; Gebhard Florian

2011-01-01

142

The morphology of fossil pebbles as a tool for determining their transport processes (Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit, central Poland)  

OpenAIRE

The Ko?min South lignite open-cast pit is the southernmost exposure of Palaeogene (lower Oligocene) deposits in central Poland. This study is focused on Palaeogene pebbles of the so-called Ko?min Gravels, rede- posited in the Neogene sands. These pebbles are not known from the adjacent territory of central Poland and they vary in petrographic composition, shape and surface texture. The classification of the pebble-size particle form is determined as DI/DL (elongation ratio) and DS/DI (flatn...

Widera, Marek

2010-01-01

143

Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

1996-02-01

144

Safety regulation in uranium mining and milling in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exploration for uranium in India started as early as 1950. At present there are three underground mines at Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar located within 12 km of one another and one more is at the development stage at Turamdih located 20 km away from Jaduguda mine in the Jharkhand State. One more open cast mine at Banduhurang located near Turamdih in the Singhbum thrust belt, is also being explored. There are proposals for three more mines in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Meghalaya. Jaduguda is the first uranium mine opened in mid 1960s in India is semi mechanised. Bhatin mine is relatively small mine. Narwapahar mine is one of the most modern mines in the country, is highly mechanised with trackless vehicle used for movement of man and material with wide drives and large exposed surface area of the rocks. The ore excavated from all the mines, i.e. Jaduguda, Bhatin, and Narwapahar is transported by road to the ore processing plant at Jaduguda. The ore is crushed, wet ground to fine and made in pulp and is treated (leached) with sulphuric acid. The intermediate product is filtered, purified and concentrated using ion exchange process. The filterate containing uranium is allowed to react with Magnesium oxide slurry to the final product Magnesium- di-uranate, which is a yellow coloured cake collected in drums and sent to Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad. Operational hazards, the Indian regulatory framework and the environmental monitoring and control are reported. ntal monitoring and control are reported. AERB continuously monitors the radiation and industrial safety aspects in uranum mines and mill and stipulates actions, which are compulsorily implemented in the mines and mill. These actions contribute to reduction in individual dose both external and internal and prevent occupation health hazards associated with the mining

145

Urinary casts  

Science.gov (United States)

... the kidney. They are seen in many kidney diseases. Renal tubular epithelial cell casts reflect damage to cells in the kidney called tubule cells. These casts are seen in conditions such as ... disease (such as CMV nephritis ), and kidney transplant rejection . ...

146

Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

Jurcakova K.

2013-04-01

147

Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this case study was to determine the influence of the coal mine cavity and its vicinity on the main flow field with respect to prevailing wind direction. In order to model the neutrally stratified flow over extremely huge open-cut coal mine Libouš situated at north-west of Czech Republic the laminar flow analogy was applied. The model was scaled down to 1:9000 according to dimensions of wind-tunnel and selected coal mine surroundings. The measurements of longitudinal and lateral velocity components in selected vertical, resp. horizontal planes were performed by LDA. The measured data will be used for validation of CFD simulation and for selections of area of interest at bigger scales where turbulent flow modelling will be performed. The results revealed that not only of cavity shape and deepness but also the surroundings orography has influence on flow pattern, hence on ventilation, within the area of interest.

Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Kukacka, L.

2013-04-01

148

Pattern-Based Web Mining Using Data Mining Techniques  

OpenAIRE

In the last decade, many data mining techniques have been proposed for fulfilling various knowledge discovery tasks in order to achieve the goal of retrieving useful information for users. Data mining techniques include association rule mining, frequent itemset mining, sequential pattern mining, maximum pattern mining and closed pattern mining. However, how to effectively exploit the discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of Web mining. In this study, we...

Sheng-Tang Wu; Yuefeng Li

2013-01-01

149

Multiscale topo-morphologic opening of arteries and veins: a validation study on phantoms and CT imaging of pulmonary vessel casting of pigs  

Science.gov (United States)

Distinguishing pulmonary arterial and venous (A/V) trees via in vivo imaging is a critical first step in the quantification of vascular geometry for purposes of determining, for instance, pulmonary hypertension, detection of pulmonary emboli and more. A multi-scale topo-morphologic opening algorithm has recently been introduced by us separating A/V trees in pulmonary multiple-detector X-ray computed tomography (MDCT) images without contrast. The method starts with two sets of seeds - one for each of A/V trees and combines fuzzy distance transform, fuzzy connectivity, and morphologic reconstruction leading to multi-scale opening of two mutually fused structures while preserving their continuity. The method locally determines the optimum morphological scale separating the two structures. Here, a validation study is reported examining accuracy of the method using mathematically generated phantoms with different levels of fuzziness, overlap, scale, resolution, noise, and geometric coupling and MDCT images of pulmonary vessel casting of pigs. After exsanguinating the animal, a vessel cast was generated using rapid-hardening methyl methacrylate compound with additional contrast by 10cc of Ethiodol in the arterial side which was scanned in a MDCT scanner at 0.5mm slice thickness and 0.47mm in plane resolution. True segmentations of A/V trees were computed from these images by thresholding. Subsequently, effects of distinguishing A/V contrasts were eliminated and resulting images were used for A/V separation by our method. Experimental results show that 92% - 98% accuracy is achieved using only one seed for each object in phantoms while 94.4% accuracy is achieved in MDCT cast images using ten seeds for each of A/V trees.

Gao, Zhiyun; Holtze, Colin; Sonka, Milan; Hoffman, Eric; Saha, Punam K.

2010-03-01

150

The most acidified Austrian lake in comparison to a neutralized mining lake  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated two mining lakes located in the north of Lower Austria. These lakes arose 45 years ago when open cast lignite mining ceased. The lakes are separated by a 7-m wide dam. Due to the oxidation of pyrite, both lakes have been acidified and exhibit iron, sulphate, and heavy metal concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in circumneutral lakes. The water column of both lakes is divided into two layers by a pronounced chemocline. The smaller mining lake (AML), wi...

Moser, Michael; Weisse, Thomas

2011-01-01

151

The suitable of utilization the opening spaces of browncoal and ore mines for the waste deposition  

OpenAIRE

In the conection with the transformation of non economical metal mining in Slovakia nowadays possibilities of secondary utilization of mine underground spaces for unmining purposes are analyzed. This paper presents the technical Aspects and the Possibilities for the undergrounding deposition of waste materials on the slowak mining works on the brown coal and metalic raw materials mines. This problems are in the last year still more solution and with the positive results too. The specific poin...

Bauer Viliam

2000-01-01

152

Unconventional design project of opening, developing and mining the Karkar-Dudkas deposit in Afganistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described is the Karkar-Dudkas coal deposit in Afganistan and presented is the modernization and development program for existing coal mines. The program was developed by the BPO Mining Projects in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia. Coal bearing strata is 880 m thick. Of the 12 coal seams from 0.56 m to 8.0 m thick, 2 seams are being mined: the 11th seam from 0.6 to 6.0 m thick and locally to 8.0 m thick and the 12th underlying seam from 1.5 to 1.8 m thick. Dip angle ranges from 30 degrees (at larger depths) to 12-15 degrees. Methane content in coal is low, water influx to the mine is also low. The seams are prone to spontaneous combustion. Mining schemes used at the mines are characterized as primitive. From 40% to 50% of coal is left unmined. Advanced mining methods, such as longwall mining, would be unsuitable due to backward technologies now being applied. Three versions of room and pillar mining are recommended for the mines. The recommended systems are shown in schemes. Energy and compressed air supply to the mine is discussed. Mine modernization would be carried out in 2 stages from 1982 to 1985 (stage of initial modernization) and from 1985 to 1990 (stage of reconstruction and modernization aimed at increasing coal output to at least 0.18 Mt/year, now 0.11 Mt/year). 5 references.

Karpeta, E.; Dvorak, M.; Novak, F.

1983-07-01

153

Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor. PMID:24310366

Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson

2014-03-01

154

The continuous excavating technique system parameters optimization and economic assessment simulation model in open-pit mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the fundamental simulation theories and methods, this paper studies as truck dispatching, discrete processing of belt system continuous haulage, belt system interlock, and economic assessment methods. On the basis of above studies, the paper establishes a simulation model for open-pit mine semi-continuous production technique system. The paper applies GPSS language to construct a simulation program, and the program has been successfully applied in a certain coalmine. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Zhao, B. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Business Administration

2001-12-01

155

Properties of nano- and microparticles emitted into the environment from open-pit mining of iron deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The properties of nano- and microparticles (60 nm-200 ?m) of the dust formed by mass blasting in the iron ore open pit of the Lebedinsky Mining and Concentrating Combine have been studied. Data on the morphology of particles, their magnetic properties, mineralogy, and dimensions have been obtained. Quartz, magnetite, and mica were identified among these particles. The dust mostly consisted of fragmented iron ore formation from the rock massif involved in the blasting.

Adushkin, V. V.; Weidler, P. G.; Dubovskoi, A. N.; Pernik, L. M.; Popel, S. I.; Friedrich, F.

2010-10-01

156

Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

157

The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate [...] highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

D., van Rensburg; L., Melis.

158

?Relation of loess units and prehistoric find density in the Garzweiler open-cast mine, Lower Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Auf der Basis einer detaillierten Lössstratigraphie wurden auf dem Lössplateau des westlichen Niederrheins von einer Abbauwandgesamtfläche von 11.000qm die Anteile der wichtigsten Lösseinheiten berechnet. Darin nimmt der Brabant-Löss (spätes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS 2 45% Anteil ein, also nahezu die Hälfte des vorhandenen Lösses, der Hesbaye-Löss (frühes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS2 etwa 5%. Ein Viertel des Lösses (25% geht an den Keldach-Löss (Älteres Hochwürm, MIS4, nur wenig (1,5% an den Rheingau-Löss (MIS 5. Dem Prä-Eem-Löss gehört das letzte Viertel (24% desgesamten Lösses. Eine statistische Suche nach prähistorischen Funden erbrachte 131 paläolithische Knochen und Artefakte, die stratigraphisch genau zugeordnet werden konnten. Die Hauptmasse der Funde gehört den beiden Stadien MIS4 und MIS2 an – bemerkenswerterweise zwei kalten Perioden. Das Fehlen interglazialer Funde – solche sind vom übrigen Lössplateau durchaus bekannt – wird der starken periglazialen Abtragung und Einebnung in Plateauposition zugeschrieben. Die vorliegenden Funde belegen erstmals lokale Jagdaktivität während feuchter Perioden im Stadium MIS4. Ob die Funde aus dem MIS2 autochthon sind oder aus älteren Schichten aufgearbeitet wurden, muss offen bleiben.

Holger Kels

2011-02-01

159

?Relation of loess units and prehistoric find density in the Garzweiler open-cast mine, Lower Rhine  

OpenAIRE

Auf der Basis einer detaillierten Lössstratigraphie wurden auf dem Lössplateau des westlichen Niederrheins von einer Abbauwandgesamtfläche von 11.000qm die Anteile der wichtigsten Lösseinheiten berechnet. Darin nimmt der Brabant-Löss (spätes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS 2) 45% Anteil ein, also nahezu die Hälfte des vorhandenen Lösses, der Hesbaye-Löss (frühes Jüngeres Hochwürm, MIS2) etwa 5%. Ein Viertel des Lösses (25%) geht an den Keldach-Löss (Älteres Hochwürm, MIS4), nur wenig...

Holger Kels; Wolfgang Schirmer

2011-01-01

160

Environmental protection of uranium mines and mills in India: regulator's perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mining and milling involves mining of the uranium ore from underground or open cast mine and chemically processing of the mined out ore to recover the uranium values. The storage of excavated waste rock, the disposal of radium containing mine water to water bodies, the venting out of radon containing mine exhaust to the open atmosphere constitute the environmental radiological hazards from a uranium mine. After chemical processing of the ore in a mill, the bulk of the radioactivity originally present in the ore along with the added chemicals finds its way in the mill tailings. Therefore, it warrants adequate safety measures for protection of the environment from the adverse effects of chemicals and radioactivity. These safety aspects of the uranium mines and mills and the impact on the environment are reviewed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), the national regulatory body of India. This paper discusses the regulatory framework, regulatory issues associated with uranium mines and mills and the safety stipulations laid down during the consenting process of the new projects so that the environment around uranium mine and mill is adequately protected. (author)

161

The antibody mining toolbox: an open source tool for the rapid analysis of antibody repertoires.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1-2 million reads can be accomplished in 10-15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries. PMID:24423623

D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Kiss, Csaba

2014-01-01

162

Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

2009-01-01

163

Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on ground water under several operating conditions. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1:1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

164

Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

165

The suitable of utilization the opening spaces of browncoal and ore mines for the waste deposition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the conection with the transformation of non economical metal mining in Slovakia nowadays possibilities of secondary utilization of mine underground spaces for unmining purposes are analyzed. This paper presents the technical Aspects and the Possibilities for the undergrounding deposition of waste materials on the slowak mining works on the brown coal and metalic raw materials mines. This problems are in the last year still more solution and with the positive results too. The specific points of the paper addresed in this report deal with charakterization of the waste from the point of view one coal power plant. Are charakterized their preparation and laboratory methods, but the hydrogelogical and geotechnical problems too. Ending this paper is describe one of the possibilty of the Informatik system for underground waste storage (UAE. On the relation of this problem are in the paper described the more technical aspects from point of view one brown coal mining area. Together with the problem of possibilities of storage mining in underground has been the technical consulting system soluted (WBS. Technological and temporary storage of waste and utility materials without the relation to the mining technology are described too. The mining waste management (UAE in metal and brown coal mines may in future be rather perspective industrial area of enterprising which if, it is rigthly orientated, will make possible at least the partial iprovement of the living environment.

Bauer Viliam

2000-12-01

166

Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

167

Kimberlite emplacement models — The implications for mining projects  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of the emplacement model for kimberlite pipes, or sheets, is commonly recognized in resource geology. However, its importance is not always appreciated in the mine design process. The fact is that knowledge of the orebody geometry, character of the contact zones, internal structures, rock mass competency and distribution of inclusions could directly influence the selection of the underground mining method, pit wall stability, dilution, treatability, and the dewatering strategy. The problems are exacerbated in smaller pipes and narrower sheets, and in more irregular shapes; they are more apparent in underground mining as opposed to open cast. Various kimberlite emplacement processes have a major impact on the nature of the kimberlite orebody and host rocks that will influence the mine design and mining strategy. Failure to understand these processes can adversely affect the economic outcome for developing a mine. It is therefore important to investigate those processes in order to better characterize the mining constraints and risks, and more accurately predict the mine's economic viability.

Jakubec, Jaroslav

2008-06-01

168

30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the...and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the...underground coal mine, and a mine which has been abandoned or deactivated...

2010-07-01

169

The coal mining industry in Vietnam and its challenges; Steinkohlenbergbau in Vietnam und seine Herausforderungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The province of Quang Ninh in the north of Vietnam is the most important coal mining region in the country. The NBCC (Nui Beo Coal Company) operates several open-cast mines. Large quantities of overburden have to be removed and dumped in the immediate environment. The creation of these heaps up to 300 m high is accompanied by many environmental problems. In particular ground and surface waters are contaminated by ''acid mine drainage''. Furthermore, large emissions chiefly in the form of dust occur as a result of the working and dumping depending on the season. In addition the stability of the heaps is sometimes greatly endangered. In the German-Vietnamese Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam (RAME) the aspects of coal mining with an effect on the environment are dealt with in various sub-associations and protective measures worked out jointly. (orig.)

Martens, Per Nicolai; Pateiro Fernandez, Jose B.; Ahmad, Shakeel [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I; Cramer, Thomas; Deissmann, Guido [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Fuchsschwanz, Marcus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geotechnik

2010-04-15

170

Various effects of mining on groundwater quality and resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining excavations intercept groundwater flow, often down to considerable depth. Indeed groundwater frequently causes serious difficulties during the development and operation of mines, particularly where the style of the permeability is such that sudden high rates of inflow occur in an apparently random fashion. While the effects are quite evident on the mining environment, the effects of the large distortions on the natural pattern of groundwater flow orientation and chemical quality, on the environment at large, are often longer term and more suitable. Measurable effects, and sometimes contamination, may take some time to appear. While deep-mining of most types usually has the most noticeable involvement with groundwater, quarrying and open cast mining can also cause conspicuous effects on groundwater level and quality as observed in the Tobago mineral sand mining area of New South Wales Australia. In this case the main problem was elevated concentrations of dissolved iron. In Germany, opencast mining of lignite causes extreme drawdown of surrounding groundwater levels, one effect of which is to make the abstraction of public groundwater supplies significantly more expensive. More exotic developments such as solution mining have effects on both groundwater and aquifer, but luckily such operations are few at the moment. The most serious and widespread environmental effects of mining however emanate from the disposal or storage of spoil and groundwater tends to be esge of spoil and groundwater tends to be especially badly effected. Geotechnical problems such as subsidence may be a further effect of groundwater abstraction for mine dewatering, and there is much evidence that the lesser degrees of deformation due to mining on the surrounding rocks can enhance permeability. This note briefly reviews the interaction of mining and groundwater with reference to case history data. 6 refs., 2 refs., 1 tab

171

A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

172

Vibration response and evaluation of oil shale mine openings to the Rio Blanco event  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Project Rio Blanco was designed to further study the economic and technical feasibility of the commercial development of natural gas, using underground nuclear explosions to stimulate production. Simultaneous detonation of the three, 30 kt devices took place on May 17, 1973, at 10:00:00.12 hours +-0.01 second, M.D.T. The initial compressional impulse was evident on all data channels at the Colony, Anvil Points and Dutch Creek No. 1 Mines. Other phases were not readily identifiable due to the complexity of the seismic signals. Recorded particle velocity and acceleration were, in general, near that predicted for the event. Particle velocity was directly recorded from all station points. Acceleration was directly recorded only from selected stations for comparative purposes. Displacement was derived for all station points from recorded particle velocity and/or acceleration. Propagation velocity was calculated to be 13,950 feet/second to the Colony Mine and 15,800 feet/second to the Anvil Points Mine. In view of the fact that both mines lie very nearly on a common line to ground zero, a higher velocity to the Anvil Points mine is unique. This may indicate the presence, at depth, of a high velocity refraction layer through which the seismic wave to both mines was transmitted. Loss of the transmitted time signal at the Dutch Creek No. 1 mine station prevents calculation of the propagation velocity

173

Simulating a high pressure die casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High pressure die casting is simulated for parts with complex geometry such as a large automotive transmission case. The closed die is filled in approximately 40 ms, the casting cools in the closed die for approximately 40s, to open the die, eject the casting and spray the die cavity surface requires another 40s. This 3D cyclic process is simulated using the following coupled composite solvers: the energy equation in the die and in the casting with solidification; filling of the casting by a droplet or a Navier-Stokes solver, and thermal stress analysis of the casting machine, casting and die during the cycle. This thermal analysis can be done for both starting and stopping transients and for the cyclic steady state. The software enables this analysis to be done almost automatically by designers. (author)

174

Hazard analysis of underground coal mine haulage systems. Open file report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyses of statistical data indicate that haulage accidents are one of the largest sources of injuries and fatalities in underground coal mines and that the rate of accidents in transportation has been increasing during the past few years. These previous analyses were performed by correlating accident or fatality data at a rather low level of activity in an attempt to understand factors contributing to hazards in the specific situations observed. The aim of the current study was to derive preventive measures that might obviate the hazardous conditions and unsafe acts observed, and following this, to provide recommendations for additional research and development to reduce accident potential in underground transportation. In-mine surveys were made in 35 underground coal mines in 10 different coal seams that were believed to be representative of U.S. mines. (GRA)

Ankenbruck, H.O.; Blackman, S.L.; Billmayer, H.J.; Hargreaves, W.J.; Perlman, M.

1975-06-01

175

Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999  

Science.gov (United States)

The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock (Savage and others, 2000). Although jarosite would be expected to dissolve in water having the composition of the developing pit lake, iron oxyhydroxide species (ferrihydrite and goethite) would be stable, and strong partitioning of arsenic onto suspended particles or bottom sediments containing these iron phases would be expected. Arsenic release to the lake would not be expected until stratification develops, producing a reducing, non-circulating hypolimnion in which the iron phases would be destroyed by dissolution. The fact that arsenic concentrations increased rapidly before the pit lake was deep enough to stratify shows that arsenic may not be attenuated in the ways that the earlier Clio mine area study indicated, and suggested that our understanding of release and transport of arsenic in this environment is incomplete. Therefore, in 1997 we decided to study the chemical evolution of the Harvard pit lake as part of a project on environmental impacts of gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, and in early 1998 we developed a cooperative study with several of the investigators in the Stanford University Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences who had done the Clio study. The U.S. Geological Survey portion of the project has been funded by the Mineral Resources Program. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the release and transport of arsenic into the Harvard pit lake and its accumulation there will contribute to more accurate predictions of arsenic release from weathering of sulfide-bearing rocks exposed by mining or other activities or events, and to better forecasts of pit lake evolution in this and similar environments, leading to more effective monitoring and mitigation strategies. An accurate predictive model is needed for the Harvard pit lake to forecast trends in metal concentrations, particularly arsenic, and also concentrations of major cations and anions. As the lake approaches pre-mining groundwater levels the lake water could move down the hydrologic gradient to the southeast into domestic wells, and could also affect the surface

Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

2001-01-01

176

UTILISATION OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION IN OPENCAST MINES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In past several decades, the mining industry has globally shifted thrust from Underground to open cast mining. The use of large capacity Heavy Earth Moving Machinery (HEMM, their extensive deployment and ever growing challenge to i ncrease productivity have led to increased complexity of operation and management. Developments in information and communications technology (ICT support the collection, connection and analysis of data through sensing and monitoring of trucks in mines. Sensors are parts of all machines that gather data and have an integral role in subsequent processing and transmission of data. Monitoring is a process that observes a state in time or tracks changes in data sets to derive information. Together, sensing and monitoring provide a mechanism for harvesting digital data. This growth in digital data is being used to drive changes in production and distribution processes and the reach of services in the mines. The application of monitoring plays an important role in collecting sufficient relevant information to achieve the desired outcomes of the process in mines. To provide maximum benefit, wireless mining communication networks must offer broadband speeds and form a flexible and reliable foundation to securely support multiple applications on one cost-effective physical infrastructure. A single mining communication network can simultaneously support a range of applications such as, Lower costs by maximizing truck tire life and minimizing unscheduled maintenance Enhance worker safety with improved situational awareness, collision avoidance systems, real-time streams of high wall scans and “man down” systems Improve security using video surveillance and physical access Control Increase efficiency by enabling mine management software (MMS in the field Improve office staff productivity with high-speed connectivity.

Guntha Karthik

2014-07-01

177

Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

S. Pietrowski

2008-10-01

178

Duplicate management in mining open source literature for knowledge and intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the collection and processing of Open Source information for knowledge discovery and other intelligence purposes, no matter how clever the search algorithm or analyst, a persistent problem is the management of the sheer volume of information identified. This information comes in the form of unstructured, semi-structured, and structured data. One of the key issues that exacerbates this information overload is the production of duplicate or near-duplicate information. Another is the collection of data that has little relevance or utility to the subject matter of interest. The paper documents the process of conducting a comprehensive literature search for work that has been done in duplicate checking/filtering, narrowing the information to a workable subset, then mining the subset for the techniques, trials, and errors that have been documented. In the context of a state-of-the-art Technology Data Analysis System that is specifically designed to organize information around an organization's technology strategy, the paper provides the analysis of the design and algorithmic infrastructure that was developed to create a mechanized system that virtually eliminates the duplicative and irrelevant information resulting from Open Source data gathering activities. This system, the Automated Knowledge Discovery System (AKDS), is designed to automate the identification, retrieval, analysis, and organization of scientific, technical, and business data and provide a connical, and business data and provide a continual surveillance of the current state of the technologies of specific interest to an organization. This paper focuses on the text analysis modules that enable the identification of duplicate and irrelevant information; the paper also provides metrics on results that have been studied in controlled trials and relates that to analyst productivity. Duplicate and Near Duplicate Detection - The AKDS system provides duplicate assessment based in part on the IMatch algorithm devised by Abdur Chowdhury. The algorithm operates by taking a series of normalized 'slices' of terms from a frequency ordered bag of words document and applying the SHA1 hashing function. The process then evaluates the document hashes to identify documents that have similar content and for which subsequent documents do not have any new or unique information. Both the size and offset of the frequency 'slice' that is hashed determine the level of discrimination that is applied. Based on a system's requirements, the identical or nearly identical information (near duplicates) can be kept in the system and clustered; these document clusters can be used as an effective way to minimize how much information is presented to system users. When a user's query returns documents that are members of such a cluster, the most representative or 'best' document may be displayed to the user and the near duplicates would be initially hidden from the user. Conversely, if there is no perceived value in maintaining all of the documents, the near duplicates can also be deleted from the system. This can be accomplished in an automated manner by comparing the number of coinciding hashes while accounting for their slice size and offset in the term frequency based representation from which they were derived. The user may then specify a threshold-based degree of hash matching, above which documents may be automatically rejected. This module is particularly useful for systems that are evaluating large volumes of unstructured textual data such as Internet search engine queries that have a tendency to return the same or similar documents from multiple sources; this module has also proven to be effective in identifying documents where multiple versions have only slight modifications for which the end user would gain little utility beyond the initial document reviewed. Irrelevant Information (Spam) Filtering - The system evaluates document features to identify documents that contain little, if any, utility. This process utilizes the See5 decision tree algorithm developed by Ross Qui

179

Process development of thin strip steel casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

1990-12-01

180

Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

CERN Document Server

Privacy preserving data mining implies the "mining" of knowledge from distributed data without violating the privacy of the individual/corporations involved in contributing the data. This volume provides an overview of approaches, techniques and open problems in privacy preserving data mining. It is for industry practitioners and policy makers.

Vaidya, Jaideep; Clifton, Christopher W

2006-01-01

181

High-Density-Tape Casting System  

Science.gov (United States)

Centrifuge packs solids from slurry into uniform, dense layer. New system produces tapes of nearly theoretical packing density. Centrifugal system used to cast thin tapes for capacitors, fuel cells, and filters. Cylindrical rotary casting chamber mounted on high-speed bearings and connected to motor. Liquid for vapor-pressure control and casting slurry introduced from syringes through rotary seal. During drying step, liquid and vapor vented through feed tubes or other openings. Laminated tapes produced by adding more syringes to cast additional layers of different materials.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1987-01-01

182

Impact assessment of chromite mining on groundwater through simulation modeling study in Sukinda chromite mining area, Orissa, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pre-Cambrian chromites ore deposits in Sukinda valley, Jajpur District, Orissa, India, are well known for chromite ore deposits. The exploitation of the ore is carried out through open cast mining method since the last few decades. In the process, the overburden and ore dumps are stored on ground surface, where leaching of chromite and other toxic element takes place particularly during monsoon seasons. This leachate may cause threat to groundwater in the vicinity. An integrated approach has been adopted to evaluate possibility of pollution due to mine seepage and leachate migration on groundwater regime. The approach involves geophysical, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical and aquifer modeling studies. The investigation has the significance as many habitats surround the mining area facing groundwater problems. PMID:18450374

Dhakate, Ratnakar; Singh, V S; Hodlur, G K

2008-12-30

183

Geophysical control system of radiation-hygienic coal quality, to be mined by open method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is given to the system of geophysical control of radiation-hygienic quality of Urtuisky brow-coal deposit coal, created in Priargunsky industrial mine-chemical association. Coal of the above-mentioned deposit is characterized by high content of natural radionuclides. The system is noted for monitoring of natural radionuclide level in initial coal and in products of its burning at all stages of technological process of mining, transportation and utilization of fuel, with the use of gamma methods (logging, sampling, rapid analysis

184

Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

2012-07-01

185

Ankle Injury Management (AIM): design of a pragmatic multi-centre equivalence randomised controlled trial comparing Close Contact Casting (CCC) to Open surgical Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients over 60 years.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Ankle fractures account for 9% of all fractures with a quarter of these occurring in adults over 60 years. The short term disability and long-term consequences of this injury can be considerable. Current opinion favours open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) over non-operative treatment (fracture manipulation and the application of a standard moulded cast) for older people. Both techniques are associated with complications but the limited published research indicates higher ...

Willett, K.; Keene, Dj; Morgan, L; Gray, B.; Handley, R.; Chesser, T.; Pallister, I.; Tutton, E.; Knox, C.; Lall, R.; Briggs, A.; Lamb, Se

2014-01-01

186

Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

187

Backfilling of cavities produced in borehole mining operations. Open file report (final) July 1978-June 1979  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a program to develop backfilling techniques to mitigate undesirable effects of hydraulic borehole uranium mining. To prevent ground subsidence and to allow mining of adjacent uraniferous sandstone, large underground cavities, formed during the borehole mining process can be backfilled. Three techniques that were tested in the laboratory and the field with sand, and with sand and 1 wt % cement mixtures were bulk dumping of slurry into the borehole from ground level, slurry injection under water, and slurry injection above the cavity water level. The project was accomplished by equipment preparation and transport, mining operation to generate a full-sized cavity, backfilling operation, and assessment through core samples and subsidence checks. The concentrations of cement mixed with sand were inadequate to bond the sand, and bulk dumping resulted in a 300 angle-of-repose which was too steep to completely fill the cavity. Both slurry techniques filled the cavity satisfactorily; however, underwater injection is the recommended backfilling technique because the borehole water level does not need to be pumped down during backfilling. The borehole was filled by bulk dumping of slurry

188

14th mine operators` conference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical program consisted of three sessions on open pit (20 papers) and three sessions on underground mining (40 papers). The open pit sessions included papers on high wall stability, considerations in small mine design, productivity in gypsum and in iron ore mining, blasting with emulsions, blast modelling, maintenance management, and revegetation of copper tailings. Underground topics included stability graphs, cable bolt design, mine design, deep mining systems, paste backfilling, and hoists. The conference included a trade show featuring mining supplies and technology and mine and industrial site tours. Three papers are indexed separately.

NONE

1999-01-01

189

Casting materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

2011-06-14

190

Groundwater flow model of the Estonian oil shale mining area towards to innovative system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in the Estonian groundwater regime are anticipated as oil shale deposits are mined. This paper described a dynamic groundwater flow model used to develop a 3-D groundwater elevation map of the Estonian oil shale mining area. The model was used to provide preliminary estimations of water inflow into the working underground mine areas. The model included 9 closed underground mines, 5 active mine sites, and 2 small open-cast sites. The closed mine sites were filled with water flowing in from the working mine sites. New mines and dewatering programs are planned for the future. A database from observation wells installed within the Keila-Kukruse aquifer was used to extract outputs and determine time steps. The model included 35 pumping stations from the active mine sites. The hydraulic properties for each model layer were defined in 4 model zones. Results of the model showed higher water in-flows from the closed underground sites than earlier predictions had anticipated. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

Lind, H. [Tallinn Univ. of Technology (Estonia). Dept. of Mining

2010-07-01

191

Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github.com and stackoverflow.com. These popular, developer-centric websites have powerful application-programmer interfaces, and follow an open-data policy. In this regard, these sites offer a web-accessible reservoir of information that can be tapped to study questions such as: which open source software projects are eminent in the various geoscience fields? What are the most popular programming languages? How are they trending? Are there any interesting temporal patterns in committer activities? How large are programming teams and how do they change over time? What free software packages exist in the vast realms of related fields? Does the software from these fields have capabilities that might still be useful to me as a researcher, or can help me perform my work better? Are there any open-source projects that might be commercially interesting? This evaluation strategy reveals programming projects that tend to be new. As many important legacy codes are not hosted on open-source code-repositories, the presented search method might overlook some older projects.

Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

2013-04-01

192

Palabora Mining Company  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Loole Kop orebody is being mined by the Palabora Mining Company. It is the second largest open pit copper mine of the world. The daily input to the concentrator plant amounts to 320,000 t of material with 91,000 t of ore. Concentrates are pyrometallurgically refined to high-grade copper cathodes. Production rate: 140,000 tpy of copper cathodes. - Besides copper ore, such minerals as apatite, magnetite, uranium ores, baddeleyite and vermiculite are mined.

Woebking, H.

193

[Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: How old maps are used to investigate modern environmental issues in the Czech Republic  

OpenAIRE

The Austrian Geological Survey and Czech geological organizations have in their archives source materials that can be used for the landscape restoration. At many places in the Czech Republic, considerable changes of the environment took place due to building and other industrial activities, especially the mining of mineral raw materials. Changes of relief, river networks and hydrogeological conditions are conspicuous. The largest changes and damages are due to open-cast mining in the North Bo...

Cernajsek, T.; Hauser, C.; Posmourny, K.

2004-01-01

194

Landscaping and ecology in the lignite mining area of Maritza-East, Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study on the future mining concept of the open-cast mine Trojovano-North, Bulgaria which is presented in this paper was prepared in close cooperation with Bulgarian specialists. It particularly takes into account ecological aspects. The mining concept clearly shows that economy and ecology can be combined usefully. The advantages are, among others, reduced occupation of land, avoiding of river and village translocation and the efficient use of chernozems for topsoil. Various landscape elements are used for the improvement of the ecological conditions in this intensively agricultural area. The illustrated measures show that the mining impacts on nature can be limited, minimized and balanced. It is possible to win the required public acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

195

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

P. Ranade

2007-01-01

196

Mining in Germany 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers were presented on the following subjects: Mining in the new German states; Development of knowledge-based consulting systems for waste disposal and mine savitation operations; Advantages and drawbacks of underground leaching of uranium ores - proposals for environmentally compatible termination of mining operations; Backfilling of open shafts; The final operation plan -legal fundamentals of mine abandonment; stability assessment of subsurface workings of the Ehrenfriedersdorf tin mine and conclusions for safety measures; Experience and problems of landscaping measures for abandoved mines in densely populated areas; Performance of pipeless shaft drilling machines in hard and extremely hard rock; subsurface tunnelling in subsidence areas; Selective cutters in potassium mining in Alsace-Rock salt mining at Bernburg; Problems of stabilisation of abandoned shafts in potassium mines in central Germany. Six of the papers have been recorded as separate entries in this database. (orig./HS)

197

Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

198

Modelling the soil water and salt balance of planted pastures irrigated with sodium sulphate rich mine effluent  

OpenAIRE

A field trial was established in January 2002 under a centre pivot at Syferfontein (Sasol) open cast mine, close to Secunda in the Mpumalanga Province (Republic of South Africa). Field measurements of crop, soil, water and weather were taken up till May 2003. Growth analyses were undertaken during the growing period of the planted pastures. Crop growth parameters and input parameters for long term predictions with the SWB model were also determined. The determinations were made for five plant...

Beletse, Yacob Ghebretinsae

2005-01-01

199

Numerical modeling to assess possible influence of the mine openings on far-field in-situ stress measurements at Stripa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finite element analyses were carried out to assess the possible effects of the Stripa mine openings on the in-situ stress measured in a 400-m-deep borehole drilled from the surface. For this assessment, four 2-dimensional cases were modeled. These cases variously included two horizontal sections, and two separate, idealized vertical sections. An iron ore body in the mine was assumed to be completely extracted, thereby providing conservative estimates of stress concentration effects. Since no in-situ stress measurements were made before mining, overburden weight and horizontal stresses measured by hyrodfracturing were assumed to be the pre-mining state of stress. The stress state resulting from excavation of the mine was calculated by the finite element model. In the cases using horizontal sections, the model predicted a stress concentration factor at the borehole of approximately 1.15, which is negligible considering the difficulty of obtaining accurate stress measurements. For the vertical sections the model predicted higher stress concentration factors at depths less than 200 m. This was expected because the vertical sections chosen brought the borehole unrealistically close to the mine openings, thereby leading to overly conservative estimates. In general, deviations in the magnitudes and orientations of the calculated redistributed principal stresses from the assumed pre-mining state of stress were found to be comparable to the scatter of overcoring data. It is, therefore, recommended that, for near-field stress calculations, the vertical stress due to overburden weight and the horizontal stresses measured by hydrofracturing at the borehole be considered the unperturbed far-field in situ state of stress

200

Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are preta from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

201

Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote Sensing Systems Department at Space Research and Technology Institute thematically oriented spectrometric system TOMS working in the 0.4-0.9 ?m range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). For proper comparison between the data obtained from the different sources mentioned spectral transformations such as normalized difference and rationing data for two wavelengths were applied in order to avoid misinterpretation. Statistically significant dependence between the various spectral transformations and the quantitative content of the iron in the different type of compounds was established. The achieved results provided evidence that methodology used could be extended to other regions of the country polluted by the mining activities and should be also tested in the region of the copper and zinc extraction. In the next step of our research we intend to use the results obtained by the multitemporal analysis of the satellite and ground-based multispectral data for the same and the similar regions of interest.

Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

2013-10-01

202

Facile one-step forming of NiO and yttrium-stabilized zirconia composite anodes with straight open pores for planar solid oxide fuel cell using phase-inversion tape casting method  

Science.gov (United States)

The anode of NiO and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with straight open pores is prepared by phase-inversion tape casting method. In the as-prepared green tape, its top and middle layers are derived from a slurry of NiO and YSZ, while the bottom layer from a slurry of graphite. The graphite layer is eliminated by calcination at elevated temperatures, leaving the finger-like porous layer exposed to the gas phase. A cell supported on the as-prepared anode substrate exhibits satisfactory electrochemical performances with a maximum power density of 780 mW cm-2 at 800 °C. The cell dose not show a convex-up curvature in I-V plots at high current density as often observed for most anode-supported cells, indicating the absence of concentration polarization which is in turn attributed to the open pore structure of the phase-inversion derived anode. The phase inversion tape casting technique explored in the present study involves almost the same equipments as and similar procedures to the conventional tape casting, and after further optimization it may become a simple and effective technique for mass production of anodes for SOFCs.

Huang, Hua; Lin, Jie; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Shaorong; Xia, Changrong; Chen, Chusheng

2015-01-01

203

The ancient Chinese casting techniques  

OpenAIRE

In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

2011-01-01

204

Emerging trend of uranium mining: The Indian scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Singhbhum Thrust Belt of Jharkhnad, a low-grade large tonnage deposit at Banduhurang is being planned for exploitation soon. After the initial evaluation and computerised orebody modeling, open-pit mining method has been considered as the most favourable option. Uranium orebody explored at Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh have been planned for development by both open cast and underground mining methods. A large sandstone hosted uranium deposit at Domiasiat, spread over two distinct blocks has been found within a depth of about 45m. Pre-mining activities are also set to begin in a few more deposits where the exploration is in advance stage and some reserves have already been identified. A large uranium reserve has already been established within the carbonate host rock at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh. New mining technologies are emerging where all the strenuous mining activities are automated. Development of cutting technology in place of conventional drilling and blasting, use of electronic detonators, environment friendly explosives etc are some the areas of future development. New mines have been planned with deployment of energy efficient electro-hydraulic equipment. The only uranium ore processing plant of the country at Jaduguda, in operation since 1968 is based on acid leaching technology. The final product of this plant is magnesium diuranate or yellow cake. Jaduguda plant has been expanded twice to treat the ore of Bhatin and Narwapahar mines. I the ore of Bhatin and Narwapahar mines. In the coming years, ore of Bagjata mine will also be fed to this plant. A new plant at Turamdih is being set-up to treat the ore planned to be produced from Turamdih and Banduhurang mines. The flowsheet of this plant is similar to that of Jaduguda. Another new plant at Seripalli has been planned in Andhra Pradesh to treat the ore of Lambapur-Peddagattu mine. A plant near the mine site at Domiasiat in Meghalya will be constructed with some modified process technology because of different ore characteristics. Followed by conventional grinding, the thickened slurry of sandstone will undergo two stages of leaching - weak acid (WAL) and strong acid (SAL). Resulting filtrate will be clarified, concentrated in ion exchange and precipitated along with magnesia as magnesium diuranate. A plant based on alkali-leaching technology is being proposed at Tummalapalle to treat the carbonate bearing host rock. Resolving the process know-how for alkaline leaching of Tummalapalle ore is now the emerging area for research and development. The uranium ore in India are generally of low grade, which necessitates production and processing of large quantity of ore. This results in generation of large volume of solid waste and effluent. The operating underground uranium mines of the area are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings generated during the ore processing. As the mining work progresses, the void created are sequentially backfilled utilizing about 50% of the deslimed neutralized tailings. Only the finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is stored in tailings pond separating it from the public domain. The only tailings pond of the country at Jaduguda with natural high hills on three sides and a very sound impoundment arrangement, has been progressively expanded to accommodate the tailings generated from Jaduguda plant. Tailings management at new sites: New underground mines in Singhbhum will have provisions of backfilling utilizing coarser fraction of tailings. The tailings pond proposed at Turamdih will be designed in line with Jaduguda tailings pond. The tailings pond at Seripalli is being envisaged with thickened tailings disposal system. The proposed open cast mine at Domiasiat is being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings as backfill material after artificial lining at the pit bottom. The finer fraction of the tailings will be impounded in the tailings pond to be constructed adjacent to the plant. The new tailings ponds are being envisaged with sound impermeabl

205

The application of data mining methods  

OpenAIRE

Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

206

Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; ed ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

207

Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic  

OpenAIRE

Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR)-region image usin...

Gila Notesco; Veronika Kopa?ková; Petr Rojík; Guy Schwartz; Ido Livne; Eyal Ben Dor

2014-01-01

208

Ancient and medieval mining engineering in the southwest of the iberian peninsula; Ingenieria minera antigua y medieval en el suroeste iberico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work provides a summary of our knowledge about the old mining works in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus in the light of recent investigations, always bearing in mind the descriptions of these ancient mining works made by engineers and geologists in the XIX and the XX centuries, we have been able to systematize the prehistoric and proto historic mining works and provide evidence for the existence of underground mining during these remote times, when it was believed that only open-cast extraction took place. In the same way we have looked into all the types of mining works documented from the Roman period to the present day and been able to distinguish a continued use of these during the Middle Ages at a time when, until recently, they were considered hardly to exist. (Author) 41 refs.

Perez Macias, J. A.; Delgado Dominguez, A.

2011-07-01

209

Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

210

Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

1997-07-01

211

Technical developments in uranium mining and milling in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Uranium mining in India made a formal beginning with formation of Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. in October 1967. In accordance with the mandate of producing and meeting the uranium requirement of the country, UCIL has continuously upgraded the technology and operating practices with regard to its core activities - uranium ore mining, processing and disposal of tailings. Jaduguda underground mine in Singhbhum east district of Jharkhand (Eastern India) was commissioned in 1968. Regular mining operations started with the sinking of a fully lined vertical shaft and equipping the same with two winders which support a cage and a skip. This was followed by commissioning of Bhatin mine in 1986, Narwapahar mine in 1995, Turamdih mine in 2003, and Bagjata mine in 2008. New mines adopt decline method of entry and use of track less equipment in cut-and fill method of stoping. Vertical shafts provide access to deeper levels for ore and men and material hoisting. Banduhurang, the first open cast uranium mine of the country was commissioned in Jan 2009. New mine at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh and underground mine at Mohuldih in Jharkhand are under construction. The mine at Tummalapalle has been planned with three declines along the apparent dip of the orebody and breast stoping method using trackless equipment. At Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh, room and pillar method of stoping is proposed for underground mines with deployment of low profile drilling and lo deployment of low profile drilling and loading-dumping equipment. The conventional way of processing of uranium ore in India is through hydro-metallurgical route followed by acid leaching and MDU precipitation. Jaduguda plant commissioned in 1968 has been expanded in two phases and 3rd phase expansion is underway. The plant at Turamdih encompasses new equipment and monitoring systems like apron feeder, horizontal belt filter, high rate thickener, particle size monitor etc. Both Jaduguda and Turamdih plants are designed to produce magnesium diuranate (MDU) as the final product. Through in-house research, precipitation of uranium peroxide (UO4, H2O) as final product is under implementation. Since 2007, the plant at Tummalapalle is under construction which will adopt alkali leaching (under pressure) route. The operating underground uranium mines of the country are carefully designed with suitable stoping method (cut-and-fill) to accommodate maximum tailings. The finer fraction of the neutralized tailings is disposed in engineered impoundment facility, called tailings pond. The first two tailings ponds at Jaduguda are full and are under reclamation. The third pond is in use now. The tailings pond at Turamdih has been designed with some improved floor lining to prevent any downward movement of effluent. The proposed open cast mine at KPM in Meghalaya is also being designed to sequentially store uranium tailings and backfill material. At Lambapur uranium project, thickened tailings disposal system has been proposed where small dykes shall be built to contain tailings. The uranium ore mining and processing technology in India has come a long way in emulating global practices which has helped to develop the low grade deposits in cost effective and eco-friendly manner. This sector is now ready to acquire overseas uranium properties in order to expand the production base. (author)

212

Pattern-Based Web Mining Using Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, many data mining techniques have been proposed for fulfilling various knowledge discovery tasks in order to achieve the goal of retrieving useful information for users. Data mining techniques include association rule mining, frequent itemset mining, sequential pattern mining, maximum pattern mining and closed pattern mining. However, how to effectively exploit the discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of Web mining. In this study, we compare these data mining methods based on the use of several types of discovered patterns. The performance of the pattern mining algorithms is investigated on the Reuters dataset RCV1 for completing Web mining tasks. The experimental results show that the closed pattern methods, such as SCPM and NSCPM, have better performance due to the use of pruning mechanism in the pattern discovery stage.

Sheng-Tang Wu

2013-04-01

213

Radioisotope investigation of continuous steel casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects are discussed of the design of the casting set, the system of the coupling of spray water cooling and the movement inside the liquid zone, on hardening, the macrostructure of ingots, the macrodistribution of non-metallic inclusions and the formation of surface cracks in cast ingots. It is demonstrated that with the use of a casting funnel with side openings and a system of support cylinders, with a total change in the system of cooling jets of the sprayer and after attaining continuous film boil in the spray tube of the water cooler, the output of the casting set may be increased by 50%, this with substantially improved quality of castings. (J.B.). 9 figs., 7 refs

214

Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

Nichiporuk, A.

2007-09-15

215

A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for source and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of automatic textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This paper describes is a multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morpho-Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence, cycling through all the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Once reduced to its Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form, referred to its language independent entry inside a sectorial multilingual dictionary, eade a sectorial multilingual dictionary, each tagged lemma is used as descriptor and possible seed of clustering. The automatic classification of results is made by Unsupervised Classification schema. By Multilingual Text Mining, analysts can get an overview of great volumes of textual data having a highly readable grid, which helps them discover meaningful similarities among documents and find any nuclear proliferation and safeguard related information. Multilingual Text Mining permits to overcome linguistic barriers, allowing the automatic indexation and classification of documents, whatever it might be their language, letting international agents cut through the information labyrinth. (author)

216

Pattern of hexa-valent chromium in air borne respirable dust generated at various workplaces in opencast chromite mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a study into air borne respirable dust (ARD) concentration at various workplaces in two open cast chromite mines of Sukinda chromite belt, India. One of these mines is mechanised and the other one is semi-mechanised. The study has been conducted in three phases and ARD concentration has been measured at various workplaces in both the mines. Apart from the determination of ARD concentration, the dust samples collected on filter papers were analysed for hexa-valent chromium by colorimetric method and Cr(VI) direct absorption measurement. In addition, the particle size ranges in ARD have been determined by using cascade impactor fitted onto high volume samplers and laser guided particle size analyser. The paper finally presents a comparison between ARD concentration vis-à-vis the presence of hexa-valent chromium concentration in collected samples of both mechanised and semi-mechanised mines. PMID:16502358

Panigrahi, D C; Pandey, J K; Udaybhanu, G

2006-03-01

217

Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data  

OpenAIRE

Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI) represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection an...

Hartwig, Marcos E.; Mura, Jose? C.; Paradella, Waldir R.

2013-01-01

218

Update and revisions for Open-File Report 98-624, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from the Silverton and Leadville districts in Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

This report supersedes, revises, and updates information and data previously released in Open-File Report 98-624 (Montour and others, 1998). Data for this report were derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P. A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1997, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts near Silverton, Colorado (MAY and YUK), and near Leadville, Colorado (VEN and SUN). This report presents analytical results from these sites.

Hageman, Philip L.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

2000-01-01

219

Numerical scheme for elastoplastic parameter identification and finite element analysis of wall-slope of the Fushun West open pit mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The elastobrittle plastic finite element analysis has been taken on the prediction for the deformation of the northwall of an open pit of Fushun, China. Numerical simulation has been made on the reinforcement measures of the slope structure. Using parameter identification techniques and connecting with elasto brittle plastic finite element program, the displacement back analysis has been made on the material parameters of the rockslope. The equivalent parameter values of the real slope structure have been obtained. The process of the rapid increment of the slope's deformation caused by open mining during 1987 to 1990 has been reappeared through the numerical simulation. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Shen, X.; Wang, J.; Mroz, Z. [Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang (China)

2002-06-01

220

Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID: protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabilization for six weeks is a simple, convenient, and ubiquitously available intervention. In contrast, ORIF requires hospitalization, but allows for functional rehabilitation. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials, it remains unclear whether ORIF leads to better functional outcomes one year after injury than closed reduction and casting. Methods/Design ORCHID (Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius is a pragmatic, randomized, multi-center, clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms. It is planned to include 504 patients in 15 participating centers throughout Germany over a three-year period. Patients are allocated by a central web-based randomization tool. The primary objective is to determine differences in the Short Form 36 (SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS between volar locked plating and closed reduction and casting of intraarticular, comminuted distal radius fractures in patients > 65 years of age one year after the fracture. Secondary outcomes include differences in other SF-36 dimensions, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH instrument. Also, the range of motion in the affected wrist, activities of daily living, complications (including secondary ORIF and revision surgery, as well as serious adverse events will be assessed. Data obtained during the trial will be used for later health-economic evaluations. The trial architecture involves a central statistical unit, an independent monitoring institute, and a data safety monitoring board. Following approval by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, conduct and reporting will strictly adhere to national and international rules, regulations, and recommendations (e.g., Good Clinical Practice, data safety laws, and EQUATOR/CONSORT proposals Discussion To our knowledge, ORCHID is the first multicenter RCT designed to assess quality of life and functional outcomes following operative treatment compared to conservative treatment of complex, intra-articular fractures of the distal radius in elderly patients. The results are expected to influence future treatment recommendations and policies on an international level. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN76120052 Registration date: 31.07.2008; Randomization of first patient: 15.09.2008

Seiler Christoph

2011-03-01

221

Mining in New Caledonia: environmental stakes and restoration opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

New Caledonia is a widely recognised marine and terrestrial biodiversity hot spot. However, this unique environment is under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Major threats are related to land cover change and include fire, urban sprawling and mining. Resulting habitat loss and fragmentation end up in serious erosion of the local biodiversity. Mining is of particular concern due to its economic significance for the island. Open cast mines were exploited there since 1873, and scraping out soil to access ores wipes out flora. Resulting perturbations on water flows and dramatic soil erosion lead to metal-rich sediment transport downstream into rivers and the lagoon. Conflicting environmental and economic aspects of mining are discussed in this paper. However, mining practices are also improving, and where impacts are inescapable ecological restoration is now considered. Past and ongoing experiences in the restoration of New Caledonian terrestrial ecosystems are presented and discussed here. Economic use of the local floristic diversity could also promote conservation and restoration, while providing alternative incomes. In this regard, Ecocatalysis, an innovative approach to make use of metal hyperaccumulating plants, is of particular interest. PMID:25065482

Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

2014-07-29

222

The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

223

The self heating of spoil piles from open cut coal mines: End of grant report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a study carried out on aspects of spoil pile self-heating at four mines in the Hunter Valley region of New South Wales. The objectives of the project were to characterize spoil material so as to predict its self-heating potential, to investigate methods for preventing and controlling spoil fires, to pursue means of investigating methods of spoil dump construction to minimize self-heating, and to prepare an Operator`s Guide containing practicable, economic and effective methods of control of self-heating in spoil dumps. The report contains the major findings of the laboratory and field measurement programs as well as the numerical modelling of spoil pile self heating. An interim guide to the recognition, management and prevention of spoil pile self-heating is included. The study concluded that the simulations of spoil-pile self-heating show that the method of spoil pile construction can have a major impact on the self-heating behaviour. In particular, judicious use of naturally occurring cover materials may allow self-heating to be avoided. However, this also requires complete covering of the batters with thick layers of suitable materials and the maintenance of a permanent seal. Horizontal layering in layers 10 m thick, with exposed batters is seen to do little in the way of minimizing self heating. (author). Tabs., figs., refs.

Carras, J.N.; Bainbridge, N.W.; Saghafi, A.; Szemes, F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology; Roberts, O.C.; Haneman, D. [Australian Coal Industry Research Labs. Ltd., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

1994-05-01

224

Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

Zeinab Aliabadian

2013-07-01

225

Garzweiler: Brown coal mining and wetlands; Garzweiler: Braunkohle und Feuchtgebiete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wetlands and moors, formerly regarded as 'badlands', are now viewed as ecologically valuable landscapes that must be preserved. Brown coal mining would destroy wetlands completely if no countermeasures were taken. The authors, both of whom are experts in the licensing procedure for Garzweiler II open-cast mine, take a good look ahead. [German] Feuchtgebiete und Moore galten lange Zeit als 'Unland', das urbar zu machen ist. Heute heisst es, die letzten dieser oekologisch wertvollen Restgebiete zu verteidigen. Zum Beispiel bei der Braunkohlenfoerderung: ein Eingriff in den Grundwasserhaushalt, der ohne Gegenmassnahmen zur Zerstoerung der Feuchtgebiete fuehren wuerde. Diese Dimension zu erfassen, laesst die Autoren - Berater und Gutachter im Genehmigungsverfahren fuer den Tagebau Garzweiler II - weit in die Zukunft blicken. (orig.)

Stolpe, H.; Kuhlbusch, K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Bauingenieurwesen

1999-07-01

226

Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

Coaldrake, J.E.

1978-03-01

227

Mining technology and policy issues 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

228

Fatigue Assessment of Cast Components : Influence of Cast Defects  

OpenAIRE

 This thesis is on the fatigue assessment of cast components with special attention to defects. The primary material in view is nodular cast iron, but also cast steel is considered. However, the fatigue behaviour is in principle valid for general use on other cast metals.The first two papers is about general cast material behaviour in fatigue loading. The materials considered are a high strength alloyed cast steel and a medium strength nodular cast iron. It is concluded that cast defects is ...

Bjo?rkblad, Anders

2008-01-01

229

Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

Marcos E. Hartwig

2013-09-01

230

Reforestation of Bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum (Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings ofEucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings ofE. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantly higher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher in AM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings. 

A. Karthikeyan

2012-12-01

231

Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

N. Krishnakumar

2012-11-01

232

Recultivation and landscaping in areas after brown-coal mining in Middle-East European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research on the reclamation of areas devasted by open cast mining has a long tradition in the Middle-East European Countries. Results obtained from the research in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia and Estonia are summarized. Mining technologies, law regulations and the physiogeographical situation of the mining regions are different in the particular countries. This resulted in different reclamation strategies in these countries. In Poland, forest recultivation is of great importance because of the physical and chemical properties of the uppermost layers of the dumps, whereas in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania agricultural recultivation is more important. The results of studies on the forest recultivation of dumps in Estonia are of great interest, because they have been carried out for more than 50 years. 26 refs., 3 tabs

233

Bimetallic layer castings  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layer casting in configuration: working part (layer) from ferritic or austenitic alloy steel and bearing part from grey cast iron.Design/methodology/approach: In applied technology surface layer on the basis of alloy steel at 2 or 5mm thickness was put directly in founding process of cast iron with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Quality of bimetallic layer castings was estimated on the base of ultrasonic non-destructive testi...

Cholewa, M.; Wro?bel, T.; Tenerowicz, S.

2010-01-01

234

LLNL casting technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

1994-01-01

235

High quality casting materials  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The paper briefly presents results of the new developed high quality cast materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following materials are: hypereutectoid cast steel with various microstructure modular graphite obtained in as-cast condition (raw state), ductile cast iron of bainite-martensitic carbides structure obtained in a raw state, aluminum bronzes and silumins with additives of: chromium, molybdenum, wolfram, vanadium.Findings: These alloys are characterized primarily by sign...

Pietrowski, S.

2010-01-01

236

CASTE FRAMEWORK AT NATIONAL LEVEL  

OpenAIRE

Caste is an important element of the Indian political process. It is legitimate. Caste has been inequality creating in Indian society. Therefore its influence on power shaping & Policy Making process. In this sense caste element has got sphere of influence in political process. Relationship between Caste & politics has been more eminent. Caste has been influencing on politics & politics has been influenced by caste. Limitation of Dominant caste at national level: dominant caste has been deman...

PRAKASH PAWAR

2013-01-01

237

Egyptian Caste System  

Science.gov (United States)

Understand the culture, character, and societal characteristics of different classes in the ancient Egyptian caste system Understand the culture, character, and societal characteristics of different classes in the ancient Egyptian caste system Go to these sites to learn about the Egyptian Caste System ...

Issen, Ms.

2009-09-17

238

Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage

239

A case study of a large open pit uranium AML [Abandoned Mine Land] Project Gas Hills, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Abandoned Mine Lands Program (AML), authorized under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides funding for the abatement of health and safety hazards on lands disturbed by mining prior to enactment of the Act. A good example of the implementation of the AML Program in Wyoming is the A-8 Pit. The reclamation site is located in the East Gas Hills Uranium Mining District of Wyoming. Reclamation activities include selective handling of 3.5 million cubic yards of backfill, controlling pit dewatering and water treatment, installing second order drainage channel and riprap control structures, and salvaging sufficient coversoils and topsoils for site revegetation

240

Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes such kind of relationship of a well established course at the Technical University of Denmark using statistical methods. Keyphrase extraction tool was used to find the main topics of students' comments, based on which the qualitative feedback was transformed into quantitative data for further statistical analysis. Application of factor analysis helped to reveal the important issues and the structure of the data hidden in the students' written comments, while regression analysis showed that some of the revealed factors have a significant impact on how students rate a course.

Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

2013-01-01

241

Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war es, die durch spektrometrische Erfassungsmethoden der Fernerkundung erhaltenen Ueberfliegungsdaten mittels konventioneller petrographischer, mineralogischer und geochemischer Analytik zu kalibrieren, um der Bergbauindustrie eine wirkungsvolle Methode zu liefern, welche es ermoeglicht, die riesigen Kippenareale des Tagebaubergbaus mit geringem zeitlichen und personellen Aufwand aussagesicher zu klassifizieren, die Sachverhalte mit hoher Genauigkeit raeumlich zuzuordnen und so einer geeigneten Nutzung zuzufuehren. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag dabei in der Charakterisierung der hydro- und geochemischen Veraenderungen in den Kippensedimenten des im mitteldeutschen Raum suedlich von Leipzig aufgeschlossenen Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau. Die Erfassung dieser Daten spielt in Hinblick auf eine Rekultivierung und Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials der Tagebaulandschaft eine entscheidende Rolle. (orig.)

Wiegand, U.

2002-07-01

242

Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

2014-10-01

243

Unmixing techniques for better segmentation of urban zones, roads, and open pit mines  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the linear unmixing method has been applied in classification of manmade objects, namely urbanized zones, roads etc. The idea is to exploit to larger extent the possibilities offered by multispectral imagers having mid spatial resolution in this case TM/ETM+ instruments. In this research unmixing is used to find consistent regression dependencies between multispectral data and those gathered in-situ and airborne-based sensors. The correct identification of the mixed pixels is key element for the subsequent segmentation forming the shape of the artificial feature is determined much more reliable. This especially holds true for objects with relatively narrow structure for example two-lane roads for which the spatial resolution is larger that the object itself. We have combined ground spectrometry of asphalt, Landsat images of RoI, and in-situ measured asphalt in order to determine the narrow roads. The reflectance of paving stones made from granite is highest compared to another ones which is true for open and stone pits. The potential for mapping is not limited to the mid-spatial Landsat data, but also may be used if the data has higher spatial resolution (as fine as 0.5 m). In this research the spectral and directional reflection properties of asphalt and concrete surfaces compared to those of paving stone made from different rocks have been measured. The in-situ measurements, which plays key role have been obtained using the Thematically Oriented Multichannel Spectrometer (TOMS) - designed in STIL-BAS.

Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa; Petkov, Doyno

2010-10-01

244

A collection of open source applications for mass spectrometry data mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present several bioinformatics applications for the identification and quantification of phosphoproteome components by MS. These applications include a front-end graphical user interface that combines several Thermo RAW formats to MASCOT™ Generic Format extractors (EasierMgf), two graphical user interfaces for search engines OMSSA and SEQUEST (OmssaGui and SequestGui), and three applications, one for the management of databases in FASTA format (FastaTools), another for the integration of search results from up to three search engines (Integrator), and another one for the visualization of mass spectra and their corresponding database search results (JsonVisor). These applications were developed to solve some of the common problems found in proteomic and phosphoproteomic data analysis and were integrated in the workflow for data processing and feeding on our LymPHOS database. Applications were designed modularly and can be used standalone. These tools are written in Perl and Python programming languages and are supported on Windows platforms. They are all released under an Open Source Software license and can be freely downloaded from our software repository hosted at GoogleCode. PMID:25055762

Gallardo, Óscar; Ovelleiro, David; Gay, Marina; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

2014-10-01

245

A multilingual text mining based content gathering system for open source intelligence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The number of documents available in electronic format has grown dramatically in the recent years, whilst the information that States provide to the IAEA is not always complete or clear. Generally speaking, up to 80% of electronic data is textual and most valuable information is often hidden and encoded in pages which are neither structured, nor classified. The availability of huge amount of data available in the open sources leads to the well-identified nowadays paradox: an overload of information means no usable knowledge. Besides, open source texts are - and will be - written in various native languages, but these documents are relevant even to non-native IAEA speakers. Independent information sources can balance the limited State-reported information, particularly if related to non-cooperative targets. The process of accessing all these raw data, heterogeneous both for type (scientific article, patent, free textual document), source (Internet/Intranet, database, etc), protocol (HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, GOPHER, IRC, NNTP, etc) and language used, and transforming them into information, is therefore inextricably linked to the concepts of focused crawling, textual analysis and synthesis, hinging greatly on the ability to master the problems of multilinguality. This task undoubtedly requires remarkable efforts. This poster describes is a multimedia content gathering, multilingual indexing, searching and clustering system, whose main goal is managing huge collectionsose main goal is managing huge collections of data coming from different and geographically distributed information sources, providing language independent searches and dynamic classification facilities. Its focused crawling aims to crawl only the subset of the web pages related to a specific category, in order to find only information of interest and improve quality in documents gathering. The focused crawling algorithm builds a model for the context within which topically relevant pages occur on the web, typically capturing link hierarchies within which valuable pages occur, as well as model content on documents that frequently co-occur with relevant pages. The automatic linguistic analysis of documents is based on Morphological, Syntactic, Functional and Statistical criteria. The languages supported are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, but the system can be fully integrated on demand with other languages such as Arabic, Russian, simplified Chinese, etc. This phase is intended to identify only the significant expressions from the whole raw text: the system analyzes each sentence and, for each word, the Slot Grammar parser draws on the word's slot frames to cycle through the possible sentence constructions. Using a series of word relationship tests to establish context, the system tries to determine the meaning of the sentence. Each slot structure can be partially or fully instantiated and it can be filled with representations from one or more statements to incrementally build the meaning of a statement. This includes most of the treatment of coordination, which uses a method of 'factoring out' unfilled slots from elliptical coordinated phrases. The parser - a bottom-up chart parser - employs a parse evaluation scheme used for pruning away unlikely analyses during parsing as well as for ranking final analyses. By including semantic information directly in the dependency grammar structures, the system relies on the lexical semantic information combined with functional application rules. The detected terms and phrases are then extracted, reduced to their Part Of Speech and Functional tagged base form. Once referred to their language independent entry inside the sectorial multilingual dictionary, they are used as descriptors for documents and possible seeds of clustering. Then final system users can search document by keywords combined by boolean operators, or by typing their own query in Natural Language, expressed using normal conversational syntax. Traditional Boolean queries, while precise, require strict interpretation that can often

246

Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measur flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

247

Evaluation and monitoring an on-going landslide in volcanic sediments - a case study for an open pit mine, Turkey: Part 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TKI (Turkish Coal Enterprises) has been operating an open pit lignite mine since late 1970s in a town called Can which is situated in the north-west of Turkey. There is a ceramic factory, which is one of the biggest in Europe as far as capacity is concerned, operating very close to the lignite open pit mine. In 1999, a catastrophic earthquake demolished not only the cities and towns located on the Northern Anatolian fault zone but also triggered a landslide on the ceramic factory site benches of the Can lignite open pit. The susceptibility of artificial slopes to failure during earthquakes is a well-known event. This paper summarises geological, geomorphological and hydrological surveys of the area and the work done to define the slip surface by means of inclinometer surveys. Geotechnical parameters collected from all local geological formations were used later in the slope stability analysis. Details of the studies undertaken since the beginning of the landslide are given in this paper.

Onur, A.H.; Konak, G.; Koca, Y.; Yenice, H.; Kose, H.; Karakus, D. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mineral Engineering

2004-09-01

248

Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

249

Expandable pattern casting research  

Science.gov (United States)

The Expandable Pattern Casting (EPC) Process is a developing foundry technology that allows designers the opportunity to consolidate parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. An air gauging system was developed for measuring foam patterns; exact shrinkage depended on type and density of the foam. Compaction studies showed that maximum sand densities in cavities and under overhangs are achieved with vibrational amplitudes 0.001-0.004 in., and that sand moved most freely within a few inches of the top free surface. Key to complete mold filling while minimizing casting defects lies in removing the foam decomposition products. The most precise iron castings were made by EPC in four commercial EPC foundries, with attention paid to molding and compaction. EP cast 60-45-12 ductile iron had yield strengths, ultimate strengths, and elastic modulus similar to conventionally cast ductile iron cast from the same ladle.

1993-09-01

250

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY  

OpenAIRE

Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S) has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC) due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This resea...

Chitade, Anil Z.; Katyar, S. K.

2010-01-01

251

Projecting and construction of the new conveyor belt turntable at Garzweiler open-cast mine; Planung und Bau des neuen Bandsammelpunktes im Tagebau Garzweiler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Projecting and construction of the new belt conveyor turntable at Garzweiler were subject to certain constraints. In particular, full-scale coal production had to be maintained during the complex reconstruction work that was required. (orig.)

Bremer, R.; Goymann, B.; Lenders, B. [PBG-S Tagebau Garzweiler, Grevenbroich (Germany)

2006-10-15

252

Die casting plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A successful method of die casting plutonium is described. The method is an improvement over conventional pour-cast techniques in that the plutonium can be solidified more rapidly. One advantage of rapid solidification is that cast structures can be improved. Another advantage is that the plutonium has little time to react with its surroundings, so experimenters can choose from a larger selection of die construction materials

253

New casting coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this project the results of the researches about the influence of the four types of ceramic coatings of the evaporating patterns (on the basis of talc, mullite, zircon and cordierite) on the talc of the Lost Foam process and the castings quality are presented. For the valid evaluation of the results, some parallel examinations of the quality of castings obtained by casting in sand were carried out. (Original)

254

Casting in Sport  

OpenAIRE

Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast constructio...

Decarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

1994-01-01

255

Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S. [Inst. of Crystal Growth Berlin (Germany)

1995-08-01

256

Multi-layers castings  

OpenAIRE

In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and...

Szajnar, J.; Wro?bel, P.; Wro?bel, T.

2010-01-01

257

Evolution of halictine castes  

Science.gov (United States)

Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

Knerer, Gerd

1980-03-01

258

A spatial decision support system for the optimal environmental reclamation of open-pit coal mines in Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mine reclamation is an integral part of the mineral development process. The selection of land use after the mine closure is a difficult decision, which is complicated further because of the variety of parameters that must be taken into account trying to provide the local community with a viable development plan. Conventional methods used for reclamation planning are characterised by the lack of data integration and by time-consuming analysis. In this study, we propose a spatial decision-support system (SDSS) that minimises these problems, as data integration and analysis are offered within one computerised environment. A geographical information system and multi-criteria decision-making methods, based on binary integer linear programming models, have been integrated to select the appropriate land use in different parts of a post-mining area taking into account social, technical, economic, environmental and safety criteria. The proposed SDSS was used for the selection of the optimal landscape reclamation strategy of the Amynteon lignite surface mine located at West Macedonia Lignite Centre, Northern Greece. On the basis of developed mine maps, the model variables are assessed and incorporated into the objective optimisation function. Emphasis is placed on the spatial diversification of the model variables. The application demonstrates that the decision-support system allows the mining company to determine in an efficient way the specific land use (agricultural land, forest, recreational area and industrial zone) that is considered the most suitable for every part of the study area.

F. Pavloudakis; M. Galetakis; C. Roumpos [Public Power Corporation of Greece - Mines Division, Athens (Greece)

2009-12-15

259

Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões / A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sort [...] e a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and qua [...] lity targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

Francisco César Rodrigues de, Araújo; Marcone Jamilson Freitas, Souza.

2011-03-01

260

First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

2005-07-01

261

Method and mold for casting thin metal objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

2014-04-29

262

International mining news  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These columns report on news from the mining industry activities: discovery and identification of ore deposits, technological research and development studies, projects and development of ore exploitations, expansion of existing mines, rehabilitation and re-opening of sites, production stopping, environmental regulation, metal industry developments, and economical and political news. This issue reports on some news about the project of exploitation of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit (Saskatchewan, Canada) and about the re-opening of the Stepnogorsk uranium processing plant in Kazakhstan. Two short news deal with the project of exploitation of lignite deposits in Barsingsar (Rajasthan, India) and in Garzweiler (Germany). Several short notes deal with coal mining: start up of the exploitation of the Bontang mine in Indonesia (Kalimantan), expansion of Goedehoop mine in South Africa, of the Burton mine in Australia (Queensland), common development of the neighboring deposits of Oreganal and Correjon Centrale in Colombia, revival of the coal production at Moatize (Mozambique) and closure of the oldest Japanese mine of Miike, and denial of subsidies for the exploitation of Spanish and German coal mines. (J.S.)

263

30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...operations. (3)(i) Surface coal mining operations in the mine pit have...be mined; or (ii) Surface coal mining operations which may be developed...to the deep open-pit method of mining the coal. (6) There is no...

2010-07-01

264

Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclaimed mine soils (RMS which develop on post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in local range on areas disturbed by human activity. This study presents the potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur- face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Research was conducted on waste heaps and quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul- fur, and sand mining. Control plots were arrang- ed in managed pine forests on natural sites in the surrounding area. The results shows high Carbon accumulation in RMS, estimated on 16.77 Mg?ha-1 in poor (oligotrofic soils on Quaternary sands on sand quarry and up to 65.03 Mg?ha-1 on external waste heap after Sulfur sur- face mining exploitation on Quaternary sands mixed with Tertiary clays. These results were very similar to natural forest soils on control plots. Potential rate of Carbon sequestration in RMS was estimated on 0.73 (on the poorest sa- ndy soils on quarry to 2.17 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on potentially abundant sandy-clayish soils on Sulfur waste heap, and 5.26 Mg?ha-1?yr-1 (on Tertiary sands substrate soils on lignite mining waste heap. In conslusion the average Carbon accu- mulation in RMS was estimated on 41 Mg?ha-1 and Carbon sequestration rate was 1.45 Mg? ha-1?yr-1. According to the result of this study and range of post-mining areas reclaimed to forestry in Poland (ca 15000 ha total Carbon accumulation in RMS was estimated on 615 × 103 Mg and potential Carbon sequestration rate in new ecosystems on 21.75 × 103 Mg?ha-1?yr-1. However, the main factors affecting Carbon sequestration and protection in RMS under tree stand were substrate, percentage of clay and silt sized fraction, in order to formulate guidelines for sustainable management of post-mining ec- osystem, further study must be continue for be- tter understanding.

Wojciech Krzaklewski

2010-10-01

265

Closed aluminium skeleton casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this miclc authors showcd method for rnanuraauring of skeleton castings with continuous cxtcmal surfacc. Wall lhickncss of thcexternal surface was 6 mm. Thc cxprirnental casting was rnanulacturcd in order to verify lhc rcsults of fitling mould cavity which wcreohtaincd by numerical simu tation. Thc alurninosilicarc core was ad to pducc cxpcrimntal aluminum skelaon castings wilhdimensions or (1 15x65~13 6 mm. Expximental casting was manufactured with elevated temperature of mwld (370 K. Luwcr andstotrcd ingalc with high gcting sysicm (300mm was usd. Analysis of ability of metal to fill rhe mould cavity in esrablish tcchnologicalconditions was jxrfomcd. Dcgm of tclincrncnt OF structure in typicall rcgion of skctcton casting was compared. Qualitative diffccrentdcgrcc of fineness of cuteetic was confirmed. Sclcction of mDdification conditions AlSi alloy of skclcton casting is nmssary.Thc manufacturing af skclcron casting in establish tcchnological conditions enables obtained vcry gdfil ling or mould cavity andsuitable cxtcrnaE gmmctrical form of casting.

M. Dziuba-Ka?u?a

2008-03-01

266

Continuous casting method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steel to be cast is SUS 304 stainless steel containing 0.4 to 2.0mass% B boron to be used for cells of a spent fuel rack of a nuclear power plant. The conditions for casting are such that casting speed is from 0.4 to 0.8 m/min, the gap of support rolls in a secondary cooling region in the direction of casting is 300mm or less, and a ratio of solid phase in the central portion of the thickness of the cast piece passing through the final portion of the second cooling region is 0.2 or less. A desired lower limit between the support rolls is about 150mm. If the casting speed is less than 0.4m/min, the ratio of the solid phase at the central portion of the thickness of the cast piece at the final position of the secondary cooling region can not be reduced to 0.2. If the ratio of the solid phase exceeds 0.2, porosities are formed. The lower limit of the ratio of the solid phase is about 0.05. With such a constitution, cast pieces with no surface and internal defects can be manufactured without forming break out. (I.N.)

267

Higher Education's Caste System  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

Iannone, Ron

2004-01-01

268

Color Casts Detection and Adjustment  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a new method for detection and adjustment color cast. Using the neural network to detect color cast and classify images into three subsets: no cast, real cast, and intrinsic cast (image presenting a cast due to a predominant color that must be preserved). We have a database of 700 images which are downloaded from internet or acquired using various digital still cameras. We randomly select 350 images from the database for the neural network learning, and the others are for ...

Sheng-Fuu Lin; Huang-Tsun Chen; Tsung-Han Lin

2011-01-01

269

Solidification and casting  

CERN Document Server

Written by leading experts in their respective fields, Solidification and Casting provides a comprehensive review of topics fundamental to metallurgy and materials science as well as indicates recent trends.From an industrial perspective, the book begins with chapters on the casting techniques most commonly used in industry today. It then describes the underlying science fundamental to solidification mechanisms, including fluid flow, the effects of cooling rates, modern simulation, and modelling methods in use and their application in various casting scenarios. Next, the authors consider the microstructure of cast materials and their defects, and explore how different casting processes can control these parameters. The book concludes with the most recent developments in the field and discusses new processes and materials, such as novel alloys and composites, metallic glasses, ceramics, and superconducting oxides.

Cantor, Brian

2002-01-01

270

Multi-layers castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

J. Szajnar

2010-01-01

271

Expendable Pattern Casting Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The expendable pattern casting (EPC) process is a potential casting process breakthrough which could dramatically improve the competitiveness of the U.S. foundry industry. Cooperatively supported by U.S. Industry and the Department of Energy and managed by the American Foundrymen's Society, a project was started in May 1989 to develop and optimize expendable pattern casting technology. Four major tasks were conducted in the first phase of the project. Those tasks involved: (1) reviewing published literature to determine the major problems in the EPC process; (2) evaluating factors influencing sand flow and compaction; (3) evaluating and comparing casting precision obtained in the EPC process with that obtained in other processes; and (4) identifying critical parameters that control dimensional precision and defect formation in EP castings.

1990-07-01

272

Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

2001-03-01

273

Real -time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozów ci??arówek o ró?nej ?adowno?ci w kopalni odkrywkowej  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world's open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck's travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine's conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.

Ahangaran, Daryoush Kaveh; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andy; Foster, Patrick

2012-10-01

274

The ancient Chinese casting techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

Tan Derui

2011-02-01

275

CASTE FRAMEWORK AT NATIONAL LEVEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caste is an important element of the Indian political process. It is legitimate. Caste has been inequality creating in Indian society. Therefore its influence on power shaping & Policy Making process. In this sense caste element has got sphere of influence in political process. Relationship between Caste & politics has been more eminent. Caste has been influencing on politics & politics has been influenced by caste. Limitation of Dominant caste at national level: dominant caste has been demanding for representation on national level. But their demands were not accepted by forward castes. The forward caste has been controlling National level power. Dominant caste has been controlling the state level power.Hinduvat Framework has Successes but Caste Framework has Failure. ST'S Community is not related to Caste Politics. Caste framework is Failure to inclusion of all backward Caste. Caste framework had not successful to decided Social & Economic Public Policy. Because of this caste framework is empty so it has no capacity to competing with other frameworks. It has own Sense of Political Efficacy but on national level it made no impact.

PRAKASH PAWAR

2013-04-01

276

Cooperation with emerging countries in advanced mining training programmes involving an industrial partner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources (CESMAT) is a Higher Education Institution in France to train and perform the upper management personnel working in mining, throughout the world. The program of study is comprised of seven separate year long study programs, a network of some 2 300 former students from a hundred countries with whom regular contact is maintained, and a permanent think tank unit that concentrates on the training of mining sector managers. The guiding principle for CESMAT is that cooperation and training hold a special position in French policy concerning relations with mineral producing countries. Seven programmes have been progressively developed on minerals prospecting and processing, resources evaluation, open cast mining techniques, mining economics, impact of mining on environment, management of closure of mining activities and the role of the State. These programmes bring together ten to twelve engineers or geologists who have already had professional experience. For non-French speakers, a language-training phase of three months may precede the programs. The following specializations are currently being offered: - Ore Prospecting and Mineral Processing - Nancy School of Geology - CESEV, - Treatment of Industrial Evolutions and Changes - CESTEMIN, - Geostatistical Analysis of Ore Deposits - Paris School of Mines - C.F.S.G., - Open Cut Mining Operations - Paris School of Mines - CESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining ProjCESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining Projects - Paris School of Mines - CESPROMIN, - Mine Safety and Environments - Ales School of Mines - CESSEM, - Mines Public Administration - Paris School of Mines - CESAM. Teaching is done both by Institute professors and by public and private sector industry experts. These instructors rely heavily on technical visits and on practical case studies. One specific example is the student research project mentored by specialists in the field, which is oriented directly to circumstances in the student's country. The participation of students in each program is attested to by means of an official certificate. In some cases, this may be accompanied by a diploma from the host school. Tuition for the courses, which runs (around 15 000 Euro/year) may be covered by CESMAT for students affiliated with public or private mining organizations from foreign, mineral producing countries. Scholarships are also available from French organizations, sources in the student's country of origin, or international organizations such as the EU, UNESCO, UNPD and others. CESMAT has also built partnerships with mining companies (VALE in Brazil, CODELCO in Chili and AREVA in France) which contribute to sponsor trainees for living cost during their studies in France. AREVA is developing uranium exploration and mining in many countries and has signed cooperation agreement with the government of these countries to provide them technical and financial support for capacity building in partnership with the French school of mines. (author)

277

Symptomatic stent cast.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

Keohane, John

2012-02-03

278

Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues related to uranium fuel cycle should contact the Technical Cooperation Department of the Agency. Member States interested in knowing more about the Agency's programme on uranium and thorium fuel cycle technologies including mining, milling, purification and environmental issues should contact: Mr. Chaitanyamoy Ganguly

279

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer) is depending on accepted variant plat...

Wro?bel, T.

2011-01-01

280

Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

S. Pietrowski

2010-01-01

281

Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings  

OpenAIRE

In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

Pietrowski, S.; Gumienny, G.

2010-01-01

282

Optimization of mining methods for steep vein uranium ore deposits of French COGEMA company  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires is currently exploiting several steep vein uranium deposits in France. The upper parts are exploited using the open-cast method, in the lower parts underground mining is used. The veins with a thickness of several meters fill faults caused by tectonic activity. With regard to the low strength of the rocks, wooden supports are used or fills. In the course of the past 25 years several mining methods have been tried of which overhand stoping was selected with an oblique ramp driven in the ore, this mainly for securing operating safety and the profitability of selective exploitation. In overburdens with a low bearing capacity the method of underhand benching in slices was used with a concrete fill and later underhand benching in slices with concrete reinforcing plates. Overhand stoping is being tried with fill and electric self-propelled machines left in the stope and mechanized driving of raises by full profile drilling. (B.S.)

283

Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.

Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.

1996-01-01

284

Thin Wall Iron Castings; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified

285

Method of casting aerogels  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01

286

Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

287

Simulator for bucket wheel excavators in brown coal open mining of RWE Power AG; Simulator fuer Schaufelradbagger in Braunkohlentagebauen der RWE Power AG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the three large open pits Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) uses bucket wheel excavators, conveyor systems and spreaders that provide a continuous mass flow of the production side to the damping site of the opencast mine or the coal bunker respectively. On the world market there hardly exist paragons of solutions for the construction and commissioning of technical innovations of this conveyor technology. Consequently, the eligible technical and technological solutions have to be newly created. Therefore RWE Power AG developed an innovative simulator for bucket wheel excavators. The implementation takes place in a phased approach in which each stage has its own benefits for the company.

Mittmann, Robert; Niess, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Frechen-Habbelrath (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue / Abt. PCZ-E Betriebsfuehrungssysteme; Rosenberg, Heinrich [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Tagebauplanung und -genehmigung

2011-05-15

288

Additives for strengthening backfill materials in steep coal-seam mining. Open File Report, August 1984-June 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A testing program was conducted to design a cemented backfill for hydraulic placement in underhand cut and fill mining of a steeply dipping coal seam. The testing evaluated the use of three different backfill aggregates, locally available at the coal mine, with portland cement and five different pozzolans, including a Class F fly ash, a Class C fly ash, a cement kiln dust, and ground smelter slag. Both viscosity and uniaxial compressive strength of backfill mixtures with different pozzolan and portland cement contents were used to evaluate their suitability. Based upon the results of preliminary testing, an optimum mixture of alluvial sand with 6% portland cement and 10% Class F pozzolan was chosen for further compression testing.

Brechtel, C.E.; Thies, D.A.; Aggson, J.R.

1985-09-01

289

A search for strategies for the neutralization of extremely acidic mining lakes - a literature study; Suche nach Neutralisationsstrategien fuer extrem saure Tagebauseen - eine Literaturstudie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a consequence of the closure of many open cast lignite mines and subsequent flooding there will be more than 500 mining lakes in eastern Germany within a few years. Many of these lakes will be extremely acidic as a result of sulfide weathering. The utilization of acidic lakes by man is limited and the effluents from these lakes may impact neutrophilic biocoenoses. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement to develop neutralization techniques for these lakes. In this study, various neutralization techniques and approaches are considered. Their advantages and disadvantages for the neutralization of extremely acidic mining lakes are discussed. All neutralization strategies can be classified into 4 types: (1) chemical neutralization, (2) biological neutralization, (3) electrochemical neutralization and (4) dilution. Besides the diversion of river water, the combination of chemical neutralization and microbial sulfate reduction seems particularly promising. In this article, 116 literature sources are considered. The most important information on 43 selected water neutralization approaches are tabulated. (orig.)

Totsche, O.; Steinberg, C. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany)

2003-07-01

290

Environmental control in the uranium mine Lagoa Real, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uranium production in Brazil will be restarted in the year 2000, through exploration of the Jazida da Cachoeira, located in the uraniferous region of Lagoa Real, Bahia State, northeast Brazil. Because of the mining operations, an open cast mine of approximately 27 x 10(4) m2 will be produced and the material removed will constitute approximately 14 x 10(6) tons, occupying an estimated area of 50 x 10(4) m2. Currently, there is a new concept about project developing, where the impact assessment is addressed during the initial phases. Beside this, legislation requires an environmental impact assessment before starting mining activities. In this context purpose, it is the purpose of this work to evaluate the chemical composition of the future waste; thus, samples were collected from the rocks that surround the mineral deposits. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the elemental quantification, the mean elemental concentrations were calculated, and the ratios were normalized using North American Shale Composite (NASC). In the raw material eight main mineral structures exist whose elementary composition were compared using the statistical techniques of analysis of variance, ranking ANOVA, and multivariate ANOVA. PMID:10676504

Tagliaferro, F S; Fernandes, E A; Sarriés, G A

1999-01-01

291

Morbidity among iron ore mine workers in Goa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out among workers from an open-cast iron ore mine in South Goa with an objective to assess morbidity among these workers. Investigations were carried out at the Occupational Health Service Clinic of the mining company. Nearly 0.6% workers had pneumoconiosis, 3.2% had abnormal spirometry findings, 38.16% had hearing loss and 27.7% had defective vision respectively. The prevalence of other chronic diseases were as follows: diabetes 5.1%, hypertension 8.3%, dyslipidemia 37.5% and polycythemia 12.7% respectively. Since the findings were not compared with the pre-placement records and as most of the workers are young with duration of exposures <10 years, relationship cannot be definitely determined. The study findings are suggesting an association between the occupation in mining with pneumoconiosis, compromised lung function and hearing loss. However for the other finding further analytical studies are required to see for any association. Airborne respirable dust survey and noise monitoring studies also need to be carried out. PMID:24748360

Oliveira, Annet; Cacodcar, Jagdish; Motghare, D D

2014-01-01

292

Quality of the joint between cast steel and cast iron in bimetallic castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents conception and production method of skeleton composite castings with use of cast steel G35CrSiMnMoNi skeletoncasting and chromium cast iron EN-GJN-XCr15 filling. Working elements in winning machines and devices, which work in intensiveaberasive wear i.e. liner of exhausters, percussive and ram hammers, are destination of bimetallic castings. Skeleton geometry was basedon three-dimensional symmetrical cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian coordinatesystem. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. In rangeof studies were casted cast steel skeletons with chromium cast iron filling and based on metallographic research on light and scanningelectron microscope was made quality assessment of joint in bimetallic castings. Moreover in range of studies was used microanalysisof chemical composition in transition zone of cast steel-cast iron joint.

M. Cholewa

2008-10-01

293

Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopacková, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

2011-11-01

294

Morenci Mine, AZ  

Science.gov (United States)

The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North America's leading producer of copper. In the 1860s, prospectors arrived looking for gold; instead they found copper. Underground mining began in the 1870s, and the first pit was opened in 1939. Phelps Dodge employs over 200 people in the mining and refining operations. Around-the-clock removal of 700,000 tons of rock per day results in production of 382 thousand tons of copper per year. Phelps Dodge is now developing the Safford Mine, about 12 km southwest of Morenci. It will be the first new copper mine in the US in more than 30 years. When production starts in 2008, the Safford Mine will produce 109 thousand tons of copper. This ASTER image uses shortwavelength infrared bands to highlight in bright pink the altered rocks in the Morenci pit associated with copper mineralization. The image covers an area of 21 x 16.9 km, was acquired on July 14, 2007, and is centered near 33.1 degrees north latitude, 109.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

295

Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the 226Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, 222Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated 226Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced 222Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as 226Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on 222Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, 226Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence 222Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil possociated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on 222Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence 222Rn flux densities considerably

296

Educational data mining using jmp  

OpenAIRE

Educational Data Mining is a growing trend in case of higher education. The quality of the Educational Institute may be enhanced through discovering hidden knowledge from the student databases/ data warehouses. Present paper is designed to carry out a comparative study with the TDC (Three Year Degree) Course students of different colleges affiliated to Dibrugarh University. The study is conducted with major subject wise, gender wise and category/caste wise. The experimental ...

Sadiq Hussain; Hazarika, Prof G. C.

2014-01-01

297

Estimation of radiation exposure to the population of Arad, following the opening of the 'Sedeh-Zohar' phosphate mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During a national survey of rock phosphate deposits in 1981, a large and rich field was discovered in the vicinity of Arad. This new deposit, known as 'Sedeh-Zohar', is spread over an area of some 100 km2 and has been estimated to contain about 200 million tons of high quality raw material. At the request of Negev Phosphate Ltd., an estimation of the radiation exposure dose to the population of Arad, was undertaken. Rock phosphates in the Negev contain several naturally occuring radioisotopes, mainly uranium (about 150 ppm) and traces of thorium and potassium. The mining operations of these phosphate deposits and their subsequent industrial use will no dout lead to the release of radioactivity into the atmosphere, and some of it may reach the city of Arad. The average annual exposure dose from natural radioactivity has been estimated as 2mSv (200 mrem/y). It was found that the natural background radiation in Arad is at least as high as the overall world average values of 2000 ?Sv/y (200 mrem/y), which includes all possible external and internal exposures. The overall addition of 70 ?Sv/y (7 mrem/y) to the population of Arad, due to the operation of the mining facility at Sede-Zohar, would constitute only about 3.5% more background radiation, within the range of regional fluctuations in the natural background

298

Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods  

OpenAIRE

In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope...

Labisz, K.; Dobrzan?ski, L. A.; Konieczny, J.

2008-01-01

299

Continuous roll casting of aluminium alloys – casting parameters analysis  

OpenAIRE

The main goal of the paper was to present the influence of casting parameters on casting conditions and interference of casting parameters on the final strip characteristics such as constant strip thickness, surface quality and roughness of aluminum alloys sheet 6,30 to 6,50 mm thick. The study shows that casting speed, roll force and roll gap should have the greatest influence on the final strip thickness, and that the examined parameters agree well with the theoretical standpoints.

Krstic? Vukelja, E.; Duplanc?ic?, I.; Lela, B.

2010-01-01

300

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

301

Bracing versus casting in ankle fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Casting and splinting techniques for treating patients with fractures have been used for centuries. Functional bracing after ankle fracture has recently been utilized in an effort to avoid the atrophy and stiffness sometimes associated with casting; functional bracing allows for early mobilization of the ankle joint during recovery. Our review investigated the published literature comparing bracing with casting after ankle fracture. Studies examining both operatively and nonoperatively treated ankle fractures were included. There is minimal evidence supporting the use of functional bracing over cast immobilization to improve functional outcome, range of motion, swelling, or post-traumatic arthrosis after ankle fracture in the long term. The primary benefits of functional bracing are the potential to return to work earlier and bracing may facilitate activities of daily living, such as bathing and dressing. In addition, there may be a decreased patient risk of developing deep vein thrombosis due to immobilization. However, there is an increased risk of wound infection when using a brace after open reduction and internal fixation of an unstable ankle fracture. Functional bracing can be used for treating stable and postoperative ankle fractures in compliant patients to potentially expedite and facilitate the recovery process. PMID:25419889

Drakos, Mark C; Murphy, Conor I

2014-11-01

302

Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

2014-08-01

303

Bulk metallic glass tube casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. ? Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. ? Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. ? Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, andsy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

304

Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

305

Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Zizka, L.; Halir, J. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

2010-07-01

306

Scheduled Caste Women: Problems And Challenges  

OpenAIRE

The paper analyzed the Caste system based on Varnas during the ancient India. It also examined the demerits of caste attached to the present scheduled castes in general and scheduled caste women in particular. The scheduled caste women are disadvantaged by their caste and gender and as such they are subject to exploitation and discrimination by their family members, by their caste people and by forward castes. Hence, there is increase in exploitation, discrimination and violence against the s...

Vijayakumar Murthy; Jaikishan Thakur

2013-01-01

307

Conventional mining vs continuous mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the Wirtgen Surface Miner 3000 SM. This is a continuous mining machine which will mine, load, provide a trafficable surface for all vehicles and control the maximum size of the material, all in one operation. The 3000 SM is capable of accurate, selective mining of coal seams which means coals of different quality can be kept separate, and also contamination is reduced, resulting in lower washing costs. The 3000 SM is capable of increasing mine production as mining losses are reduced to a minimum. The 3000 SM also continuously mines material to a size suitable for conveyor belt haulage.

1986-07-01

308

Zirconium and cast zirconium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given on the occurence of zirconium, production of Zr sponge and semi-finished products, on physical and mechanical properties, production of Zr cast, composition of the commercial grades and reactor grades qualities, metal cutting, welding, corrosion behavior and use. (IHOE)

309

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

310

Wear resistance of cast iron  

OpenAIRE

In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

Pietrowski, S.; Gumienny, G.

2008-01-01

311

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel  

OpenAIRE

In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness betwe...

Wro?bel, T.; Cholewa, M.; Tenerowicz, S.

2011-01-01

312

An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x108m3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

313

An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m3h-1. The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 108m3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 108m3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.)

314

Data Mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

Benoit, Gerald

2002-01-01

315

Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 ÷ 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce the cast iron liquidus temperature and decrease of recalescence temperature of graphite-eutectic crystallization in compare with initial cast iron. Control of casts can be carried out by ultrasonic method. In plain cast iron, ferritic-pearlitic microstructure is obtaining. Additives of 1,5% Cu ensure pearlitic structure.

S. Pietrowski

2009-07-01

316

Fisher Matrix Preloaded -- Fisher4Cast  

CERN Document Server

The Fisher Matrix is the backbone of modern cosmological forecasting. We describe the Fisher4Cast software: a general-purpose, easy-to-use, Fisher Matrix framework. It is open source, rigorously designed and tested and includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with automated LATEX file creation capability and point-and-click Fisher ellipse generation. Fisher4Cast was designed for ease of extension and, although written in Matlab, is easily portable to open-source alternatives such as Octave and Scilab. Here we use Fisher4Cast to present new 3-D and 4-D visualisations of the forecasting landscape and to investigate the effects of growth and curvature on future cosmological surveys. Early releases have been available at http://www.cosmology.org.za since May 2008 with 750 downloads in the first year. Version 2.0 is made public with this paper and includes a Quick Start guide and the code used to produce the figures in this paper, in the hope that it will be useful to the cosmology and wider scientific communitie...

Bassett, Bruce A; Hlozek, Renée; Kotze, Jacques

2009-01-01

317

Fisher Matrix Preloaded — FISHER4CAST  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fisher Matrix is the backbone of modern cosmological forecasting. We describe the Fisher4Cast software: A general-purpose, easy-to-use, Fisher Matrix framework. It is open source, rigorously designed and tested and includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with automated LATEX file creation capability and point-and-click Fisher ellipse generation. Fisher4Cast was designed for ease of extension and, although written in Matlab, is easily portable to open-source alternatives such as Octave and Scilab. Here we use Fisher4Cast to present new 3D and 4D visualizations of the forecasting landscape and to investigate the effects of growth and curvature on future cosmological surveys. Early releases have been available at since mid-2008. The current release of the code is Version 2.2 which is described here. For ease of reference a Quick Start guide and the code used to produce the figures in this paper are included, in the hope that it will be useful to the cosmology and wider scientific communities.

Bassett, Bruce A.; Fantaye, Yabebal; Hlozek, Renée; Kotze, Jacques

318

Quality of the joint between cast steel and cast iron in bimetallic castings  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents conception and production method of skeleton composite castings with use of cast steel G35CrSiMnMoNi skeletoncasting and chromium cast iron EN-GJN-XCr15 filling. Working elements in winning machines and devices, which work in intensiveaberasive wear i.e. liner of exhausters, percussive and ram hammers, are destination of bimetallic castings. Skeleton geometry was basedon three-dimensional symmetrical cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors...

Cholewa, M.; Tenerowicz, S.; Wro?bel, T.

2008-01-01

319

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

2012-06-01

320

Color Casts Detection and Adjustment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for detection and adjustment color cast. Using the neural network to detect color cast and classify images into three subsets: no cast, real cast, and intrinsic cast (image presenting a cast due to a predominant color that must be preserved. We have a database of 700 images which are downloaded from internet or acquired using various digital still cameras. We randomly select 350 images from the database for the neural network learning, and the others are for testing. From each training image, we can calculate 13 statistical parameters as input to the neural network. The second part is the white balance algorithm which is applied to the image while a real cast is found by the color cast detector. The test image is divided into m blocks. For each block, the output weighting can be obtained by a fuzzy system and the luminance weighted value is also calculated. Finally, we can obtain the new amplifier gains of the R, G, and B channel to adjust the color cast. If the input image be classified as no cast or intrinsic cast, white balance algorithm is not applied.

Sheng-Fuu Lin

2011-07-01

321

Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

2012-10-01

322

Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

Cvetkovi?, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosi?, Aleksandra

2013-05-01

323

Characterisation of Organic Matter and Carbon Cycling in Rehabilitated Lignite-rich Mine Soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open-cast lignite mining in the Lusatian mining district resulted in rehabilitated mine soils containing up to four organic matter types: (1) recent plant litter, (2) lignite deposited by mining activity, (3) carbonaceous ash particles deposited during amelioration of the lignite-containing parent substrate and (4) airborne carbonaceous particles deposited during contamination. The influence of lignite-derived carbon types on the organic matter development and their role in the soil carbon cycle was unknown. This paper presents the findings obtained during a six year project concerning the impact of lignite on soil organic matter composition and the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem. The organic matter development after rehabilitation was followed in a chronosequence of rehabilitated mine soils afforested in 1966, 1981 and 1987. A differentiation of the organic matter types and an evaluation of their role within the ecosystem was achieved by the use of 14C activity measurements, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis of plant litter compounds. The results showed that the amount and degree of decomposition of the recent organic matter derived from plant material of the 30 year old mine soil was similar to natural uncontaminated forest soil which suggests complete rehabilitation of the ecosystem. The decomposition and humification processes were not influenced by the presence of lignite. On the other hand it was shown that lite. On the other hand it was shown that lignite, which was thought to be recalcitrant because of its chemical structure, was part of the carbon cycle in these soils. This demonstrates the need to elucidate further the stabilisation mechanisms of organic matter in soils

324

Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Finally, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

Tang Hongtao

2014-09-01

325

Removable cast partial dentures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In planning treatment for partially edentulous patients, the dentist is often confronted with conditions that preclude fixed prosthodontics. In these instances the cast removable partial denture is often the alternative of choice. In planning and producing a removable partial denture that will be most satisfactory, a systematic evaluation at the very beginning of treatment can prevent many problems that often occur when planning is limited. PMID:7746614

Ruffino, A R

1995-03-01

326

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

T. Wróbel

2011-01-01

327

Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

1995-08-01

328

Contemporary art casting’s education in Guangdong  

OpenAIRE

Based on the practical experience of establishing three art casting laboratories in three different colleges of Guangdong, this paper focuses on the development of contemporary art casting’s education. By analyzing the reason for the shortage of professionals nowadays and the characteristics of modern foundry industry in the Pearl River Delta, the authors try to find out what kind of knowledge structures a modern foundry industry professional should have. Then, from the viewpoint of educat...

Wu Chunmiao; Ji Qing

2012-01-01

329

Continuous roll casting of aluminium alloys – casting parameters analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of the paper was to present the influence of casting parameters on casting conditions and interference of casting parameters on the final strip characteristics such as constant strip thickness, surface quality and roughness of aluminum alloys sheet 6,30 to 6,50 mm thick. The study shows that casting speed, roll force and roll gap should have the greatest influence on the final strip thickness, and that the examined parameters agree well with the theoretical standpoints.

E. Krsti? Vukelja

2010-04-01

330

Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files  

OpenAIRE

A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for th...

Tang Hongtao; Zhou Jianxin; Wang Lin

2014-01-01

331

78 FR 54674 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gold Rock Mine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Midway Gold US, Inc. (Midway) proposes to construct and operate an open-pit gold mining operation, which would include...quality created by the initiation of mining at the Gold Rock Mine Project. (g)...

2013-09-05

332

Mining with microbes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the open-quotes bioleachingclose quotes of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as open-quotes absorbantsclose quotes of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs

333

Análisis in situ de la cantera de caliza usando análisis por activación neutrónica de gammas inmediatos / In situ analysis of limestone open cut mine using prompt gamma neutron analysis activation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la caracterización in situ de las perforaciones de voladura en las canteras de Atocongo y Pucará de Cementos Lima S.A. por análisis por activación neutrónica de gammas inmediatos (Prompt Gamma Neutron Analysis Activation, PGNAA). Esta técnica muestrea el volumen que está alrededor de la p [...] erforación y provee resultados del análisis en tiempo real y que son representativos. Esta información es útil para determinar el modelo geofísico de la cantera. La técnica PGNAA permite obtener resultados de campo de la concentración de determinados elementos de interés tales como el SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO y SO3. Las pruebas de campo realizadas han probado que el sistema puede ser de gran utilidad para la caracterización de las canteras de caliza. Abstract in english In situ characterization of the blast holes has been done in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results fo [...] r a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAAsystem gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO y SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines.

César, Zanabria; Rafael, Medina; Leoncio R., Gilvonio; Marco, Munive; Óscar, Baltuano; José L., Solís.

2008-10-01

334

Modeling tools for concrete casting  

OpenAIRE

Thanks to the recent advances in the cementitious materials rheology field, existing works allows for the physical quantification of workability of fresh concrete. The objective of this thesis is to develop techniques allowing for the prediction of casting according to these rheological measurements, the geometry of the element to be cast and the selected casting process. The methodology adopted is to isolate and treat each of the involved phenomena in a simpler configuration and then to grad...

Nguyen, Thi Lien Huong

2007-01-01

335

Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator  

Science.gov (United States)

A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-11-10

336

Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – grey cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation.Design/methodology/approach: Prepared bimetallic layered castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. pearlitic grey cast iron, whereas working part (layer is depending on accepted variant plates of alloy steels sort X6Cr13, X12Cr13, X10CrNi18-8 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The verification of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches. Moreover was made computer simulation of solidification of bimetallic layered casting in NovaFlow&Solid software.Findings: The results of studies and their analysis show efficiency of new, innovative technology of corrosion and heat resisting layered castings.Research limitations: In further research, authors of this paper are going to application of different material on bearing part of bimetallic layered casting.Practical implications: Prepared bimetallic layered castings according to work out technology can work in conditions, which require from working surface layer of element a high heat resistance and/or corrosion resistance in medium for example of industrial water.Originality/value: The value of this paper resides in new effective method of manufacture of heat resisting castings, mainly for lining of quenching car to coke production

T. Wróbel

2011-04-01

337

Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings  

OpenAIRE

The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is ...

Stradomski, Z.; Stachura, S.; Stradomski, G.

2013-01-01

338

Evolution of cultural landscape in the Northern Bohemian coal mining region on the background of socio-economic transformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NW part of Bohemia belongs to the most intensely exploited territories, both from the functional and ecological standpoints. In a sense, it is an open air laboratory, offering many topics to be discussed, researched and solved. The author strives to give a sociogeographical outline of the current state, with respect to the landscape evolution. This picture focuses on historical developments in recent decades as well. Rapid economic expansion of the examined territory started in the second half of the 19th century, having followed the pre-industrial period. A similar abrupt change of social and economic structures occurred 100 years later, in the post-war period. It was the growth of open-cast brown coal mining and corresponding activities (especially coal-fired plants) which resulted in large scale environmental disturbances and affected the settlement system and health of the population. Thus, further economic and ecological development should be based on a reclamation of the previous state. 4 refs

339

The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A

1998-02-01

340

Assessing the impact on the animal population of the lowering of the ground water level due to brown coal open-pit mining. Tieroekologische Bewertung von Grundwasserabsenkungen durch Braunkohlentagebau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lowering of the groundwater table due to open-pit brown coal mining will adversely effect the dynamics of rivers and lakes, soilbiological processes and the plant and animal communities. Birds, amphibians, carabid beetles and snails were studied in a 520 km{sup 2} area to predict possible effects of a proposed mining project and to assess the impact from a nature conservation as well as from a synecological point of view. Selected species were used as bioindicators, habitat preference of most species was determined and sensitive areas for nature conservation were depicted on a map (scale 1:50,000) using criteria such as rarity of species, local abundance, and results from cluster analysis. (orig.).

Mader, H.J.

1989-01-01

341

Prediction of ground vibrations resulting from the blasting operations in an open-pit mine by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to predict the peak particle velocity (PPV) values from both presently constructed simple regression model and fuzzy-based model. For this purpose, vibrations induced by bench blasting operations were measured in an open-pit mine operated by the most important magnesite producing company (MAS) in Turkey. After gathering the ordered pairs of distance and PPV values, the site-specific parameters were determined using traditional regression method. Also, an attempt has been made to investigate the applicability of a relatively new soft computing method called as the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict PPV. To achieve this objective, data obtained from the blasting measurements were evaluated by constructing an ANFIS-based prediction model. The distance from the blasting site to the monitoring stations and the charge weight per delay were selected as the input parameters of the constructed model, the output parameter being the PPV. Valid for the site, the PPV prediction capability of the constructed ANFIS-based model has proved to be successful in terms of statistical performance indices such as variance account for (VAF), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of estimation, and correlation between predicted and measured PPV values. Also, using these statistical performance indices, a prediction performance comparison has been made between the presently constructed ANFIS-based model and the classical regression-based prediction method, which has been widely used in the literature. Although the prediction performance of the regression-based model was high, the comparison has indicated that the proposed ANFIS-based model exhibited better prediction performance than the classical regression-based model.

Iphar, Melih; Yavuz, Mahmut; Ak, Hakan

2008-11-01

342

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos. Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2011-11-01

343

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 5: White Cast Iron (?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2011-08-01

344

Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c{sub 11} to m{sub 3} Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r{sup 2} of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka. (author)

Kolker, Allan [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.; Korchemagin, Viktor A.; Shendrik, Tatiana [Department of Mineral Deposits and Ecological Geology, Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, 83000 (Ukraine); Landa, Edward R.; Conko, Kathryn M. [U.S. Geological Survey, 430 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); McCord, Jamey D. [U.S. Geological Survey, 973 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

2009-08-01

345

Scheduled Caste Women: Problems And Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzed the Caste system based on Varnas during the ancient India. It also examined the demerits of caste attached to the present scheduled castes in general and scheduled caste women in particular. The scheduled caste women are disadvantaged by their caste and gender and as such they are subject to exploitation and discrimination by their family members, by their caste people and by forward castes. Hence, there is increase in exploitation, discrimination and violence against the scheduled caste women. The female feticide, illiteracy, gender inequality, Devadasi, Jogini practice, Nude Service to Deity, different types of violence, dowry, child marriage, etc are few of the problems faced by scheduled caste women in present society. Statistics of the violence acts against the scheduled caste women is discussed in the paper and there is need to strictly enforce the legislations passed to protect the violence against scheduled caste women. For this purpose, there is need of enquiry from lady police officials.

Vijayakumar Murthy

2013-12-01

346

Uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. It is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to nue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

347

Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

2002-07-30

348

Continuous casting of hollow billets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continuous casting technology of hollow billets has been developed for near-net-shape casting of pipe. A cylindrical water cooled copper mould was used as a core to make a hole at the center of the round billet, while the hot-top casting technique was applied in order to provide space for the submerged entry nozzle and to cast tube blanks of thin wall thickness. A pilot scale casting of a 160mm-diameter billet, which has a 100mm-diameter hole, was conducted and the metallurgical investigation of the billet quality and the numerical analysis were performed to determine the optimum casting conditions. The hot-top casting technique, in which the induction heating (IH) of the oscillating ceramic mould stabilizes the solidification start level, enables both the smooth surface and the thin wall thickness of the hollow billet. The combination of the IH type hot-top casting technique and a water cooled copper mould, create a favourable condition at the shell exterior for generating equiaxed crystal as both fluid flow and thermal conditions, promote high equiaxed structure ratio and elimination of macrosegregation in hollow billets. (author)

349

Education and Caste in India  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

2008-01-01

350

Process lines in mining equipment plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Programs are discussed of the KOMAG Mining Mechanization Center for automation of process lines in mining equipment plants in Poland and for new technologies. The following projects are evaluated: lines for welding and assembling elements for hydraulic cylinders (FAZOS, GLINIK), an assembling and welding line for mine cars (MONTANA), plasma cutting of steel sheets for chain conveyors (RYFAMA), a department for vacuum casting of aluminium alloys (WIROMET), a molding unit characterized by high molding quality (POWEN), a department for manufacturing tubes for hydraulic cylinders (FAZOS), a line for manufacturing idlers (MIFAMA). Flexible systems for manufacturing elements of mining equipment are characterized. Two pilot flexible systems being developed by KOMAG (1986-1990) are discussed: the ASO-K125 DUPLEX and the ISP-T35. Development programs for computer integrated manufacturing are evaluated.

Bienias, A.; Dziubinski, B.

1986-12-01

351

Colour Metallography of Cast Iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos.Except for focusing on the effect of high carbon phases in cast iron, in this book, special attention is also paid to the effect of austenite on solidification, graphite morphology, and quality of cast iron; at the same time, the study on the solidification behaviours in the region around eutectic cells and its effects on mechanical properties of cast iron, are also emphasized.

Zhou Jiyang

2009-05-01

352

Cast and splint immobilization: complications.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past three decades, internal fixation has become increasingly popular for fracture management and limb reconstruction. As a result, during their training, orthopaedic surgeons receive less formal instruction in the art of extremity immobilization and cast application and removal. Casting is not without risks and complications (eg, stiffness, pressure sores, compartment syndrome); the risk of morbidity is higher when casts are applied by less experienced practitioners. Certain materials and methods of ideal cast and splint application are recommended to prevent morbidity in the patient who is at high risk for complications with casting and splinting. Those at high risk include the obtunded or comatose multitrauma patient, the patient under anesthesia, the very young patient, the developmentally delayed patient, and the patient with spasticity. PMID:18180390

Halanski, Matthew; Noonan, Kenneth J

2008-01-01

353

EDUCATIONAL DATA MINING USING JMP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Educational Data Mining is a growing trend in ca se of higher education. The quality of the Educational Institute may be enhanced through discovering hidden knowledge from the student databases/ data warehouses. Present paper is designed to carry out a comparative study with the TDC (Three Year Degr ee C ourse students of different colleges affiliated to Dibrugarh University. The study is conducted with major subject wise, gender wise and category/caste wise. The experimental results may be visualized with Scatterplot3D, Bubble Plot, Fit Y by X, Run Chart, Control Chart etc. of the SAS JMP Software

Sadiq Hussain

2014-11-01

354

Ground water quality protection, mining and mining facilities in Utah  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utah' s around water resources are extremely important to the health and economic well-being of the state's citizens. As a state second only to Nevada in aridity it depends heavily on ground water sources for water for the public, industry, and agriculture. Ground water furnishes about 20% of the state's total water needs and 66% of the public supplies. To protect this water source for current and future users, Utah has developed a Ground Water Policy and initiated the development of a ground water quality protection strategy. Included in the strategy development process was an assessment of the effects that mining and associated activities can have on ground water Quality. The effect mining has on ground water quality depends on the ore and gangue minerals, the mining method, the ore processing, and the method of disposal for waste rock, tailings, and excess mine and mill waters. Sulfide minerals will oxidize to form soluble sulfates and sulfuric acid when exposed to air. Underground, open pit, and solution mines differ in their impact on ground water quality as do the different ore processing methods conventional, heap leach, solar evaporation, etc. Finally, the methods selected for waste disposal are a major determinant of the impact on ground water quality by mining operations. In the future mining companies will need to give increased consideration to protecting ground water and other resources by designing in features to protect these resources from degradation protect these resources from degradation

355

Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method  

OpenAIRE

In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 ÷ 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce t...

Pietrowski, S.

2009-01-01

356

Soil genesis of mine spoil, Navajo Mine, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Documenting mine spoil genesis has been limited in the Western States. Few areas have {open_quotes}before{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}after{close_quotes} type data and for some mines older reclamation areas are limited. Soil samples were collected from 8-11 year old reclaimed spoil as part of a rooting depth study completed in June 1987 at the Navajo Mine. Samples were collected in 25 cm increments to depths of at least 200 cm and most often to 350 cm at a total of fifteen different reclamation plots. The spoil was composed of various amounts of shale and sandstone. The sites represented different topographic positions (swale/backslope), reclamation ages (8 to 11 years), slopes (0-15%), and topdressing treatments (with and without).

Buchanan, B.A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Stutz, H.C. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Estrada, O.J. [BHP - Utah International Inc., Fruitland, NM (United States)

1990-12-31

357

Surface mining 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Topics covered: project evaluation; mine planning and design and contract mining; equipment selection and maintenance philosophy; mining operations - drilling, blasting and general; and environmental management.

Glen, H.W. [ed.

1996-12-31

358

Incline caving as a massive mining method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Finsch Mine is a kimberlite diamond mine located at Lime Acres in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The mine was founded in 1961 and started surface mining in 1964. Underground production commenced in 1990 using a modified blast-hole open stoping method for the mining of Blocks 1, 2 and 3. [...] Block 4 is currently being mined as a block cave. The process of identifying and optimizing a method to mine the Block 5 orebody started in 1991, and in 2006 incline caving was identified as being technically feasible. This paper aims to document the process employed in developing this method by the Block 5 pre-feasibility team as well as discuss the technical challenges encountered during this process. The paper commences with a history of Finsch Mine and highlights the complex geology and threat of sidewall failure that prompted the decision to use block caving as the mining method for Block 4. A literature study of mines that implemented mining methods upon which the incline cave was conceptualized is then presented. These practices were then used to form the basis for the designs on which the initial geotechnical modelling was done and built upon through an iterative process of modelling and design changes. The ventilation of the mining area, initial productivity simulation results, and the applicability of automation and comminution processes in the incline cave are also presented. The paper concludes with an investigation into some of the challenges of the mining method, and shows that that incline caving is a technical option available for further investigation in determining the optimal mining method to be employed at Block 5, Finsch Diamond Mine.

D.D., Munro.

359

Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

360

Occupational health and safety of workers in Saskatchewan uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, 1400 workers are employed directly by the uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan, where there are diverse mining conditions ranging from the underground mine of Eldorado Nuclear Limited to the shallow open pit of Cluff Mining. These different operating conditions present varied problems associated with occupational health and safety and concomitant solutions to reducing worker exposure to radiation. This paper examines legislation and regulatory procedures that assure the health and safety of the worker

361

Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

1993-01-01

362

Solidification process and infrared image characteristics of permanent mold castings  

Science.gov (United States)

Interdependence between the development of temperature gradients at the solid-liquid interface during solidification of metals and the formation of local defects demands for thermal investigation. In foundry practice thermocouples are used to control the die's overall cooling-rate, but fluctuations in product quality still occur. Capturing FIR- thermograms after opening the die visualizes the state, when most thermal throughput has already flattened the temperature gradients in the mold. Rapid dissipation of heat from liquid metal to the mold during solidification forces further approach of the process investigation by slowing down the heat flux or the use of transparent mold material. Aluminum gravity casting experiments under technical vacuum conditions lead to decelerated solidification by suppression of convection and image sequences containing explicit characteristics that could be assigned to local shrinkage of the casting. Hence relevant clusters are extracted and thermal profiles are drawn from image series, pointing out correlations between feeding performance from the sink heads and the appearance of local defects. Tracing thermal processes in vacuum casting can scarcely be transferred to image data in foundry practice, since only little analogies exist between atmospheric and vacuum casting. The diagnosis of the casting process requires detection of the still closed mold using a transparent silica- aerogel sheet as part of the die. Hereby thermograms of the initial heat input are recorded by adapting a NIR-camera in addition to the FIR-unit. Thus the entire thermal compensation at the joint face for each casting is visualized. This experimental set-up is used for image sequence analysis related to the intermediate casting phases of mold filling, body formation and solidification shrinkage.

Viets, Roman; Breuer, Markus; Haferkamp, Heinz; Kruessel, Thomas; Niemeyer, Matthias

1999-03-01

363

Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

K. Labisz

2008-08-01

364

Mining software for the Muara Tiga Besar Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Datamine software system consists of a database core and extension modules covering different areas including drillhole data handling, geological modelling, surveying, open pit and underground mine planning and production scheduling. The system has been used by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam for the modelling, evaluation and mine planning of the new Muara Tiga Besar open-pit coal mining project in south Sumatra. 9 figs.

Wheeler, A. (Datamine International, London (UK))

1992-05-01

365

Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)  

OpenAIRE

The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn–W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the mobilization and migration of m...

Candeias, Carla; A?vila, Paula Freire; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira Da; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Joa?o Paulo

2013-01-01

366

Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at ? = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

Gila Notesco

2014-07-01

367

Deconstructing the Caste Hegemony: Lambada Oral Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian society is very carefully and dexterouslystratified on the basis of castes and sects. This carefulnessand dexterity are used not only to divide the society intothousands of sections but also to protect and preserve thissystem for ages, banning and barring mobility andinteraction between castes. Each caste has a caste lowerthan itself in hierarchy. Even the most downtrodden anddiscriminated against section like “untouchables” are dividedsharply among themselves according to their castes andpractice untouchability against one another. Subservience toone caste and subjugating another caste will put eachcaste’s agenda, position and attitude in tact by making itrigid in its hierarchical behaviour.

Suneetha Rani Karamsi

2010-05-01

368

Casting technique for light metal alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Light metal alloys such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc and etc. can be produced in the various forms by casting technique. The casting technique for aluminum is classified as mold casting either using a sand mold or permanent mold; or both. Aluminum alloys casting are the most versatile of all common foundry alloys and generally have the highest castability ratings. Aluminum is adaptable to many of the commonly used casting methods and can be readily cast in metal molds. This work is attempted to investigate the availability and reliability of casting technique in obtaining of finish product. (Author)

369

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Wwww of... - Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams...for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt...HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process...

2010-07-01

370

Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern  

Science.gov (United States)

New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

1993-01-01

371

Blasts in open cast coal operations, technical economical analysis and main lines of progress. Tirs dans les exploitations de charbon a ciel ouvert: analyses technico-economiques et axes de progres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examines the increasing use of explosives in opencast coal mines and describes the two contrasting shothole drilling techniques employed in the Centre-Midi coalfield (hole size, type of drilling machine, etc.). Traces the development of detonators in the Gard coalfield and discusses the advantages and drawbacks of the Nonel down-the-hole detonator. Also examines operating experience with series firing detonators. Describes current shotfiring practice at the Gard mine, presenting the shothole patterns, types of charge, detonators and performances achieved. Discusses the PC BLAST software program developed jointly by SNPE and Cerchar. Finally, examines the impact on the environment of flying debris, noise and vibration and discusses experimental work under way at the Carmaux, Gard and Decazeville mines. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Laversanne, J. (Houilleres de Bassin du Centre et du Midi (France))

1989-06-01

372

Virtualisation of casting engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Fast response to an enquiry, minimization of costs of identification of best-suited process solution, as well as a capacity to tackle new challenges is the shortest description of the requirements posed by the contemporary market of machines and equipment. These, in consequence, called for making use of mathematical models and their solution by means of simulation algorithms.Design/methodology/approach: The notable effectiveness of numerical methods streamlined the production preparation process. Maintaining competitiveness, even more tough because of economic factors, is only possible due to cost-effective operation, high quality and well-timed order completion. These, on the other hand, can be facilitated by a broad application of IT tools aiding production management and preparation.Findings: Integration of systems aiding design processes, systems used for simulating selected elements of technologies, as well as of systems supporting instrumentation manufacturing calls for a need to solve a number of complex problems related to IT, mathematical modelling, logistics and knowledge management. Software packages for a simulation of processes that are indispensable in order to achieve the designed distribution of matter structures and condition are of particular importance.Research limitations/implications: Despite the fact that there is a wide range of software for these purposes available on the market, there is a need to build and integrate into IT systems new purpose-developed solutions customised to technologies applied and non-standard problems.Originality/value: Virtualization of casting engineering

J.S. Suchy

2007-09-01

373

Moldless casting by laser  

Science.gov (United States)

The principle of laser cladding involves the use of high power carbon-dioxide lasers and powder deposition technology to provide wear and corrosion resistant surface coatings to engineering components. By injecting metal powder into a laser generated melt pool on a moving substrate a solidified metal track can be produced. Deposition of successive tracks produces a multi-layer build. Laser direct casting (LDC) utilizes a coaxial nozzle enabling consistent omnidirectional deposition to produce 3D components from a selection of metal powders. The influence of the principal process parameters over the process features namely, powder catchment efficiency, beam shape and build rates are presented with several successfully generated 3D components. Nickel, stainless steel and satellite powders were deposited at laser powders of 0.4 to 1.4 kW and speeds of 500 to 1000 mm/min achieving build rates of 3 to 9 mm3/s. Fully dense metallurgical structures have been produced with no cracking or porosity and powder catchment efficiencies up to 85% have been achieved.

McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

1997-09-01

374

The Data Mine  

Science.gov (United States)

The Data Mine website is an excellent place to venture into detailed and complex explorations on data mining. The site is divided up in to five topic areas, or "webs," which include: "Data Mining Software," "Data Mining Events," "Data Mining General/Misc," "People Working in Data Mining," and "Data Mining Companies and Organizations." Visitors are encouraged to add information from their data mining worlds, as well.

Pryke, Andy

2008-01-07

375

Selected properties of new „duplex” cast steel  

OpenAIRE

In this paper selected properties of new „duplex” cast steel are presented. The new cast steel was devised in HYDRO-VACUUM company in Grudzi?dz, where “duplex” cast steel for pump elements is smelted. The goal was to devise a new grade of “duplex” cast steel of better physicochemical properties and cheaper than now applied. It was demonstrated, that there is the possibility of devising the new grade of “duplex” cast steel. It is characterized by higher mechanical properties, ...

Pietrowski, S.; Gumienny, G.; Masalski, M.

2011-01-01

376

Copper alloys in investment casting technology  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents research results in the field of casting technology of copper and copper alloys using the investment casting technology, both from historical as well as modern technology perspective. The analysis of exemplary elements of the old casting moulds is included, as well as the Bronze Age casts. The chemical content of various copper alloys was determined and the application of lost wax method was confirmed in the Bronze Age workshop. At present, investment casting method is use...

Rzadkosz, S.; Zych, J.; Garbacz-klempka, A.; Kranc, M.; Kozana, J.; Pie?kos?, M.; Kolczyk, J.; Jamrozowicz, ?.; Stolarczyk, T.

2015-01-01

377

Manufacturing synthetic cast iron for NPP components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of producing synthetic cast iron grade SCH30-SCH40 to manufacture cast parts for NPPs with the use of melting in commercial frequency induction furnaces has been developed and introduced. Strict observation of the manufacturing procedure permits to obtain high-quality cast iron with flake graphite for NPP main castings without using expensive modifiers. Cast iron smelted according to the suggested technology is characterized by high strength indices at tension (400 MPa) and bending (540 MPa).

Blozhko, N.K.; Petrov, L.A.; Narkevich, E.A.; Nikitin, L.A.; Kurochkin, V.S.

1984-07-01

378

Low-alloy constructional cast steel  

OpenAIRE

Production of constructional casting competitive for welded structure of high-strength steel first of all required high metallurgical quality of cast steel. Assumptions, methodology and results of investigation which the aim was determination of the most advantageous: configuration and parameters of metallurgical treatments and ways to modify, in aspects of reach the low-alloy cast steel of the highest quality as possible, are presented. A series of low-alloy cast steel melts modeled on cast ...

Bartocha, D.; Kilarski, J.; Suchon?, J.; Baron, C.; Szajnar, J.; Janerka, K.

2011-01-01

379

Geometric aspects of the casting process  

OpenAIRE

Manufacturing is the process of converting raw materials into useful products. Among the most important manufacturing processes, casting is a commonly used manufacturing process for plastic and metal objects. The industrial casting process consists of two stages. First, liquid is filled into a cavity formed by two cast parts. After the liquid has hardened, one cast part retracts, carrying the object with it. Afterwards, the object is ejected from the retracted cast part. In both retraction an...

Ahn, H. -k

2001-01-01

380

Inoculation of chromium white cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

D. Kopyci?ski

2009-01-01

381

CASTE SYSTEMS IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW  

OpenAIRE

The phenomenon of Caste has aroused more controversy than any other aspect of Indian life and thought. Some see India's caste system as the defining feature of Indian culture and some have dismissed it as a colonial artefact. Since the days of the British rule, both historians and anthropologists referred to India as a 'caste society'. Obviously this is an overstatement of the importance of caste. But for many leading personalities, caste was, and is, a real force in India...

Amit Kumar; Lal Das, S. N.

2014-01-01

382

Effect of Feeder Configuration on the Microstructure of Ductile Cast Iron  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feeding and microstructure of a test casting rigged with different feeder combinations was studied. Castings were examined and classified by soundness and microstructure. Subsequently the casting macro- and microstructure was analyzed to study how differences in solidification and segregation influence the soundness of different sections of the castings. Moreover, the microstructural changes due to variations in thermal gradients are classified, and the variations in the mushy zone described. The paper discusses how solidification and segregation influence porosity and microstructure of ductile iron castings. The goal is to enable metallurgists and foundry engineers to more directly target mushy zone development to prolong the possibility to feed through this section. Keeping smaller section open for an extended period will make it possible to use fewer or smaller feeders, with reduced energy consumption and cheaper products as a result.

Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Tiedje, Niels Skat

2014-01-01

383

La hydrogeology en la traditional mining of hydrocarbons, mining new  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Is presented from the point of view of Geosciences, an approach torelations between hydrogeology and mining activities, including those of traditional non - metal deposits of ores and rocks application (underground or open pit), the so-called ''modern mining'' (pickles) and hydrocarbons. Within the traditional mining, hydrogeology participates decisively several aspects, both those related to the feasibility of the projects, water supply for the stage of exploration and exploitation, mineraloductos ácueosand mine operations, such as environmental protection of water resources. In the ''modern mining'' groundwater acquires true character mena when it comes to the use of natural brines, and subject when they are generated by injecting water into an aquifer medium. In the case of hydrocarbons, the spectrum is broader participation at the stage of exploration and exploitation, where the hydrogeology is critical to providing water to camps and processes as well as operations secondary recovery, consumers strongly. From the perspective of environmental protection, are the main protagonists of groundwater the impacts of production, but also the phases are transportation, processing and marketing. They are used in the presentation of case examples of Argentina and Chile, some reflections on the need for an appropriate regulatory framework, especially addressed to Uruguay, and information to protect the population activity production of an unfair detriment, when mining is done responsibly

384

Titan Casts Revealing Shadow  

Science.gov (United States)

A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters,

2004-05-01

385

Mining wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article mining wastes means wastes obtained during extraction and processing of uranium ores including production of uraniferous concentrates. The hazards for the population are irradiation, ingestion, dust or radon inhalation. The different wastes produced are reviewed. Management of liquid effluents, water treatment, contamined materials, gaseous wastes and tailings are examined. Environmental impact of wastes during and after exploitation is discussed. Monitoring and measurements are made to verify that ICRP recommendations are met. Studies in progress to improve mining waste management are given

386

Open  

SCPinfonet

Dec 23, 2012 ... [1-3] The phase 1 design was an open-label study of 4 ascending doses in. 12 \\subjects ... contains no viral genes and does not induce pro-inflammatory \\cytokines. [8] The ... The SERCA2a protein is an ATP-dependent Ca. 2+ ... \\SERCA2a would not be expected to confer a growth advantage to any cell and.

387

Permeability of Aluminium Foams Produced by Replication Casting  

OpenAIRE

The replication casting process is used for manufacturing open-pore aluminum foams with advanced performances, such as stability and repeatability of foam structure with porosity over 60%. A simple foam structure model based on the interaction between sodium chloride solid particles poorly wetted by melted aluminum, which leads to the formation of air pockets (or “air collars”), is proposed for the permeability of porous material. The equation for the minimum pore radius of replicated alu...

Cherny, Maxim L.; Finkelstein, Arcady B.; Furman, Eugeny L.

2012-01-01

388

History of mirror casting, figuring, segmentation and active optics  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the invention of the telescope the mirrors in reflecting telescopes have evolved from small pieces of polished speculum to sophisticated, computer-controlled systems. This review describes the major problems with the casting, figuring and support of these mirrors, and how fundamental inventions like depositing a silver layer on glass or electronic devices like computers opened the path to new solutions for fabricating larger mirrors with improved performance.

Noethe, Lothar

2009-08-01

389

Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

2002-07-30

390

FOUR CENTURIES OF BAUXITE MINING  

OpenAIRE

In the paper the results of many years of archival and field investigations in the history of bauxite mining of the three authors are presented. It was established that in Istria in the valley of the river Mirna beneath the Castle of Sovinjak bauxite was exploited already 400 years ago, and that 1808 about this ore the first scientific account was published. Accordingly, the statements in the professional literature that the first bauxite mine opened 1873 in the French Provence and that the b...

Slavko Vujec; Krešimir Saka?; Rikard Maruši?

1993-01-01

391

FOUR CENTURIES OF BAUXITE MINING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the results of many years of archival and field investigations in the history of bauxite mining of the three authors are presented. It was established that in Istria in the valley of the river Mirna beneath the Castle of Sovinjak bauxite was exploited already 400 years ago, and that 1808 about this ore the first scientific account was published. Accordingly, the statements in the professional literature that the first bauxite mine opened 1873 in the French Provence and that the bauxite ore for the first time was scientifically described 1821 have to be revised.About this necessary revision here the essential proofs are produced.

Slavko Vujec

1993-12-01

392

French uranium mining sites remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

393

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

2014-03-31

394

Press review of the international mining activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These columns report on news from the mining industry activities: discovery and identification of ore deposits, technological research and development studies, projects and development of ore exploitations, expansion of existing mines, rehabilitation and re-opening of sites, production stopping, environmental regulation, metal industry developments, and economical and political news. This issue reports on some news about the project of exploitation of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit (Saskatchewan, Canada) and about the re-opening of the Stepnogorsk uranium processing plant in Kazakhstan. Two short news deal with the project of exploitation of lignite deposits in Barsingsar (Rajasthan, India) and in Garzweiler (Germany). Several short notes deal with coal mining: start up of the exploitation of the Bontang mine in Indonesia (Kalimantan), expansion of Goedehoop mine in South Africa, of the Burton mine in Australia (Queensland), common development of the neighboring deposits of Oreganal and Correjon Centrale in Colombia, revival of the coal production at Moatize (Mozambique) and closure of the oldest Japanese mine of Miike, and denial of subsidies for the exploitation of Spanish and German coal mines. (J.S.)

395

International mining news; Actualite miniere internationale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These columns report on news from the mining industry activities: discovery and identification of ore deposits, technological research and development studies, projects and development of ore exploitations, expansion of existing mines, rehabilitation and re-opening of sites, production stopping, environmental regulation, metal industry developments, and economical and political news. This issue reports on some news about the project of exploitation of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit (Saskatchewan, Canada) and about the re-opening of the Stepnogorsk uranium processing plant in Kazakhstan. Two short news deal with the project of exploitation of lignite deposits in Barsingsar (Rajasthan, India) and in Garzweiler (Germany). Several short notes deal with coal mining: start up of the exploitation of the Bontang mine in Indonesia (Kalimantan), expansion of Goedehoop mine in South Africa, of the Burton mine in Australia (Queensland), common development of the neighboring deposits of Oreganal and Correjon Centrale in Colombia, revival of the coal production at Moatize (Mozambique) and closure of the oldest Japanese mine of Miike, and denial of subsidies for the exploitation of Spanish and German coal mines. (J.S.)

Bouteloup, R

1997-09-01

396

Modelling of Tape Casting for Ceramic Applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Functional ceramics find use in many different applications of great interest, e.g. thermal barrier coatings, piezoactuators, capacitors, solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysis cells, membranes, and filters. It is often the case that the performance of a ceramic component can be increased markedly if it is possible to vary the relevant properties (e.g. electrical, electrochemical, or magnetic) in a controlled manner along the extent of the component. Such composites in which ceramic layers of different composition and/or microstructure are combined provide a new and intriguing dimension to the field of functional ceramics research. Advances in ceramic forming have enabled low cost shaping techniques such as tape casting and extrusion to be used in some of the most challenging technologies. These advances allow the design of complex components adapted to desired specific properties and applications. However, there is still only very limited insight into the processes determining the final properties of such components. Hence, the aim of the present PhD project is to obtain the required knowledge basis for the optimized processing of multi-material functional ceramics components. Recent efforts in the domain of ceramic processing are generally focused on the control of the microstructure while the importance of shaping is often underestimated. Improved performance requires the design and shaping of both controlled architectures and microstructures. Novel functionally graded ceramic materials may be formed by multilayers or adjacent grading of different ceramic materials. Such grading is often desired for optimal performance. An example is when there is a gradient in temperature or chemical environment along the component during operation; in this case the properties of each section of the component should be optimized for the local environment by grading. The grading may be between entirely different ceramic materials or merely a minor compositional alteration within one type of material. However, there are several challenges to be met for the successful fabrication of such complex structures. Rheological properties play an extremely important role for the co-processing of more than one material. Only by matching the rheological properties of the different pastes, a reproducible and well defined gradient composite will be formed. Tape casting involves the casting of a slurry onto a flat moving carrier surface. The slurry passes beneath a knife edge (doctor blade) as the carrier surface advances along a supporting table. The solvents evaporate to leave a relatively dense flexible sheet that may be stored on rolls or stripped from the carrier in a continuous process. Today, multilayers are achieved by laminating layers of different materials on top of each other. The challenge is to be able to tape cast layers of different materials simultaneously both stratified in the horizontal and in the lateral direction. Understanding how to achieve that and perfection of such a technique will open up a large variety of applications. General challenges with this process is, as mentioned, controlling the rheological properties of the slurries/pastes as they strongly affect the process and the quality of the final product, maintaining uniform composition during the process and controlling/understanding the shrinkage in drying and sintering. Furthermore, understanding the tape delamination and film cracking of multilayers as well as of interface fracture modes in multilayers is also an important topic that needs to be considered and understood. In the present PhD thesis the focus is on the numerical modelling of the tape casting process of functionally graded ceramic materials for fuel cell applications as well as magnetic refrigeration. Models to simulate the shaping of monolayer/multilayer and graded materials by tape casting are developed. The emphasis is on analyzing the entry flow of multiple slurries from the reservoir into the doctor-blade region as well as the exit region where a free surface (meniscus) forms. This encompasses a

Jabbari, Masoud

2014-01-01

397

Microstructure quantitative analysis of aluminum skeleton castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article authors showed method for manufacturing of closed skeleton castings with hypo – eutectic and eutectic aluminiumalloys. Experimental castings were manufactured in variables technological conditions: range of pouring temperature 680 ÷ 740 °C,temperature of mould 20 ÷ 100 °C and height of gating system above casting level 105 ÷ 175 mm. Structural analysis of studied skeletoncastings was conducted. Degree of refinement of structure in typical region of skeleton casting was compared. Qualitative and quantitativedifferent degree of fineness of eutectic silicon was confirmed. Casting in established technological conditions enables manufacturedskeletons which repeatable geometry, suitable external geometrical form of casting and required quality.

M. Cholewa

2008-12-01

398

STME T/C casting technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The T/C casting technology developed by the National Launch System for the Space Transportation Main Engine is described. Special attention is given to the selection of JBK-75 as the combustion chamber casting alloy, some unique casting issues, and the development castings which were produced. Current plans call for producing a 650K full cast jacket mockup in the 4500 pound furnace. Once a 650K mockup casting has been successfully produced, a design of experiments (DOE) will be conducted to establish the best gating system. This will be followed by the design of permanent wax pattern tooling, gating tooling, and process fixtures, and, finally, by a process DOE.

Lobitz, J. R.; Ackerman, P. C.; Weber, S. L.

1992-07-01

399

Thermal analysis thermal of continuous casting equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal analysis of continuous casting equipment has been carried out to calculate the temperature and solidification profiles. Fluid flow and heat transfer analysis model including the effects of phase change was used to simulate the continuous casting process by finite volume method. In the design of continuous casting equipment, the casting speed, pouring temperature and cooling conditions should be considered as significant factors. In this study, the effects of casting speed, pouring temperature, and air gap between the uranium and mold were investigated. The results obtained from this study will be applied as a basic data for design, fabrication and casting test. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

Shin, Y. J.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

2000-03-01

400

Development of vacuum die-casting process  

OpenAIRE

The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the di...

Masashi Uchida

2009-01-01

401

Influence of Sungun copper mine on groundwater quality, NW Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Sungun mine is the largest open-cast copper mine in northwest of Iran and is in the primary stages of extraction. The influence of mining activity on the quality of regional groundwater has been taken in to consideration in this study. Accordingly, sampling was done from 22 springs in the study area. The concentrations of major anions and cations as well as Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined for all 22 spring samples in mid-August 2005. The results showed that the concentrations of most of these elements were below the USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits; however, Al and Fe concentrations are considered to be more than limits in a couple of samples. Despite the fact that geological formations are highly weathered and fractured, the dissolution of minerals within the study area is low. This may be justified by the relatively high alkalinity of local underground water which keeps metals in solid phase and does not let them enter dissolved phase. Additionally, this may be attributed to the high velocity of groundwater flows, which do not give enough time for minerals to dissolve. Correlation coefficients among water chemistry components were determined and the weighted-pair group method was chosen for cluster analysis. Accordingly, high correlation among Al, Fe and Cr, Cd ,and Cu, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and Na as well as total hardness (TH), Ca, and Mg were observed. The chemical characteristics of water compositions on the basis of major ion concentrations were evaluated on a Schoeller and Piper diagram. Accordingly, the dominant type of water in the region is considered to be Ca-HCO3 (calcium-bicarbonate type). However, this type of water is also rich in Na, K, and especially Mg. Regarding Schoeller diagram, the current status of local underground water is good for drinking purposes. By commencing mining excavation with designed capacity in near future, the minerals will come into contact with air and water resulting in dissolution, especially in ponds, which, in turn, will increase the concentration of toxic metals in groundwater. Considering future uses of this water including for drinking, irrigation, industrial purposes, etc., precautions must be taken in to consideration.

Nasrabadi, T.; Nabi Bidhendi, G. R.; Karbassi, A. R.; Hoveidi, H.; Nasrabadi, I.; Pezeshk, H.; Rashidinejad, F.

2009-08-01

402

Magnesium-lithium casting alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

1974-01-01

403

Wear-corrosion study of white cast irons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A US Bureau of Mines study to quantify synergism between wear and corrosion of white cast iron in an aqueous sulfate environment was conducted using a rotating cylinder-anvil apparatus. A commercial 13.5% Cr white cast iron sample and the individual constituents of a white cast iron were studied to determine the role of each phase in the degradation processes of wear, corrosion and wear-corrosion synergism. These constituent phases consisting of matrix (13%Cr-87%Fe), Cr-depleted matrix (5%Cr-95%Fe) two M{sub 7}C{sub 3}`s and two M{sub 3}C (where M=Fe,Cr) were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The wear-corrosion studies consisted of four tests: the potentiodynamic polarization tests with and without anvil pressure and wear tests with and without cathodic protection. The force on the anvils was 28 kg and the rotation speed of the approximately 2.5 cm diameter samples was 5.24 (rad s{sup -1}) with peripheral velocity of 0.0654 m s{sup -1}. Even though corrosion alone was a small percentage of the total degradation, representing as little as 0.1% of the total degradation, the wear-corrosion synergism contribution was significant, accounting for as much as 91% of the total degradation. (orig.)

Watson, S.W. [US Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center, OR (United States); Madsen, B.W. [US Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center, OR (United States); Cramer, S.D. [US Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center, OR (United States)

1995-03-01

404

Research Status on Control System of Coal Mine Rescue Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coal mine rescue robot is the device which replaces the rescue workers to detect the environment and rescue victims in mine. And the control system is the core of the coal mine rescue robot and decides the performance of the robot. To design the control system which meets the requirement of coal mine rescue, it is firstly analyzed that requirements of the coal mine rescue robot in this study. Then, it is recommended that the control systems of coal mine robots which have been developed in China and its advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. In the end, we suggest an open control system based on ether net which meets the requirements of the coal mine rescue robot. The outdoor test shows that this control system effective and reliability for coal mine rescue robot.

Liu Jian

2013-01-01

405

Forecasting the Ocean's Optical Environment Using the BioCast System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast system is a model that provides the US Navy with short-term forecasts of the ocean's optical environment. The forecasts are required to support a broad spectrum of naval operations, including mine countermeasure, anti-submarine, and expeditionary warfare operations. The BioCast system works by treating any geo-referenced surface ocean optical property provided via the US Navy's satellite data processing systems as a prognostic state variable. BioCast will then ingest operational ocean model velocity forecasts and calculate the three-dimensional optical property (pseudo-tracer transport. BioCast verification statistics generated via forecast comparison to "next-day" satellite images show superior performance over 24-hour persistence of composite satellite data. Future operational modifications to BioCast, such as complex internal transformation submodels, must demonstrate superior performance to the established benchmark metrics and/or persistence over the operational forecast time horizon. Future BioCast applications will expand to include an interface with three-dimensional system performance simulation techniques that will predict how specific US Navy sensors will perform in the ocean's optical environment.

Jason Keith Jolliff

2014-09-01

406

Caste System And Caste Practices In Tamil Country  

OpenAIRE

Social life with its religious practices, caste traditions and conventional distinctions continued without any remarkable change throughout the Vijayanagar Rule. Linguistic traditions, pride, prejudice and geographical barriers led to decentralization and there was a struggle for supremacy. The Tamil Society managed to retain many of its traditional cultural traits fairly intact. Its communal ramification and the inter communal dissensions not infrequently descending to the...

Gnanavel, T.; Selvamuthu Kumarasami, L.

2012-01-01

407

Development of a New Membrane Casting Apparatus for Studying Macrovoid Defects in Low-G  

Science.gov (United States)

A new membrane-casting apparatus is developed for studying macrovoid defects in polymeric membranes made by the wet- and dry-casting process in low-gravity. Macrovoids are large (10-50 micron), open cavities interspersed among the smaller pores in the substructure under the gelled skin surface layer of the cast membrane. Although their occurrence is considered endemic to the wet- and dry-casting process since they can lead to compaction or skin rupture in the membrane process, recent studies suggest several useful applications such as transdermal and osmotic drug delivery systems, miniature bioreactors, etc. However, lack of knowledge about the macrovoid formation mechanism is an obstacle to further development of applications using them. An on-going debate is the role of the surface-tension-driven solutocapillary convection during macrovoid formation. The rapid growth of macrovoids within 1-5 seconds and the high polymer concentration in and near macrovoids make it difficult to explain the mechanism of macrovoid growth by diffusion alone, which is the widely accepted hypothesis proposed by Reuvers et al. The hypothesis advanced by our research group can explain this rapid growth via a mechanism that involves diffusion from the casting solution in the meta-stable region to the macrovoid enhanced by solutocapillary convection induced by the steep nonsolvent concentration gradient in the vicinity of the macrovoid. Since macrovoid growth is hypothesized to be the interplay of a solutocapillary-induced driving force counteracted by viscous drag and buoyancy, eliminate the latter provides a means for testing this hypothesis. Moreover, free convection mass transfer in the nonsolvent immersion bath used to cause phase-separation in membrane casting complicates developing a model for both the wet-casting process and macrovoid growth. The low-g environment minimizes gravitationally induced free convection thereby permitting a tractable solution to the ternary diffusion equations that characterize membrane formation. NASA's Parabolic Flight Research Aircraft provides a small window of low-g (approximately 25 s) that can be used to study macrovoid development in both wet- and dry-cast membranes if an appropriate casting apparatus is used. This casting apparatus should be able to cast the membrane in both low- and high-g in a manner so that essential one-dimensional mass transfer conditions are achieved to insure lateral uniformity in the membrane. The apparatus used in previous research on membrane casting in low-gravity was operated with the plunger driven mechanism. The spring-loaded plunger pushes the bottom block containing the polymer casting solution well directly under the absorbent chamber located in the upper stationary block. However, membranes made via this casting apparatus often displayed lateral nonuniformities that precluded obtaining quantitative information on the macrovoid growth process. Thus, it was necessary to determine the reason for these structural irregularities observed in the low-g casting apparatus. Both experimental as well as computer simulation studies of the low-g casting apparatus established that the impulsive action of the plunger caused the undesired structural nonuniformities. The simulation results showed that the width-to-depth aspect ratio of the shallow well that contains the casting solution in this apparatus was not an important factor in minimizing this problem. Even for a 40:1 (width : depth) aspect ratio, any convection induced by the horizontal motion of the interface of the casting solution will be damped out within 6.25x10(exp 4) seconds. However, the experimental studies revealed that the impulsive motion of the plunger caused a 'sloshing' of the casting solution that had to be eliminated. Therefore, the plungerdriven mechanism was changed to a cam-driven mechanism that did not cause any impulsive motion of the casting solution. Other refinements to this new membrane-casting apparatus include provision for removing the membranes from the casting wells in a less destructive manner.

Lee, Hanyong; Hwang, Sun-Tak; Krantz, William B.; Greenberg, Alan R.; Khare, Vivek; Zartman, Jeremiah; Todd, Paul W.

2002-01-01

408

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device...

2010-04-01

409

Standard digital reference images for inspection of aluminum castings  

CERN Document Server

1.1 These digital reference images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in aluminum-alloy castings. The castings illustrated are in thicknesses of 1/ 4 in. [6.35 mm] and 3/4 in. [19.1mm]. 1.2 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aluminum-alloy castings when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of aluminum-alloy castings, refer to Reference Radiographs E 155. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and he...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2005-01-01

410

[WEB-based medical data mining integration].  

Science.gov (United States)

An integration of medical data management system based on WEB and data mining tool is reportedly in this paper. In the application process of this system, web-based medical data mining user sends requests to the server by using client browser with http protocol, the commands are then received by the server and the server calls the data mining tools remote object for data processing, and the results are sent back to the customer browser through the http protocol and presented to the user. In order to prove the feasibility of the proposed solution, the test is done under the NET platform by using SAS and SPSS, and the detail steps are given. By the practical test, it was proved that the web-based data mining tool integration solutions proposed in this paper would have its broad prospects for development, which would open up a new route to the development of medical data mining. PMID:25219235

Yao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Huoming

2014-06-01

411

Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts  

OpenAIRE

The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

Issagulov, A.; Kulikov, V.; Issagulova, D.; Shcherbakova, E.; Kuszhanova, A.

2014-01-01

412

Study of pinholes genesis in iron castings  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The study concerns the formation of pinholes in castings formed by reaction between a green foundry mould and lamellargraphite cast iron. Great numbers of works have been aimed at clarifying the causes of pinholes formation in iron castings. In spite of thisthere exists no united opinion on the pinholes formation (genesis) and the authors of this contribution having studied this phenomenon incompacted graphite and spheroidal graphite iron castings were also aimed at lamellar graphite...

Elbel, T.; Hampl, J.; Senkypl, M.

2011-01-01

413

Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

A. Issagulov

2014-10-01

414

The heat treatment of Fermanal cast steel  

OpenAIRE

The study discloses the results of microstructural examinations, testing of magnetic properties and hardness measurements as cast and after heat treatment conducted on the Fermanal cast steel. A characteristic feature of this cast steel is its density lower by about 10% than the density of carbon cast steel [4]. It has been proved that the factor deciding about the composition of microstructure (fraction of ferrite and austenite) is the content of aluminium. The matrix totally austenitic is p...

Binczyk, F.; Smolin?ski, A.; Szymszal, J.

2007-01-01

415

Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being pr...

Luo, Alan A.; Sachdev, Anil K.; Powell, Bob R.

2010-01-01

416

Data mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

1998-12-31

417

Uranium mills and mines environmental restoration in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ENRESA and ENUSA have dismantled and restored a uranium mill in Andujar (Andalucia), a uranium facility based on open pit mining and plant in La Haba (Extremadura) and 19 old uranium mines in Andalucia and Extremadura. The Andujar Uranium Mill was operated from 1959 to 1981 and has been restorated between 1991 and 1994. The site included the tailings pile and the processing plant. The Haba Uranium Site included the Plant (operating from 1976 to 1999), four open-pit mines (operating from 1966 to 1990), the heaps leaching and the tailings dam and has been restorated between 1992 and 1997. The 19 abandoned uranium mines were developed by underground mining with the exception of two sites, which were operated by open pit mining. Mining operations started around 1959 and were shutdown in 1981. There was a great diversity among the mines, in terms of site conditions. Whereas in some sites there was little trace of the mining works, in other sites large excavations, mining debris piles, abandoned shafs and galeries and remaining surface structures and equipment were encountered. (author)

418

SURVEY ON HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK TRAFFIC ANALYSIS WITH SUPERVISED AND UNSUPERVISED DATA MINING TECHNIQUES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Network Traffic Analysis (NTA in heterogeneous networks is one of the emerging research areas receiving substantial attention from both the research community and traffic analyzers. Many tasks in NTA can be naturally cast in a supervised and unsupervised learning model. Many supervised classification models and unsupervised clustering learning models in data mining have been proposed for heterogeneous network. Due to the importance of network traffic analysis in data mining research with the rapid development of new models, To provide a comprehensive review on supervised classification and unsupervised clustering model on heterogeneous type of network in this paper and systematically give a summarization of the state-of-the-art techniques for network traffic analysis. It addresses the problem of network management such as traffic load, quality of service, and trend analysis. This survey covers real time supervised classification and unsupervised clustering algorithms and analyze techniques for heterogeneous networks. It provides taxonomy of the different supervised classification algorithms and unsupervised clustering algorithms and evaluates the various performance metrics that are significantly used for the purpose of comparison. A detailed review is provided covering fuzzy relational clustering algorithm, classification learning algorithms, global voting algorithm and hybrid algorithms. The survey evolve certain open issues, key research challenges for network traffic analysis using supervised classification and unsupervised clustering model in heterogeneous networks, and likely to provide productive research directions.

D.Jayachitra

2014-07-01

419

Men and their land. The mining sites of the Mokta French Company in Lozere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This booklet summarizes the history of the mining activity in the Lozere district (France) devoted to the extraction of uranium ores. This activity started in 1957 with the open cast exploitation of the Cellier deposit which lasted 35 years and produced 4200 t of uranium from 5800000 t of ore. The exploitation was performed by the French Company of Uranium Ores (CFMU). The uranium crisis started in 1962 and led to an increase of prospecting activities. The crisis ended with the first oil crack in 1973 and the uranium demand and prices grew up until 1979 when the Three Mile Island reactor accident occurred. The second crisis that followed led to the development of new recovery processes such as the heap lixiviation process. In 1980, the CFMU became the French Company of Mokta (CFM) and in 1986, the CFM became a 100% daughter company of the Cogema group. The exploitation of the Bondons mine ended in 1989 and the program of site rehabilitation started. The document focusses on the environmental aspects of this program, the reforestation, the drainage of surface waters and the control of water quality. (J.S.)

420

Data mining and business analytics with R  

CERN Document Server

Collecting, analyzing, and extracting valuable information from a large amount of data re