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Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus  

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With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant ...

Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geo?rgia; Gomes, Vinicius Morais; Dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; Souza, Anto?nio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto Almeida; Costa, Maria Jose? Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

2012-01-01

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Spectroscopic and thermooxidative analysis of organic okra oil and seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus.  

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With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2 °C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption. PMID:22645459

de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; Dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antônio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

2012-01-01

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First identification of ?-glucosidase inhibitors from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds.  

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Infusion of roasted okra seeds has long been consumed in Turkey for diabetes mellitus therapy. Previous reports of a hypoglycemic effect observed in rats administrated with okra seed extract indicated a possible connection with inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase. An attempt to identify active components was first herein conducted using alpha-glucosidase-inhibition-guided isolation, yielding two major flavonol glucosides named isoquercetin (2) and quercetin-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1"' --> 6")-glucoside (3). They selectively inhibited rat intestinal maltase and sucrase, in which isoquercetin (2) was 6-10 times more potent than its related diglucoside 3. This result suggested that an increase in hydrophilicity by the additional glucose residue in 3 led to a significant decline in the inhibitory effect and raised the possible involvement of the free 3-OH in exerting the inhibition. Our postulation was evaluated by examining alpha-glucosidase inhibition of quercetin (1), and the aglycone of 2 and 3, whose 3-OH is free from any glucose moiety. Interestingly, 1 displayed a broad inhibitory effect toward rat intestinal and baker's yeast alpha-glucosidases, with improved potency. A kinetic study of 1 indicated that it inhibited maltase by two distinct mechanisms, in competitive (K(i) 462 microM) and noncompetitive (K(i) 2153 microM) manners, whereas the mechanism underlying the inhibition of sucrase was verified as being of a competitive behavior (K(i) 218 microM). PMID:24079173

Thanakosai, Wannisa; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

2013-08-01

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Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:19425185

Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M

2009-06-01

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Effect of Fertilizer and Drying Methods on Seed Germination of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cultivars at Different Harvesting Times  

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Okra hardseedness results in slow and uneven germination. This study determined the effects of fertilizer application and drying methods on hardseedness breakdown of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars (cv. Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylias’). Three fertilizer level (150, 300 and 450 mg L-1 N) and two different drying methods (seeds and pods) were applied. The results showed that by increasing N application from 150 to 450 mg L-1 N increased seed germination re...

Ghadir Mohammadi; Khah, Ebrahim M.; Petropoulos, Spyridon A.; Garip Yarsi; Apostolos Vlasakoudis

2013-01-01

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Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.  

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The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control. PMID:22803337

Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

2012-06-01

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Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (?23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ?30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus. PMID:21413797

Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

2011-04-27

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Effect of Fertilizer and Drying Methods on Seed Germination of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cultivars at Different Harvesting Times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Okra hardseedness results in slow and uneven germination. This study determined the effects of fertilizer application and drying methods on hardseedness breakdown of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. cultivars (cv. Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylias’. Three fertilizer level (150, 300 and 450 mg L-1 N and two different drying methods (seeds and pods were applied. The results showed that by increasing N application from 150 to 450 mg L-1 N increased seed germination regardless of drying method, whereas the application of 450 mg L-1 N resulted in the higher seed germination percentage, regardless of cultivar and drying method. In addition, harvesting seeds at 40 days after flowering (DAF resulted in an increase of germination rate, especially when 450 mg L-1 N were applied. Seed germination of seeds harvested at 40 to 50 days after flowering (DAF was reduced, especially when seed drying instead of pod drying was applied. However, for cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ the application of 150 mg L-1 N resulted in higher percentage of hard seeds and lower seed germination rate, whereas pod drying reduced the occurrence of hardseedness. For all cultivars, seeds from the middle part of the plant had a higher seed germination percentage at 450 mg L-1 N level, regardless of drying methods. In conclusion, increasing the N application rate up to 450 mg L-1, harvesting seeds at 40 DAF and collecting seeds from the middle part of the plant could be a useful means for reducing the occurrence of hardseedness and increasing germination percentage of okra seeds.

Ghadir Mohammadi

2013-03-01

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Influence of pre-treatment on yield chemical and antioxidant properties of a Nigerian okra seed (Abelmoschus esculentus moench) flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra seeds are reported to be limited to re-generational purpose in Nigeria while majority are discarded as unfit for this purpose. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of soaking and blanching on the yield, proximate composition and antioxidant activity of okra seed flour. Pre-treatment by soaking and blanching were found to increase yield which was time dependent. The range mean obtained for protein, fat, ash and fiber contents were 46.10-38.99, 28.08-25.08, 3.95-3.15 and 3.76-3.10, respectively. Slight but significant DPPH radical scavenging activity increase was observed in soaked samples at 18th-h while blanching resulted into progressive decrease. PMID:19146911

Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M; Koekemoer, T C

2009-03-01

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Salt stress effects on some morphological and physiological characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)  

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Salinity is worldwide problem that limits the growth and productivity of all vegetations and it is going toincreasing day by day. The objective of the investigation was to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL.) in terms of morphological and physiological characteristics under salt stress conditions. Okra seeds of cultivarChinese Red were grown in plastic pots having fine sand as growth medium. After 30 days of germination, theplants were subjected to salt stress under control, ...

Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Muhammad Aslam Pervez

2011-01-01

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EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus) FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn) FLOUR  

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In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains ...

Tesleem Ibrahim; Lola Ajala; Foluso Adetuyi

2012-01-01

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Germination and Seedling Emergence of Primed Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seeds under Salt Stress and Low Temperature  

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Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of priming on the germination, emergence and seedling growth of Abelmoschus esculentus (cultivar Marsaouia under low temperature and salinity conditions. Seeds were primed for 24 h at 20°C in three priming media (KCl 4%, mannitol 0.75M, CaCl2 10 mM and control (non-primed seeds and were examined at different salinity levels (0, 40 and 100 mM NaCl. Results indicated that KCl priming increased final germination percentage, radicle length and seedlings dry weight 100%, 40.94 mm and 0.03 g, respectively, as compared with non-primed seeds. Mannitol and CaCl2 have been found to be better treatments for improving final emergence percentage. Overall increased NaCl level, led to the reductions in final germination and emergence percentage but these reductions were higher for non-primed compared to primed seeds. The increase in NaCl concentrations didn’t show any significantly effect on cotyledons fresh weight of primed or non-primed seeds. Besides, our results proved that priming alleviated the adverse effects of salinity for seedlings biomass as compared to non-primed seeds.

Besma Ben Dkhil

2014-01-01

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Micorrización de okra (abelmoschus esculentus l.) en riego por goteo  

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Se estudió el efecto del hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA) Glomus intraradices en la productividad de okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) var. ?Clemson Spineless? en condiciones semiáridas y bajo un sistema de riego por goteo. En 2002 y 2003 se comparó la altura de planta (AP), colonización micorrízica (CM) y el rendimiento comercial de fruto (RCF), en plantas originadas de semillas, con o sin la inoculación micorrízica. En 2003 el riego fue con agua con alta concent...

Manuel Alvarado Carrillo; Edaz Franco, Arturo D. U.; Idalia Garza Cano

2007-01-01

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Salt stress effects on some morphological and physiological characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salinity is worldwide problem that limits the growth and productivity of all vegetations and it is going toincreasing day by day. The objective of the investigation was to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL. in terms of morphological and physiological characteristics under salt stress conditions. Okra seeds of cultivarChinese Red were grown in plastic pots having fine sand as growth medium. After 30 days of germination, theplants were subjected to salt stress under control, 25, 50, and 75 mM NaCl. Increasing salinity caused a decrease ofgermination percentage, shoot and root length, plant height, pod weight, pod length, photosynthesis rate, andstomatal conductance. The Na+ and Cl- accumulation were correlated with a decline in concentration of K+ inleaves and roots. Under salinity, a high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were noted in both leave and roots portions.

Muhammad Adnan Shahid*, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Rashid Mukhtar Balal, Rashid Ahmad, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Tahira Abbas and Naheed Akhtar

2011-04-01

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Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Ten Cultivars of Okra-Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn. Moench  

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Full Text Available Ten quantitative traits of 10 genotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus were investigated with a view to identifying the high yielding potential of the cultivars and to determining the extent of association among their contributing traits. The plant materials used are labeled according to their genotypes as follows: NH47-4, MHae 474, FEae 98, FEak, Agk98, Agkae, Aklc, Ilae, Ijae2000 and Alae- B. Using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications, the ten genotypes of okra were grown (one seed per hill at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria during the rainy season of 2002 and 2003. At the appropriate stages of growth, the following traits were investigated: days to flowering, height at flowering, number of pods per plant, pod length, pod width, number of branches per pant, days to maturity, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred seeds and final plant height. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and phenotypic and genotypic correlation analyses computed. Results show that there is a strong relationship between pod length and pod width with the juxtaposition of number of seeds per pod. Hence, selection programme based on these traits are most likely to bring about further improvement in the yield of okra under rainfed conditions.

O.S. Osekita

2008-01-01

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Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Anthocyanins, Membrane Permeability and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seedlings  

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To study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Marsaouia) to salinity, the effect on seedling growth, water content, anthocyanins content and chlorophyll fluorescence was investigated. Okra seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and sown in peat culture under controlled conditions and submitted during 2 weeks to saline stress ranging from 0 (distilled water) to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmol of NaCl. Results showed that salt has no significant effect on aerial part dry weight an...

Mounir Denden; Besma Ben Dkhil

2012-01-01

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Variasi Penampilan Dan Komponen Pertumbuhan Beberapa Varietas Introduksi Tanaman Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)  

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D A H L 1 A, Variasi Penampilan Dan Komponen Pertumbuhan Beberapa Varietas Introduksi Tanaman Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench), di bawah bimbingan Ir.Aidil Azhar dan Ir. Eva Sartini Bayu, MP selaku ketua dan anggola komisi pembimbing. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui variasi penampilan dan komponen pertumbuhan serta adaptasi beberapa varietas introduksi tanaman okra. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Karang Sari Kelurahan * ...

Dahlia

2012-01-01

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Micorrización de okra (abelmoschus esculentus l. en riego por goteo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA Glomus intraradices en la productividad de okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. var. ?Clemson Spineless? en condiciones semiáridas y bajo un sistema de riego por goteo. En 2002 y 2003 se comparó la altura de planta (AP, colonización micorrízica (CM y el rendimiento comercial de fruto (RCF, en plantas originadas de semillas, con o sin la inoculación micorrízica. En 2003 el riego fue con agua con alta concentración de sales (conductividad eléctrica de 3000 mS cm-1. En 2004 se evaluó el índice de clorofila (IC, la AP y el RFC, en plantas de okra de los tratamientos: semilla inoculada con el HMA, con fertilización química (120N-50P-00K, con la combinación del HMA en semilla más 50 % de la fertilización química y el testigo. En 2002 y 2003 se registraron incrementos significativos del HMA en CM y RFC, con relación al testigo. Con agua de riego salina en 2003, se observaron mayores valores de CM y RFC cuando se inoculó con G. intraradices. En 2004 los tratamientos no influyeron significativamente en IC ni en AP; no obstante, en RFC los tratamientos HMA, fertilización química y HMA más 50 % de fertilización, superaron al testigo. Los resultados muestran que G. intraradices aumentó el RFC de okra durante los tres años en el sistema de riego por goteo. El efecto benéfico de la simbiosis con el HMA como promotor del rendimiento de fruto de okra, combinado con el sistema de riego por goteo, pueden representar un manejo de producción eficiente para regiones semiáridas.

Manuel Alvarado Carrillo

2007-01-01

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Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, asco...

Pendre, N. K.; Nema, Prabhat K.; Sharma, Harsh P.; Rathore, S. S.; Kushwah, S. S.

2011-01-01

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Comparative study of quality changes in okra abelmoschus esculentus (L) moench stored at different relative humidities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) pods were stored at the relative humidity of 90% and 100% for up to 10 days. The moisture content, crude fibre, and protein, fat, viscosity, hydrolysable and condensed tannin, total phenol, vitamin C and reducing power of the okra were determined on alternate days. Okra pods stored at 100% RH experienced the least percentage loss in all the determined parameters though the loss of antinutrient was lower at this relative humidity. (author)

 
 
 
 
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Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion  

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Background: Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology: A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori...

Messing, Jutta; Thoele, Christian; Niehues, Michael; Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Boren, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

2014-01-01

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Efeitos de métodos de colheita e da localização dos frutos na planta sobre a ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) / Effects of harvesting methods and fruit position in plant on hard seed occurrency in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) foi estudada em função da colheita única dos frutos na senescência das plantas ou da colheita periódica dos frutos no estádio de maturação morfológica. As cultivares utilizadas foram "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" e "Cam [...] pinas-2 IAC 4076" e os frutos foram separados em aqueles provenientes da haste principal e os oriundos dos ramos laterais. A porcentagem de sementes duras foi avaliada por meio do teste padrão de germinação e os dados obtidos permitiram verificar que o método de colheita única aumentou a ocorrência de sementes duras e, pelo fato de "Amarelinho" não apresentar essa característica, esse método pode ser utilizado para a mesma, com redução nos custos de produção de sementes sem afetar sua qualidade. Abstract in english The occurrency of hard seeds was studied in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) as a function of single fruit harvesting after plant senescence or periodical fruit harvesting in the morphological ripening stage. The cultivars "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" and "Campinas IAC 4076" were utilized, [...] considering fruits beared on the main stem and those beread on lateral branches. The percentage of hard seeds was evaluated by the standard germination test and it was observed that single fruit harvest after plant senescence increased the occurrence of hard seeds independently of the utilized harvesting method. The possibility of taking advantage of single fruit harvesting during plant senescence is suggested, which will reduce seed production costs without interfering on seed quality.

J. W., Setubal; A.C.W., Zanin; J., Nakagawa.

1994-12-01

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Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content. Okra slice sizes and drying temperatures affected all the quality parameters significantly (p?

Pendre, N K; Nema, Prabhat K; Sharma, Harsh P; Rathore, S S; Kushwah, S S

2012-06-01

24

Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)  

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This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised compl...

Adewole, M. B.; Ilesanmi, A. O.

2011-01-01

25

Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Anthocyanins, Membrane Permeability and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Marsaouia to salinity, the effect on seedling growth, water content, anthocyanins content and chlorophyll fluorescence was investigated. Okra seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and sown in peat culture under controlled conditions and submitted during 2 weeks to saline stress ranging from 0 (distilled water to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmol of NaCl. Results showed that salt has no significant effect on aerial part dry weight and it showed no changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo and Fv/Fm. By contrast, root dry weight decreased with increasing NaCl concentration with a subsequent increase in root water content and cotyledons+hypocotyls/root ratio. In addition, anthocyanins content and electrolyte leakage were highly increased by exposure to high levels of salt especially 80 and 100 mmol NaCl.

Mounir Denden

2012-01-01

26

Effects of morphactin and gamma irradiation on the growth and yield in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. ) Moench. )  

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Investigations were carried out to examine the individual and combined influence of a morphactin (chlorflurenol) (10-100 ppm) and gamma-irradiation(40-60 KR) on growth and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Cv-Pusa Sawani. Morphactin caused inhibition of vegetative growth and weakened apical dominance. Gamma-irradiation of seeds reduced the growth and stimulated the branching. The combinations of gamma radiation and morphactin were found to inhibit the growth more vigorously. Morphactin application promoted fruit-set and yield at all the used concentrations. Gamma-irradiation enhanced the fruit-set and yield at 40 and 50 KR and reduced drastically at 60 KR. Combination of gamma radiation (40 KR) with morphactin (10-50 ppm) increased the yield while other combinations reduced this factor in okra.

Paliwal, N.K.; Agarwal, S.; Singh, V.P. (Hindu Coll., Moradabad (India))

1983-06-01

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Effects of morphactin and gamma irradiation on the growth and yield in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations were carried out to examine the individual and combined influence of a morphactin (chlorflurenol) (10-100 ppm) and gamma-irradiation(40-60 KR) on growth and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Cv-Pusa Sawani. Morphactin caused inhibition of vegetative growth and weakened apical dominance. Gamma-irradiation of seeds reduced the growth and stimulated the branching. The combinations of gamma radiation and morphactin were found to inhibit the growth more vigorously. Morphactin application promoted fruit-set and yield at all the used concentrations. Gamma-irradiation enhanced the fruit-set and yield at 40 and 50 KR and reduced drastically at 60 KR. Combination of gamma radiation (40 KR) with morphactin (10-50 ppm) increased the yield while other combinations reduced this factor in okra. (author)

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Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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One hundred germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during kharif, 2008. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively, for thirteen quantitative characters, namely plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, internodal length(cm), days to 50...

Reddivenkatagari Subbarama Krishna Reddy; Hameedunnisa Begum1,; Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4; Mutyala Ganesh3; Kadiyala Hari Babu; Medagam Thirupathi Reddy1; Jampala Dilip Babu1

2013-01-01

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FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR DNA BETWEEN OKRA LANDRACES (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.  

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Full Text Available Okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench, is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical as well as Mediterranean countries. The genome size of the Abelmoschus genus species is still rare. Ploidy determinations have traditionally been done by counting chromosomes of stained root tips, but this method is laborious and often difficult with species which have small chromosomes and high ploidy levels and can lead to misclassified. Flow cytometry has been widely used in various aspects of plant research, such as the determination of the DNA nuclear content. Nuclear DNA size of fifteen okra genotype was measured using flow cytometry. The data showed variation between Turkish genotype and Jordanian genotype. Genome size of okra ranged from 3.98 pg 2C-1 in Jordanian landrace to 17.67pg 2C-1 in Turkish landrace. The 2C genome size in Mbp ranged from 3897-17321 among Abelmoschus esculentus genotypes. Further studies is recommended to accurate chromosome count to be linked with the genome size.

Naser M. Salameh

2014-01-01

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Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from [...] the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p

M. B, Adewole; A. O, Ilesanmi.

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Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice  

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Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus m...

Sathish Kumar Doreddula; Srinivasa Reddy Bonam; Durga Prasad Gaddam; Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu; Nadendla Ramarao; Vijayapandi Pandy

2014-01-01

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Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) to Lime and Phosphorus Fertilization in an Acid Soil  

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A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of lime (CaCO3) and phosphorus (P) application on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) on an acid soil. This was followed by a field trial to validate the findings from the pot study. Three rates of lime equivalent to 0, 500 and 1000 kg CaCO3 ha 1 and five rates of P equivalent to 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg P ha 1 of single super phosphate were applied in combinations as treatments. Pot study results obtained showed ...

Oluwatoyinbo, F. I.; Akande, M. O.; Adediran, J. A.

2005-01-01

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Relative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench  

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A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the relative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The experiment consisted of four treatments. Cow dung and poultry droppings were applied at the rates of 2.5 kg per 10 kg of soil one week before sowing, while NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) was applied at the rate of 6 g per 10 kg of soil three weeks after sowing. The treatments were laid in a completely randomi...

Uka Ufere N.; Chukwuka Kanayo S.; Iwuagwu Mary

2013-01-01

34

Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)were studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) andP10(IC111443) during mid kharif (July-October), 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both addit...

Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy; Mutyala Ganesh3; Kadiyala Haribabu2; Medagam Thirupathi Reddy1; Hameedunnisa Begum1,; Reddivenkatagari Subbararama Krishna Reddy1; Jampala Dilip Babu

2012-01-01

35

Genetic divergence in okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus L. Moench.)  

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Genetic divergence was studied among 25 okra germplasm lines using Mahalanobis D2 analysis. Analysis of variances for dispersion indicated significant differences among the genotypes and they were grouped into four clusters. The cluster I consisted of 22 genotypes, whereas cluster II, III and IV were solitary clusters. Highest inter cluster distance observed between clusters I and cluster IV, while cluster I shown maximum intra cluster distance. Characters days to 50 per cent flowering and pl...

Shaikh Md Soyab Akhil Mohd Ab Mazid, Mohrir M. N. And Jadhav R. S.

2013-01-01

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Studies on Heterosis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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In the present investigation, a study was undertaken at the Department of Agricultural Botany, Annamalai University during the year 2006 – 2008to identify potential parents and superior cross combinations for yield improvement in Okra. Six bhendi genotypes viz., Girija Vikas, MDU 1,Hissar Unnath, Arka Abhay and EC 305623 were crossed in full diallel fashion (including the reciprocals). The eight characters observedincluded days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of branches per ...

Sreeparvathy, P. Senthil Kumar And S.

2010-01-01

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Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated. PMID:21740943

Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn; Ruksee, Nootchanart; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Pakdeenarong, Noppakun; Kongbuntad, Watee; Govitrapong, Piyarat

2011-10-01

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Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Mahyco Hybrid N° 10) w...

Thirupathi Reddy Medagam; Haribabu Kadiyala; Ganesh Mutyala; Begum Hameedunnisa

2012-01-01

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Callus Induced Organogenesis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculents L. Moench.  

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Full Text Available A viable protocol has been developed for indirect shoot organogenesis of okra. To establish a stable and high-frequency plant regeneration system, leaf disc and hypocotyl explants were tested with different combinations of ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA,iIndole-3-butyric acid (IBA, thidiazuron (TDZ and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Morphogenic callus induction was observed in highest frequency from hypocotyl explant by culturing in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA plus 0.5 mg L-1 TDZ. The highest percentage of shoot regeneration and highest mean number of shoot per callus mass was obtained with 2.0 mg L-1 BAP plus 0.1 mg L-1 IBA. Root formation was observed from callus induced in medium containing 1.5 mg L-1 NAA. Morphogenic difference due to explant type is clear for the studied in vitro traits. About 80% of regenerated plantlets were survived and showed new leaves development under ex vitro condition. This protocol would be useful to create somaclonal variation and to utilize transgenic approach for varietal improvement of okra.

M. Anisuzzaman

2008-01-01

40

Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR, NPK (IO, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY or no soil amendment as the control (CT] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05 higher nutrient uptake [N (0.0034 mg kg-1, K (0.0160 mg kg-1, Na (0.9753 mg kg-1, Ca (0.0130 mg kg-1 and Cu (0.01136 mg kg-1] in the okra roots than in the other treatments, yet the significantly (p < 0.05 highest uptake of P (0.0012 mg kg-1 was obtained with the MY treatment. Lower values of these nutrient contents were obtained in the shoots. The control treatment gave the significantly highest values of crude fibre (27.33% and total ash (14.05%, as compared to the other treatments, whereas the other nutritional properties obtained showed no significant difference among any of the treatments. The results indicated that high-quality okra pods could be effectively produced with no soil amendment when planted in soils with a high fertility, such as those treated with sewage sludge.

M. B Adewole

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Studies on Heterosis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation, a study was undertaken at the Department of Agricultural Botany, Annamalai University during the year 2006 – 2008to identify potential parents and superior cross combinations for yield improvement in Okra. Six bhendi genotypes viz., Girija Vikas, MDU 1,Hissar Unnath, Arka Abhay and EC 305623 were crossed in full diallel fashion (including the reciprocals. The eight characters observedincluded days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, individualfruit weight, fruit yield per plant. The results revealed that the standard heterosis for fruit yield per plant was maximum in the hybrid MDU 1 xHissar Unnath, with a value of 65.23 per cent. This hybrid recorded high standard heterosis for all the characters except number of branches perplant and individual fruit weight.

P.Senthil Kumar and S. Sreeparvathy

2010-12-01

42

Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

2014-01-01

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The okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) transcriptome as a source for gene sequence information and molecular markers for diversity analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined leaf and pod transcriptome of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) has been produced by RNA sequencing and short read assembly. More than 150,000 unigenes were obtained, comprising some 46 million base pairs of sequence information. More than 55% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The okra transcriptome sequences were mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 935 non-redundant SSR motifs identified in the unigene set, 199 were chosen for testing in a germplasm set, resulting in 161 polymorphic SSR markers. From this set, 19 markers were selected for a diversity analysis on 65 okra accessions comprising three different species, revealing 58 different genotypes and resulted in clustering of the accessions according to species and geographic origin. The okra gene sequence information and the marker resource are made available to the research community for functional genomics and breeding research. PMID:23299025

Schafleitner, Roland; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Chen-Yu; Hegde, Satish Gajanana; Ebert, Andreas

2013-03-15

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Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable. PMID:25401145

Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

2014-01-01

45

Lectin of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-tumor effects of a newly-discovered lectin, isolated from okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (AEL), were investigated in human breast cancer (MCF7) and skin fibroblast (CCD-1059 sk) cells. AEL induced significant cell growth inhibition (63 %) in MCF7 cells. The expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3, caspase-9, and p21 genes was increased in MCF7 cells treated with AEL, compared to those treated with controls. In addition, AEL treatment increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in MCF7 cells. Flow cytometry also indicated that cell death (72 %) predominantly occurred through apoptosis. Thus, AEL in its native form promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells and may represent a potential therapeutic to combat human breast cancer. PMID:24129958

Monte, Leonardo G; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Reis, Larissa B; Braganhol, Elizandra; Prietsch, Rafael F; Dellagostin, Odir A; E Lacerda, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Gadelha, Carlos A A; Conceição, Fabricio R; Pinto, Luciano S

2014-03-01

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Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and Abelmoschus moschatus Medik: seeds production and analysis of the volatile compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine accessions of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and three of Abelmoschus moschatus Medik were both grown in Central Italy for the evaluation of the production of seeds. Furthermore, the volatiles emitted by the mature seeds were sampled by mean of SPME. Seventy compounds were detected in the headspace of the seeds of A. esculentus. The principal constituents common to all the nine accessions were isopentyl 2-methyl butanoate (24.5-59.1%) and heptanoic acid 2-methylbutyl ester (6.6-13.5%). In the headspace around the seeds of A. moschatus 93 components were detected. Among the main volatiles shared by the three accessions, n-tridecane (1.5-26.9%), isopentyl 2-methyl butanoate (0.2-14.3%) and decanal (1.6-5.7%) should be mentioned. Many differences were present in the volatiles emitted by the various accessions and between the two Abelmoschus species. PMID:23768323

Molfetta, Ilaria; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi

2013-11-01

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Evaluating partial root-zone irrigation and mulching in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) under a sub-humid tropical climate  

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The field experiments were conducted to compare the alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI) with and without black plastic mulch (BPM) with full root-zone irrigation (FRI) in furrow-irrigated okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) at Bhubaneswar, India. APRI means that one of the two neighbouring furrows was alternately irrigated during consecutive watering. FRI was the conventional method where every furrow was irrigated during each watering. The used irrigation levels were 25% availa...

Sanatan Pradhan; Narendra Nath Sahu; Pravukalyan Panigrahi

2011-01-01

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Characterisation of twenty-nine (29) accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of investigations were carried out to determine the genetic variability within 29 accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) through characterisation using morphological, biochemical, nutritional and molecular markers. The goal was to obtain information on key traits of okra germplasm relevant to breeders and other researchers towards improvement of the crop. Twenty six (26) indigenous (landraces) and three (3) exotic accessions of okra were collected from eight regions of Ghana and their morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated under field conditions at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research fields using the International Plant Genetic Research Institute (IPGRI) descriptor list for okra. The 29 exhibited significant variation in all but two quantitative traits studied. Block coefficients of variation were extremely low, implying that results obtained are reliable and repeatable over replications. The 29 accessions were grouped into two major clusters and subsequently into five sub-clusters based on both quantitative and qualitative characters studied. The association between pairs of quantitative yield traits in the okra landraces revealed that flowering and fruiting parameters had significant (P < 0.01) positive associations. Factor scores of 12 characters contributed substantially to total genetic variation among the 29 okra accessions studied. The pattern of clustering did not show distinct association between mod not show distinct association between morpho-agronomic characters and geographic origin of the collections. The output of the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that different characters contributed differently to total genetic variation. The means of maximum viscosity values for mucilage extracted from the fruits ranged from 53.0 - 366.8bu, with three accessions; DKA (366.8bu), Yeji-Local (329bu) and Amanfrom (316.8bu) recording very high values whilst Cape (53.0bu) had the least maximum viscosity value. There was low level of polymorphism detected among all accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The accessions, Atomic and Akrave were detected to have originated from a common ancestry. While there was high variability among Okra accessions for the amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and total antioxidant activity in the fresh fruits and the quantities were generally high making okra a good source of natural antioxidants. Ethanol extraction yielded better antioxidant activity than aqueous (water) solvent. The accession, Agric short fruit recorded the highest total flavonoid content (TFC) of 5159.21±12.90?g/g/QE while Cs-Legon had the lowest TFC of 2003.69±2.55?g/g/QE in the ethanol extract. On the other hand, Kortebortor-ASR registered the highest total phenolic content of 63.22 ±3.95?/g/GAE) while Volta had the lowest TPC of 6.82±0.09?/g/GAE in the aquous extract. Debo and Kortebortor-ASR recorded the highest (25.83±5.30?/g/GAE) and lowest (8.0±0.37?/g/GAE) Total Phenolics Content in the ethanol extract respectively. Nine essential mineral elements (sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, bromine, chlorine, copper, aluminium and manganese) were detected among all accessions using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). There was significant variation in concentrations of these elements found in fresh fruits of the accessions. There were strong positive associations between five pairs of elements contained in the fruits of the accessions of okra.(au)

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Relative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

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Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the relative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus. The experiment consisted of four treatments. Cow dung and poultry droppings were applied at the rates of 2.5 kg per 10 kg of soil one week before sowing, while NPK fertilizer (15:15:15 was applied at the rate of 6 g per 10 kg of soil three weeks after sowing. The treatments were laid in a completely randomized design with three replications. Plant growth was assessed using plant height, fresh weight, leaf area and dry weight. The application of cow dung, poultry droppings and NPK fertilizer had significant effects on all the parameters assessed. The application of poultry droppings gave plants with the greatest plant height, leaf area and fresh weight, while cow dung application gave the greatest dry weight. The data obtained from these treatments were significantly higher than the data obtained from the control. It was, therefore, concluded that the use of organic manure in the production of vegetables like okra should be encouraged.

Uka Ufere N.

2013-01-01

50

Composition analysis and immuno-modulatory effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract and investigate the effect of A. esculentus L. polysaccharides (AE-PS) on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs) in vitro. BMHC-derived immature DCs (BMHC-imDCs) were extracted from rats and treated with AE-PS. The hydrolysed okra extract contained 0.6% ?-1, 3-D-glucan. AE-PS induced the presence of polymorphic nuclei and elongated protrusion in the BHMC-imDCs, indicating DC activation. Treatment with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS increased the MHC class II and CD80/86 expression levels by 41% and 42%, respectively. Treated cells had reduced endocytosis activity. The secretion of IL-12 and IFN-? increased significantly by 120% and 75%, respectively, when treated with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS. Moreover, IL-10 production was reduced by 66%. In conclusion, AE-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat dendritic cells and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines. PMID:23442637

Sheu, Shyang-Chwen; Lai, Mei-Huei

2012-10-15

51

Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus L. Moench.)  

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Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean were studied among the 25 germplasm lines of okra Significant differences among genotypes were observed for all the characters under study. Plant height (cm), number of fruits per plant and number of seeds per fruit observed high GCV and PCV. Plant height (cm), number of seeds per fruit, and number of fruits per plant recorded high heritability coupled with high GCV and high genetic advance as per cent of mean indicates ...

Shaikh Md Soyab Akhil Mohd Ab Mazid, Mohrir M. N. And Jadhav R. S.

2013-01-01

52

Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moenchwere studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248, P2(IC27826-A, P3(IC29119-B, P4(IC31398-A, P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819, P7(IC89976, P8(IC90107, P9(IC99716 andP10(IC111443 during mid kharif (July-October, 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819 and P7(IC89976 were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716, C17(IC27826-A × IC111443, C42(IC89976 × IC111443 were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443 and (IC27826-A × IC89819 having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize additive gene action to develop high yielding lines or varieties in okra.

Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4

2012-04-01

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Response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) moench.) to different rates of nitrogen and lime on an acid soil  

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Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Calabar in the south easternrainforest zone of Nigeria to evaluate the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) tofour rates of nitrogen (0, 40, 80 and 120kg/ha) and three rates of lime (0, 5 and 10t/ha). Factorialcombinations of the treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with threereplications. Nitrogen had significant effects on plant height, number of leaves and branches/plant,number of pods/plant, fr...

Uwah D.F.; Nwagwu F.A.; Iwo G.A.

2010-01-01

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Effect of Drip Irrigation Levels and Emitters Depth on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Growth  

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Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (Climson Spineless CV.) growth, rooting, yield and water use efficiency were evaluated in a field trial, where four irrigation rates at 60 (T1), 80 (T2), 100 (T3) and 120% (T4) of the estimated evapotranspiration (ETo) and four drip irrigation emitters depth: surface 0.0 m depth (D0), sub-surface at 0.15 m depth (D1), at 0.25 m depth (D2) and at 0.35 m depth (D3) we...

Al-harbi, A. R.; Al-omran, A. M.; El-adgham, F. I.

2008-01-01

55

Effect of N Fertilization on Pod and Seed Characteristics of Okra in Relation to Plant Part  

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Full Text Available Four cultivars of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench. cv. ‘Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Pylaias’ and ‘Clemson’ were sown on 1st of May (Experiment 1 and 20th of May, 2011 (Experiment 2 and fertilized with three nitrogen levels (150, 300 and 450 mg N l-1. The pods were harvested from three plant parts (upper, middle and lower part and the seeds were extracted from the pods either immediately after harvest or after storage for 15 days at room temperature. The present study provides new information on the seed quality of four cultivars of okra in relation to N level and the region (upper, lower and middle of the plant from which harvest took place. N application generally increased flowering, but pod set increased only in ‘Boyiatiou’. Pod dimensions (length and diameter were largely unaffected by N level, irrespective of the position of the pods on the plant, as was the 100-seed weight and seed germination. The slight (insignificant increase in seed germination of ‘Boyiatiou’ in response to N is worthy of further study in view of the susceptibility of this cultivar to seed hardness. There was no benefit of pod after-ripening, but seed storage for 18 months at room temperature proved to be a positive way to improve seed quality, especially in ‘Boyiatiou’.

Mohammadi Ghadir

2014-12-01

56

Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest dose of fertilizers.

Muhammad Akbar Anjum

1999-01-01

57

Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (Pash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra. PMID:17336057

Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

2007-08-01

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Producción y tecnología de la Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) en el noreste de México / Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and technology in northeastern Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México la okra es una hortaliza no tradicional cuya producción oscila de 4 000 a 7 000 ha anuales y rendimiento medio de 10 t ha-1, se destina para el mercado de exportación hacia Estados Unidos de América. Los principales estados productores son Morelos, Michoacán, Guerrero y Tamaulipas; éste úl [...] timo cuenta con la mayor área productora de 5 000 ha. Además de ser un cultivo generador de divisas y rentable, la okra representa una fuente de empleo. La investigación sobre el cultivo de la okra se inició afínales de ladécadade los ochenta. La calidad de fruto es determinante para su comercialización; se prefiere fruto de textura suave, de verdor intenso y de forma regular. El rendimiento de okra es mayor en suelos de textura franco arcillosos. Un problema para el establecimiento es el bajo nivel de emergencia de la okra que es atribuido a las bajas temperaturas del suelo en siembras tempranas (febrero). La fertilización foliar no tiene efecto en el rendimiento de fruto. La poda resulta atractiva ya que optimiza la producción de una sola siembra, al continuar con la cosecha después del término del ciclo normal. Algunos híbridos probados en la región muestran ventajas productivas con relación a la var. testigo 'Clempson Spineless'. La enfermedad de mayor impacto es el moteado amarillo de la okra transmitida por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Esta virosis ha sido la causa del abandono del cultivo en los estados de Guerrero y Morelos. El inadecuado control de la maleza en okra tiene efectos directos en el rendimiento, dificulta la cosecha e incrementa los costos de producción. Abstract in english In Mexico, the okra is a non-traditional vegetable cultivated in 4000 to 7000 ha annually with an average yield of 10 t ha-1; most of the production is exported to the United States of America. Main okra producer states include: Morelos, Michoacan, Guerrero and Tamaulipas. In this last state okra is [...] produced in up to 5 000 ha. Okra is a rentable vegetable crop that also promotes hand labor. Research on okra started in Mexico twenty years ago. Fruit quality is a key factor for okra marketing; soft texture fruits with intense green color and of regular shape are preferred. Higher okra yield are obtained in clay loam soils. A problem for crop establishment are the low soil temperatures that causes low okra emergence in early plantings. Foliar fertilization has not being effective to increase yields. Pruning is a promising practice because its optimizes crop yields by extending the crop season. Some okra hybrids tested in the region show productive advantages in relation to the traditional cultivar 'Clemson Spineless'. The most important disease is yellow mottled virus, transmitted by whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). This virus has caused the abandonment of the okra crop in the states of Guerrero and Morelos. Ineffective weed control in okra has deleterious effects on yield, increases production cost and difficults harvest.

Arturo, Díaz Franco; Jesús, Loera Gallardo; Enrique, Rosales Robles; Manuel, Alvarado Carrillo; Sergio, Ayvar Serna.

2007-12-01

59

Effect of Drip Irrigation Levels and Emitters Depth on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Growth  

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Full Text Available Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (Climson Spineless CV. growth, rooting, yield and water use efficiency were evaluated in a field trial, where four irrigation rates at 60 (T1, 80 (T2, 100 (T3 and 120% (T4 of the estimated evapotranspiration (ETo and four drip irrigation emitters depth: surface 0.0 m depth (D0, sub-surface at 0.15 m depth (D1, at 0.25 m depth (D2 and at 0.35 m depth (D3 were imposed following a split-plot in a randomized complete block experimental design with three replications in 2005 and 2006 seasons. Vegetative growth characters (plant height, number of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weight, rooting (weight, length, width and root/shoot ratio, early and total yields were measured. Marketable Total Yield (MTY increased significantly with the increase of irrigation level in both seasons. MTY for T3 treatments were 14.32 t ha-1 in 2005 and 10.29 t ha-1 in 2006 and for D1 treatments were 10.8 t ha-1 in 2005 and 9.75 t ha-1 in 2006 season. The Crop Water Use Efficiency (CWUE ranged from 1.45-2.93 kg m-3 and 1.29-2.43 kg m-3 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. MTY increased significantly as emitter depth increases from surface to 0.35 m in both seasons. Crop Water Production Function (CWPF was done on the results. It reflects the beneficial of applied water in increasing yield. The CWPF was represented by quadratic polynomial equations.

A.R. Al-Harbi

2008-01-01

60

Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations  

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Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ...

Rokayya Sami; Jiang Lianzhou; Li Yang; Ying Ma; Jing Jing

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Decontamination of sliced and powdered okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and some aspects of nutrient quality before and after gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food security in Africa is crucial for survival of the increasing population. However, agricultural produce in the field are drastically reduced along the food pipeline (from farm gate to the consumer's table) by bioderioagents including microorganisms. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is one such farm produce of economic importance in Ghana with a great potential of providing essential nutrients and vitamins in our diet. The high moisture content of the fresh fruit makes it susceptible to microbial deterioration in a short time. Dehydration methods (sun-drying and solar drying) are practiced worldwide but in Africa, this is attended by contamination by aeromycoflora and other agents such as insect eggs and larvae. In addition are physical and chemical contaminants. In this thesis, the mycoflora and Total Aerobic Bacteria load of market samples and solar-dried okra (Clemson spineless and Legon Finger) chips and powder were ascertained with the view to documenting toxin-producing fungal species and update the resident mycoflora and bacteria load. Insects resident in the samples were detected by the hidden infestation technique; mycoflora was determined by the decimal serial dilution method on different media and Total Aerobic Bacteria population was determined on Plate Count Agar at 320C for 48hr. In order to establish storage stability of the okra, the chips and powdered samples were placed in glass desiccators with glycerol: water mixtures providing Environmeycerol: water mixtures providing Environmental Relative Humidities of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95% representative of the Ghanaian Tropic Conditions to undergo sorption at the same temperature. Gamma irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 20kGy) were used as a preservation process to decontaminate resident mycoflora and total aerobic bacteria. This was supplemented by an in vitro study in the radio-resistance of six selected resident fungi (Aspergillus; Penicllium spp). The veracity of the dry okra supporting growth of selected Aspergillus and Penicillium species was carried out in liquid cultures (okra meal broth and okra meal broth amended with glucose) using the conventional oven dry weight method at 300C for 5 days. The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in an artificially inoculated 'black' and 'white' market samples of okra powder was studied using the current Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) to quantify aflatoxins with post column derivatisation (PCD) involving bromination. Elemental composition (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Na, K, Ca, Fe) was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Flame Photometer methods. A Bench Nuclear Magnetic Resonance equipment determined percentage moisture and fat concurrently; crude protein was ascertained by the Kjeldahl method, total ash was determined by the dry ashing method using Carblolite Eurotherm CW Furnace. Vitamin C was determined by the AOAC (2000) Iodometric Titration method and pH was estimated by AOAC (2000) method, while Brabender Viscograph measured viscosity of powdered samples of okra and Brookfield Viscometer was employed for the okra chips. Colour change was determined on L*a*b* system using a Minolta CR-30 Chromameter. The chips of Clemson spineless and Legon finger as well as the 'black' and 'white' okra powder were hygroscopic and equilibrated at 20-95% ERH with 6-8 days. Samples were visibly mouldy after 6-10 days and harboured a miscellany of fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pullularia, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Rhodotorula sp). Potential toxin-producing fungi (A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. sulphureus, P. digitatum, P. citrinum, P. brevicompactum, F. verticillioides, P. expansum) variably contaminated the samples. The Cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricone was recorded for the first time in 'white' okra powder but not the remaining samples. The insect showed mycophagy, ingesting spores of the Mucorales. The okra fruit was a good medium for vegetative growth of the resident fungi. A dose of 10kGy significantly (p?0.05)

62

Nature and magnitude of genetic variability and diversity studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of yield contributing characters, and the genetic diversityin forty-four genotypes of okra collected from the IIHR, Bangalore, India. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among thegenotypes for different morphological characters. High GCV and PCV were observed for plant height, inter-nodal length, first flowering node,first fruit producing node, height of first flowering node, average fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit. On the basis of D2 analysis, the 44genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters. The cluster III was the largest with eight genotypes followed by cluster I and VIII with seven,cluster II with five, cluster XII with three while, clusters IV, V, VI, IX, X and XI included only two genotype in each. The intra-cluster distancewas maximum in cluster XII (28.14, while inter-cluster distance was maximum between cluster VI and VIII (35.57 followed by I and IX(35.31, thus being a good source for attempting hybridization. Among the 44 genotypes, IIHR-238, IIHR-241 showed maximum number offruits per plant and total yield per plant (g. The characters namely days to 50% flowering (35.62%, 100 seed weight (28.44%, number of seedsper fruit (17.23% and average fruit weight (8.14% directly contributed towards maximum divergence and, therefore, selection of divergentparents based on these characters is recommended for getting good hybrids or segregants in okra.

K. Prakash and M. Pitchaimuthu

2010-12-01

63

Interaction of Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl A. Gray in an Agroecosystem  

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Full Text Available In order to proffer an effective management of weeds in agroecosystems, a study which revolves around recognizing the crop-weed inter-relationship is needed. In the light of the above, the interaction of Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl A. Gray in an agroecosystem located in the University of Ibadan was studied. Abelmoschus esculentus and Tithonia diversifolia were planted in plastic pots in a randomized block design and watered at alternative days with 2 L of water per pot. Results showed that Abelmoschus esculentus planted alone had the greatest plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, number of leaves and biomass accumulation than Tithonia diversifolia grown alone. However, analysis of variance carried out with each of the plants revealed that Tithonia diversifolia had a significant effect (pAbelmoschus esculentus and also on its number of leaves. Abelmoschus esculentus had no significant effect on the leaf area. The inferences of these results were discussed.

K.S. Chukwuka

2014-01-01

64

Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

2013-01-01

65

Effect of Postharvest Storage Techniques on the Nutritional Properties of Benin Indigenous Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria, okra Abelmoschus esculentus are packed and stored in polypropylene bag when moved from outlying villages to the city market. The study aims at assessing other storage method for Benin indigenous okra other than polypropylene bag with respect to nutrients, antinutrients and antioxidants. In this study fresh harvested Benin okra were harvested and divided into three parts. One part was stored in 100% RH at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C, another at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C and the last part in polypropylene bag. The nutrients, antinutrients (Phytate and Saponin antioxidants (Vitamin C and Total Phenol and the Viscosity were subsequently determined. The result of the study indicates that the nutrient, antinutrient and antioxidant content reduces significantly (p>0.05 in the three storage methods: Moisture (88.73-84.62%, fibre (10.63-7.22%, protein (14.87-12.84%, fat (9.67-7.96%, phytate (3.84-1.18%, saponin (0.612-0.284%, vitamin C (46.28-14.39 mg/100g, total phenol (0.095-0.059% and the viscosity (58.16-53.42cp. The method of storage of 100%RH recorded the least percentage loss in moisture, fibre antioxidant and viscosity content of the okra while the least % loss was recorded for protein and fat in the polypropylene bag method. The highest loss of the antinutrient was recorded at the storage method of temperature of 10°C ± 2°C. On the average the storage method of 100%RH at temperature of 10°C ±2°C shows to be better method than the others.

F.O. Adetuyi

2008-01-01

66

Efeitos de métodos de colheita e da localização dos frutos na planta sobre a ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Effects of harvesting methods and fruit position in plant on hard seed occurrency in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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A ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) foi estudada em função da colheita única dos frutos na senescência das plantas ou da colheita periódica dos frutos no estádio de maturação morfológica. As cultivares utilizadas foram "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" e "Campinas-2 IAC 4076" e os frutos foram separados em aqueles provenientes da haste principal e os oriundos dos ramos laterais. A porcentagem de sementes duras foi avaliada por meio do teste p...

Setubal, J. W.; Zanin, A. C. W.; Nakagawa, J.

1994-01-01

67

Season-dependent mineral accumulation in fruits of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).  

Science.gov (United States)

Season-dependent mineral accumulation was recorded in fruits of Okra and Tomato. The highest concentration was in summer in Okra and in winter in Tomato. Lowest concentrations were in winter in Okra and rainy in Tomato. Both crop plants indicated that the mineral contents were in the order of P > K > Ca > Mg > Na > Fe which also signify their relative functional importance in growth and metabolism. PMID:12617316

Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

2002-01-01

68

Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the high polysaccharide content of okra pods, resulting in a highly viscous solution with a slimy appearance when okra is extracted with water. In this study, we present a structural characterisation of...

Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R. P.; Schols, H. A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A. G. J.

2009-01-01

69

The effects of color plastic mulches and row covers on the growth and yield of okra  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench'Clemson Spineless'] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in shorter, AL. Okra was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (3...

70

Assessment of genetic diversity in okra (abelmoschus esculentus l.) using rapd markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty nine okra genotypes were assessed for genetic variability using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Twenty polymorphic RAPD primers amplified 111 DNA fragments, with an average of 5.5 fragments per primer. Among 39 okra genotypes, 107 fragments (96%) were found to be polymorphic. The UPGMA cluster analysis placed okra genotypes into seven main clusters. Sabzpari 2001 and Acc. No. 019221 had shown maximum similarity (83%) while the minimum similarity (44.14%) was observed between the genotypes Punjab Selection and Acc. No. 019217. Thus, by using RAPD primers a considerable polymorphism appeared to exist, which showed genetic variability in the okra genotypes. (author)

71

Period of Weed Control in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] as Influenced by Varying Rates of Cattle Dung and Weeding Regimes  

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Field trials were conducted during 2005 and 2006 planting seasons to investigate the influence of cattle dung and the critical period of weed interference on growth and yield components of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench]. The study was a factorial trial laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. The main plot comprised of four levels of cattle dung and the sub plots were three regimes of weeding. The growth attributes viz; plant height, number of leaves, leaf area a...

Fayinminnu, Ojo Olajumoke; Dada, Oyeyemi Adigun

2010-01-01

72

Generation Mean Analysis of Some Economic Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In order to determine the mode of gene action involved in some okra economic traits, three different crosses as started genetic materials were used for this purpose applying generation mean analysis. Significant differences for all studied traits for six populations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 within each cross were found indicating the existence of genetic variation and possibility of selection for these traits. Insignificant negative or positive heterosis and inbreeding depression were registered in most crosses for all studied traits except in plant height. Additive-dominance model was adequate to demonstrate the genetic variation and it is important in the inheritance for weight of 100 seeds, fruit diameter, fruit length and total yield per plant traits. While, non-allelic interactions were found in the other traits for most crosses. The dominancexdominance effects were greater than additivexadditive and additivexdominance, when non-additive portion is larger than additive in most cases which recorded non-allelic interaction. Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV was higher than Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV for all traits indicating sensitivity of studied traits to the environmental conditions. GCV, PCV, heritability and expected Genetic advance GA% of mean in most crosses were found high or moderately high. As most studied traits are influenced by additive model and others showed non-allelic gene interaction, it is suggested that pedigree phenotypic selection method is a useful breeding program for improving these traits.

Soher E.A. El-Gendy

2013-01-01

73

Synergistic Effect of Fungicides on the Incidence of Seed Mycoflora of Okra  

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Full Text Available Seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench variety Arka anamika were treated with 5 fungicides including Anucop, Bavistin, Captan, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax with different doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% and the combination Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Captan, Anucop + Vitavax, Bavistin + Vitavax, Anucop + Dithane, Bavistin + Dithane, Bavistin + Captan, Captan + Vitavax, Anucop + Bavistin + Captan, Anucop + Bavistin + Dithane, Anucop + Captan + Vitavax, Bavistin + Captan + Vitavax were used to test their potency against the seed-borne fungal diseases. Among these, Anucop at a concentration of 0.3%, Bavistin @ 0.2%, Captan @ 0.3%, Dithane @ 0.3%, Vitavax @ 0.3% and their combinations, like Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Dithane, Bavistin + Dithane, Anucop + Captan + Vitavax, Bavistin + Captan + Vitavax were most effective in the improvement of crop both in greenhouse and field conditions. These chemicals at different doses and in combinations increased the total number of leaves, fruits, mean length, girth and biomass of fruits. Apart from these, the total number of seeds per fruit, seed density and weight and ascorbic acid content were also enhanced. These chemicals reduced the incidence of seed mycoflora, thereby enhancing the seed germination percentage and vigour index of the seedlings.

S. Lokesh

2008-01-01

74

Quality Attributes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Pods as Affected by Cultivar and Fruit Size  

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Okra is a vegetable widely grown in the tropics, sub-tropics and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Fruit quality plays an important role in marketability and it is mainly related to the characteristic pod length. This work was intended to classify okra fruits belonging to different genotypes (a local variety - LV - and the cultivars Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Annie Oakley II) according to their length and to compare certain quality attributes. LV fruits were considerably firm althou...

Olivera, Daniela F.; Alicia Mugridge; Chaves, Alicia R.; Mascheroni, Rodolfo H.; Vin?a, Sonia Z.

2012-01-01

75

Study of Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlation for Some Agro-Economic Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculents (L. Moench  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the genotypic and phenotypic correlation in okra (Abelmoschus esculents for eight traits, using 36 genotypes (6 parents, 15F1 and 15F2. The genotypic and phenotypic correlations values for most pairs of characters were more or less similar. Days to flowering showed negative and significant association with plant height, number of branches/plant, number of fruits/plant and total green fruit yield (ton/feddan for parents, F1 and F2 populations. Positive correlation was observed between plant height and number of branches/plant for all populations. Number of branches/plant was positively correlated with each of number of fruit/plant, fruit diameter and total fruit yield (ton/feddan for parents, F1 and F2 populations. Selection for this trait is seen as the most effective methods for improving yield. Significant and positive correlated was observed between number of fruit/plant and total green fruit yield (ton/feddan. Thus, the total green fruit yield in okra can be improved by selecting for number of fruits/plants. Fruit length showed positive with fruit weight for parents. Positive and significant correlation was observed between fruit diameter and total green fruit yield (ton/feddan for all populations. Fruit weight showed negative associations with total green fruit yield (ton/feddan for all populations. Total green fruit yield (ton/feddan positively correlated with each of fruit diameter, number of branches/plant and number of fruit/plant for all populations (parents, F1 and F2. Such results suggested that total green fruit yield (ton/feddan can be improved by increasing fruit diameter, number of branches/plant and number of fruit/plant through selection program.

A.M.A. Rashwan

2011-01-01

76

INFLUENCE OF COVER CROPS AND SOIL AMENDMENTS ON OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) PRODUCTION AND SOIL NEMATODES  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot experiment to determine the effects of summer cover crops and soil amendments on okra yield and population densities of various soil nematode taxa was conducted in two consecutive growing seasons in a subtropical region. Two cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (So...

77

Evaluating partial root-zone irrigation and mulching in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under a sub-humid tropical climate  

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Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted to compare the alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI with and without black plastic mulch (BPM with full root-zone irrigation (FRI in furrow-irrigated okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench at Bhubaneswar, India. APRI means that one of the two neighbouring furrows was alternately irrigated during consecutive watering. FRI was the conventional method where every furrow was irrigated during each watering. The used irrigation levels were 25% available soil moisture depletion (ASMD, 50% ASMD, and 75% ASMD. The plant growth and yield parameters were observed to be significantly (p < 0.05 higher with frequent irrigation (at 25% ASMD under all irrigation strategies. However, APRI + BPM produced the maximum plant growth and yield using 22% and 56% less water over APRI without BPM and FRI, respectively. The highest pod yield (10025 kg ha-1 was produced under APRI at 25% ASMD + BPM, which was statistically at par with the pod yield under APRI at 50% ASMD + BPM. Irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE, which indicates the pod yield per unit quantity of irrigation water, was estimated to be highest (12.3 kg m-3 under APRI at 50% ASMD + BPM, followed by APRI at 25% ASMD + BPM. Moreover, the treatment APRI at 50% ASMD + BPM was found economically superior to other treatments, generating more net return (US $ 952 ha-1 with higher benefit–cost ratio (1.70.

Sanatan Pradhan

2011-12-01

78

Response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. moench. to different rates of nitrogen and lime on an acid soil  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Calabar in the south easternrainforest zone of Nigeria to evaluate the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench tofour rates of nitrogen (0, 40, 80 and 120kg/ha and three rates of lime (0, 5 and 10t/ha. Factorialcombinations of the treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with threereplications. Nitrogen had significant effects on plant height, number of leaves and branches/plant,number of pods/plant, fresh pod weight and total fresh pod yield. The 80kgN/ha rate maximized all thegrowth and yield attributes. Lime application had no consistent effect on plant height and number ofbranches/plant; but significantly improved all other growth and yield attributes. Total fresh pod yield washighest at 5t/ha lime rate, and this was 91% higher than the control. Significant interactions wererecorded between nitrogen and lime on number of leaves/plant and fresh pod yields, with thecombination of nitrogen and lime at 80kg/ha and 5t/ha giving the highest values.

Uwah D.F.

2010-06-01

79

Genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra (abelmoschus esculentus L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of salt tolerant plants through selection and breeding depends on the presence of the genetic variability within the crop species in response to salt stress, which must have significant genetic component. Such information is not extensively available in vegetable crops. The present study was carried out to gain some information on the genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra. North Carolina Mating Design II (NCM II) was used for the estimation of genetic components of variation in the traits affecting salinity tolerance. The inheritance of the traits affecting salinity tolerance at the seedling stage appeared to be controlled by both additive and non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis). The narrow sense heritability estimates ranged from 40 to 65% and 7 to 70% and the estimates of broad sense heritability ranged from 65 to 99% and 20 to 99% for absolute and relative values. The additive effects were relatively more prominent and narrow sense heritability was moderate. The high additive component for absolute Na/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio at 60 and 80 mM NaCl, relative Na+ at 80 mM NaCl suggested that improvement for salinity tolerance in okra would be possible on the basis of these characteristics through selection and breeding. The genetic variation for tolerance to NaCl salinity existed among the okra genotypes, which had considerable heritable component and, therefore, genetic improvement of okra genotypes for salinic improvement of okra genotypes for salinity tolerance through recurrent selection method is possible. (author)

80

Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

2010-03-15

 
 
 
 
81

Genetic studies on fruit yield and yield attributes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)  

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Eight genotypes of okra were crossed in half diallel fashion to study the combining ability of the parents and gene action in respect of fruit yield and 12 other component characters. The magnitude of GCA variance was higher than respective SCA variance indicating predominance of additive gene action for expression of all the characters. The components of variance for both GCA and SCA were recorded to be higher for fruit yield per plant and plant height. Considering the genetic variance, it w...

P K Akotkar, D. K. And U. K. Dubey

2014-01-01

82

Combining ability through diallel analysis in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) moench)  

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Combining ability analysis was carried out for fruit yield and its components in okra in a 12 x 12 diallel cross (excludingreciprocals). Both general a combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances were highlysignificant for all the characters indicating the importance of both additive and non additive gene actions. However,preponderance of additive gene action was recorded for the traits viz., primary branches per plant, ridges/fruit and fruitdiameter, preponderance ...

Pal, Atanu K.; Sabesan, T.

2009-01-01

83

Quantitative inheritance for fruit traits in inter varietal crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)  

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Gene effects for important fruit traits of four inter-varietal crosses of okra were estimated by partitioning the means and variances of means of sixbasic generations from each cross into their genetic components to assess the gene action governing the inheritance of fruit yield and earlinessrelated traits in spring and rainy season. The additive, dominance and digenic non-allelic gene interactions were observed to govern most of thefruit traits. The non-additive gene effects were more pronou...

Deepak Arora, Salesh Kumar Jindal And T. R. Ghai

2010-01-01

84

Quality Attributes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench Pods as Affected by Cultivar and Fruit Size  

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Full Text Available Okra is a vegetable widely grown in the tropics, sub-tropics and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Fruit quality plays an important role in marketability and it is mainly related to the characteristic pod length. This work was intended to classify okra fruits belonging to different genotypes (a local variety - LV - and the cultivars Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Annie Oakley II according to their length and to compare certain quality attributes. LV fruits were considerably firm although they were smaller, thus they should be more suitable for canning or pickling. The hybrid material (Annie Oakley II yielded high quality fruits. These fruits may be destined for fresh consumption, given that they showed lower fibrousness. At the same time, they had high dry matter content, being suitable for dehydration. Okra fruits highlighted for their contribution of phenolic compounds.Total phenols levels significantly increased with fruit size in LV fruits, meanwhile no significant difference was observed for Annie Oakley II samples. Total flavonoids content showed a similar tendency although values did not differ significantly. Total flavonoids represented between 18-22% of the total phenols contents for the analyzed samples.

Daniela F. Olivera

2012-09-01

85

Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the high polysaccharide content of okra pods, resulting in a highly viscous solution with a slimy appearance when okra is extracted with water. In this study, we present a structural characterisation of all major cell wall polysaccharides originating from okra pods. The sequential extraction of okra cell wall material yielded fractions of soluble solids extractable using hot buffer (HBSS), chelating agent (CHSS), dilute alkaline (DASS) and concentrated alkaline (CASS). The HBSS fraction was shown to be rich in galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the ratio 1.3:1:1.3. The degree of acetylation is relatively high (DA=58) while the degree of methyl esterification is relatively low (DM=24). The CHSS fraction contained much higher levels of methyl esterified galacturonic acid residues (63% galacturonic acid; DM=48) in addition to minor amounts of rhamnose and galactose. The ratio of galactose to rhamnose to galacturonic acid was 1.3:1.0:1.3 and 4.5:1.0:1.2 for HBSS and CHSS, respectively. These results indicated that the HBSS and CHSS fractions contain rhamnogalacturonan type I next to homogalacturonan, while the latter is more prevailing in CHSS. Also the DASS fraction is characterised by high amounts of rhamnose, galactose, galacturonic acid and some arabinose, indicating that rhamnogalacturonan I elements with longer arabinose- and galactose-rich side chains were part of this fraction. Partial digestion of HBSS and CHSS by pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase resulted in a fraction with a lower Mw and lower viscosity in solution. These samples were subjected to NMR analysis, which indicated that, in contrast to known RG I structure, the acetyl groups in HBSS are not located on the galacturonic acid residues, while for CHSS only part of the acetyl groups are located on the RG I galacturonic acid residues. The CASS fraction consisted of XXXG-type xyloglucan and 4-methylglucuronoxylan as shown by their sugar (linkage) composition and enzymatic digestion. PMID:19061990

Sengkhamparn, Nipaporn; Verhoef, René; Schols, Henk A; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Voragen, Alphons G J

2009-09-28

86

Heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression and heritability study in okra(Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations of six crosses viz., HRB-55 x AOL-05-4, VRO-5 x Red Long, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3, GO-2 x AOL-04-3, Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 were used to study heterobeltiosis,inbreeding depression and heritability for days to first flowering, days to first picking, plant height, primary branches perplant, stem girth, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant in okra (A. esculentus (L.)Moench). HRB-55 x A...

Kathiria, Khanorkar S. M. And K. B.

2010-01-01

87

Multivariate analysis and the choice of parents for hybridization in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty okra genotypes of diverse eco-geographical origin were grown in single-row plots in a randomised complete block design. The data collected on 14 characters were subjected to analysis of variance. By multivariate analysis (Mahalanobis D(2) technique), the genetic divergence among the genotypes were quantitatively measured. The genotypes were grouped into five clusters by this technique. There was no relationship between clustering pattern and eco-geographic distribution. The effects of genetic divergence on the choice of parental stock in hybridization was discussed. PMID:24241673

Ariyo, O J

1987-07-01

88

Irrigational impact of distillery effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Okra with special reference to heavy metals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed under natural environment to assess levels of different heavy metals in soil and Abelmoschus esculentus plants along with soil microbial population irrigated with five rates of distillery effluent (DE) viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % concentration in comparison with control (Bore well water). Results revealed that among various concentrations of DE, irrigation with 100 % DE significantly (P Cr > Cd > Zn > Cu, and for A. esculentus plants, it was in the order Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Zn after irrigation with distillery effluent. The enrichment factor value was found maximum for Ni in comparison to other metals at 100 % DE concentration as compared with BWW. However, the values of these metals were below the recommended permissible limit. PMID:24638936

Srivastava, Sachin; Chopra, A K

2014-07-01

89

Quantitative inheritance for fruit traits in inter varietal crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available Gene effects for important fruit traits of four inter-varietal crosses of okra were estimated by partitioning the means and variances of means of sixbasic generations from each cross into their genetic components to assess the gene action governing the inheritance of fruit yield and earlinessrelated traits in spring and rainy season. The additive, dominance and digenic non-allelic gene interactions were observed to govern most of thefruit traits. The non-additive gene effects were more pronounced than additive ones for most of the traits in both the environments. The evidenceof duplicate type of epistasis has been obtained for all the characters in different crosses in both the seasons. Thus for developing high yieldingokra cultivars, recurrent selection in biparental progenies would help in exploiting the duplicate type of non-allelic interactions and allowrecombination and concentration of genes having cumulative effects in population.

Deepak Arora, Salesh Kumar Jindal and T. R. Ghai

2010-12-01

90

Rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and yellow vein mosaic virus infected okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations on the rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and virus (YVMV) infected okra plants showed a higher fungal population in the rhizosphere of healthy plants at preflowering and post-flowering stages than in that of diseased ones. Maximum population was observed during flowering both in healthy and diseased plant rhizosphere as well as in non-rhizosphere soil. However, virus infected plants showed a higher population at the flowering stage than healthy ones. The quantitative differences in the rhizosphere of healthy and diseased plants during flowering seem to be due to a change in C/N ratio and amino acids. The drastic reduction in diseased plant rhizospheres during the post-flowering stage may be due to either change in C/N ratio unfavourable to mycoflora or production of some toxic substances inhibiting multiplication of the mycoflora. PMID:94749

Singh, S J; Tewari, R P

1979-01-01

91

Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus. PMID:24511684

Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

2013-11-15

92

Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seed and Oil  

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Full Text Available Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1 (Blye and Dyer.The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet to 21.98%(Blye & Dyer. The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters,unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differential scanning calorimetry w eredetermined. Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds have ash content of 5.68% (with the presence of followingminerals: Ca, M g, K and N a. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especiallyoleic (up to 24.89% and linoleic (up to 42.78%. Abelmoschus esculentus L. oil can be classified in theoleic-linoleic acid group. The dominant saturated acid w as palmitic (up to 25.79%. Abelmoschus esculentusL. seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (24.85%. The content of insaponifiables is1.53%. Taking into account these results, the gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. finds its applications in thefood and cosmetic industry.

J.M. Nzikou

2010-01-01

93

Period of Weed Control in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] as Influenced by Varying Rates of Cattle Dung and Weeding Regimes  

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Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2005 and 2006 planting seasons to investigate the influence of cattle dung and the critical period of weed interference on growth and yield components of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench]. The study was a factorial trial laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. The main plot comprised of four levels of cattle dung and the sub plots were three regimes of weeding. The growth attributes viz; plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter production differed significantly due to different treatments. These attributes increased significantly owing to application of cattle dung which leads to continuous availability of nutrients to the plants as well as appropriate timing of weeding which reduced the influence of weed interference on the okra. Yield and yield components were influenced significantly by application of cattle dung and weeding regimes. Highest fresh fruit yield (102.93 t ha-1 was observed in plots that received 8 t ha-1cattle dung and weeded at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing. Application of 8 t ha-1 of cattle dung as well as weeding at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing significantly enhanced okra growth and fruit yield. However, plots with sub-optimal cattle dung rate and infested with weeds till harvest produced least dry matter and fresh fruit yield.

Ojo Olajumoke FAYINMINNU

2010-06-01

94

Combining ability through diallel analysis in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combining ability analysis was carried out for fruit yield and its components in okra in a 12 x 12 diallel cross (excludingreciprocals. Both general a combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA variances were highlysignificant for all the characters indicating the importance of both additive and non additive gene actions. However,preponderance of additive gene action was recorded for the traits viz., primary branches per plant, ridges/fruit and fruitdiameter, preponderance of non additive gene action was recorded for plant height, nodes on main stem, days to firstflowering, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. The parents Sat-dhari, Ratna - 78,VRO 5 and Varsha Uphar were found to be the best general combiners and close correspondence between per seperformance of parents and their gca effects were observed. The cross combinations viz., Sat-dhari x Ratna–78, VRO 5 xSagun, Ratna-78 x Punjab 8, Ankur–40 x Pankaj Dwarf, Sat-dhari x Varsha Uphar, Arka Anamika x Punjab-5 showedsignificant sca effects in desirable direction for fruit yield per plant and associated characters and were expected to producetransgressive segregants. Exploitation of hybrid vigour from these crosses through heterosis breeding method is advocated

Atanu K Pal

2009-12-01

95

Assessment of genetic relatedness among okra genotypes [abelmoschus esculentus (l. Moench] using rapd markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA based RAPD (Randomly Amplification of Polymorphic DNA markers have been used extensively to study geneticrelationships in number of crop plants. In this study, 44 okra genotypes collected from different parts of India, were selected toassess genetic distinctiveness and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 14arbitrary 10 mer primers. The molecular analysis showed that all the fourteen primers used revealed clear distinction between thegenotypes and they generated a total of 104 RAPD bands most of which were polymorphic across accessions (74.03%. Thenumber of bands resolved per amplification was primer dependent and varied from 4 (OPV-07, OPV-08 to 11 (OPD-05 withaverage number of bands per primer was 7.41. RAPD data were used to calculate a Squared Euclidean Distance matrix, andbased on this, cluster analysis was done using minimum variance algorithm. Cluster analysis showed two major groups. Eachsub-group was characterized using morphological and genetic characteristics of the respective genotypes.

K. Prakash, M. Pitchaimuthu and K.V. Ravishankar

2011-03-01

96

Gene action and combining ability of yield and its components for late kharif season in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Knowledge on the genetic system controlling the quantitative traits is important for devising an efficient selection program through the use of a suitable mating design. Forty five Fis were generated by crossing 10 germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) namely P1(IC282248), P2( [...] IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443) during summer 2009. Forty five F1s along with their 10 parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates during late kharif (August-November) 2009 at Vegetable Research Station, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, for studying gene action and combining ability of yield and its components. Significant general combining ability and specific combining ability variances were obtained in majority of the traits except fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots; implying that both the additive and non-additive gene effects operated in the genetic expression of the traits. The relative magnitude of general and specific combining ability variances indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for majority of the characters studied except number of branches per plant and fruit width. Combining ability analysis of parents revealed that the parental lines P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819) and P7(IC89976) were superior general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and other traits. The crosses C23(IC29119-B x IC99716), Cn(IC27826-A x IC111443), C42(IC89976 x IC111443) and C43(IC90107 x IC111443) were superior specific combiners for total as well as marketable yield per plant with the potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The crosses C17 (IC27826-A x IC111443) and C42(IC89976 x IC111443) involving one or both of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects for marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding.

Medagam, Thirupathi Reddy; Kadiyala, Hari Babu; Mutyala, Ganesh; Hameedunnisa, Begum; Jampala, Dilipbabu; Reddivenkatagari Subbarama, Krishna Reddy.

2013-03-01

97

Heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression and heritability study in okra(Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations of six crosses viz., HRB-55 x AOL-05-4, VRO-5 x Red Long, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3, GO-2 x AOL-04-3, Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 were used to study heterobeltiosis,inbreeding depression and heritability for days to first flowering, days to first picking, plant height, primary branches perplant, stem girth, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant in okra (A. esculentus (L.Moench. HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 showed heterobeltiosis in desirable direction for almost all the fruit yield and itscontributing characters particularly, 94.06 per cent for fruit yield per plant and 86.12 per cent fruits per plant. Moderate tohigh narrow sense heritability was observed for primary branches per plant in the crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E1,VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 (E2; fruit girth in the crosses VRO-5 x Red Long (E1, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1 and Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 (E1; fruit weight in the crosses HRB-55 xAOL-05-4 (E2, VRO-5 x Red Long (E1 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E2. The highest heritability identified 99.35 per centfor fruit length in the cross HRB-55 x AOL-05-4. The results of heterosbeltiosis revealed that the cross HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 may be exploited for fruit yield and its component traits. The positive and significant inbreeding depressionobserved for days to first flowering in cross, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1 and E2 and for days to first picking in the crossesHRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E2, VRO-5 x Red Long (E2, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E2 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 (E2. Thisindicates to obtain desirable segregants for earliness in subsequent segregating generations. The negative and significantinbreeding depression which is desirable for okra crop improvement also observed for different traits across theenvironments viz., twelve cases each in the crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 and VRO-5 x Red Long; four cases in crossVRO-6 x AOL-05-3; eight cases in cross GO-2 x AOL-04-3; seven cases in cross Arka Anamika x AOL-03-6 and sixcases in cross Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6. These findings would be useful for the improvement of fruit yield and itsquality traits while handling the segregating generation for the development of improved varieties.

Khanorkar S.M and K. B. Kathiria

2010-07-01

98

Pre-germinative treatments in okra seeds in different stadiums of fruit maturation
Tratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de quiabo em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the pre-soak and of the thermotherapy in the germination and in the energy of the okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus) in different stadiums of maturation of the fruit. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5 x 9, five maturation stadiums (green, semi-hard, hard, dry and dehiscent) and nine treatments pre-germination: pre-soak for immersion of the seeds in water to the temperature of...

Célia Maria Peixoto de Macedo; José Carlos Lopes; Camila Aparecida da Silva Martins

2011-01-01

99

Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective ...

Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

2012-01-01

100

Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na(+) and K(+)) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars. PMID:22761245

Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny*  

Science.gov (United States)

The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars. PMID:22761245

Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

2012-01-01

102

Phosphorus-use Efficiency by Pepper (Capsicum frutescens and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentum at Different Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Levels on Two Tropical Soils  

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Full Text Available Crop growth is continuously threatened by Phosphorus (P limitation on most tropical and temperate soils. Besides P fertilizer management, soil type could significantly determine the efficiency of P use by specific crop species. In this study, the influence of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg P2O5 kg-1 soil on the growth, P nutrition and production of two fruit vegetables (hot pepper, Capsicum frutescens and okra, Abelmoschus esculentum were evaluated. The goal was to ascertain and compare P use efficiency by the crops on typical tropical soils (a medium acid, Oxic Paleustalf and a slightly acid, Typic Paleudalf. Growth in height, number of leaves and leaf area as well as biomass production, fruit yield, P content and uptake were determined. Increasing rates of P supply had insignificant (p<0.05 effect on the growth of the crops on both soil types within the first four Weeks After Planting (WAP. Phosphorus at 50 mg P2O5 kg-1 application level, however, produced the tallest pepper plants (27.0 cm on the Oxic Paleustalf after five weeks while it was the 150 mg P2O5 kg-1 level that produced the tallest plants (40.0 cm at the 6th week on the Typic Paleudalf. Soil available P values obtained after cropping increased significantly with increasing rates of added P. Okra plants were more efficient in their use of P than the pepper plants on the two soil types. It was evident that okra could be produced more successfully on soils with relatively low native or added P compared with pepper.

Ezekiel A. Akinrinde

2005-01-01

103

Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seed and Oil  

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Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet) and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1) (Blye and Dyer).The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet) to 21....

Nzikou, J. M.

2010-01-01

104

Effect of Storage Conditons on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Fresh Okra (Abelmoschus esculenta Fruits  

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Full Text Available The effects of storage conditions on some physico-chemical and microbiological qualities of fresh okra were determined and compared. Fresh okra fruits were stored in open plates and sealed polyethylene bags in the refrigerator (F1, F2, on the shelf in the laboratory (S1, S2 and in the open sun (O1, O2 respectively for a period of nine (9 days. The moisture content, viscosity, microbiological composition and sensory properties of the stored fruits were determined on a daily basis during the period of storage. The moisture content and viscosity decreased during storage from 92.00% and 700 cP in fresh okra to 35.50% and 100 cP in okra stored in open plates in the sun (O2, respectively. On the other hand, bacterial count increased from 2.27x104 CFU/mL in fresh okra to 2.72x105 CFU/mL in okra stored in polyethylene bag in the sun (O2, while okra stored in open plates on the shelf (S1 had the highest mould count of 9.0x104 CFU/mL. Okra stored in polyethylene bag in the refrigerator (F2 had the highest moisture content of 84.50%, viscosity of 440 cP and the lowest bacterial and mould counts of 1.15x104 and 4.0x103 CFU/mL, respectively. Mean sensory scores in respect of colour, smell, texture and general acceptability showed that samples stored in the refrigerator scored higher in all attributes and had higher acceptability at the end of the storage period, which compared favourably with fresh okra fruits.

D.I. Gernah

2012-07-01

105

Avaliação da sensibilidade de plantas jovens de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) ao ozônio / Assessment of the sensitivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) to ozone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A sensibilidade de Abelmoschus esculentus ao ozônio (O3) foi determinada em plantas expostas por quatro dias, seis horas/dia, ao ar filtrado (AF) e ao AF enriquecido com 80 ppb de O3 (AF+O3), em câmaras de fumigação, analisando-se sintomas foliares visíveis e alterações nas trocas gasosas e em antio [...] xidantes. Avaliaram-se os sintomas foliares diariamente e as trocas gasosas e antioxidantes (ácido ascórbico e superóxido dismutase) ao fim do experimento. Todas as plantas em AF+O3 apresentaram sintomas foliares, caracterizados por pontuações avermelhadas na superfície adaxial, entre as nervuras. Em média, o índice de injúria foliar foi de 15% e a severidade de 62%. Fotossíntese líquida, condutância estomática, transpiração, concentração de ácido ascórbico e atividade da superóxido dismutase foram reduzidas significativamente nestas plantas, em comparação com as mantidas sob ar filtrado. Os resultados sugerem que Abelmoschus esculentus é sensível ao O3, apresentando baixos níveis de defesas antioxidativas e distúrbios fisiológicos. Abstract in english The sensitivity of Abelmoschus esculentus to ozone (O3) was assessed in plants exposed during four days, six hours/day, to filtered air (AF) and to AF plus 80 ppb of O3 (AF+O3) into fumigation chambers, by determining visible leaf symptoms and changes on gas exchange and on antioxidants. Visible sym [...] ptoms were daily evaluated. Gas exchange and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase) were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All plants from AF+O3 treatment showed leaf injury, characterized by interveinal reddish punctuations on the adaxial surfaces. In average, 15% of leaf injury index and 62% of severity were estimated. Net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, ascorbic acid level and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly reduced in those plants, compared to measurements performed in plants exposed to AF only. The results suggest that Abelmoschus esculentus is sensitive to ozone, showing low levels of antixidative defenses and physiological distubances.

Patricia, Bulbovas; Silvia Maria Romano, Sant' Anna; Regina Maria de, Moraes; Elisabeth de Souza, Lima; Juliana Moreno, Pina; Marisia Pannia, Esposito; Maurício Lamano, Ferreira; Adriano Afonso, Spielmann; Ciliane Matilde, Sollito; Cynthia Hering, Rinnert; Denílson Fernandes, Peralta; Juliana da Silva, Cardoso; Lílian, Carminitti; Luciana da Silva, Canêz; Marcelo M. dos Santos, Reis; Michel Navarro, Benatti; Silvia Ribeiro de, Souza; Marisa, Domingos.

106

Efecto del raleo sobre el rendimiento de dos variedades de okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), en el Valle de Lerma, Salta, Argentina  

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The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of thethinning on fruit yield components in two okra (Abelmoschusesculentus (L) Moench) varieties. On October 20, 2008, followinga completely random design with factorial arrangement(varieties and thin) a total of 40 seeds (two per hill) of everyvariety were sown in the experimental unit. Thirty-eight dayslater they were thined, leaving a plant per hill, in each plot. Thefruits were harvested immature from December, 2008 untilMarch, 2009. ...

Astorga, R.; Palavecino, I.; Ta?lamo, A.; Lozano, L.

2011-01-01

107

Effect of Spacing and NPK Fertilizer on the Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons with the aim of assessing the effect of spacing and NPK fertilizer on the yield and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. Treatments consisted of four spacing (60x30 cm, 90x30 cm, 60x60 cm and 75x45 cm and four NPK rates (0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 in a split plot design with plant spacing allocated to main plots and fertilizer in sub plots. The treatments were replicated three times to give a total of forty eight sub plots. Parameter such as number of fruits per plant, length of fruit, fresh weight of fruits per hectare and dry weight of fruits per hectare were measured. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA as described by Gomez and Gomez and treatment means were separated using Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that yield and yield components such as number of fruits per plant and length of fruit were not significantly affected by spacing in 2007. However, significant difference was obtained at 52 DAS in 2008. Number of fruits per plant and length of fruits were significantly affected by fertilizer levels. In 2008, there was significant interaction in respect to fresh weight of fruits per hectare. Also, there was significant interaction between spacing and fertilizer in respect to dry weight of fruits per hectare in 2007 and 2008. The results indicated that spacing of 90x30 cm and application of 150 kg ha-1 (22.5 kgN, 22.5 kg P2O5 and 22.5 kg K2O5 of NPK gave the highest yield of okra in Mubi.

K.N. Futuless

2010-01-01

108

Evaluation of Different Cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan  

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Full Text Available Five different cultivars of okra viz. (penta green, pusa sawani, local cultivar, pusa green and clemson were evaluated for their performance under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan. Minimum number of days to flowering (36.33, maximum pods per plant (43.42, highest pods weight per plant (446.23 gm and in return the maximum yield of the pods (17.85 t ha -1 were obtained from the pusa green cultivar. Different parameters like days taken to germination, pod size and number of pods per plant remained non-significant for different okra cultivars.

Farooq Ali Khan

2002-01-01

109

Essential Mineral Elements Profile of 22 Accessions of Okra (Abelmoschus spp (L. From Eight Regions of Ghana  

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Full Text Available Five (5 essential macro, three (3 micro and two (2 trace mineral elements were determined in fresh fruits of twenty-two (22 accessions of okra using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA. These were correlated to assess the level of associations existing between these elements. Concentrations of these elements were juxtaposed with their recommended daily dietary intake (RDI in the individual accessions of okra and their variability with other traits examined for future improvement works towards breeding for high or low micro nutrient containing variety (ies.

J. K. Ahiakpa

2014-04-01

110

Effect of different levels of nitrogen alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cv. T-13 under the agro-climatic conditions of Mingora, Swat  

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Investigation were undertaken to study the effect of different level of nitrogen (0,100,120,140 kg ha-1) alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorous (90 kg ha-1) on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cv.T-13 at Agriculture Research Station (North) Mingora, Swat during 1997. Maximum plant height (185 cm), number of pods per plant (24.59) pod length (12.63 cm), and the highest yield per hectare (16950.79 kg) was recorded on the plot...

Humayun Khan; Mazullah Khan; Asmatulla; Khalid Rasul; Abdul Majeed; Fayaz Ahmad Safi

2000-01-01

111

Influence of Wastewater Application and Fertilizer use on Growth, Photosynthesis, Nutrient Homeostatis, Yield and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl¯, Ca++, Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater (GW. The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120 proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for the cultivation of okra.

Neelima Akhtar

2014-01-01

112

Effect of chemical paclobutrazol on growth, yield and quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har lium cultivar in northeast Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand in the late rainy season of the 2003 to 2004 with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The experiment aims to search for more information on the effect of different rates of chemical Paclobutrazol (PBZ) application on growth, yield and quality of edible okra pods. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCDB) with four replications was used for the experiment. The experiments consisted of five treatments, i.e., 0 (T1), 4000 (T2), 8000 (T3), 12,000 (T4) and 16,000 ppm ha(-1) (T5) of chemical PBZ. The results showed that an increase in PBZ application rate highly decreased plant height, harvesting age and significantly decreased leaf area of the fifth leaf but highly increased pod length, fresh weight/pod and fresh pod yield ha(-1) of the okra plants. PBZ had no significant effect on stem diameter and diameter of pods of the okra plants. Total soluble solid, fibre content, titratable acid, vitamin C and pectin contents in pods were not affected by chemical PBZ application. Pod yield highly increased with an increase in rate of PBZ application. The highest edible pod yield reached a value of 4501 kg ha(-1) for the highest rate of PBZ application (T5). PMID:19069514

Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Chanaboon, T

2007-02-01

113

Diferenciação de lotes de sementes de quiabo pelo teste de envelhecimento acelerado / Differentiation of seeds lots of okra by accelerated aging test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os testes de germinação e de vigor são componentes essenciais do processo de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes, e o teste de envelhecimento acelerado é um dos mais utilizados para avaliação do vigor de sementes. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar a metodolog [...] ia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, visando à identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Para isso, quatro lotes de sementes da cultivar 'Colhe Bem' e cinco lotes da cultivar 'Santa Cruz 47' foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: germinação, emergência de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e em solução saturada com NaCl (38 e 41ºC durante 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas) e grau de umidade no início dos testes e após a incubação para o teste de envelhecimento acelerado. Os testes de envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e em solução saturada com cloreto de sódio, a 41ºC durante 96 horas, constituem em opções promissoras para detectar diferenças de vigor entre lotes de sementes de quiabo. Abstract in english The vigor and germination tests are essential components of seed quality control for the seed industry. Accelerated aging is one for the most useful tests used for the evaluation of seed vigor. In this sense, this paper aimed to study the methodology of the accelerated aging test, in order to identi [...] fy different levels of vigor seed lots of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Four seed lots of the 'Colhe Bem' cultivar and five seed lots of the 'Santa Cruz 47' were submitted to the following assessments: germination, seedling emergence, accelerated aging by traditional procedures and saturated NaCl (38 and 41°C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) and moisture content at the beginning of the tests and, after incubation to accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test at 41°C/96 hours (traditional procedure and saturated NaCl) consisted efficient to detect vigor differences among seed lots of okra.

Salvador Barros, Torres; Francisca Gleiciane da, Silva; Maryjane Diniz de Araújo, Gomes; Clarisse Pereira, Benedito; Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra, Pereira; Edvan Costa da, Silva.

2103-21-01

114

Development of Seed Treatments Bio fertilizer and Nutrient Uptake Study Using Tracer Technique for Okra Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of bio fertilizer seed treatments for okra seeds were carried out by mixing phosphate solubilising bacteria (AP 3) and plant growth promoter (AP 2) with adhesives. The seeds were coated with inoculum and four types of adhesives namely, Gum Arabic; Polyethylene Glycol (PEG); Sodium Alginate and Methylcellulose respectively. From eight seed treatments, all seed treatments significantly increased seed germinations except treatment T4 (Gum Arabic and AP3). In general, maximum germination rates and log of viable cells were observed when treated with polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) mixed with AP2 (T7) and AP3 (T8). These results show that using PEG as adhesive enhanced the germination rates and log of viable cells of AP2 and AP3. Thus, PEG could be a good adhesive for seed treatment. In greenhouse experiment, okra seeds treatment with AP2 and PEG (T1) showed the highest dry weight compared to other treatments. Seeds treatment with AP3 and PEG (T2) showed higher contribution of N compare to seeds treatment (T1). There were no significant different within seed treatments and urea treatment in okra yield. All treatments significantly increased yields compared with control. (author)

115

Effect of Monocrotophos and Methamidophos on Jassid, Amrasca devastans
(Distant in Different Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cultivars
 

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Full Text Available Two commonly used insecticides, Methamidophos 60SL @ 1000ml/ha and Monocrotophos 40WSC @ 1500 ml/ha were evaluated on Amrasca devastans L. during 1999 on Pusa Swani, Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma okra varieties. Both insecticides provided effective control of Jassid and kept the population below economic threshold level up to ten days after insecticidal application. However, Methamidophos 60SL proved better on Pusa Swani as compared to Monocrotophos 40WSC, which decreased jassid population on Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma, respectively.

Munir Ahmad

2001-01-01

116

Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Brazil Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil  

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A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157) out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and introduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotide sequences exhibited...

Silvia de Araujo Aranha; Leonardo Cunha de Albuquerque; Leonardo Silva Boiteux; Alice Kazuko Inoue-Nagata

2011-01-01

117

Effects of green manures on growth, yield and quality of green okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar.  

Science.gov (United States)

This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., T1 (Control), T2 (Jack bean), T3 (Cowpea), T4 (Green gram) and T5 (Giant sensitive plant). The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults) contained some considerable mean values of organic matter (1.64-1.66%) but soil available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were relatively low, particularly potassium. Green manures of the four legume plants slightly improved soil property of the Roi-Et soil series (tested at the end of the experimental period). The most effective green manure on stem diameter, bushy diameter, leaf numbers plant(-1) and leaf area of the fifth leaf of the okra plants, in most cases, was found with Jack bean and Cowpea ranked the second. However, in most cases, Cowpea gave a similar effect as that of Green gram and Giant sensitive plant. Pod length and weight pod(-1), pod diameter and edible fresh pod yields (5941.86 kg ha(-1)) were highest with Jack bean green manure treatment (T2), whilst the rest, in most cases, were similar. Green manure treatments gave highly significant effect on total soluble solids of pods over the control treatment, whilst total acidity, fibre and pectin contents were unaffected by green manure treatments. Green manure of Jack bean was the best legume crop for green manure to be used in improving soil fertility, particularly for Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). PMID:19070046

Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

2007-04-01

118

Effect of gamma rays on fruit weight and number of seeds in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and Momordica charantia L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among 5,15,30,60,90 and 120 kR doses of gamma rays, lower doses showed stimulatory effects on fresh and dry weight of fruit, while higher doses proved inhibitory in Abelmoschus esculentus and Momordica charantia. Abortion of mature seeds was also higher at 30 kR and above doses. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

119

Effect of different levels of nitrogen alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cv. T-13 under the agro-climatic conditions of Mingora, Swat  

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Full Text Available Investigation were undertaken to study the effect of different level of nitrogen (0,100,120,140 kg ha-1 alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorous (90 kg ha-1 on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cv.T-13 at Agriculture Research Station (North Mingora, Swat during 1997. Maximum plant height (185 cm, number of pods per plant (24.59 pod length (12.63 cm, and the highest yield per hectare (16950.79 kg was recorded on the plots fertilized with 120:90:60 kg ha-1. No significance differences were observed in days to emergence, flowering, and first picking respectively.

Humayun Khan

2000-01-01

120

Qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro em função da idade e do repouso pós-colheita dos frutos Okra seed quality as a function of age and fruit post harvest rest  

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Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCA-UNESP, em Botucatu (SP, objetivando-se estudar o efeito da idade do fruto e o período de repouso pós-colheita sobre a qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.. No dia da antese, as flores foram etiquetadas e os frutos foram colhidos com 34, 41, 48 e 55 dias após a antese (DAA. Para cada idade, em metade dos frutos as sementes foram extraídas imediatamente e a outra metade ficou em repouso por quatorze dias, antes da extração das sementes. Para verificar a qualidade das sementes os seguintes testes foram realizados: teor de água no dia da extração das sementes, massa de 100 sementes, teste de germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e condutividade elétrica. Pode-se concluir que o armazenamento para qualquer idade do fruto melhora o vigor das sementes. Para germinação final, o armazenamento é favorável quando os frutos são colhidos ainda novos (34 e 41 DAA.The work was carried out at FCA-UNESP, in Botucatu (SP, with the aim of studying the effect of fruit age and post harvest rest on quality of okra seeds cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.. At the day of the anthesis, the flowers were labeled and fruits were picked with 34,41,48 and 55 days after the anthesis (DAA. For each age, in half of the fruits the seeds were immediately extracted and the another half was stored for fourteen days before seed extraction. To verify the quality of seeds the following tests were accomplished: seed water content at extraction, weight of 100 seeds, germination test, first counted of germinated seeds and eletrical conductivity. It may be concluded that the fruit storage for any fruit age increases seed vigour, and for final germination, the rest is favorable when fruits are picked still new (34 and 41 DAA.

Márcia Maria Castro

2008-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro em função da idade e do repouso pós-colheita dos frutos / Okra seed quality as a function of age and fruit post harvest rest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho foi conduzido na FCA-UNESP, em Botucatu (SP), objetivando-se estudar o efeito da idade do fruto e o período de repouso pós-colheita sobre a qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.). No dia da antese, as flores foram etiquetadas e os frutos fora [...] m colhidos com 34, 41, 48 e 55 dias após a antese (DAA). Para cada idade, em metade dos frutos as sementes foram extraídas imediatamente e a outra metade ficou em repouso por quatorze dias, antes da extração das sementes. Para verificar a qualidade das sementes os seguintes testes foram realizados: teor de água no dia da extração das sementes, massa de 100 sementes, teste de germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e condutividade elétrica. Pode-se concluir que o armazenamento para qualquer idade do fruto melhora o vigor das sementes. Para germinação final, o armazenamento é favorável quando os frutos são colhidos ainda novos (34 e 41 DAA). Abstract in english The work was carried out at FCA-UNESP, in Botucatu (SP), with the aim of studying the effect of fruit age and post harvest rest on quality of okra seeds cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.). At the day of the anthesis, the flowers were labeled and fruits were picked with 34,41,48 and 5 [...] 5 days after the anthesis (DAA). For each age, in half of the fruits the seeds were immediately extracted and the another half was stored for fourteen days before seed extraction. To verify the quality of seeds the following tests were accomplished: seed water content at extraction, weight of 100 seeds, germination test, first counted of germinated seeds and eletrical conductivity. It may be concluded that the fruit storage for any fruit age increases seed vigour, and for final germination, the rest is favorable when fruits are picked still new (34 and 41 DAA).

Márcia Maria, Castro; Amanda Regina, Godoy; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

1491-14-01

122

Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Harvesting Time on the Seed Quality of Four Okra Cultivars  

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Full Text Available In an experiment at the University of Thessaly during the summer season of 2011, the effect of foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3 to okra at an early stage of plant growth (3-4 leaves on plant growth, pod and seed characteristics was studied in relation to harvest time. GA3 was applied at concentrations of 0 (Control, 50, and 100 mg L-1 to four okra cultivars (‘Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylaias’ and pods were harvested 30, 35, 40 and 50 days after anthesis (DAA from the lower part of the plant. From the results it was found that GA3 application increased plant height irrespective of cultivar and GA3 concentration (50 and 100 mg L-1, but without increasing flower induction or pod set. Similarly, GA3 had no effect on pod dimensions (which were determined by genotype or mean 100 seed weight, except in Boyiatiou. Similarly, GA3 application did not consistently affect seed moisture content, but it did however, increase the number of seeds per pod. Germination was either promoted (‘Veloudo’, inhibited (‘Boyiatiou’ or not affected (‘Pylaias’, ‘Clemson’ by GA3. Differences in germination were apparently related to the incidence of hard seeds. Storage of seeds for 18 months improved germination. Overall, pod and seed characteristics were affected more by genotype and harvest time than by GA3 application.

Ghadir Mohammadi

2014-06-01

123

Pre-germinative treatments in okra seeds in different stadiums of fruit maturationTratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de quiabo em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the pre-soak and of the thermotherapy in the germination and in the energy of the okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus in different stadiums of maturation of the fruit. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5 x 9, five maturation stadiums (green, semi-hard, hard, dry and dehiscent and nine treatments pre-germination: pre-soak for immersion of the seeds in water to the temperature of 30ºC for 6, 12 and 24 hours; immersion of the seeds in water to 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC for 3 minutes; thermotherapy for immersion of the seeds in water to the ebullition temperature (97ºC until cooling and intact seeds (control. The seeds were sowed in paper-towel rolls and they were maintained in camera type BOD regulated to 20-30ºC and photoperiod of 8-16 hours. The okra seeds originating from dry and dehiscent fruits presented larger germination performance. The pre-germination treatments more effective to accelerate the germination of seeds obtained from dry and dehiscent fruits are the pre-soak for 6 hours and thermotherapy at 60 °C for 3 minutes, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da pré-embebição e da termoterapia na germinação e no vigor das sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 5 x 9, cinco estádios de maturação (verde, semi-duro, duro, seco e deiscente e nove tratamentos pré-germinativos: pré-embebição por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de 30ºC por 6, 12 e 24 horas; imersão das sementes em água a 40, 50, 60 e 70ºC por 3 minutos; termoterapia por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de ebulição (97ºC até esfriar e sementes intactas (testemunha. As sementes foram semeadas em rolos de papel-toalha que foram mantidos em câmara tipo BOD regulada a 20-30ºC e fotoperíodo de 8-16 horas. As sementes de quiabo oriundas de frutos secos e deiscentes apresentam maior desempenho germinativo. Os tratamentos pré-germinativos mais eficientes para acelerar a germinação das sementes obtidas de frutos secos e deiscentes são a pré-embebição por 6 horas e a termoterapia a 60ºC por 3 minutos, respectivamente.

Célia Maria Peixoto de Macedo

2011-12-01

124

Response of Maize (Zea mays) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

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Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage l...

Akande, M. O.; Oluwatoyinbo, F. I.; Kayode, C. O.; Olowokere, F. A.

2006-01-01

125

Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Brazil / Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um levantamento de begomovírus de quiabeiro foi realizado no Brasil Central. Amostras foliares foram coletadas em campos de produção de quiabo e avaliadas em testes utilizando primers universais para begomovírus. A infecção por begomovírus foi confirmada em apenas uma amostra (#5157) de um total de [...] 196 amostras. O DNA total foi submetido à amplificação por PCR e introduzido em plântulas de quiabeiro pelo método de biobalística, sendo que a amostra de DNA bombardeada foi infecciosa em plantas de quiabeiro. O DNA-A e DNA-B do isolado #5157 foram clonados e a sequência de nucleotídeos mostrou características típicas de begomovírus do Novo Mundo. A sequência do DNA-A apresentou 95,6% de identidade nucleotídica com um isolado de Sida micrantha mosaic virus do Brasil, sendo assim identificado como sua estirpe de quiabeiro. Os clones gerados a partir da amostra #5157 foram infecciosos para quiabeiro, Sida santaremnensis e em um grupo de plantas solanáceas quando inoculados por biobalística após circularização do inserto isolado, seguido por amplificação por círculo rolante. Abstract in english A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157) out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and in [...] troduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotide sequences exhibited typical characteristics of New World bipartite begomoviruses. The DNA-A sequence shared 95.6% nucleotide identity with an isolate of Sida micrantha mosaic virus from Brazil and thus identified as its okra strain. The clones derived from #5157 were infectious to okra, Sida santaremnensis and to a group of Solanaceae plants when inoculated by biolistics after circularization of the isolated insert, followed by rolling circle amplification.

Silvia de Araujo, Aranha; Leonardo Cunha de, Albuquerque; Leonardo Silva, Boiteux; Alice Kazuko, Inoue-Nagata.

2011-02-01

126

Influence of Some Soil Amendments on Insect Pest Infestation and Damage to Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench in Umudike, Abia State  

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Full Text Available Field experiment to determine the effect of three soil amendments (Poultry manure, goat manure and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on insect pest infestation and damage to Okra (Oboro dwarf variety was conducted in 2006 at Umudike, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three treatments and control replicated five times. During the experiment, application of poultry manure and goat manure at 50g/plant and 20g/plant of NPK 15:15:15 were applied two weeks after planting in a ring form. Results obtained showed that the application of goat manure and poultry manure generally, significantly reduced the prevalence of Podagrica spps with regards to plant height and leaf area of Okra. The application of NPK 15:15:15 may have promoted vegetative growth of Okra, making it more succulent and thereby enhancing high pest attack, survival and damage of the Okra. Hence, increasing the application rates of the different soil amendments may have significant increase on the yield as well as reduce pest invasion.

2007-01-01

127

Comparison of Effectiveness of Raw Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L and Raw Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Wastes as Bioadsorbent of Heavy Metal in Aqueous Systems  

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Full Text Available Adsorption process had been effective in condensing and concentrating metal ions from aqueous phase to the surface of adsorbent, it is a well established technology that employed the use of synthetic adsorbent which are usually scarce and expensive in waste water treatment. Hence, there is a need to develop new adsorbent which are readily available at low cost to remove metal contaminants in aqueous system. In this work, raw sugarcane waste and raw okra waste which are agricultural by-products were used as adsorbent in the adsorption of Fe(III Cd (II, Pb (II, Zn (II, Ni (II from various aqueous solutions. Infrared spectrum of the okra and sugar cane waste were recorded to detect the functional groups that has the binding capability for the metal ion adsorption. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the adsorption process and its was found that the okra waste was able to adsorb 5.05% of Fe(III,, 44.95% of Cd (II,, 65.10% of Pb (II, 38.78% of Zn (II, 57.80% of Ni(II, while the sugarcane waste was able to adsorb 3.61% of Fe (III, 35.06% of Cd (II, 43.50% of Pb (II,, 24.45% of Zn (II, 35.31% of Ni(II. This work proved that raw okra waste was more effective adsorbent material than raw sugarcane waste for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous systems. The Freundlich adsorption model described well the sorption equilibrium of the metal ions however research study have shown that modified form of okra waste was an excellent adsorbent, there is possibility of modifying the raw sugar cane waste for better performance since it has potential of removing heavy metals in waste water. 

Olabanji I. O.

2014-12-01

128

Response of Maize (Zea mays and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

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Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP amended with cow dung (CD manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05 affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1, okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1 and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1 in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

M.O. Akande

2006-03-01

129

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Chlormequat Chloride (CCC) Application and Terminal Apex Excision to Restrict Plant Height in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench.) and Optimize Yield  

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Two methods for restricting plant height (CCC application and excision of the main shoot apex) were applied to okra cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ with the aim of assisting crop management and optimizing yield. Apex excision 26 or 40 days after transplantation (DAT) effectively restricted plant height, but either had no effect (40 DAT) or reduced the number of side shoots per plant (26 DAT). Moreover, although the length of side shoots increased after apex excision, the number of nodes per side shoot wa...

Charalambos Thanopoulos; Petropoulos, Spyridon A.; Alexopoulos, Alexios A.; Karapanos, Ioannis C.; Khah, Ebrahim M.; Akoumianakis, Konstantinos A.; Passam, Harold C.

2013-01-01

130

Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

Oppong Danso, E.; Abenney-Mickson, S.

2015-01-01

131

Response of different cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) to three diferent sowing dates in the mid hill of swat valley  

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Field experiment was conducted to evaluate 4 okra varieties, T-13 (check), Super Green, Pusa Green and Green Tech sown on 3 different dates, 10th May, 25th May and 10th June, and June 1998. It was found that variety, T-13, sown on May 25, 1998 gave significantly highest plant population percentage of (99.66). Variety, Green tech, sown on June 10, 1998 took more day’s (48.33) from sowing to 1st flowering and remained the tallest variety at first and last picking with 58 and 167 cm plant heig...

Humayun Khan; Mazullah Khan; Asmatulla; Khalid Rasul; Anwar Bhatti; Mehmood Khan

2000-01-01

132

DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE QUIABEIRO [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] EM DIFERENTES TIPOS DE BANDEJA E SUBSTRATO / OKRA SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES AND TRAYS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Devido as vantagens que o sistema apresenta, a produção de mudas utilizando bandejas de isopor, cada vez mais vem sendo utilizada no estado de São Paulo. O sistema proporciona maior cuidado na fase de germinação e emergência, fazendo com que, muitas vezes, uma semente origine uma planta, além de pro [...] porcionar menor custo no controle de pragas e doenças e alto índice de pegamento após o transplante. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de quiabeiro, cultivar Santa Cruz - 47, produzidas no sistema de bandejas de isopor, montou-se um experimento, em ambiente protegido. Foram comparados três tipos de bandeja, que diferiam entre si pelo volume a altura das células, associadas a quatro diferentes substratos. Os substratos constaram de variações de uma mistura comercial, produzida pela Empresa Gioplanta. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema fatorial 3X4. Para as condições do experimento concluiu-se que as bandejas de maior volume proporcionaram melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de quiabeiro para todos os parâmetros estudados. No substrato que recebeu casca de arroz carbonizado na proporção 1:1, observou-se menor desenvolvimento das mudas. A utilização do produto comercial (adubado) com suplementação de nutrientes favoreceu o desenvolvimento das mudas de quiabeiro. Abstract in english An experiment with three types of trays with four substrates was carried out in a greenhouse using trays with different cell sizes for okra seedling production. The substrates used were a blend of a commercial mixture made by Empresa Gioplanta. The experimental design consisted of completely randomi [...] zed blocks, in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement, with 3 types of trays and the 4 substrates. The evaluation of growth was done 32 days after germination. The results indicated that the production of okra seedlings in trays with the largest cell volume presented the best results for all the parameters studied. Trays of various types that contained substrate GII and carbonized rice hulls in the proportion 1:1, presented the least developed seedlings. Fertilization applied initially and during seedling growth permitted a better development of okra seedlings.

Valéria Aparecida, Modolo; João, Tessarioli Neto.

133

Alterations in activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, ATPase and ATP content in response to seasonally varying Pi status in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus (P) is the second most important macronutrient for plant growth. Plants exhibit numerous physiological and metabolic adaptations in response to seasonal variations in phosphorus content. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, ATPase and ATP content were studied in summer, rainy and winter seasons at two different developmental stages (28 and 58 days after sowing) in Okra. Activities of both acid and alkaline phosphatases increased manifold in winter to cope up with low phosphorus content. ATP content and ATPase activity were high in summer signifying an active metabolic period. Phosphorus deficiency is characterized by low ATP content and ATPase activity (which are in turn partly responsible for a drastic reduction in growth and yield) and enhanced activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which increase the availability of P in P-deficient seasons. PMID:15529876

Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

2004-04-01

134

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L. GENOTYPES FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS REVEALED BY AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity in 48 genotypes and accessions using eight Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP primer-pairs. The eight selected AFLP primer-pairs generated a total of 150 polymorphic loci. Using the generated AFLP data, the Un-Weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA ordered the genotypes into six groups based on Dice similarity coefficient. The range in taxonomic distance was from 0.23 to 1.0. Each cluster was found to have genotypes and accessions from different regions and climate and sometimes different continents. The size range of the loci ranged from 87-662 bp. Great variation between the genotypes and accessions in the different cluster could be of high value as the genetically diverse okra genotypes represent a potentially valuable source for improved pathogen and pest resistance.

Naser M. Salameh

2014-01-01

135

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Chlormequat Chloride (CCC Application and Terminal Apex Excision to Restrict Plant Height in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench. and Optimize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two methods for restricting plant height (CCC application and excision of the main shoot apex were applied to okra cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ with the aim of assisting crop management and optimizing yield. Apex excision 26 or 40 days after transplantation (DAT effectively restricted plant height, but either had no effect (40 DAT or reduced the number of side shoots per plant (26 DAT. Moreover, although the length of side shoots increased after apex excision, the number of nodes per side shoot was not affected. Hence pod number and weight was less than in the control (untreated. CCC application (500 and 2000 ppm reduced plant height due to a reduction in internode length; however, when applied at the time of transplantation (0 DAT (both concentrations or 26 DAT (2000 ppm it also caused a reduction in node number on the main stem. CCC did not affect the number of side shoots or the number of nodes per shoot, and side shoot length decreased due to shorter internode lengths. The number and weight of pods per plant was reduced by 2000 ppm CCC irrespective of the time of application, but was not affected by 500 ppm CCC at 0 DAT (pod number or 40 DAT (pod weight and number. We conclude that the application of 500 ppm CCC at 40 DAT may aid okra cultivation since it reduces overall plant size (height and diameter without adversely affecting yield, and may thus assist crop management (e.g. easier hand-harvesting and permit an increase in plant density.

Charalambos Thanopoulos

2013-08-01

136

Differential Responses for Harvesting Times and Storage on Hardness of Different Varieties of Okra  

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Full Text Available Okra seed hardness results in slow and nonuniform germination. This study was conducted to determine the effects of time of harvest and storage on seed germination of four different cultivars of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The study was carried out at Agricultural faculty of Razi University in years 2009 and 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block under factorial arrangement with three replications. Four different cultivars of okra included, ?Boiatloy?, ?Beloudo?, ?Clemsson Seinless? and ?Pleas? and six harvesting times of 20-25-30-35-40 and 50 days after flowering were considered in the present study. The results showed that seed germination increased in 2009 from 3.4%, at first harvesting time, to 46.4% at fifth harvesting time, and in 2010 from 2.9%, at the first harvesting time, to 49.7% at fifth harvesting time. Different cultivars varied in seed germination. In 2009 ?Plea? and in 2010 ?Clemson? cultivars showed the highest germination. Seeds from different parts of the plant also showed different germination rate. In 2009 seeds from the middle part of the plant with 54.3% and in 2010 seed from the lower part with 50.3 % showed the highest germination. In 2009 seeds from the lower part of pod showed more germination, whereas in 2010 seeds from middle part of pod produced higher germination. By increasing time to harvest, the percentage of seed germination after storage highly increased. Different cultivars during storage showed different behaviors on germination. ?Beloudo? cultivar produced more seed germination than other varieties after storage, and ?Pleas? after storage produced lower seed germination. Seeds from the middle part of plant and middle part of pod showed a higher germination after storage.

Ghadir MOHAMMADI

2011-11-01

137

Controlled deterioration to evaluate okra seed vigor / Deterioração controlada para avaliação do vigor de sementes de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os testes de germinação e de vigor são componentes essenciais do processo de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes. Objetivou-se com essa pesquisa estudar a metodologia do teste de deterioração controlada, visando a identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor de lotes de sementes [...] de quiabo. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Colhe Bem e Santa Cruz 47, representadas por quatro e cinco lotes de sementes, respectivamente. As nove amostras de sementes foram submetidas às avaliações de germinação, emergência de plântulas, deterioração controlada (sementes com umidade de 18, 21 e 24%; a 45ºC durante 24 e 48 horas) e grau de umidade no início dos testes e durante o monitoramento para o teste de deterioração controlada. O teste de deterioração controlada conduzido a 45ºC, com grau de umidade das sementes de 24% e período de exposição de 24 horas é eficiente para a avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de quiabo. Abstract in english Germination and vigor tests are essential components of seed quality control programs adopted by seed industries. We studied different procedures to perform the controlled deterioration test to identify differences in vigor among okra seed lots. Four seed lots of Colhe Bem cultivar and five seed lot [...] s of Santa Cruz 47 cultivar were submitted to the following tests: germination, seedling emergence, controlled deterioration (seeds with moisture contents of 18, 21 and 24% at 45°C for 24 and 48 hours) and moisture content. The controlled deterioration test is efficient to evaluate the physiological potential of okra seeds, and the combination of 24% water, 45°C during 24 hours is recommended.

Salvador B, Torres; Maryjane DA, Gomes; Francisca Gleiciane da, Silva; Clarisse P, Benedito; Francisco ECB, Pereira.

2013-06-01

138

STUDY OF CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE IN SEEDS OF CORN,  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate is an agrochemical from the group of phosphonates, which is widely used as a herbicide. Although it kills almost any plant, it can be used to eliminate weeds during the growth of crops that are resistant to glyphosate. This research aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of the herbicide in a study using as test organism seeds of maize (Zea mays), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) and arugula (Eruca sativa). The toxicological testing was to use a paper towel dampened w...

Ana Cláudia Rebessi; Núbia Natália Brito

2011-01-01

139

IN VITRO BINDING OF BILE ACIDS BY OKRA, BEETS, ASPARAGUS, EGGPLANT, TURNIPS, GREEN BEANS, CARROTS, AND CAULIFLOWER  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro binding of bile acids by okra (abelmoschus esculentus), beets (beta vulgaris), asparagus (asparagus officinalis), eggplant (solanum malongena), turnips (brassica rapa rapifera), green beans (phaseolus vulgaris), carrots (daucus carota), and cauliflower (brassica oleracea botrytis) was d...

140

Expression de différents écotypes de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) au déficit hydrique intervenant pendant la boutonnisation et la floraison  

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Behaviour of different ecotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) under water deficit during budding and flowering phases. Despite numerous uses and its well known nutritional value, okra is cultivated on very small surfaces, on surroundings of traditional houses and often in dumping ground. To this little interest are added drought, diseases and pests that generate an important reduction of yield, leading okra to play the last roles in agricultural research programs of the country and this...

Sawadogo M, Zombre G.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The Effect of Combined Application of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on the Growth and Yield of Okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of combined application of poultry manure and sawdust on soil properties, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were investigated at the main campus of Tai solarin University of Education Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria during 2010/2011 dry season. This size of the plot was 45 m by 5m; the seed was planted with three seed per hole at a spacing of 0.5 m. The total numbers of plots were 27 plots, for the avoidance of doubt; it comprises three treatments and each treatment was replicate three times. The treatments consisted of 0, 5, 10 ton/ha Broiler litter (Poultry manure and 0, 2, 5 ton/ha (sawdust. The results indicated a significant increase in growth parameters in those plants planted in 0, 2, 5 ton/ha poultry manure plot than sawdust plot. However, treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters (plant height, stem girth and number of leaves were increased significantly (p<0.05 as manure rates increased. Poultry manure at 10 ton/ha has significant increase in fruit yield of okra increase. The combined application of poultry manure and sawdust does not have effect on yield and fruit number of okra but there is a slight effect on plant height. Based on the findings of the experiments it could be deduced that poultry manure seems to promote higher growth and yield of okra. Thus, it should be recommended for farmers growing okra in region.

Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

2013-09-01

142

Germination and hardseedness of seeds in okra elite lines / Germinação e dureza de sementes em linhas elite de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A presença de sementes duras e a baixa porcentagem de germinação são desafios importantes para o cultivo de quiabo. Por este motivo, cinco linhas elite de quiabo desenvolvidas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC), sendo três com cápsulas quinadas (linhas 8.1, 20.1.2 e 47.1) e duas com cápsulas [...] cilíndricas (linhas 13.1.2 e 20.1.R), foram avaliadas para qualidade de sementes, em comparação com dois lotes comerciais (Horticeres Sementes e Sakata Seed Sudamerica) de sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47. As sementes foram produzidas em experimento instalado no Parque Tecnológico do Centro de Horticultura do IAC, em Campinas, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas de 20 plantas. As cápsulas foram colhidas 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 e 75 dias após a antese (DAA), sendo as sementes extraídas imediatamente e submetidas ao teste padrão de germinação em laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, no que diz respeito à qualidade das sementes, cápsulas quinadas devem ser colhidas mais precocemente que cápsulas cilíndricas, mais precisamente 45 DAA para a linha 47.1 e de 45 a 55 DAA para as linhas 8.1 e 20.1.2. Sementes extraídas de cápsulas quinadas colhidas após esses períodos apresentaram redução na germinação e aumento no índice de dureza. Já as sementes provenientes de cápsulas cilíndricas apresentaram comportamento semelhante às sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47, apresentando melhor capacidade germinativa quando provenientes de cápsulas colhidas de 55 a 75 DAA, e ausência de dureza. Abstract in english The occurrence of hardseedness and the low percentage of seed germination are major challenges when growing okra. For this reason, five elite lines of okra developed at the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC), three with angular pods (lines 8.1, 20.1.2 and 47.1) and two with cylindrical pods (lines 1 [...] 3.1.2 and 20.1.R), were evaluated for seed quality and compared to two commercial seed samples (Horticeres Sementes and Sakata Seed Sudamerica) of cultivar Santa Cruz 47. Seeds were field produced in an experiment set in the Technological Park of the Horticulture Center of IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with three replications and 20-plant plots. Fruits were harvested 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 days after anthesis (DAA). Seeds were extracted straight away and subjected to the standard germination test in the laboratory. Observing the results, we concluded that, as far as seed quality is concerned, angular pods must be harvested earlier than cylindrical pods, more precisely 45 DAA to the line 47.1 and 45 to 55 DAA for lines 8.1 and 20.1.2. Seeds extracted from angular fruits harvested after these periods had reduced germination and increased hardseedness. Seeds from cylindrical capsules had the same behavior of the commercial seeds of cultivar Santa Cruz 47, showing better germination when extracted from pods harvested between 55 and 75 DAA, and no hardseedness.

Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Antonio A do, Lago; Francisco Antonio, Passos.

2010-06-01

143

Germination and hardseedness of seeds in okra elite lines Germinação e dureza de sementes em linhas elite de quiabo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of hardseedness and the low percentage of seed germination are major challenges when growing okra. For this reason, five elite lines of okra developed at the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC, three with angular pods (lines 8.1, 20.1.2 and 47.1 and two with cylindrical pods (lines 13.1.2 and 20.1.R, were evaluated for seed quality and compared to two commercial seed samples (Horticeres Sementes and Sakata Seed Sudamerica of cultivar Santa Cruz 47. Seeds were field produced in an experiment set in the Technological Park of the Horticulture Center of IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with three replications and 20-plant plots. Fruits were harvested 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 days after anthesis (DAA. Seeds were extracted straight away and subjected to the standard germination test in the laboratory. Observing the results, we concluded that, as far as seed quality is concerned, angular pods must be harvested earlier than cylindrical pods, more precisely 45 DAA to the line 47.1 and 45 to 55 DAA for lines 8.1 and 20.1.2. Seeds extracted from angular fruits harvested after these periods had reduced germination and increased hardseedness. Seeds from cylindrical capsules had the same behavior of the commercial seeds of cultivar Santa Cruz 47, showing better germination when extracted from pods harvested between 55 and 75 DAA, and no hardseedness.A presença de sementes duras e a baixa porcentagem de germinação são desafios importantes para o cultivo de quiabo. Por este motivo, cinco linhas elite de quiabo desenvolvidas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, sendo três com cápsulas quinadas (linhas 8.1, 20.1.2 e 47.1 e duas com cápsulas cilíndricas (linhas 13.1.2 e 20.1.R, foram avaliadas para qualidade de sementes, em comparação com dois lotes comerciais (Horticeres Sementes e Sakata Seed Sudamerica de sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47. As sementes foram produzidas em experimento instalado no Parque Tecnológico do Centro de Horticultura do IAC, em Campinas, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas de 20 plantas. As cápsulas foram colhidas 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 e 75 dias após a antese (DAA, sendo as sementes extraídas imediatamente e submetidas ao teste padrão de germinação em laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, no que diz respeito à qualidade das sementes, cápsulas quinadas devem ser colhidas mais precocemente que cápsulas cilíndricas, mais precisamente 45 DAA para a linha 47.1 e de 45 a 55 DAA para as linhas 8.1 e 20.1.2. Sementes extraídas de cápsulas quinadas colhidas após esses períodos apresentaram redução na germinação e aumento no índice de dureza. Já as sementes provenientes de cápsulas cilíndricas apresentaram comportamento semelhante às sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47, apresentando melhor capacidade germinativa quando provenientes de cápsulas colhidas de 55 a 75 DAA, e ausência de dureza.

Luis Felipe V Purquerio

2010-06-01

144

Formulation and Evaluation of Okra Fruit Mucilage as a Binder in Paracetamol and Ibuprofen Tablet  

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The purpose of this study is to search for cheap and effective natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage form. The mucilage from the OkraFruit (Abelmoschus esculentus) was subjected to Preformulation study for evaluation of its safety and suitability for use as binding agent. The mucilage extracted is devoid of toxicity. Tablets of Lactosewere prepared as a control and with 1-5% w/v concentrations of Abelmoschus esculentus muc...

Shah A; Shankul kumar; Malay Jani; Patel, Hitesh A.; Patel, Vasim I.; Patel, Jatin A.

2012-01-01

145

Selection for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Disease of Okra by Induced Mutation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production for both exporting and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of two okra varieties, Annie and Okura, were irradiated with Gamma-rays at doses of 400 and 600Gy. Screening of YVMD resistant plants was conducted for M3 and M4 plants under field conditions in Petchaburi and Phichit provinces, and greenhouse conditions using whitefly transmission in Bangkok. One M4 plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400Gy was found to be highly resistant, but none of Annie. M5 plants of B-21 were screened further for YVMD resistance under both greenhouse and field conditions. Ten resistant lines obtained by screening for YVMD resistance up to the M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS), both located in the northern Thailand. Three of the mutant lines were further tested at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi province, an okra growing area in the west of central Thailand where YVMD was seriously widespread. At the KHRC, all tested mutant lines showed resistance up to a month, when the susceptible check variety already showed symptoms of the disease. However, only a small portion of the plants of the mutant lines appeared to be resistant throughout the whole grod to be resistant throughout the whole growth duration; others eventually exhibited the yellow vein symptom. Plants were further screened in two growers' fields. Growers were satisfied with the plant stature and fruit shape of the mutants and their delayed disease development, and further screening is underway to select uniformly YVMD resistant lines for okra production in Kanchanaburi. (author)

146

Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

Danso, E O; Abenney-Mickson, S

2015-01-01

147

Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm  

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– Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’). Inoculation (in all assays) was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in t...

Frederick Mendes Aguiar; Sami Jorge Michereff; Leonardo Silva Boiteux; Ailton Reis

2013-01-01

148

Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria  

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This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO), compost organic ...

Adewole Moses B.; Ilesanmi Abiola O.

2012-01-01

149

Genotypic performance, character correlations and path analysis of pod yield in Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev. Stevels  

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Full Text Available Direct selection based on pod yield is often a problem in West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev. Stevels breeding programs. Information on inter-relationships among traits to implement indirect selection for pod yield is needed. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of West African okra varieties in two cropping seasons prevailing in Nigeria, and to determine the associations among main agronomic characters and their influence on pod yield. Twenty-five genotypes were grown in two planting seasons at the Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 2008-2009 using a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Sixteen plant characters were measured. The data were subjected to variance, correlation and path analyses. Four genotypes, viz., CEN 010, CEN 012, NGAE-96-04 and AGA 97/066-5780 demonstrated potential for high pod yield. CEN 012 and AGA 97/066-5780 in addition, demonstrated early flowering higher number of pods. Character associations varied between planting seasons. The dependence of pod yield on final plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per branch, number of pods per plant, number of ridges per pod, weight of 250 seeds, pod length and seed weight per plant was noted in both planting seasons. In both seasons, number of pods per plant exhibited a high positive direct effect on pod yield. In conclusion, the trait of most interest for improving pod yield under early and late-season conditions was number of pods per plant.

Moninuola A. Ayo-Vaughan

2012-10-01

150

Seedling imaging analysis and traditional tests to assess okra seed vigor / Análise de imagens de plântulas e testes tradicionais para avaliação do vigor de sementes de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A avaliação do vigor é essencial em programas de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes. Uma das alternativas mais recentes para essa avaliação é o sistema computadorizado de análise de imagens de plântulas (SVIS), utilizado com sucesso para várias espécies de sementes de grandes [...] culturas e de hortaliças. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a eficiência do SVIS para identificar diferenças no potencial fisiológico de lotes de sementes de quiabo, em comparação com outros métodos utilizados para essa espécie. Cinco lotes da cultivar Clemson Americano e quatro da 'Santa Cruz' foram submetidos a testes de germinação (velocidade e porcentagem), germinação a baixa temperatura (15 ºC), envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com solução saturada de NaCl (41 ºC/72 e 96 horas) e emergência de plântulas. Também foi determinado o índice de vigor, o comprimento e a uniformidade de desenvolvimento de plântulas, por meio do SVIS. Essas avaliações foram realizadas no início, aos seis e doze meses de armazenamento. Concluiu-se que o índice de vigor e o comprimento de plântulas, avaliados por meio do software SVIS, são eficientes para identificar diferenças de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo, proporcionando resultados semelhantes aos obtidos no teste de envelhecimento acelerado (41 ºC/72 horas). Abstract in english Seed vigor testing is an important component of quality control programs adopted by seed industry. The software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) has been successfully used for seed vigor assessment in different species. The objective of this research was to verify the SVIS efficiency to assess okra [...] seed vigor in comparison to other vigor tests used for this species. Five seed lots of 'Clemson Americano' and four of 'Santa Cruz' were submitted to germination (speed and percentage), cold germination (speed and percentage), traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41 ºC/72 and 96 h) and seedling emergence tests during 12 months storage. Vigor index, uniformity of growth and seedling length were determined by the software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS). Results showed that the vigor index and seedling length determined by the SVIS analyses are efficient to determine okra seed vigor as well as the accelerated aging test (41 ºC/72 h).

Ana Lúcia Pereira, Kikuti; Júlio, Marcos-Filho.

151

Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso  

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Abstract Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99...

Reynaud Bernard; Traoré Valentin S; Barro Nicolas; Traoré Alfred S; Konaté Gnissa; Villemot Julie; Hoareau Murielle; Lefeuvre Pierre; Tiendrébéogo Fidèle; Traoré Oumar; Lett Jean-Michel

2010-01-01

152

Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenc...

Tiendre?be?ogo, Fide?le; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Villemot, Julie; Konate?, Gnissa; Traore?, Alfred S.; Barro, Nicolas; Traore?, Valentin S.; Reynaud, Bernard; Traore?, Oumar; Lett, Jean-michel

2010-01-01

153

First report of an alphasatellite associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alphasatellite DNA associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV) which causes enation and leaf curling in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants was characterized. The full-length DNA comprises 1,350 nucleotides and shows typical genome organization of an alphasatellite. It shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity (79.7 %) to Hollyhock yellow vein virus-associated symptomless alphasatellite (HoYVSLA). This is the first report of the association of an alphasatellite with OELCuV from India. PMID:23475199

Chandran, S A; Packialakshmi, R M; Subhalakshmi, K; Prakash, C; Poovannan, K; Nixon Prabu, A; Gopal, P; Usha, R

2013-06-01

154

EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTION ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND YIELD OF THREE VARIETIES OF ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS  

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The effect of crude oil pollution on germination, seedling growth and yield of three varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were investigated. Three varieties of okra were planted in a well-drained humus soil polluted with 0%, 0.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% crude oil per kilogram of soil. Data were collected on the following parameters: days to seedling emergence, percentage germination, plant height, internodes length, leaf area, number of leaves per plant and number of fruits per plant. The re...

An, Osuagwu; Ia, Ekpo; Ec, Okpako; Rb, Agbor

2013-01-01

155

Impact Of Chlorpyriphos On The Morphological Parameters Of Cauliflower, Tomato And Okra  

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The present study has been conducted to work out the effect of a wide spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, chlorpyriphos (O, O-Diethyl O- 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) on the morphological features of three commonly grown vegetables in the study area i.e. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, Variety: Snowball 16), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Variety: Pusa Ruby) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L., Variety: Pusa Sawani). Results revealed t...

Mosmi Raina; Anil Raina

2012-01-01

156

Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo  

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The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density...

Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Marcelo Picanço; Gulab Newandram Jham; Márcio Dionízio Moreira

2005-01-01

157

Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. Results The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein, were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB. This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect ?C1 gene. ?C1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity determinant of begomovirus-beta satellite complexes and is involved in overcoming host defenses based on RNAi. Conclusion The diversity of beta satellites in okra across the sub-continent is higher than previously realized and is higher than for any other malvaceous plant species so far analyzed. The beta satellites identified in okra show geographic segregation, which has implications for the development and introduction of resistant okra varieties. However, the finding that the ?C1 gene of the major okra beta satellites (OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share high sequence identity and provides a possible avenue to achieve a broad spectrum resistance.

Venkataravanappa V

2011-12-01

158

STUDY OF CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE IN SEEDS OF CORN,  

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Full Text Available Glyphosate is an agrochemical from the group of phosphonates, which is widely used as a herbicide. Although it kills almost any plant, it can be used to eliminate weeds during the growth of crops that are resistant to glyphosate. This research aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of the herbicide in a study using as test organism seeds of maize (Zea mays, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench and arugula (Eruca sativa. The toxicological testing was to use a paper towel dampened with a sample of glyphosate and twenty seeds evenly distributed in containers with lids, left in a dry and airy place, and watered once a day for 5 days. It was possible to check the toxic effect of glyphosate for corn seeds at concentrations above 90 mg.L-1, for okra seeds at concentrations above 75 mg L-1 and arugula seeds in concentrations above 2 mg L - 1. Thus it was concluded that the seeds studied showed a high sensitivity with the possibility to be applied in toxicity testing, representing a simple and low cost.

Ana Cláudia Rebessi

2011-07-01

159

Complete nucleotide sequences of okra isolates of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a major crop in Niger. In the fall of 2007, okra leaf curl disease was observed in Niger and the begomovirus and DNA-beta satellite were found associated with the disease. The complete nucleotide sequences of DNA-A (FJ469626 and FJ469627) and associated DNA-beta satellites (FJ469628 and FJ469629) were determined from two samples. This is the first report of molecular characterization of okra-infecting begomovirus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger. The begomovirus and DNA-beta have been identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite, respectively, which are reported to also infect okra in Egypt, Mali and Sudan. PMID:19156351

Shih, S L; Kumar, S; Tsai, W S; Lee, L M; Green, S K

2009-01-01

160

Optimization of microwave-assisted hot air drying conditions of okra using response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was dried to a moisture level of 0.1 g water/g dry matter using a microwave-assisted hot air dryer. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the drying conditions based on specific energy consumption and quality of dried okra. The drying experiments were performed using a central composite rotatable design for three variables: air temperature (40-70 °C), air velocity (1-2 m/s) and microwave power level (0.5-2.5 W/g). The quality of dried okra was determined in terms of color change, rehydration ratio and hardness of texture. A second-order polynomial model was well fitted to all responses and high R(2) values (>0.8) were observed in all cases. The color change of dried okra was found higher at high microwave power and air temperatures. Rehydration properties were better for okra samples dried at higher microwave power levels. Specific energy consumption decreased with increase in microwave power due to decrease in drying time. The drying conditions of 1.51 m/s air velocity, 52.09 °C air temperature and 2.41 W/g microwave power were found optimum for product quality and minimum energy consumption for microwave-convective drying of okra. PMID:24493879

Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, Suresh; Murthy, Ganti S

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Relative efficacy of water use in five varieties of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. under water-limited conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, five varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.) were screened for their water use efficiency under two water regimes, viz., 60% and 100% filed capacity. Drought stress was imposed at 60% field capacity from 30 to 70 days after sowing, while the control pots were maintained at 100% field capacity throughout the period of entire growth. Biomass and yield, leaf area duration, cumulative water transpired water use efficiency, net assimilation rate, mean transpiration rate and harvest index under water deficit level were measured. Water use efficiency significantly increases in all the okra varieties under water-limited environment. Drought stress decreased the biomass and yield, leaf area duration, cumulative water transpired, net assimilation rate, mean transpiration rate and harvest index in the okra varieties studied. But among the varieties, variety JK Haritha showed better results. None of the varieties studied had showed increased drought tolerance than the control. PMID:17988840

Sankar, B; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Kishorekumar, A; Somasundaram, R; Panneerselvam, R

2008-03-15

162

Desempenho do quiabeiro consorciado com adubos verdes eretos de porte baixo em dois sistemas de cultivo / Okra performance intercropped with small size and erect green manure in two production systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o cultivo intercalar de adubos verdes eretos e de porte baixo na cultura do quiabeiro, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em cultivo convencional em Monte Alegre do Sul e outro em cultivo orgânico em São Roque-SP, de fevereiro a julho de 2008 e de dezembro de 2008 [...] a junho de 2009, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos, constando de quiabeiro em cultivo "solteiro" e consorciado com uma ou duas linhas de mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana) e de crotalária-espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis) nas entrelinhas. No cultivo orgânico, dois novos tratamentos foram adicionados ao experimento para avaliar os adubos verdes em cultivo solteiro. No quiabeiro avaliou-se a produção (g planta-1) e número de frutos por planta, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e altura média do dossel em diferentes épocas após a semeadura. Nos adubos verdes avaliaram-se altura média das plantas e produtividade de massa fresca. A eficiência do consórcio foi mensurada por meio da relação de área equivalente (RAE). A produção média do quiabeiro por planta foi de 190,9 e 582,0 g planta-1, respectivamente, no sistema convencional e orgânico. A RAE foi de 1,5 e 1,6 no consórcio do quiabeiro com duas linhas de mucuna-anã e crotalária-espectábilis, respecticamente. Verificou-se viabilidade agronômica da adoção do cultivo intercalar pelo agricultor familiar de quiabeiro, especificamente com duas linhas dos adubos verdes de porte ereto e baixo. Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic viability of the intercropping okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) with small size and erect green manuring species Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, two experiments were carried out, one in conventional system at Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo state, Brazil, fr [...] om February to July 2008 and one in an organic system at São Roque, São Paulo state, Brazil, from December 2008 to June 2009. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were constituted by okra monoculture and okra intercropped with one or two lines of M. deeringiana and one or two lines of C.spectabilis in the seeded at the same time of the okra crop. In organic farming two new treatments were added to the experiment to evaluate the green manures in single cropping. Production, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and diameter and plant height were evaluated in okra plants and plant height and fresh matter weight were determined in the green manuring plants at different periods after seeding.. The evaluation of the efficiency of the consortium was measured by the ratio of area equivalent (RAE). Average yield per okra plant was 190.9 and 582.0 g plant-1, respectively, under conventional and organic cropping. The RAE was 1.5 and 1.6 in the consortium of okra with two rows of M. deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, respectively. Intercropping erect short green manuring species with okra is agronomically viable and can be used by family farmers without interference with the yield of okra crop.

Sebastião Wilson, Tivelli; Cristiaini, Kano; Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Elaine B, Wutke; Issáo, Ishimura.

2013-09-01

163

Polysaccharide-free nucleic acids and proteins of Abelmoschus esculentus for versatile molecular studies.  

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Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) is one of the polysaccharide rich crop plants. The polysaccharides interfere with nucleic acids and protein isolation thereby affecting the downstream molecular analysis. So, to understand the molecular systematics of okra, high quality DNA, RNA and proteins are essential. In this study we present a method for extracting genomic DNA, RNA and proteins from polysaccharide rich okra tissues. The conventional extraction procedures were integrated with purification treatments with pectinase, RNase and proteinase K, which improved the quality and quantity of DNA as well. Using SDS, additional washes with CIA and NaCl precipitation improved the RNA isolation both quantitatively and qualitatively. Finally, ammonium acetate mediated protein precipitation and re-solubilization increased the quality of total protein extracts from the okra leaves. All of the methods above not only eliminated the impurities but also improved the quality and quantity of nucleic acids and proteins. Further, we subjected these samples to versatile downstream molecular analyses such as restriction endonuclease digestion, RAPD, Southern, reverse transcription-PCR and Western analysis and were proved to be successful. PMID:23113348

Manoj-Kumar, A; Reddy, K N; Manjulatha, M; Blanco, L

2012-01-01

164

Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time were evaluated. Aqueous coating suspensions of okra gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.6%w/v were prepared and used to coat the tablets in Hi-coater. The coated tablets were evaluated for weight uniformity, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and moisture uptake at controlled humidity. The coating remained intact, durable, and resistant to chipping when challenged to catastrophic fall or rubbed on a white paper. The coated tablets had lower friability, increased disintegration time (24 min compared to the core (3 min and improved hardness, but there was no difference in the dissolution profile of the samples from the batches containing okra and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as film formers. Changes were observed in some of the physicochemical properties of the formulations containing okra gum as with the known film former and it was convenient to conclude that these changes were due to the effect of the mechanical properties of the film formers. It was our conclusion that okra gum is a promising natural, biodegradable, cheap and eco-friendly film former in aqueous tablet film coating operation, particularly when masking of taste or objectionable odor in a solid dosage formulation is desired.

Ogaji Ikoni

2010-01-01

165

Roles and interactions of begomoviruses and satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Mali, West Africa.  

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Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production in West Africa. Two monopartite begomoviruses (okra virus-1 and okra virus-2), a betasatellite and a DNA1 satellite are associated with OLCD in Mali. Okra virus-1 is an isolate of okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV), okra virus-2 is a recombinant isolate of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) and the betasatellite is a variant of cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB). Cloned DNA of OYCrV and CLCuGV were infectious and induced leaf curl symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, but did not induce OLCD in okra. However, when these clones were individually co-inoculated with the cloned CLCuGB DNA, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in N. benthamiana plants and typical OLCD symptoms were induced in okra. The CLCuGB was also replicated by, and increased symptom severity of, three monopartite tomato-infecting begomoviruses, including two from West Africa. The sequence of the DNA1 satellite was highly divergent, indicating that it represents a distinct West African lineage. DNA1 replicated autonomously, and replication required the DNA1-encoded Rep protein. Although DNA1 reduced helper begomovirus DNA levels, symptoms were not attenuated. In the presence of CLCuGB, DNA levels of the helper begomoviruses and DNA1 were substantially increased. Together, these findings establish that OLCD in Mali is caused by a complex of monopartite begomoviruses and a promiscuous betasatellite with an associated parasitic DNA1 satellite. These findings are discussed in terms of the aetiology of OLCD and the evolution of new begomovirus/satellite DNA complexes. PMID:19264648

Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria R; Abdourhamane, Issoufou K; Gilbertson, Robert L

2009-04-01

166

Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.  

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A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P < 0.005) at 30 min after application. Skin moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy. PMID:22404565

Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

2012-06-01

167

Expression de différents écotypes de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. au déficit hydrique intervenant pendant la boutonnisation et la floraison  

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Full Text Available Behaviour of different ecotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under water deficit during budding and flowering phases. Despite numerous uses and its well known nutritional value, okra is cultivated on very small surfaces, on surroundings of traditional houses and often in dumping ground. To this little interest are added drought, diseases and pests that generate an important reduction of yield, leading okra to play the last roles in agricultural research programs of the country and this, despite the existence of early maturing ecotypes or resistant to some abiotic constraints. The low rate of improved varieties is the proof that it is necessary to develop strategies for participatory breeding programs that take into account farmers selection criteria including genotypes tolerant or resistant to drastic conditions such as water deficit to periods where the plant is expressing its genetic potential. Six ecotypes obtained through participatory plant breeding process in five agricultural districts of the country have been assessed for the tolerance to the drought occurring during the budding and the flowering phases. Results show that water deficit during budding phase has disastrous consequences for okra plants. The yield declines, and also the length, the number and the weight of fruits. Two types of period of flowering phases of okra plant have been observed: the period which intervenes during the accelerated growth phase of the main stem (type 1 and the one which starts once the growth of main stem begins to decline (type 2; this last type is the most frequently met. Water deficit during the phase of budding causes earlier flowering of type 2 plants and leads to delayed flowering of the type 1 plants. The best variables for discriminating okra ecotypes during water deficit are the relative water content (RWC, the length and the number of fruits. Three ecotypes (V1, V3 and V4 are chosen to be used in breeding program of okra for resistance to water deficit.

Sawadogo M., Zombre G., Balma D.

2006-01-01

168

Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra  

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A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

2006-04-15

169

Molecular characterization of distinct bipartite begomovirus infecting bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in India.  

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Yellow vein mosaic disease of okra is a whitefly transmitted begomovirus causing heavy economic loss in different parts of India. The okra isolate (OY131) of this virus from a bhendi plant [(Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench] showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting, reduced leaves, and a bushy appearance in the Palem region, New Delhi, India, was characterized in the present study. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B sequences have been determined and are comprised of 2,746 and 2,703 nucleotides, respectively. The betasatellite (DNA-?) component was absent in the sample. The genome organization was typically of biparite begomoviruses, which were characterized earlier. Comparison of DNA-A component with other known begomoviruses suggest that this virus, being only distantly related (Bhendi yellow vein mosaic Delhi virus [BYVDV-IN (India: Delhi: okra)]. DNA-B showed highest sequence identity (87.8% identical) to that of a ToLCNDV (AY158080). The phylogenetic analysis of the present isolate is distinct from all other viruses; however clusters with ToLCNDV group infect different crops. The recombination analysis revealed that this isolate has sequences originated from ToLCNDV. This is the first known bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease associated bipartite begomovirus from India. PMID:22447131

Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

2012-06-01

170

Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.  

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A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae. PMID:24426275

Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

2013-09-01

171

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS AND INOCULUM LEVELS OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON OKRA  

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Full Text Available Among two methods of Macrophomina phaseolina inoculation used for pathogenicity test, soil infestation method comparatively checked more plant growth of okra plants than seed infestation method. Minimum plant length and weight, as well as seed germination were observed by soil infestation method. Significantly maximum plant mortality and root infection was also occurred in soil infestation method. Seed germination, plant growth, plant mortality and root infection of okra plants were adversely affected with the increasing inoculum levels of M. phaseolina. Seed germination and plant growth were negatively correlated with inoculated pathogen population; whereas, plant mortality and root infection were positively correlated with the inoculum level of M. phaseolina.

Sultan A. Maitlo

2012-12-01

172

Studies on heterosis in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and A. callei (A. Chev) stevels cultivars during shorter day photoperiods in south eastern Nigeria.  

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Better parent heterosis was studied in direct and reciprocal crosses using 9 early and late okra cultivars which belonged to the Early-early, Early-late, Late-early and Late-late okra flowering types. The ANOVA for length of pod, circumference of pod, number of locules per pod, number of seeds per pod, Number of pods per plant, weight of 1000 seeds, density of seeds, weight of pods per plant, days to flower opening, plant height and circumference of stem at 10 cm above soil level, showed almost very highly significant differences-an indication that the cultivars are genetically diverse. Very highly significant, narrow and intermediate, heterosis was recorded for most of the direct and reciprocal crosses, showing that selections could be made from the hybrids to meet desired local okra qualities. A cross between an Early-late and Late-early parents, using early okra as the maternal parent, gave rise to a stable viable bridge hybrid which outperformed the better parent in many respects thereby overcoming the hitherto strong barrier to gene flow in interspecific hybridization studies involving the two okra types and also indicating the existence of maternal effects. Consequently with this development, the window has been opened for possible accelerated transfer of several desirable genes from late okra types to many promising but vulnerable early okra types. This could result to minimizing the further erosion of such early okra germplasm still in the custody of the local farmers. PMID:20128509

Udengwu, Obi Sergius

2009-11-01

173

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro  

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The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. ...

Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Marcelo Picanço; José Cola Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael Gusmão

2007-01-01

174

Patogenicidade de Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae em quiabeiro / Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae in okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos do parasitismo de Pratylenchus brachyurus e de dois isolados de P. coffeae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) em experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação. Algumas mudanças anatômicas induzidas no hospedeiro por P. brachyurus foram observadas e registradas em laboratór [...] io. O quiabeiro reagiu como bom hospedeiro para P. brachyurus e para um dos isolados de P. coffeae (K5). Entretanto, apenas a primeira espécie reduziu o crescimento da planta. Outro isolado de P. coffeae (M2) não se multiplicou em quiabeiro nem afetou o crescimento. Esse fato indicou a possibilidade do quiabeiro ser utilizado no futuro para diferenciação de isolados. Diferentemente das relações parasito-hospedeiro envolvendo Pratylenchus spp., P. brachyurus não causou lesões radiculares delimitadas, mas grandes áreas necrosadas. Sintomas iniciais foram observados em quiabeiro dez e 15 dias após a inoculação com P. brachyurus, não se verificando a presença do parasito no estelo de raízes infetadas. Abstract in english The effect of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The anatomical changes caused by P. brachyurus were studied under laboratory conditions. Okra was a good host for P. brachyurus and one isolate of P. coffeae [...] (K5), but only the former decreased its growth. The other isolate of P. coffeae used (M2) did not multiply on nor damage okra, so this plant can be used to differentiate both isolates. In contrast to typical Pratylenchus spp. host plant relationships, P. brachyurus did not cause well-delimited root lesions, but large extensions of decayed tissues. Necrosis in okra roots was observed ten days after inoculation, but P. brachyurus was not found in the stele of infected roots 15 days after inoculation.

Mário M., Inomoto; Rosangela A., Silva; João P., Pimentel.

2004-10-01

175

PRODUCTIVITY OF OKRA VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY SEASONAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available In northern Nigeria, two distinct season are noticeable and these are the wet (April to October and the dry (November to March seasons. Due to little or no documented work conducted to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench, this study is therefore undertaken to compare the performance of okra during the wet and the dry seasons of northern Nigeria. Two okra varieties ('White velvet' and 'Ex-Borno' were evaluated during the 1997 and 1999 wet seasons and 1997/98 and 1999/2000 dry seasons at Samaru in northern Nigeria, in order to determine their productivity. The variables measured at the reproductive stage were plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf area, days to first flower, fruit weight/plant and fruit yield (t/ha. Significant differences were observed for all variables among seasons and among varieties. The wet season conditions were most favourable for increased growth, leaf formation and fruit yield, as compared with the dry season environment which resulted in less vegetative and reproductive growth. The interaction of season x variety was highly significant for plant height, fruit weight/plant, fruit yield and significant for leaf area and number of fruits/plant. The variety 'White velvet' produced more fruits than 'Ex-Borno'.

M. D. KATUNG

2007-08-01

176

Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO, compost organic fertilizer (OR, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05 higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

Adewole Moses B.

2012-01-01

177

Water-soluble Fraction of Abelmoschus esculentus L Interacts with Glucose and Metformin Hydrochloride and Alters Their Absorption Kinetics after Coadministration in Rats.  

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This study was done to investigate the effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of the fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus L (okra/lady's fingers) on absorption of oral glucose as well as metformin from the gastrointestinal tract in the Long Evans rats. WSF of A. esculentus significantly (P esculentus on metformin absorption was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Significant differences (P esculentus. In both of the experiments, Na-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was used as positive control. The results of this study indicate that A. esculentus may improve glycemic control but should not be taken concurrently with metformin hydrochloride in controlling diabetes mellitus. PMID:22389848

Khatun, Hajera; Rahman, Ajijur; Biswas, Mohitosh; Islam, Anwar Ul

2011-01-01

178

Water-soluble Fraction of Abelmoschus esculentus L Interacts with Glucose and Metformin Hydrochloride and Alters Their Absorption Kinetics after Coadministration in Rats  

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This study was done to investigate the effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of the fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus L (okra/lady's fingers) on absorption of oral glucose as well as metformin from the gastrointestinal tract in the Long Evans rats. WSF of A. esculentus significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the absorption of glucose as studied in the 24?hrs fasting rats. The effect of WSF of A. esculentus on metformin absorption was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Significant differenc...

Hajera Khatun; Ajijur Rahman; Mohitosh Biswas; Anwar Ul Islam

2011-01-01

179

EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTION ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND YIELD OF THREE VARIETIES OF ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS  

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Full Text Available The effect of crude oil pollution on germination, seedling growth and yield of three varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus were investigated. Three varieties of okra were planted in a well-drained humus soil polluted with 0%, 0.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% crude oil per kilogram of soil. Data were collected on the following parameters: days to seedling emergence, percentage germination, plant height, internodes length, leaf area, number of leaves per plant and number of fruits per plant. The results show that there were significant difference (p 0.05 were observed on internodes length but plant height differed significantly (p< 0.05 due to the concentrations of the crude oil in the soil. It can be concluded that the three varieties of okra used in these study were not tolerant to crude oil effect; in order to achieve a better performance of the plant in crude oil polluted environment, remediation of the polluted soil should be carried out before cultivation.

Osuagwu AN

2013-02-01

180

Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Single and interactive effects of root-knot nematode and coal-smoke on okra  

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Effects of coal-smoke pollutants and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1, singly and jointly, were investigated on okra, Abelmoschus esculentus in 1988 and 1989. Plants in clay pots were placed at two sites (K1 and K2), 1 and 2 km away from the stack of a coal-fired thermal power plant, and also at a control site. The mean concentrations of SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2] and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 141, 76 and 309 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K1, and 184, 93 and 205 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K2, but the concentrations of the pollutants at the control site were very low. Okra plants at the K2 site showed browning of the leaves, whereas injury was mild at K1. The intensity of the browning and the impact of nematode disease was appreciably higher in the infected plants at the polluted sites in both the years. The plants grown at the two sites exhibited suppressions in plant growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments, particularly at K2. M. incognita at the control site also cause significant reductions, but joint effects of the nematode and coal-smoke were synergistic.

Khan, M.R.; Khan, M.W. (Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Botany)

1994-02-01

182

Impact Of Chlorpyriphos On The Morphological Parameters Of Cauliflower, Tomato And Okra  

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Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to work out the effect of a wide spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, chlorpyriphos (O, O-Diethyl O- 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate on the morphological features of three commonly grown vegetables in the study area i.e. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, Variety: Snowball 16, Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Variety: Pusa Ruby and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L., Variety: Pusa Sawani. Results revealed that on an average, the impact of chlorpyriphos on various morphological parameters of all the three vegetables have been statistically insignificant (using t- Test except for height of the plants in cauliflower treated with double the recommended dose which exhibited a significant decrease and weight of the head in cauliflower treated with recommended dose of chlorpyriphos which showed a significant increase. Also in okra total number of flowers/plant at treatment with both the dosages along with total number of fruits/plant at treatment with the recommended dose has exhibited statistically significant increase.

Mosmi Raina

2012-09-01

183

Qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro em função da idade e do repouso pós-colheita dos frutos Okra seed quality as a function of age and fruit post harvest rest  

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O trabalho foi conduzido na FCA-UNESP, em Botucatu (SP), objetivando-se estudar o efeito da idade do fruto e o período de repouso pós-colheita sobre a qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.). No dia da antese, as flores foram etiquetadas e os frutos foram colhidos com 34, 41, 48 e 55 dias após a antese (DAA). Para cada idade, em metade dos frutos as sementes foram extraídas imediatamente e a outra metade ficou em repouso por quatorze dias, ant...

Márcia Maria Castro; Amanda Regina Godoy; Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

2008-01-01

184

Glycosylated compounds from okra inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Asian medicine the fruit of the okra plant, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., is used as a mucilaginous food additive against gastric irritative and inflammative diseases. To find a rational basis for its use against these diseases, several crude and purified carbohydrate-containing fractions from immature okra fruits were isolated and analyzed, and their effects against Helicobacter pylori in an in situ adhesion model on sections of human gastric mucosa were determined. Pretreatment of the bacteria with a fresh juice preparation inhibited the bacterial adhesion almost completely. Lyophilization and reconstitution of an extract solution led to a reduction of this effect. A crude polysaccharide (RPS) isolated from the fresh juice by ethanolic precipitation showed strong inhibitory effects. Further fractionation of RPS revealed a purified, highly acidic subfraction (AF III) with high antiadhesive qualities. Carbohydrate analysis revealed the presence of rhamnogalacturonans with a considerable amount of glucuronic acid, whereas other inactive subfractions contained little glucuronic acid or were glucuronic acid-free. After heat denaturation of the fresh juice or protein precipitation with 5% TCA the antiadhesive activity of the fresh extract was reduced, indicating that besides polysaccharides, protein fractions also exhibited antiadhesive properties. SDS-PAGE analysis of the precipitate revealed several bands of glycosylated proteins between 25 and 37 kDa that were almost diminished in the nonactive supernatant. Preincubations of gastric tissue with any of the active fractions did not lead to reduced bacterial binding. The antiadhesive activity is therefore due to the blocking capacity of specific Helicobacter surface receptors that coordinate the interaction between host and bacterium. Neither of the active fractions showed inhibitory effects on bacterial growth in vitro. The antiadhesive qualities of okra were assumed to be due to a combination of glycoproteins and highly acidic sugar compounds making up a complex three-dimensional structure that is fully developed only in the fresh juice of the fruit. PMID:15030201

Lengsfeld, Christian; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Faller, Gerhard; Hensel, Andreas

2004-03-24

185

Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations / Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica [...] populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual) e de ovos (lentes de aumento) de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas. Abstract in english The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal pop [...] ulation dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection) and eggs (magnifying lens) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.

Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; Gulab Newandram, Jham; Márcio Dionízio, Moreira.

2005-01-01

186

Okra pectin contains an unusual substitution of its rhamnosyl residues with acetyl and alpha-linked galactosyl groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

The okra plant, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, a native plant from Africa, is now cultivated in many other areas such as Asia, Africa, Middle East, and the southern states of the USA. Okra pods are used as vegetables and as traditional medicines. Sequential extraction showed that the Hot Buffer Soluble Solids (HBSS) extract of okra consists of highly branched rhamnogalacturonan (RG) I containing high levels of acetyl groups and short galactose side chains. In contrast, the CHelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) extract contained pectin with less RG I regions and slightly longer galactose side chains. Both pectic populations were incubated with homogeneous and well characterized rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase (RGH), endo-polygalacturonase (PG), and endo-galactanase (endo-Gal), monitoring both high and low molecular weight fragments. RGH is able to degrade saponified HBSS and, to some extent, also non-saponified HBSS, while PG and endo-Gal are hardly able to degrade either HBSS or saponified HBSS. In contrast, PG is successful in degrading CHSS, while RGH and endo-Gal are hardly able to degrade the CHSS structure. These results point to a much higher homogalacturonan (HG) ratio for CHSS when compared to HBSS. In addition, the CHSS contained slightly longer galactan side chains within its RG I region than HBSS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry indicated the presence of acetylated RG oligomers in the HBSS and CHSS enzyme digests and electron spray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrum showed that not only galacturonosyl residues but also rhamnosyl residues in RG I oligomers were O-acetylated. NMR spectroscopy showed that all rhamnose residues in a 20kDa HBSS population were O-acetylated at position O-3. Surprisingly, the NMR data also showed that terminal alpha-linked galactosyl groups were present as neutral side chain substituents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that okra contained RG I structures which have not been reported before for pectic RG I. PMID:19195648

Sengkhamparn, Nipaporn; Bakx, Edwin J; Verhoef, René; Schols, Henk A; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Voragen, Alphons G J

2009-09-28

187

Agro-potentiality of distillery effluent on soil and agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (okra).  

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The present study showed that irrigation of soil with different effluent concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) of distillery effluent (DE) for 60 days resulted in significant (P??0.05) changes were observed for water-holding capacity and bulk density of the soil. Among various concentrations of DE irrigation, irrigation with 100 % effluent concentration increased moisture content, (24.85 %), EC (77.88 %), Cl(-) (285.95 %), TOC (3,171.42 %), exchangeable Na(+) (241.04 %), available K(+) (52.49 %), Ca(2+) (990.37 %), Mg(2+) (1,751.72 %), TKN (1,417.00 %), available P (305.00 %), and SO4 (2-) (75.32 %) in the soil and decreased pH (-20.22 %). The more stimulation in agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and crop yield of A. esculentus were observed to be inversely proportional to the concentration of effluent water, with the best results being obtained at a dilution of 25 % of DE concentration. PMID:23264061

Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin; Kumar, Vinod; Pathak, Chakresh

2013-08-01

188

Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica  

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Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

Gilmar Efrem Martinello

2001-07-01

189

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS AND INOCULUM LEVELS OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON OKRA  

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Among two methods of Macrophomina phaseolina inoculation used for pathogenicity test, soil infestation method comparatively checked more plant growth of okra plants than seed infestation method. Minimum plant length and weight, as well as seed germination were observed by soil infestation method. Significantly maximum plant mortality and root infection was also occurred in soil infestation method. Seed germination, plant growth, plant mortality and root infection o...

Maitlo, Sultan A.; Nargis Shah; Lodhi, Abdul M.; Khanzada, Anam M.

2012-01-01

190

Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a polysaccharide from flowers of Abelmoschus esculentus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A water-soluble polysaccharide (OFPS11) was obtained from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) flowers using aqueous extraction and purification with DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl™ S-500 column. Its preliminary characterization and immunomodulating activity were investigated. Results showed that OFPS11 is mainly composed of galactose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 2.23:1 with molecular mass of 1,700 kDa. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with OFPS11 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG-2 cells. Additionally, OFPS11 enhanced the phagocytic ability and induced the elevation of NO production, TNF-? and IL-1? secretion of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, OFPS11 promoted both the expression of iNOS protein and of iNOS and TNF-? mRNA. OFPS11 can strongly increase NF-?B levels in nucleuses, which is an important transcription factor that can modulate expressions of iNOS, NO and TNF-?. These outcomes support that OFPS11 exerts its antitumor activity by probably stimulating macrophage activities through nuclear NF-?B pathway. PMID:24721087

Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Zou, Ye; Zheng, Daheng; Takase, Mohammed; Li, Qian; Wu, Huiyu; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

2014-06-15

191

Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

2013-01-01

192

Combining ability in bhindi [ Abelmoschus spp.  

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Full Text Available Combining ability was estimated for six diverse okra genotypes or varieties by diallel analysis. The combininganalysis revealed that Arka Anamika was found to be a good general combiner for fruit number, fruit weight and fruit length.KL9 showed high gca for days to first flowering, internode number and fruit weight. In this study, it was observed thatpresence of overdominance for most of the yield contributing traits

Divya Balakrishnan

2009-12-01

193

Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso  

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Full Text Available Abstract Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF, we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1 molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB (88 to 98% nucleotide identity. One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA (89% nucleotide identity, whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity, provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA. Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009 and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765. Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD.

Reynaud Bernard

2010-02-01

194

Molecular diversity of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD. PMID:20178575

Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Villemot, Julie; Konaté, Gnissa; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Valentin S; Reynaud, Bernard; Traoré, Oumar; Lett, Jean-Michel

2010-01-01

195

Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites  

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Full Text Available The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2 okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

Srinivasababu

2009-10-01

196

A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.  

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Full Text Available

The Abelmoschus manihot (L. commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm count on sexually normal male mice. Two doses i.e. 100and 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract administered to Swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency.The result of the present study signatured for sexual enhancing capacity of the drug Abelmoschus manihot is an individual and also holds good aphrodisiac property when compared with standard drug. It was noticed that a 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect. Therefore, the conclusion suggestive that the Abelmoschus manihot will be a drug of choice or alternative therapy for a marketed product. Which may help the population to lead their sexual life perfectly with full of pleasure to interact body, mind and sole.

Keywords: Abelmoschus manihot, Aphrodisiac, Mounting frequency, Intromission frequency, Penile erection index.

K.K. Rewatkar

2011-04-01

197

Complete nucleotide sequence and experimental host range of Okra mosaic virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra mosaic virus (OkMV) is a tymovirus infecting members of the family Malvaceae. Early infections in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) lead to yield losses of 12-19.5%. Besides intensive biological characterizations of OkMV only minor molecular data were available. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a Nigerian isolate of OkMV. The complete genomic RNA (gRNA) comprises 6,223 nt and its genome organization showed three major ORFs coding for a putative movement protein (MP) of M r 73.1 kDa, a large replication-associated protein (RP) of M r 202.4 kDa and a coat protein (CP) of M r 19.6 kDa. Prediction of secondary RNA structures showed three hairpin structures with internal loops in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) which comprises the anticodon for valine, typical for a member of the genus Tymovirus. Phylogenetic comparisons based on the RP, MP and CP amino acid sequences showed the close relationship of OkMV not only to other completely sequenced tymoviruses like Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (KYMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Erysimum latent virus (ErLV), but also to Calopogonium yellow vein virus (CalYVV), Clitoria yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Desmodium yellow mottle virus (DYMoV). This is the first report of a complete OkMV genome sequence from one of the various OkMV isolates originating from West Africa described so far. Additionally, the experimental host range of OkMV including several Nicotiana species was determined. PMID:18049886

Stephan, Dirk; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Ta Hoang, Anh; Engelmann, Jill; Winter, Stephan; Maiss, Edgar

2008-02-01

198

Selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease of okra by induced mutation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmochus esculentus) production for both export and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were gamma-irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and planted at Huaysai King's Project in Petchaburi Province. M3 plants were screened for OYVMD (Okra YVMD) resistance under field conditions at Huaysai King's Project and Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) in Phichit Province. In addition, M4 plants were screened for OYVMD resistance under greenhouse conditions at Crop Protection Research and Development Office using whitefly transmission. None of Annie was found resistant but one plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400 Gy was found to be highly resistant. Ten resistant lines obtained through rescreening of B-21 descendants up to M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at PHRC and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS). The mutants had good stature and fruit shape but the fruits have spines on the ridges. Selections for OYVMD resistance and spineless fruits were performed at PHRC in three generations and seven of the lines were chosen for yield trial at PHRC. Three of the mutant lines were also screened for OYVMD resistance at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi Province, okra growing area, where OYVMD was seriously widespread. All mutant liMD was seriously widespread. All mutant lines showed resistance against the local OYVMV isolates up to a month before they started showing signs of the disease. Seeds were collected from resistant individuals and planted in farmers's fields for further selection. The farmers were very satisfied with the stature and fruit shape of the mutants when tested against a commercial variety. (author)

199

Combined effects of Psoralens and ultraviolet-B on growth, pigmentation and biochemical parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of pre-treatment of Psoralens (furocoumarin compounds) and supplemental ultraviolet-B (sUV-B) were studied on plant growth, photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments, protein, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidative defense potential as well as their ultimate effects on biomass production in Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra) plants. Psoralens are capable of absorbing radiant energy and stimulating the pigmentation of human skin when photo-activated in presence of UV-A or UV-B making them beneficial in the treatment of vitilago. Pre-treatment of Psoralens against sUV-B (pUV-B), stimulates higher production of UV-B protective pigments (flavonoids and carotenoids) and helps in maintaining its biomass against UV-B stress. Antioxidative defense system in the test plant was activated by combined treatment of Psoralens and sUV-B as evidenced by the enhanced activity of enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase-APX, superoxide dismutase-SOD, POX) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid and phenol) antioxidants. Individual treatments of Psoralens and sUV-B showed inhibitory effect on various morphological traits i.e. reduction in plant height, leaf area and ultimately on biomass production. Our results clearly indicated that adverse effect of sUV-B on biomass production was ameliorated by pre- treatment with Psoralens. PMID:19187962

Kumari, Rima; Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, S B

2009-05-01

200

Okra Leaf Cotton, its Commercial Utilization in Sindh  

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Full Text Available Studies were under taken to assess the yield, earliness and insect pest resistance of some newly developed okra leaf strains compared with normal leaf commercial varieties CRIS-9 and NIAB-78. Accordingly, almost all the okra leaf mutants yielded better than NIAB-78. Out of nine okra leaf strains, three were better yields, two equally good and four gave low yield than CRIS-9 the second check variety. Highest yielding okra leaf strain produced 27 and 35 percent higher yield than CRIS-9 and NIAB-78 respectively. Okra leaf strains were documented as early maturing, whitefly tolerant and boll rot disease resistant. Realizing the better performance of okra leaf strains with reduced insecticide applications, the commercial utilization of these varieties in Sindh can not be ignored and may prove better replacement of current cultivars.

A.R. Soomro

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER  

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The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum) in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitat...

Tavakoli, N.; Ghassemi Dehkordi, N.; Teimouri, R.; Hamishehkar, H.

2008-01-01

202

Comparative study between microwave and conventional dehydration of okra.  

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This study was conducted to evaluate different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on the quality of okra. No significant differences were found among pretreatments and dehydration methods for the chemical composition of dehydrated okra samples. Dipping in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at room temperature and immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C improved the retention of ascorbic acid of okra samples after dehydration by either conventional or microwave ove...

Shams El Din, M. H. A.; Shouk, A. A.

1999-01-01

203

FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS  

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The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povid...

Hindustan Abdul Ahad; Mallapu Rani E; Gangadhar P; Suma Padmaja B; Lavanya G

2011-01-01

204

Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica / Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp.) foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655), A [...] . caillei (CGO 8656), A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657) e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658); 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides) com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2) de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos. Abstract in english Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil) maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-35 [...] 7991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes) and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes). No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

Gilmar Efrem, Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; João Carlos, Pimentel.

2001-07-01

205

Genetic variability and heritability in cultivated okra [Abel moschus esculentus (L.) Moench  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-nine okra accessions from different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria were grown during the rainy and dry seasons, between 2006 and 2007 at Abeokuta (derived savanah) and Ilishan (rainforest) and assessed to determine their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance from eight yield related characters. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. There was high genotypic coefficient of variability, % broad-sense heritability and genetic advance in traits such as plant height (26.2, 90.7, 51.5), fresh pod length (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), fresh pod width (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), mature pod length (28.6, 98.5, 52.3), branching per plant (29.3, 82.3, 54.8) and pod weight per plant (33.9, 90.0, 63.3), suggesting the effect of additive genes and reliability of selection based on phenotype of these traits for crop improvement. The positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation between plant height at maturity, fresh pod width, seeds per pod and pods per plant, branches per plant with seed weight per plant and pod weight per plant, suggests that selection on the basis of the phenotype of these characters will lead to high seed and pod yield in okra. (Author) 26 refs.

Nwangburuka, C. C.; Denton, O. A.; Khinde, O. B.; Ojo, D. K.; Popoola, A. R.

2012-11-01

206

Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

1991-09-01

207

INFLUENCE OF COVER CROPS IN ROTATION ON IMPROVING OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) YIELD AND SUPPRESSING PARASITIC NEMATODES  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of growing and incorporating summer cover crops on subsequent vegetable crop production and on population densities of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) was investigated in field and pot experiments at Homestead, Florida. The cover crops utilized in the field and pot exper...

208

Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadens...

El Naggar, Salah M. I.

2001-01-01

209

Pectin from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization of extraction and rheological properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of pectin extraction from okra pods. The extracted okra pectin was then investigated by steady-shear and oscillatory rheological measurements. Statistical analysis showed that the linear term of the liquid-solid ratio, the quadratic term of the pH, and the linear term of the extraction time showed highly significant effects on pectin yield. The optimal extraction conditions that maximized the pectin yield within the experimental range of the variables researched were a pH of 3.9, an extraction time of 64 min, an extraction temperature of 60°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 42:1. Under these conditions, the pectin yield was predicted to be 2.71%. At a liquid-solid ratio less than 2.5% w/w in aqueous solution, the pectin extracted from okra presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior and could be well described by the Cross model. The okra pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G'

Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Han-Ju; Wei, Zhao-Jun

2014-09-01

210

Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

2012-08-01

211

Effect of x-irradiation on physiological and morphological variability in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The variations induced by x-irradiation of seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus in x1, generation have been studied. Percentage of germination showed a slight increase in treatments at 1 to 2kR, while at the higher doses there was a gradual decrease in germination. Seedling growth measured at regular intervals of 6 hr up to 96 hr, showed that growth rate was reduced and germination delayed at doses of 8 to 10 kR. Lateral root number and length were not significantly effected by the dosage rate. Total chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced by 50% at 8 kR treatment, while an increased chlorophyll metabolism was observed at doses of 4 and 7 kR. Increasing dose rate caused a gradual decrease in plant height. Early flowering was induced in 8,9 and 10 kR treatments, while flowering was delayed in the 5 and 6 kR treat samples. Average pod length did not show significant variations between the different dose rates as was also the stomatal index. Increased seed weight was observed in samples treated above 8 kR. (author)

212

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ASCORBATE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON OKRA (Hibiscus esculents L. GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH  

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Full Text Available Effect of drought stress was investigated at water potentials of-0.2 &-0.4 MPA (by using PEG 6000 on okra germination and seedling growth. In this study, percent germination, average time necessary for germination in day, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of okra seedlings were measured. Effect of ascorbate and salicylic acid and interaction of these tow substances were investigated on germination and seedling growth under normal condition and dry conditions. Drought inhabits from germination and seedling growth in this plant. Ascorbate and salicylic acid increase germination and decrease of average time necessary for germination under drought conditions. The seeds that were treated by ascorbate and salicylic acid, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of radical and plumule were increased. Results showed that ascorbate and salicylic acid decrease effects and damages of drought stresses on okra germination and seedlings growth. In general, adding salicylic acid and ascorbic acid significantly relieved the harsh effects of drought on okra germination and growth parameters and it seems that ascorbate and salicylic acid were able to enhance the tolerant ability of the plant to drought stress.

Amin Baghizadeh

2011-03-01

213

Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant  

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Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5, three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara

1999-09-01

214

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro  

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Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões.

Germano Leão Demolin Leite

2007-04-01

215

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations / Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e par [...] asitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual) ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares) ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões. Abstract in english The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, [...] height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.

Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; José Cola, Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael, Gusmão.

2007-04-01

216

Induced mutation breeding for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus in okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were irradiated by gamma rays to induce mutations for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD). In experiment I, seeds were irradiated at 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then planted at Huaysai King's Project, Petchaburi Province. Plants with a good plant type and green pods were selected for M2 generation. M3 plants were grown at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) where YVMD was seriously widespread. 33 plants without disease symptoms were selected for further screening. By using white fly transmission under greenhouse conditions, only four lines showed no disease symptoms. They were transplanted to the field at PHRC. Only Okura irradiated at 400 Gy, designated Rd53-3 showed disease resistance. Subsequent selections were conducted under greenhouse and field conditions up to M7 generation. Twelve resistant lines showing uniformity of plant type were selected for yield trial observation. All bore reasonable yield but their fruit shape was not suitable for the export market. They will be used as parental lines in further breeding programs. In experiment II, seeds of Annie and Okura were irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and then planted at Huaysai. M2 seeds were collected by two methods, the pedigree method by collecting seeds from selected healthy plants, and then planted them at Huaysai. The other method was bulk selection and then seeds were planted at Huaysai and Pd then seeds were planted at Huaysai and PHRC. The M3 generation was screened for disease resistance under greenhouse and field conditions. The plants from bulk selection were all infected. By pedigree selection, 34 and 35 lines of Annie and Okura, respectively were obtained. Screening for okra YVMD resistance under greenhouse and field conditions in M4 generation, it was found that only one plant of Okura irradiated at 400 Gy designated B-21, showed no disease symptoms. Disease resistance screenings under greenhouse and field conditions were performed during M5 to M7 generation. Ten lines selected from B-21 showed a good plant type coupled with a desirable fruit shape. They will be used for further yield trials. (author)

217

Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer  

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Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

2013-12-01

218

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER  

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Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w and P.V.P (22 %w/w were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

N Tavakoli

2008-01-01

219

Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy  

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In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b.) to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b.) were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate per...

?BRAH?M DOYMAZ

2011-01-01

220

Comparative study between microwave and conventional dehydration of okra.  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on the quality of okra. No significant differences were found among pretreatments and dehydration methods for the chemical composition of dehydrated okra samples. Dipping in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at room temperature and immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C improved the retention of ascorbic acid of okra samples after dehydration by either conventional or microwave oven. Also, the reduced dehydration time required for microwave dehydration produced far less destruction of ascorbic acid. The highest rehydration ratio was found in unwashed okra sample and dehydrated by microwave after immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C. Dehydrated okra samples by sun drying and conventional oven had lower retention percentages of total chlorophyll and carotenoids than those of dehydrated okra samples by microwave oven. The general appearance and colour scores of dehydrated okra samples by microwave were significantly different from those of conventionally dehydrated or sun dried okra samples.

Este estudio se ha realizado para evaluar los diferentes pretratamientos y métodos de deshidratación en la calidad del kimbombó. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ellos respecto a la composición química de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas. La inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a temperatura ambiente y la inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a 92-95 °C mejoraron la retención de ácido ascórbico de las muestras de kimbombó después de la deshidratación tanto utilizando el homo convencional como el horno microondas. Además el menor tiempo necesario para la deshidratación usando el horno microondas produjo menos destrucción de ácido ascórbico. La mayor relación de rehidratación fue encontrada en muestras de kimbombó no tratadas o deshidratadas usando horno microondas tras inmersión en metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % y 92-95 °C. Las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas por secado al sol y homo convencional tuvieron menores porcentajes de retención de clorofilas totales y carotenoides que las de muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas usando homo microondas. La apariencia general y la calidad del color de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas mediante horno microondas fueron significativamente diferentes de aquéllas deshidratadas mediante homo convencional o secadas al sol.

Shams El Din, M. H. A.

1999-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO QUIABEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DAS DATAS DE PLANTIO GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATES  

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A influência de quatro épocas de plantio (15 de maio, 15 de junho, 15 de julho e 15 de agosto de 1998 no desenvolvimento e na produção do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi investigada em Goiânia, GO. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, cultivado há muitos anos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (Tukey 5% entre épocas de plantio, para as seguintes características: número de frutos produzidos durante as trinta primeiras colheitas, altura das plantas no início da colheita, número de ramos laterais e número de dias da semeadura ao início do florescimento, ao início da colheita e ao início da colheita em 75% das covas. A temperatura média dos meses seguintes às datas de plantio aumentou de maio para agosto. Observou-se uma redução do período da semeadura até o início do florescimento, até o início da colheita e até o início da colheita em 75% das covas. O número de ramos laterais também foi reduzido no mesmo período. Entretanto verificou-se aumento na altura das plantas e no rendimento das primeiras trinta colheitas.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abelmoschus esculentus; data de plantio; épocas de plantio.

The influence of four sowing dates (May 15th, June 15th, July 15th and August 15th, 1998 on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 was studied in Goiânia-GO. The experiment was conducted at the 'Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Goiás', on an oxisol which had been cropped for several years. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Significant differences (Tukey 5% were found among sowing dates for the following traits: number of pods yielded during the first thirty harvests (105 days, plant height at the beginning of harvest, number of lateral branches, number of days from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, number of days from the sowing to the harvest of the first pod and number of days from the sowing to the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills. The average temperature of the months following the sowing dates increased from May to August. The period from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, the beginning of harvest and the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills was shortened and the number of lateral branches decreased from May to August. At the same time, the plant height and the yield of the first thirty harvests increased.

KEY-WORDS: Abelmoschus esculentus; planting date; development yield.

Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

2007-09-01

222

Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV) and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid  

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Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Correlation of environ...

Muhammad Irfan Ali; Muhammad. Aslam Khan; Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Ehetisham-ul-haq; Muhammad Talha Javed; Muhammad Sajid

2012-01-01

223

Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid  

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Full Text Available Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Correlation of environmental factors (maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall with percent plant infection of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV was also determined. There was a significant correlation between environment and disease severity.

Muhammad Irfan Ali

2012-12-01

224

Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm / Busca por fontes de resistência à murcha de fusário (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) em germoplasma de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) é um dos patógenos mais destrutivos do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil. Cinquenta e quatro acessos de quiabeiro foram avaliados quanto à resistência a FOV em casa de vegetação. Inicialmente foi conduzida uma seleção com o isolado 'Fus-194'. Tr [...] inta e três acessos, que foram resistentes na seleção inicial, foram reavaliadas em dois ensaios adicionais (sob duas condições de ambiente), utilizando dois isolados de FOV. Destes, onze acessos foram classificadas como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-194' em agosto (estação seca e com temperatura moderada), enquanto que 28% dos acessos foram classificados como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-201'. No ensaio conduzido na estação úmida e quente, 72% dos acessos apresentaram reação de alta a média resistência a 'Fus-194', enquanto que 32% foram resistentes a 'Fus-201'. A cultivar 'Santa Cruz-47' e os acessos 'BR-2399' e 'BR-1449' foram as fontes de resistência mais promissoras. Abstract in english Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate ('Fus-194'). Inoculation (in all assays) was [...] carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates ('Fus-194' and 'Fus-201'). Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-194' during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-201'. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to 'Fus-194', and 32% were resistant to 'Fus-201'. The accessions 'Santa Cruz-47', 'BR-2399' and 'BR-1449' were the most promising resistance sources.

Frederick Mendes, Aguiar; Sami Jorge, Michereff; Leonardo Silva, Boiteux; Ailton, Reis.

2013-03-01

225

Response of okra to gamma-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seeds of variety Pusa A-4 were treated with gamma-rays at three different doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 KGy. In M1 generation there was reduction in seed germination and pollen fertility. An interesting feature observed was the peculiar Y shaped branching in treated plants at 0.4 and 0.6 KGy doses. In M2 generation few morphological mutants were isolated. Seventy five percent of the observed mutants were isolated from the 0.6 KGy dose. (author)

226

Polysaccharide extraction from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization by response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude polysaccharide extraction from the Iranian Abelmoschus esculentus was performed using water decoction. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a five level, four variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was employed to obtain the best possible combination of extraction time (X1: 0.5-6.5 h), extraction temperature (X2: 80-100 °C), number of extraction (X3: 1-5), and water to the raw material ratio (X4: 4-28) for maximum polysaccharide extraction. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time of 4.94 h, extraction temperature of 94.97 °C, number of extraction of 4, and the ratio of water to raw material of 21.74. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 16.895±0.29%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 16.916%. PMID:23618310

Samavati, Vahid

2013-06-01

227

Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro / Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema) colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do q [...] uiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A) enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5) e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias), com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a sp [...] ore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5), three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days) and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

Ricardo Luís Louro, Berbara; Luís Rodrigues, Freire; Manlio Silvestre, Fernandes.

1645-16-01

228

Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy  

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Full Text Available In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b. to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b. were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to thirteen thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (?2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Estimations by Approximation of diffusion (for green bean and Midilli et al. models (for okra were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained.

?BRAH?M DOYMAZ

2011-06-01

229

Some Studies on the Comparative Efficacy of Different Traditional and Non-traditional Insecticides Against Okra Jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida) on Okra, Variety "Pusa Green"  

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Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasaca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf) was observed in the test area treated with monocroto...

Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

2001-01-01

230

Some Studies on the Comparative Efficacy of Different Traditional and Non-traditional Insecticides Against Okra Jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on Okra, Variety "Pusa Green"  

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Full Text Available Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr against okra jassid Amrasaca biguttula biguttula (Ishida. All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf was observed in the test area treated with monocrotophos plus surfactant.

Khalid Mehmood

2001-01-01

231

Effect of Light Stress on Germination and Growth Parameters of Corchorus olitorius, Celosia argentea,Amaranthus cruentus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Delonix regia  

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Full Text Available Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus, Amaranthus cruentus, Celosia argentea, Corchorus olitorius and Delonix regia were germinated under light and dark conditions. The germination parameters revealed that germination was higher in seeds of A. cruentus and C. olitorus under light while the seeds of D. regia germinated more in the dark. However, no major difference was observed in the germination of C. argentea and A. esculentus in light and darkness. The above findings point out that germination is species dependent. It also indicated that Amaranthus cruentus and C. olitorius adapt better to light while D. regia adapt better to dark condition. The shade plants of A. esculentus and D. regia were found to be taller than those under direct sunlight. However, seedlings of A. cruentus, C. olitorius and C. argentea were found to be taller those under direct sunlight than in the shade regimes. This could suggest that these plants have higher tolerance of heat with respect to A. esculentus and D. regia. Shade plants of A. esculentus, C. argentea, C. olitorius and D. regia exhibited lower leaf area which is an adaptation to maximize light interception. Higher leaf area was observed in the shade plant of A. cruentus may be an adaptation to maximize the little light available to the plant under shade. These findings revealed plants adaptation to cope with stress in the environment.

Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

2013-12-01

232

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

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Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resu...

Adekunle O.K.; Akinlua A.

2007-01-01

233

Effect of Mulching on Growth and Productivity of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench under Saline Irrigation Condition  

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In present study the treatments comprises four levels of EC (0.87 EC, 4EC, 8EC and 12ECdS m-1) for Saline water irrigation, three levels Mulches (without Mulch, sugar cane trash at the rate of 10 tons ha-1 and 50 ? black plastic mulch) and two varieties. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replication.Among the various saline irrigation water treatments under 4EC dS m-1 treatment higher value of transpiration rate, photosy...

Hitendra Singh Bhadauria; Vijay Kumar,

2006-01-01

234

Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of a New Polysaccharide Obtained from the Fresh Fruits of Abelmoschus Esculentus  

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This paper is the first multi-scale characterization of the fluidize-dried gum extracted from the fresh fruits of the plant Abelmoschus esculentus. It describes the physical, thermal, sorptional and functional properties of this natural gum. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transmittance infra red (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic reso...

Emeje, Martins; Isimi, Christiana; Byrn, Stephen; Fortunak, Joseph; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus

2011-01-01

235

Utilization of Degraded Chitosan for Growth Promoter and Blossom Blight Disease Controls in Okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment focus on the comparison of the effect of gamma radiation and chemical reagent on degradation of chitosan and preliminary test of degraded chitosan with different molecular weight as plant growth promoter of okra in potting experiment. (author)

236

TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE  

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This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV) in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds ge...

Núbia Natália Brito; Giovani Archanjo Brota; Eloisa Maria dos Santos; Noely Bochi Silva; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

2010-01-01

237

Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid  

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Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf) was observed in the test area treated with (monocroto...

Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

2001-01-01

238

Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida. All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf was observed in the test area treated with (monocrotophos + surfactant.

Khalid Mehmood

2001-01-01

239

Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Weed interference in okra crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz [...] -47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade), bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI), período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI) e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI), considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after em [...] ergence (DAE). Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI), Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI) and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP) were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

J.B., Santos; T.P., Silveira; P.S., Coelho; O.G., Costa; P.M., Matta; M.B., Silva; A.P., Drumond Neto.

2010-06-01

240

Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos / Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância [...] Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto. Abstract in english Twenty-seven morphological characteristics (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative) were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 39 Abelmoschus accessions by hierarchic method of single linkage and principal component analysis for the grouping of the genotypes. Standardized average Euclidean distance [...] was used as dissimilarity measure. Plants were grown in field conditions at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, using randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The accessions groups formation based on the hierarchic method of single linkage showed similar results to those obtained by principal components analysis since both methods grouped A. esculentus and A. caillei accessions. The hierarchic method has grouped the genotypes in the same way as for the 27 descriptors (quantitative and qualitative) as for the 13 quantitative descriptors, demonstrating that qualitative descriptors had a little influence on the genotypic discrimination. Qualitative descriptors were able to correctly classify species, although they masked the genetic variability at the germplasm, not allowing a comprehensive survey of the genomes. The characters that less contributed for the genotypes discriminations were the epicalyx length, 100 seeds weight, number of stigma segments, plant height, leaf width, first flowering node and fruit length.

Gilmar Efrem, Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T., Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

2002-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Variability studies for yield and its contributing traits in okra  

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Full Text Available Twelve okra genotypes were crossed in diallel fashion excluding reciprocals to generate 66 one-way hybrids. All the F1’s along with their parentswere grown at Vegetable Research Farm of the Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab during therainy season of 2004-05. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were noticed for number of primary branches per plantindicating maximum variability among the different genotypes. High estimates of heritability coupled with high genetic advance obtained fornumber of branches per plant, total yield per plant and marketable yield per plant indicating presence of additive gene effects which indicated theeffectiveness of selection for these traits. Presence of high heritability coupled with low genetic advance for days to fruit picking, average fruitweight, plant height, internodal length, number of fruits per plant, fruit diameter and average fruit length revealed that straight selection haslimited scope for further improving these traits.

Salesh Kumar Jindal, Deepak Arora and T R Ghai

2010-12-01

242

Comparative Studies on the Effect of Sowing Dates and Spacing on the Growth and Yield of Okra in Different Years  

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Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of sowing time and spacing on the growth and fruit yield of okra in 1999 and 2000 in the farmer = s field, Lakshmipur, Bangladesh. The highest plant height was recorded 87.5 cm when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm and the lowest height was 73.3 cm when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm. The maximum number of leaves per plant was observed when it was sown on 5 March 2000 and the minimum was when sown on 20 May, 1999. Moreover, the fruit yield, number of fruit picking per plant, fruit length and weight per fruit were higher when okra was sown on 5 March, 5 April and 5 May, 2000 spaced at 45 x 45 cm than when okra was sown on 20 March, 20 April and 20 May, 1999 spaced at 35 x 40 cm. The highest number of percent mosaic infected plant was counted when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm and the lowest was when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm. In addition to that the highest number of vector of okra mosaic disease was counted when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm and the lowest was when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm. Percent mosaic infected plants was highest in 1999 and the lowest was in 2000 when it was sown on 20 May and 5 March due to the presence of the number of vectors of okra mosaic disease.

A.B.M. Sharif Hossain A. Wahab

2003-01-01

243

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro / Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g [...] ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infest [...] ed with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da, Silva; Aurenice Lucena, Pereira.

2008-12-01

244

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da Silva

2008-12-01

245

Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extract in psychiatric and neurological disorders  

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Results: In the open field test, AEAM (200 and 400 mg/kg increased the numbers of rearing. However, the number of central motor and ambulation were reduced. The number of entries and the time spent in the open arm were increased, whereas the number of locomotion was decreased (pA. moschatus is an alternative source for CNS drug development. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 845-853

Haja Sherief Sheik

2014-10-01

246

Comparison between the DNA Fingerprints Obtained from the Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Tolerant Okra Mutants and Their Parental Variety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is a widespread disease that is found among export orchards of okra. In this report, we studied gamma radiation-induced YVMD tolerant okra mutants and other commercial okra varieties at DNA level. We found that DNA extraction method that utilized sodium dodecyl sulfate and potassium acetate to precipitate other biomolecules was a suitable method to use for DNA finger printing of okra. The MFLP finger printing technique was superior to the AFLP technique in finding polymorphisms among different okra varieties. Also polymorphisms between the YVMD-tolerant mutant lines and their parental variety could be detected, indicating that gamma radiation could induce some changes at DNA level in these plants

247

Responses of growth of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus [/i]L. to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater  

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Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus[/i] L.. Materials and methods. A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady’s fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The plants were watered using (WW raw dairy wastewater, (T1 chemicals treatment, (T2 physical treatment, (T3 dilution method treatment and tap water (TW in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter pos-tharvest. Results. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with other treatments. Chemical treatment (TC2 at 20 mg/L Al2(SO43 and pH 6.5 improved all growth characteristics, compared with WW, and TW reached 85%, 70.8 cm, 28.6 cm, 99.4 cm, 65.36%, 15.86% and 3.543 Mgg FW for seed germination, shoot length, root length, seedling length, shoot dry matter, root dry matter and chlorophyll, respectively. Also, 25% concentration and 6.5 pH from the dilution method treatment improved all the qualities, but at a lower level. A maximum favourable effect was also observed in the (T2 physical treatment, and ranged from average to moderate in terms of impact. Conclusions. Thus, dairy effluent, after chemical treatment and proper dilution, can be used as a potential source of water for seed germination and plant growth in agricultural practices.

Rana Ibrahim Al-Dulaimi

2014-03-01

248

Extraction and physicochemical characterization of a new polysaccharide obtained from the fresh fruits of abelmoschus esculentus.  

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This paper is the first multi-scale characterization of the fluidize-dried gum extracted from the fresh fruits of the plant Abelmoschus esculentus. It describes the physical, thermal, sorptional and functional properties of this natural gum. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transmittance infra red (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the gum sample. Abelmoschus Esculentus Gum (AEG) had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 70°C and no melting peak. It showed a 14.91% loss in weight at 195°C. X-ray diffractogram showed numerous broad halos for AEG. Elemental analysis showed that AEG contains 39.5, 7.3, 51.8, and 1.4% carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen respectively. The results obtained in this study established the fundamental characteristics of AEG and suggests its potential application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors. PMID:24250349

Emeje, Martins; Isimi, Christiana; Byrn, Stephen; Fortunak, Joseph; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus

2011-01-01

249

Screening of Okra Germplasm for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus under Field Conditions  

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Full Text Available Twelve okra germplasms were screened for resistance to okra yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV under field conditions. Lines OK-292 and OK-285 showed resistant to YVMV in both season and OK 315, OK 316 and OK 317 were found tolerant. The highest yield per hectare found in the line OK-292 (18.00 t ha-1 followed by OK-285 (16 t ha-1 and line OK-310 produced the lowest yield (9.85 t ha-1 followed by pusa (9.95 t ha-1.

M.H. Rashid

2002-01-01

250

Screening of Okra Germplasm for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus under Field Conditions  

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Twelve okra germplasms were screened for resistance to okra yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) under field conditions. Lines OK-292 and OK-285 showed resistant to YVMV in both season and OK 315, OK 316 and OK 317 were found tolerant. The highest yield per hectare found in the line OK-292 (18.00 t ha-1) followed by OK-285 (16 t ha-1) and line OK-310 produced the lowest yield (9.85 t ha-1) followed by pusa (9.95 t ha-1).

Rashid, M. H.; Yasmin, L.; Kibria, M. G.; Mollik, A. K. M. S. R.; Monowar Hossain, S. M.

2002-01-01

251

Growth and Yield of Okra with Rock-Phosphate – Amended Organic Fertilizer  

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Phosphorous supply from organic manures for okra production can be insufficient for optimal fruit yield. The growth and yield of okra (Variety: NHAe 47-4) were assessed in field experiments with an organic fertilizer made from cowdung (CD), fortified with Ogun Rock Phosphate (ORP). The ORP was applied sole at 100 kg ha-1 and also with each of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 t ha-1 cowdung. There was a standard check of NPK 20-10-10 applied 2 weeks after planting at 400 kg ha...

Makinde, Eyitayo A.

2013-01-01

252

Gamma ray induced okra leaf mutant in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An orka leaf mutant characterised by narrow leaves was induced in M2 generation following 20 kr gamma ray irradiation in 320-F variety of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The mutant bred true for okra leaves in M3 generation. The mutant is earlier in maturity than 320-F and has more number of bolls, bigger boll size, higher yield and better staple than the latter. Okra leaf mutant by virtue of its having narrow leaves and consequently lesser transpiring surface withstands moisture stress better than the mother line. In an experiment under 'barani' (with only pre-sowing irrigation), okra leaf mutant recorded cotton yield of 1042 kg/ha as against 469 kg/ha in 320-F and 766 kg/ha in G.27, a 'Desi' variety which grows under moisture stress better than the hirsutums. Orka leaf character is a monogenic recessive, with F1 a medium-lobed heterozygote, as is seen from hybridisation between okra leaf mutant and broad leaved 320-F. (author)

253

First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt  

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Full Text Available During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L. in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Samples of diseased leaves were collected to isolate the causal organisms. Isolated fungi were purified using single spore culture technique. Developed fungus was identified as Cercospora sp. Fresen based on cultural and morphological characteristics after light microscope examination. Also, Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus niger were isolated as associated fungi. Pathoginicity test confirmed efficiency of Cercospora sp. to induce typical symptoms on okra plants compared with other fungi. Foliar application using different concentrations of Topsin M-70WP and lemongrass oil was significantly reduced disease incidence compared with control. According to the available literature, this is the first record of CLS on okra in Egypt under natural infection in the field.

Eman S.H. Farrag

2011-01-01

254

Potential of Sequential Cropping in the Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Okra  

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Full Text Available The response of different crops to a mixed population of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita and their potential as suppressants in sequential cropping systems was evaluated in greenhouse and field experiments. Crops rated as resistant were five maize cultivars, four sorghum cultivars, two millet varieties, guwar and two pigeonpea cultivars which had galling indices ranging between 1.4-3.6. cowpea cv. K80 was rated as moderately resistant with a galling index of 4 while greengram and cowpea cv. KKI were rated as susceptible with galling indices ranging from 5.6 to 7.4. Four crops namely sweetcorn, babycorn, maize cv. Pioneer (Ph3253 and guwar were selected after the greenhouse tests for field trials, based on their poor host status to root-knot nematodes as well as relative acceptability to vegetable growers. These crops were then incorporated into a rotation program with okra. Initial and final J2 numbers in the field were determined before planting and at the end of the season, respectively. Okra was then sown in the plots previously grown with the selected nematode suppressive crops and the nematode numbers determined mid and end of the season. A 44 and 21% decline in nematode numbers was recorded in plots under guwar or sweetcorn and babycorn, respectively. In contrast, a 441% increase in nematode numbers was recorded in plots under continuous crop of okra. The galling index on a crop of okra that followed sweetcorn was 3.3 compared to 8.6 in the control which was continuously under okra, resulting in an increase in yield within a range of 60-92%. This underscores the potential of rotating highly susceptible crops with poor hosts in the management of root-knot nematodes.

A.N. Mweke

2008-01-01

255

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the respondents are males and married. Women do not own personal okra farms but they do work with their husband on the family farms and mostly involved independently at the processing, preservation and marketing levels more than at the production level. About 49.0% of the respondents did not have any formal education while 51.0% were literates who have access to intermediate farm technology. The mean years of okra production experience is 16.91 years and the mean okra farm size is 3.64 acres with standard deviation of 2.58 acres. All the respondents practiced mixed cropping where other crops such as yam, banana, pineapples, cassava and others were planted with okra. Land preparation for okra production includes land clearing, ploughing, harrowing and heaping or ridging. About 80.0% of the okra farmers used cutlass and hoe regularly, which might have been responsible for okra production at subsistence or small-scale level. Only 20.0% of the okra farmers employed use of tractor. Majority of the farmers hired labour to supplement family labour. The mean persons day of family labour was 6.03 and that of hired labour was 1.25 persons day. Processing and preservation are carried out using traditional techniques of slicing, sun drying and grinding (using mortar and pestle. Sliced and dried okra are stored in gourd, basket and clay-pots. Fresh okra are put in basket lined with leave for maximum of three days during which it is marketed on retail and wholesale basis. Okra is consumed fresh and dried mostly to make draw soup by 81.0% of the respondents. Positive and significant relationships existed between socioeconomic characteristics of respondents investigated and total yield of okra produced. The r-value for variable related to land preparation and operation are low, between r = 0.234 and r = 0.470. The r-value of variables related to farm size and output (yield are very high between r = 0.550 and r = 0.922, which spelt out a situation tending towards a perfect relationship. There is also sharp difference in the r-value of farm size for okra (0.922 and farm size for other crops (0.550. It therefore means that okra yield depends on the size of the farm.

A.J. Farinde

2006-01-01

256

Natural mucoadhesive microspheres of Abelmoschus esculentus polysaccharide as a new carrier for nasal drug delivery.  

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This work describes the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres, using Abelmoschus esculentus polysaccharide as a novel carrier for safe and effective delivery of rizatriptan benzoate into nasal cavity. The polysaccharide was extracted from the fruit of A. esculentus and mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by emulsification, followed by crosslinking using epichlorohydrin. Prepared microspheres were evaluated for size, morphology, swelling properties, mucoadhesive strength, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. Microspheres were found to release 50% of drug within 15 min and rest of the drug was released within 60 min. The drug release was found to decrease with increasing concentration of polysaccharide. To determine the retention time of the microspheres in the nasal cavity of rabbits, the microspheres were radiolabelled with (99m)Tc and subjected to gamma scintigraphy. The results showed a significant improvement in the nasal retention of the microspheres as compared to the aqueous solution of radiolabelled free-drug. PMID:23379506

Sharma, Nitin; Kulkarni, Giriraj T; Sharma, Anjana; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Kumar, Neeraj

2013-01-01

257

An Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Abelmoschus esculentus on Clinically Isolated Infectious Disease Causing Bacterial Pathogen from Hospital  

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Six different organic solvents such as n-butanol, petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus to screen the antibacterial activity against infectious disease causing bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by paper disc method. The butanolic extract of Abelm...

Yogesh Chaudhari; Kumar, Dr E. P.; Manisha Badhe; Mody, Hardik R.; Acharya, Vamshikrishna B.

2012-01-01

258

Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus  

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Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 ?m. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 ?m pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

Mohammed Jurial Baloch

2001-01-01

259

Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review  

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Full Text Available A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature.

Thant Zin

2012-01-01

260

Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable) was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature. PMID:22624073

Zin, Thant; Maw, Myat; Pai, Dinker Ramananda; Paijan, Rosaini Binti; Kyi, Myo

2012-05-16

 
 
 
 
261

Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra  

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Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05) reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran f...

Zaki, M. J.; Maqbool, M. A.

1998-01-01

262

Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra  

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Full Text Available Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05 reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lilacinus alone.

M. J. Zaki

1998-01-01

263

Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments  

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The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments ...

Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.; Mcsorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

1998-01-01

264

GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY LIVE MULCH IN SAMARU, ZARIA  

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Two field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of theInstitute for Agricultural Research; Ahmadu Bello University Zaria located on latitude11011’N, longitude 7038’E and 686m above sea level in the Northern Guinea SavannahEcological Zone of Nigeria in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons. The objective of thestudy was to compare the yield of okra grown under different weed managementstrategies. The experiment consisted of four treatments namely: control, cucumber,watermel...

Hamma, I. L.; Ibrahim, U.; Yusuf, S. M.

2012-01-01

265

The OKRA leaf shape mutation in cotton is active in all cell layers of the leaf.  

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Okra (L2O) is a semidominant mutation of cotton (Gossypium barbadense) that alters leaf shape by increasing the length of lobes and decreasing lamina expansion. Chimeras containing L2O and wild-type tissue were generated using Semigamy (Se), a mutation that blocks syngamy during fertilization and produces haploid maternal/paternal chimeral progeny at low frequency. In sectorial chimeras, changes in leaf morphology coincide with the boundary between mutant and wild-type tissues, suggesting tha...

Dolan, L.; Poethig, R.

1998-01-01

266

Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop  

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Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Fora...

Santos, J. B.; Silveira, T. P.; Coelho, P. S.; Costa, O. G.; Matta, P. M.; Silva, M. B.; Drumond Neto, A. P.

2010-01-01

267

Genetics of the Radiation-Induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 populations revealed a DNA fragment that is potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

268

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

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Full Text Available Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resulted in reduced nematode population, reduced galling, reduced nematode reproduction rate and enhanced fruit weight. Chemical analysis revealed that G. sepium leaves contained phenolic compound and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of aromatic amide, phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. L. leucocephala leaves showed the presence of phenolic compound, aromatic amide and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. The results of this study suggest that leaf and root extracts of L. leucocephala and G. sepium at the rate of 40,000 mg / kg could be useful in root knot nematode management in vegetable beds.

Adekunle O.K.

2007-01-01

269

Genetics of the radiation-induced yellow vein mosaic disease resistance mutation in okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. AFLP and MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 population revealed DNA fragments that are potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

270

Functional effects of dried okra powder on reconstituted dried yam flake and sensory properties of ojojo-a fried yam (Dioscorea alata L.) snack.  

Science.gov (United States)

Processing of raw yam (D. alata) tuber (RY) to more stable and instant form could ease the tedium in preparation, increase popularity and commercial potential of ojojo-a fried yam snack. In this study, the potential of dried okra powder (1%-5%) to reduce the sensory quality impairment in ojojo made from instant yam (D. alata) flake (YF) was tested. Inclusion of okra powder significantly increased the viscosity and increased dispersibility of reconstituted yam flour. Addition of okra powder significantly (p?okra consistently improved the sensory acceptability of ojojo by increasing the product's moistness and fluffiness with reduced crispiness and roughness. In conclusion, addition of 0%-2% of okra powder to reconstituted YF produced ojojo samples which compared favourably with those made from RY in terms of colour, flavour and taste. PMID:24493896

Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi; Olaitan, Ololade Funke

2014-02-01

271

Response of young plants to mercury. [Pennisetum typhoideum, Medicago sativa L. var. Raska, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. var. Pusa-savni  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Young individuals of three plant species viz., Pennisetum typhoideum Stapf. var. PHB-14, Medicago sativa L. var. Raska and Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. var. Pusa-savni, were tested for their response to Hg. All of them were found to be affected, Pennisetum being the most sensitive, followed by Medicago and Abelmoxchus in that order. The visible injury to leaves of plants, chlorophyll content and total dry matter was found to be affected in proportion to the metal doses administered. Measurement of Leaf Injury Index (LII) as a simple parameter of the susceptibility of the species is discussed.

Mhatre, G.N.; Chaphekar, S.B.

1984-01-01

272

Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

Ikoni Ogaji

2011-01-01

273

Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  

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Full Text Available Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.. Seed shape, size and colour as well as outer epidermal cell patterns as seen by SEM, anticlinal cell boundaries and periclinal cell walls sculpture allow the recognition of two distinct groups among studied taxa. Seed coat features indicated both intra-group and inter-group relationships. Recognized groupings do not correspond well with the classical treatments of the Malvaceae, rather they suggest restructuring of tribal and generic taxonomy in the family. One important conclusion of this study is the inclusion of Lavatera cretica L. in the genus Malva as M. linnaei, M. F. Ray.

Salah M. I. El Naggar

2001-01-01

274

Growth and Yield of Okra with Rock-Phosphate – Amended Organic Fertilizer  

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Full Text Available Phosphorous supply from organic manures for okra production can be insufficient for optimal fruit yield. The growth and yield of okra (Variety: NHAe 47-4 were assessed in field experiments with an organic fertilizer made from cowdung (CD, fortified with Ogun Rock Phosphate (ORP. The ORP was applied sole at 100 kg ha-1 and also with each of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 t ha-1 cowdung. There was a standard check of NPK 20-10-10 applied 2 weeks after planting at 400 kg ha-1 and an unfertilized control., Average number of leaves per plant, stem diameter and plant height were all similar, with 4 weeks growth. Average plant leaf area was however higher with ORP added to either 7.5 or 10.0 t ha-1 CD, relative to either sole ORP or the unfertilized treatments. At 8 weeks after planting, plant height was highest with 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP and was comparable only with plants from 7.5 t ha-1 CD + ORP application. Plant stem girths were similar with all ORP applications. Number of leaves per plant and average leaf area were highest with 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP. Applications of 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 t ha-1 CD + ORP had comparable leaf areas. Application of 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP gave the highest okra fruit yield which was comparable with yields from 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 t ha-1 CD +ORP that ranged from 2.92 to 3.05 t ha-1. Pod length and pod circumference were significantly higher with ORP + 10.0 or 7.5 t ha-1 CD. Plants from the unfertilized control treatment had significantly shorter pods with lower circumference than all the fertilized plants. Okra fruit yield is significantly increased with organic fertilizer fortification with ORP.

Eyitayo A. Makinde

2013-09-01

275

Patogenicidade de Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae em quiabeiro Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae in okra  

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Foram avaliados os efeitos do parasitismo de Pratylenchus brachyurus e de dois isolados de P. coffeae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) em experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação. Algumas mudanças anatômicas induzidas no hospedeiro por P. brachyurus foram observadas e registradas em laboratório. O quiabeiro reagiu como bom hospedeiro para P. brachyurus e para um dos isolados de P. coffeae (K5). Entretanto, apenas a primeira espécie reduziu o crescimento da planta. Outro isolado d...

Inomoto, Ma?rio M.; Silva, Rosangela A.; Pimentel, Joa?o P.

2004-01-01

276

Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics  

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Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, u...

Gilmar Efrem Martinello; Leal, Nilton R.; Amaral Ju?nior, Anto?nio T.; Pereira, Messias G.; Daher, Roge?rio F.

2002-01-01

277

Inheritance of Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance, a Mutant Phenotype from Gamma Radiation Mutagenesis in Okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting export-grade okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. This study aimed at determining the inheritance of YVMD resistance from B4610 through genetic analysis. Segregation analysis of the F2 and BC1F1 progeny from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a susceptible variety, indicated that YVMD resistance phenotype resulted from a single locus mutation (p > 0.05). In addition, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to aid in the assignment of YVMD resistance phenotype. Combinations of primers AV1F1 or AV1F2 with AV1R1 successfully amplified a DNA fragment from infected susceptible individuals but not from resistant individuals. DNA sequencing of the PCR product confirmed the identity of AV1 gene belonging to the yellow vein mosaic virus

278

Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

2015-01-01

279

Bioadhesive okra polymer based buccal patches as platform for controlled drug delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, polysaccharide from the Okra fruits (Hibiscus esculentus) was extracted, characterized and explored for its mucoadhesive potential. Mucoadhesive films of okra polymer (OP) were prepared by solvent casting method based on 3(2) factorial design. For these studies, OP (2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, w/v) and glycerol (plasticizer) (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, v/v) were taken as independent variables while tensile strength, mucoadhesive strength, contact angle, swelling index and residence time as dependent variables. The developed films were evaluated for their physicochemical, mechanical and electrical properties. The formulated films were found to be smooth, flexible, and displayed adequate mucoadhesive and tensile strength. Their near neutral pH and negative hemolytic studies indicated their non-irritability and biocompatible nature with biological tissues. The formulation comprising of 3% OP and 0.5% glycerol (F8) was found to exhibit optimum mechanical properties. Further, optimized film was loaded with zolmitriptan (model drug) to determine its drug release profiles. In vitro and ex vivo drug release studies demonstrated a controlled release of zolmitriptan over a period of 8h in simulated salivary fluid (SSF) pH 6.8, with the correlation coefficient values indicating its non-Fickian kinetics. Thus, OP can be used as a promising biomaterial for controlled drug delivery. PMID:25036601

Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Deepinder; Brar, Vivekjot

2014-09-01

280

Influence of Sowing Time, Plant Spacing and Picking Interval on the Growth and Yield of Okra  

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Full Text Available A study was under taken to find out the effect of sowing time; spacing and picking interval on yield and yield components of okra (BARI Dherosh-1. Green pod yield was significantly higher when crop was sown on April (18.92 t ha 1 than March sown crop (16.24 t ha 1. Significantly highest yield (20.99 t ha 1 was recorded at closer spacing (60 x 30 cm2 than wider spacings. Yield was gradually decreased with increasing picking interval. Higher yield was obtained at 2 days picking interval (21.74 t ha 1, which was statistically similar to 3 days picking interval (19.53 t ha 1. Interaction among the effects of sowing times, spacing and picking interval on yield and yield components were found significant except interaction of sowing time with picking interval. The results showed that 2 or 3 days picking interval with closer spacing (60 x 30 cm2 sown in April were found higher yield (24.94 and 23.79 t ha 1, respectively in okra (var. BARI Dherosh-1.

M.A.H. Talukder

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effects of Management Practices on Nematode and Fungi Populations and Okra Yield  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra was grown in field plots of Tifton loamy sand naturally infested with the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemoides ornalus and the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Plots were treated with various soil pesticides and left exposed or covered with biodegradable paper film mulch under trickle irrigation. Soil was assayed for nematodes and fungi, and plant roots were examined for root-rot and insect damage. Fewer nematodes and fungi generally were recovered from soil treated with DD-MENCS (with and without film mulch) or methyl bromide-chloropicrin (2:1) (MBC) and film mulch than from nontreated soil. Funfigation with DD-MENCS or MBC suppressed populations of M. incognita, C. ornatus, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Ethoprop (alone or combined with other pesticides), sodium azide, and chloroneb were less effective than DD-MENCS and MBC. Plant growth anti yield were greatest when nematodes and pathogenic fungi were controlled. Yield was increased 3-fold by DD-MENCS + film mulch or MBC + film mulch in comparison with the average yield of okra produced in Georgia. The root-knot nematode-Fusarium wilt complex was most severe in nonfuntigated soil. PMID:19305580

Johnson, A. W.; Sumner, D. R.; Jaworski, C. A.; Chalfant, R. B.

1977-01-01

282

Physiological, biochemical and growth responses of lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) plants as affected by Cd contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium contamination of the soil is a common cause of environmental concern in the suburban areas of developing cities in India The present research paper describes the changes in physiological, biochemical, growth and yield characteristics, and bioaccumulation potential of lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), an important vegetable crop at different levels of Cd in the soil. Cadmium accumulation was maximum in roots followed by stems, leaves and fruits at 100 mg Cd kg(-1) in the soil. Cd accumulation in lady's finger negatively affected the physiological and biochemical characteristics, growth and yield. The magnitude of negative effect enhanced with increasing Cd concentration. The study suggests that due to higher potential of bioaccumulation of Cd in lady's finger and consequent reductions in growth and yield, this plant may not be a suitable option for cultivation in Cd contaminated soil. PMID:20499048

Sharma, R K; Agrawal, M; Agrawal, S B

2010-06-01

283

Comparative Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench (Okro) and Corchorus olitorius L (Jew Mallow) on Soil Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum Products  

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The comparative effects of Abelmoschus esculentus and Corchorus olitorius on soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum products were evaluated in this study. The pH, moisture, organic matter, microbial population and total petroleum hydrocarbon of the soils at the beginning and the end of the study were evaluated. Growth of A. esculentus led to loss of more TPH from the soil than the growth of C. olitorius. The growth of A. esculentus increased soil alkalinity and the soil moisture content ...

Njoku, Kelechi L.; Oboh, Bola O.; Akinola, Modupe O.; Ajasa, Arinola O.

2012-01-01

284

A convenient synthesis of lepidimoide from okra mucilage and its growth-promoting activity in hypocotyls.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total synthesis of the unsaturated disaccharide, lepidimoide 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-L-rhamnopyranose sodium salt, has been carried out from D-glucose and L-rhamnose (Tetrahedron Lett. 1993, 34, 2653), but the process is very long and complicated. A method for more easily producing this compound and in large quantities is necessary for further research. We have succeeded in conveniently synthesizing lepidimoide from okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruit mucilage. At the same time, the isomer (epi-lepidimoide) was obtained as a byproduct. The structure was determined as the 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-6-deoxy-L-glucopyranose sodium salt by spectral analysis. We found that lepidimoide easily epimerized to epi-lepidimoide in alkaline media. Both lepidimoide and epi-lepidimoide exhibited the same high activity in the cockscomb hypocotyls elongation test. PMID:14659666

Hirose, Katsutoshi; Endo, Keiichiro; Hasegawa, Koji

2004-01-01

285

GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY LIVE MULCH IN SAMARU, ZARIA  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of theInstitute for Agricultural Research; Ahmadu Bello University Zaria located on latitude11011’N, longitude 7038’E and 686m above sea level in the Northern Guinea SavannahEcological Zone of Nigeria in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons. The objective of thestudy was to compare the yield of okra grown under different weed managementstrategies. The experiment consisted of four treatments namely: control, cucumber,watermelon and pumpkin. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomised blockdesign (RCBD with three replications. From the results so far obtained, pumpkinsignificantly gave higher mean values in both growth and yield characters measured,whereas the control treatment, significantly gave lower mean values of both growth andyield parameters throughout the period of assessment.

HAMMA, I. L

2012-06-01

286

Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente / Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo [...] , sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líquido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas. Abstract in english Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was so [...] wn in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hybrid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

Marlei Rosa dos, Santos; Maria Aparecida Nogueira, Sediyama; Izabel Cristina dos, Santos; Luís Tarcísio, Salgado; Sanzio Mollica, Vidigal.

2011-02-01

287

Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo, sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líquido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas.Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was sown in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hybrid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

Marlei Rosa dos Santos

2011-02-01

288

Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado.RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

Gilmar E. Martinello

2003-03-01

289

Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD / Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de a [...] grupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado. Abstract in english RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods [...] to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

Gilmar E., Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T. do, Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

2003-03-01

290

Residue analysis of fipronil and difenoconazole in okra by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their food safety evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based method is reported for simultaneous analysis of fipronil (plus its metabolites) and difenoconazole residues in okra. The sample preparation method involving extraction with ethyl acetate provided 80-107% recoveries for both the pesticides with precision RSD within 4-17% estimated at the limits of quantification (LOQ, fipronil=1ngg(-1), difenoconazole=5ngg(-1)) and higher fortification levels. In field, both the pesticides dissipated with half-life of 2.5days. The estimated pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for fipronil and difenoconazole were 15 and 19.5days, and 4 and 6.5days at single and double dose of field applications, respectively. Decontamination of incurred residues by washing and different cooking treatments was quite efficient in minimizing the residue load of both the chemicals. Okra samples harvested after the estimated PHIs were found safe for human consumption. PMID:25624217

Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Utture, Sagar C; Ahammed Shabeer, T P; Banerjee, Kaushik

2015-06-01

291

Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp.) foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655), A. caillei (CGO 8656), A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657) e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658); 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo P...

Gilmar Efrem Martinello; Leal, Nilton R.; João Carlos Pimentel

2001-01-01

292

Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Periods of weed interference in okra crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos cresce [...] ntes de 0 (testemunha), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE), com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo. Abstract in english Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 [...] , and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE) with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

L.P.S, Bachega; L.B, Carvalho; S, Bianco; A.B, Cecílio Filho.

2013-03-01

293

Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

Amer-Zareen

1999-01-01

294

Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

L.P.S Bachega

2013-03-01

295

Identification of DNA Fragments that Showed Linkage to the Radiation-induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease resistant mutant of okra was crossed to Pichit 03, a susceptible variety. Their progeny showed prolonged resistance when compared with Pichit 03. DNA fingerprints of F2 and BC1F1 individuals from the cross indicated that most DNA bands did not segregate with either the resistance or the susceptible characteristics. Nonetheless, polymorphic DNA bands could be identified between the mutant and Okura, the parental variety

296

Seed Size  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners collect, arrange, and draw various seeds from smallest to biggest. They also estimate how many of the smallest would fit into the biggest. In addition, learners predict how many seeds they would find inside an apple or lemon, and cut open these fruits to check their prediction against the real seed count. The Did You Know section describes the biggest and smallest seeds on Earth.

Lawrence Hall of Science

2007-01-01

297

Field Efficacy of CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis Biopesticide to Control Helicoverpa armigera (H?bner and Earias vitella (Fabricius in Okra Crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis formulation and two other commercial Bt formulations (Agree and Larvo Bt were tested on Okra fields to control two lepidopteran pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vitella. CAMB Bt formulation was tested from 250-g/h dose to 1500 g/h dose to see the efficacy against target insect pests. Commercial Bt formulations, Agree and Larvo Bt were used as standard with one dose of 1000 g/h. All microbial insecticides successfully controlled H. armigera and E. vitella larvae in okra field. The efficacy of locally developed Bt formulation was promising in comparison to Agree and Larvo BT.

Shahid Karim

2000-01-01

298

Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

299

Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1) which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied and concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively) app...

Asiya Hameed; Qadri, Tabasum N.; Mahmooduzzafar,; Siddiqi, T. O.; Iqbal, M.

2011-01-01

300

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo / Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo fo [...] ram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido), tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC) por oito dias). Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1%) durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilizatio [...] n of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid), time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC) during eight days). On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1%) used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Marcelo Augusto G., Carnelossi; Paula, Yaguiu; Anita Caroline L., Reinoso; Gláucia Regina de O., Almeida; Moema L., Lira; Gabriel Francisco da, Silva; Vahideh R.R., Jalali.

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo foram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido, tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC por oito dias. Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1% durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento.This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilization of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid, time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC during eight days. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1% used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi

2005-12-01

302

Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema) colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A) enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longul...

Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara; Luís Rodrigues Freire; Manlio Silvestre Fernandes

1999-01-01

303

Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L in a Sub-tropical Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD where 2.3.2 (22 an inorganic fertilizer was used as a control, and was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level of kraal manure there were significant (p<0.05 increases in all the growth parameters that were measured. There were also significant (p<0.05 differences of fresh mass and dry mass yield of wild okra. There was an increase in fresh and dry mass yield with every increase in application level of kraal manure while the least fresh and dry mass was recorded in plants provided with 2.3.2 (22. Kraal manure applied at 60 ton/ha gave the highest yield of wild okra under the conditions of this experiment.

Michael T. Masarirambi

2012-01-01

304

Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tested substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite a...

Edilson Costa; Souza, Taynara G.; Benteo, Gleciane L.; Ss, Katiane Benett; Gs, Cleiton Benett

2013-01-01

305

Seed proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cell biologists, and many of the complicated aspects of their processing, assembly, and compartmentation are now well understood. Unfortunately, the abundance and complexity of the SSP requires that they be avoided or removed prior to gel-based analysis of non-SSP. While much of the extant data from MS-based proteomic analysis of seeds is descriptive, it has nevertheless provided a preliminary metabolic picture explaining much of their biology. Contemporary studies are moving more toward analysis of protein interactions and posttranslational modifications, and functions of metabolic networks. Many aspects of the biology of seeds make then an attractive platform for heterologous protein expression. Herein we present a broad review of the results from the proteomic studies of seeds, and speculate on a potential future research directions. PMID:21172463

Miernyk, Ján A; Hajduch, Martin

2011-04-01

306

Organic cultivation of okra with ground cover of perennial herbaceous legumes / Cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O manejo da adubação verde com leguminosas herbáceas perenes tem se apresentado como prática interessante à produção de hortaliças, proporcionando melhorias no ambiente de cultivo e aumentando a produtividade das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro [...] em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo cultivo do quiabeiro em solo descoberto (controle) ou coberto com cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides), soja perene (Glycine wightii), calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides), amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi) e estilosantes campo grande (Stylosanthes capitata e Stylosanthes macrocephala). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A roçada das leguminosas, realizada na véspera da semeadura do quiabeiro, possibilitou a adição de quantidades de massa seca às áreas de cultivo, destacando-se o potencial do cudzu tropical (3,74 t ha-1), soja perene (1,55 t ha-1) e amendoim forrageiro (1,30 t ha-1). Nos cultivos de quiabeiro em solo coberto com cudzu tropical e com soja perene foram observados os menores acúmulos de massa seca de plantas espontâneas, até os 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro. Aos 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro, somente as áreas cobertas com amendoim forrageiro e com calopogônio apresentaram maiores volumes de água no solo em relação ao controle. Do início ao fim da colheita, as plantas de quiabeiro cultivadas em solo coberto com soja perene e com cudzu tropical apresentaram as maiores alturas. A produtividade máxima alcançada de frutos de quiabeiro (16,23 t ha-1), foi obtida no cultivo de quiabeiro em solo coberto com soja perene. Abstract in english The management of green manure with perennial herbaceous legumes has emerged as an interesting practice for vegetable production, improving the cultivation environment and increasing crop yields. In the present study we evaluated the organic okra cultivation in soil covered with perennial herbaceous [...] legumes. The treatments consisted of okra grown in bare soil (control) or covered with tropical kudzo (Pueraria phaseoloides), perennial soybean (Glycine wightii), calopogonium (Calopogonium muconoides), Pinto peanut (Arachis pintoi) and Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The weeding of legumes was realized before the okra was sown and this allowed the addition of quantities of dry matter, highlighting the potential of tropical kudzo (3.74 t ha-1), perennial soybean (1.55 t ha-1) and peanut (1.30 t ha-1). Okra cropped in soil covered with tropical kudzo and perennial soybean had the weed lowest dry matter accumulation until 150 days after sowing the okra. At 150 days after sowing the okra, only the areas covered with peanut and calopogonium had higher volumes of water in the soil compared to the control. Throughout the harvest, the okra plants grown in soil covered with perennial soybean and tropical kudzo showed the greatest heights. The maximum okra fruit yield (16.23 t ha-1) was obtained by growing okra in soil covered with perennial soybean.

Diego Mathias N da, Silva; Fábio Luiz, Oliveira; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Claudenir, Fávero; Mateus Augusto L, Quaresma.

2013-09-01

307

Irrigation with domestic wastewater: responses on growth and yield of ladyfinger Abelmoschus esculentus and on soil nutrients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic wastewater is generated continuously and in large quantities. It can serve as an alternative water nutrient source for irrigation. In the present study Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Ladyfinger) was irrigated using untreated wastewater (T1), treated wastewater (T2) and rainwater (T3) in pot experiments. The effect was seen on nutrient fortication, growth and yield of the plant and the nutrient status of the soil. Additionally the build up of Cr, Cu and Zn from the irrigation water were anlayzed in different parts of the plant biomass and in the soil. The sapling survival rate was found to be 87% in T1 followed by T2 and T3. Root shoot ratio under different treatments was found in the order T3 (0.46) >T2 (0.35) >T1 (0.31). The chlorophyll a, b and carotene content in the leaves (mg g(-1)) was found to be 6.3, 0.5, 0.9 under T1, 4.8, 0.4, 0.8 under T2 and 3.2, 0.3, 0.5 under T3 respectively and all the three varied in the order T1>T2>T3. The same trend was found in case of total dry matter (g) T1 (6.3) >T2 (3.7) >T3 (2.3) at p < or = 0.05. There was a considerable increase in nutrients in the soil under T1 and T2 as compared to T3 after final harvest. The organic matter (%), NO3-N and PO4(3-) (mg kg(-1)) content post harvest soil was found to be 3.4, 71, 90 under T1 and 2.9, 52, 63 under T2 respectively. Also, there was an increase in cations Na, K, Ca and Mg in the soil irrigated with T1 and T2 after the final harvest. Thus irrigation with wastewater generally increased soil fertility. Only a small percentage of the heavy metal was bioaccumulated by the plant parts from the irrigation water. There was hardly any metal accumulation in fruits. Bulk of the metal ions remained in the soil. PMID:22319883

Thapliyal, Alka; Vasudevan, Padma; Dastidar, M G; Tandon, Mamta; Mishra, Seema

2011-09-01

308

Genetic architecture of fruit yield and its contributing quantitative traits in Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic architecture of fruit yield and its related quantitative traits viz., days to first flowering, days to first picking, plantheight, primary branches per plant, stem girth, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, fruits per plant and fruit yield per plantstudied through generation mean analysis using six basic generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of six crosses HRB-55 xAOL-05-4, VRO-5 x Red Long, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3, GO-2 x AOL-04-3, Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 and Parbhani Kranti xAOL-03-6 in two environments (E1 and E2. Among the generations within the crosses, the sum of squares showed significantdifferences for all characters. Fixable type of gene effects viz., additive [d] and additive x additive [i] found significant fordays to first flowering in crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E1, VRO-5 x Red Long (E2 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1. The similarkind of gene effects also observed for days to first picking (E1 and fruit weight (E2 in the cross GO-2 x AOL-04-3. In anothercase, dominance [h] and dominance x dominanace [l] which non-fixable gene effects were significant for days to firstflowering in crosses VRO-5 x Red Long (E2 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1; stem girth in VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1 and fruitlength in Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 (E1. Duplicate type of epistasis observed for days to first flowering in crosses, VRO-5 xRed Long (E2 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1; stem girth in VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1 and fruit length in cross Arka Anamika xAOL-03-1 (E1. Results revealed additive and additive x additive types of fixable gene effects for days to first flowering anddays to first picking as well as fruit yield and its contributing traits in some cross-environment combinations. This suggestssimple selection or a single seed descent method could help for improvement of these traits. The results on epistatic geneeffects for fruit yield and its contributing component traits in different cross-environment combinations suggests that recurrentselection, bi-parental mating and inter se mating between desirable segregants followed by selection or multiple crosses offergood promising methods.

Khanorkar S.M. and K. B. Kathiria

2010-07-01

309

TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE  

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Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que apresentou reduções em torno de 76,42%, Carbono Orgânico Total (COT 67,88%, fenóis totais 77,13% e nitrogênio amoniacal 34,63%. A metodologia de tratamento empregando Filtração Lenta e Fotocatálise demonstrou ser uma excelente opção de remediação de chorume.

Núbia Natália Brito

2010-01-01

310

Begomovirus characterization, and development of phenotypic and DNA-based diagnostics for screening of okra genotype resistance against Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus  

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The leaf sample from okra plants showing the yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms was collected in Karnataka state, India. The genome of the virus was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome (GU112065) is 2,741 bp in length and genome is similar to that of monopartite begomoviruses originating from the Old World, with seven conserved ORFs. Further nucleotide (nts) sequence comparisons showed that the genome has the highest sequence identities of 96.1?...

Venkataravanappa, V.; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C. N.; Krishna Reddy, M.

2012-01-01

311

Diversity and interactions of begomoviruses and their associated DNA-satellites  

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To study the diversity of begomovirus/DNA-satellite complexes, plants of one crop species (okra; Abelmoschus esculentus) and one weed species (Ageratum conyzoides), both with leaf curling symptoms, were analyzed. Sequence analyses of complete genome components revealed a unique begomovirus/DNA-satellite complex in both plants. Okra was found to harbor infection with viruses of three begomovirus species, including the new recombinant species Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus, as well as one betasa...

Sattar, Muhammad Naeem

2012-01-01

312

Efeito de alguns herbicidas na cultura do quiabeiro, em testes efetuados em casa de vegetação / Effect of some herbicides on okra crop in trials performed in the greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Duas variedades de quiabeiro foram testadas, em condições de casa de vegetação, com solo de textura areno-barrenta, na sua tolerância para 16 herbicidas, cada qual aplicado em uma única dose. Dentre os herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado o triflu-ralin destacou-se no combate às ervas dan [...] inhas gramíneas e não causou nenhum dano para a planta do quiabeiro. Os herbicidas cloroxuron, linuron, norea e propachlor mostraram ótimos resultados no cambate às ervas más e quanto à tolerância dessa malvácea. Do grupo das triazinas, todos os herbicidas usados nas condições do teste provocaram danos para o quiabeiro. Abstract in english Two okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) varieties were tested for their tolerance to sixteen herbicides at one rate each, as a pre-planting and as a pre-emergence applications in greenhouse trials. The results with the incorporated herbicides showed that only tri-fluralin at 0,75 kg/ha active ingredient w [...] as promising to this crop. Different results were obtained with the pre-emergence applications of the group of urea and anilide herbicides. While no symptoms of injury were observed with chloroxuron, norea, linuron, and propachlor, injury symptoms were evident with diuron, fluometuron, metobromuron and siduron. The four triazine herbicides were very damaging to the okra plants. Under the conditions of these tests, only the herbicides trifluralin, chloroxuron, norea, and linuron were promising to the okra crop.

Aldo, Alves; Reinaldo, Forster.

1970-01-01

313

Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats / Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi [...] realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle. Abstract in english In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was [...] undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.

Pritam S., Jain; Sanjay B., Bari.

2010-11-01

314

Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits  

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Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless.This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

Wagner Ferreira da Mota

2008-06-01

315

Comparative Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (Okro and Corchorus olitorius L (Jew Mallow on Soil Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum Products  

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Full Text Available The comparative effects of Abelmoschus esculentus and Corchorus olitorius on soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum products were evaluated in this study. The pH, moisture, organic matter, microbial population and total petroleum hydrocarbon of the soils at the beginning and the end of the study were evaluated. Growth of A. esculentus led to loss of more TPH from the soil than the growth of C. olitorius. The growth of A. esculentus increased soil alkalinity and the soil moisture content more than that of C. olitorius. More bacteria and fungi were isolated from soil that had A. esculentus than from soil that had C. olitorius. Significant differences were noticed between the impacts of A. esculentus and that of C. olitorius on the soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. The findings in this study show that A. esculentus has better ability to remediate petroleum contaminated soils than C. olitorius. Since both crops are easily propagated and readily grow in most soils, they can be very useful in combating the problems associated with contamination of soil with petroleum products.

Kelechi L. Njoku

2012-04-01

316

Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure  

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Full Text Available Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11, catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6, glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1 which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied and concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively applied to plant in the soil shows a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the respective metal accumulation. It reveals a mechanism for constant detoxification of H2O2 that have to be associated with adaptations and ultimate survival of this plant species during stress conditions. A reduction of catalase activities was observed on exposure to these metals, which is supposedly due to the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Root length, shoot length, number of leaves showed an enhancement with 0.05 mM CdCl2 dose then a gradual decline with the increase in concentrations. The results indicate that A. esculentus is tolerant to high concentrations of these metals, a property related to a differential activation of its enzymatic antioxidant system, and also reveal that this species has a higher capacity of Cd absorption.

Asiya Hameed

2011-01-01

317

Four DNA-A variants among Pakistani isolates of cotton leaf curl virus and their affinities to DNA-A of geminivirus isolates from okra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete DNA-A sequences of nine Pakistani geminivirus isolates from leaf curl-affected cotton (CLCuV-PK) or from okra, and the partial sequences of several additional isolates were determined. Sequences of isolates from cotton were of four types. Isolates from leaf curl-affected okra had virtually the same sequences as those from cotton. Isolates from yellow vein mosaic-affected okra were of two types (OYVMV types 201 and 301), both distinct from but closely related to the virus isolates from cotton. Of these six types, two types of CLCuV-PK are the most closely related but another (CLCuV-PK type 72b) is the most distinct. Of the encoded proteins, coat protein (CP) is the most strongly conserved (92-100% amino acid sequence identity), and AC4 protein the most variable (41-87%). The 5' and 3' halves of the intergenic region of some isolates had different affinities and occurred in seven combinations, suggesting that recombination had occurred and that the origin of replication was a favoured recombination site. Similarly, the first 1520 nt of CLCuV-PK type 804a DNA resembled those of OYVMV type 301 DNA but the remaining 1224 nt were very different. The AC1 (Rep) gene and 5' part of the intergenic region of CLCuV-PK type 72b closely resembled those of OYVMV type 301, whereas the rest of the sequence did not. The cotton leaf curl epidemic in Pakistan is caused by several distinct variants, with recombination events involving OYVMV and other unspecified geminiviruses having probably been involved in their evolution. PMID:9568988

Zhou, X; Liu, Y; Robinson, D J; Harrison, B D

1998-04-01

318

Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil) / Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou identificar lepidópteros desfolhadores e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. As lagartas foram coletadas através de catação manual entre março e abril de 2009, individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido contendo ped [...] aços de folhas de quiabo e mantidas sob condições controladas (25±1°C, 12 horas de fotofase, 70±10% de UR) até a obtenção dos adultos de lepidópteros e/ou de seus parasitoides. Foram obtidos 63 adultos de lepidópteros: três espécies de Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), uma de Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) e uma de Tortricidae não identificada. Uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo (Diptera) e os Hymenoptera parasitoides Copidosoma floridanum Westwood (Encyrtidae), Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae) emergiram de A. flava e, C. floridanum e uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo, de P. includens. Este é o primeiro relato da associação entre S. frugiperda, P. includens e A. monuste orceis e seus parasitoides C. floridanum e Euplectrus sp. em plantas de quiabo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil). Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Pe [...] tri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10%) until the emergence of lepidopterans and/or parasitoids. In all, 63 lepidopterans were obtained: three species of Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker); one of Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart), and an unidentified species of Tortricidae. One unidentified tachinid fly (Diptera) and the Hymenoptera parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead) (Encyrtidae) and Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae) emerged from A. flava, while C. floridanum and an unidentified tachinid, from P. includens. This is the first report of an association between the herbivores S. frugiperda, P. includens and A. monuste orceis, the parasitoids C. floridanum and Euplectrus sp. on okra plants.

Rogéria Inês Rosa, Lara; Bruno Rafael, Spera; Danielle Roberta, Versuti; Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues, Fernandes; Terezinha Monteiro, Santos-Cividanes; Nelson Wanderley, Perioto.

2012-04-01

319

EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L.)  

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The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L.) was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m²) controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina wer...

Yvo de Carvalho; Lincoln Fonseca Zica

2007-01-01

320

Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil. Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Petri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10% until the emergence of lepidopterans and/or parasitoids. In all, 63 lepidopterans were obtained: three species of Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker; one of Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, and an unidentified species of Tortricidae. One unidentified tachinid fly (Diptera and the Hymenoptera parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead (Encyrtidae and Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae emerged from A. flava, while C. floridanum and an unidentified tachinid, from P. includens. This is the first report of an association between the herbivores S. frugiperda, P. includens and A. monuste orceis, the parasitoids C. floridanum and Euplectrus sp. on okra plants.Este estudo objetivou identificar lepidópteros desfolhadores e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. As lagartas foram coletadas através de catação manual entre março e abril de 2009, individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido contendo pedaços de folhas de quiabo e mantidas sob condições controladas (25±1°C, 12 horas de fotofase, 70±10% de UR até a obtenção dos adultos de lepidópteros e/ou de seus parasitoides. Foram obtidos 63 adultos de lepidópteros: três espécies de Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, uma de Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart e uma de Tortricidae não identificada. Uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo (Diptera e os Hymenoptera parasitoides Copidosoma floridanum Westwood (Encyrtidae, Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae emergiram de A. flava e, C. floridanum e uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo, de P. includens. Este é o primeiro relato da associação entre S. frugiperda, P. includens e A. monuste orceis e seus parasitoides C. floridanum e Euplectrus sp. em plantas de quiabo.

Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Comparative Evaluation of Zinc and Lead and their Synergistic Effects on Growth and Some Physiological Responses of Hassawi Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) Seedlings  

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Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a worldwide problem, leading to a reduction of plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was carried out to compare the effect of different levels of zinc (Zn2+) or lead (Pb2+)and their interactions on growth and physiological changes of Hassawi okra seedlings. These seedlings were grown in a soil, to which different levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mM) of Zn2+ or Pb2+ were added with wate...

Al-omair, M. A.; Youssef, M. M.; Azooz, M. M.

2011-01-01

322

Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality

Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

2011-01-01

323

Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality.

Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

2011-01-01

324

Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce > soybean > watermelon > corn> okra?millet >sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

2015-01-01

325

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade ...

Gilson Soares da Silva; Aurenice Lucena Pereira

2008-01-01

326

Organic forage seed production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From January 2004 only organically produced seed can be used in organic farming systems within the EU. Danish seed producers and seed companies are establishing an organic forage seed production in order to supply organic growers within the EU with high quality seed of recognised varieties. This brief paper outlines a project investigating improved cultivation and management techniques to ensure such a supply is met.

Boelt, B.; Deleuran, L. C.

2000-01-01

327

Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra / Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus) há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de inj [...] úria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10 e 25ºC. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial, com comprimento entre 8 e 12 cm, sendo então envoltos por uma camada de filme de PVC em bandeja de poliestireno expandido, seguido do armazenamento até o aparecimento de sintomas de deterioração ou murcha. A redução da temperatura de armazenamento de 25 para 10 ou 5ºC diminuiu a perda de massa nos frutos envoltos com PVC e dos frutos controle, com menor taxa a 5ºC. Ao reduzir a temperatura para 5 ou 10ºC e cobrir com filme de PVC, o conteúdo relativo de água foi mantido durante o armazenamento, porém a 25ºC a elevada perda de massa esteve associada a significante redução do conteúdo de água do pericarpo do fruto. O aparecimento de sintomas de injúria por frio foi retardado pela presença de filme de PVC nos frutos armazenados a 5ºC. No entanto a 10ºC, não foram detectados sintomas de degeneração associados à injúria por frio nos frutos envoltos com PVC ou controle até o décimo dia de armazenamento. A taxa de degradação de clorofila durante o armazenamento foi menor nos frutos mantidos nas temperaturas mais baixas e com filme PVC. O aparecimento de sintomas severos de injúria por frio a 5ºC relacionou-se com o menor conteúdo de clorofila dos frutos controle, quando comparado àqueles envoltos em filme de PVC. Abstract in english Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus) for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the mo [...] st popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.

Fernando Luiz, Finger; Maria Edith, Della-Justina; Vicente Wagner Dias, Casali; Mário, Puiatti.

328

Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

2014-10-01

329

Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the most popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de injúria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10 e 25ºC. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial, com comprimento entre 8 e 12 cm, sendo então envoltos por uma camada de filme de PVC em bandeja de poliestireno expandido, seguido do armazenamento até o aparecimento de sintomas de deterioração ou murcha. A redução da temperatura de armazenamento de 25 para 10 ou 5ºC diminuiu a perda de massa nos frutos envoltos com PVC e dos frutos controle, com menor taxa a 5ºC. Ao reduzir a temperatura para 5 ou 10ºC e cobrir com filme de PVC, o conteúdo relativo de água foi mantido durante o armazenamento, porém a 25ºC a elevada perda de massa esteve associada a significante redução do conteúdo de água do pericarpo do fruto. O aparecimento de sintomas de injúria por frio foi retardado pela presença de filme de PVC nos frutos armazenados a 5ºC. No entanto a 10ºC, não foram detectados sintomas de degeneração associados à injúria por frio nos frutos envoltos com PVC ou controle até o décimo dia de armazenamento. A taxa de degradação de clorofila durante o armazenamento foi menor nos frutos mantidos nas temperaturas mais baixas e com filme PVC. O aparecimento de sintomas severos de injúria por frio a 5ºC relacionou-se com o menor conteúdo de clorofila dos frutos controle, quando comparado àqueles envoltos em filme de PVC.

Fernando Luiz Finger

2008-01-01

330

Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro / Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David [...] e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David an [...] d Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

Wagner Ferreira da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Derly José Henriques da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia Pittol, Firme; Rosilene Antônio, Ribeiro.

2008-06-01

331

Isolating, screening and applying chromium reducing bacteria to promote growth and yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in chromium contaminated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)], extensively used in different industries, is one of the most toxic heavy metals. The Cr (VI) reducing bacteria could be helpful in decreasing its toxic effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Cr (VI) reducing bacteria to improve growth and yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Cr-contaminated soils. Most of the selected bacterial isolates significantly increased the growth and yield of okra. Maximum response was observed in the plants inoculated with the isolate K12 where plant height, root length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant increased up to 77.5 percent, 72.6 percent, 1.4 fold and 2.9 fold, respectively. Moreover, inoculation with bacteria caused significant decrease in Cr (VI) concentration in soil and plant parts across all treatments. The maximum decrease of 69.6, 56.1 and 40.0 percent in Cr (VI) concentrations in soil, plant vegetative parts and plant reproductive parts, respectively, was observed in the treatment inoculated with the strain K12. Based on amplification, sequencing and analysis of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain K12 was found belonging to genus Brucella and was designated as Brucella sp. K12. These findings suggest that the strain K12 may serve as a potential bioresource to improve crop production in Cr-contaminated soils. PMID:25066609

Maqbool, Zahid; Asghar, Hafiz Naeem; Shahzad, Tanvir; Hussain, Sabir; Riaz, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Maqsood, Marium

2014-07-24

332

Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais / The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG) e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorre [...] ntes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.). As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s) espécie(s) e, ou da(s) raça(s) de Meloidogyne presente(s) nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2), seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3) e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2). A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp. Abstract in english Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG), and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematode [...] s (Meloidogyne spp.). The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2) prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3) and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2). The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2), malate dehydrogenase (N3), superoxide dismutase (N2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3). This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

Rosângela D' Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Marcelo Barreto da, Silva; Naylor Daniel da Costa, Aguiar; Fábio LK, Bérgamo; Alexandre Sylvio Vieira da, Costa; Lusinério, Prezotti.

2007-03-01

333

Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2 prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3 and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2. The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2, malate dehydrogenase (N3, superoxide dismutase (N2 and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3. This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

2007-03-01

334

Effect of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Germination and Growth Performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench—A Widely Cultivated Vegetable Crop in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of crude oil-contaminated soil on the germination and growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus, a widely cultivated vegetable crop in Nigeria. The experiment was conducted in the Screen House, under controlled environmental conditions. The seedling emergence percentage, heights and girths were studied to determine the growth performance of the crop in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the investigation revealed that the crude oil-contaminated soil affects the growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. as hindered germination, reduced heights and girths were observed in the crop planted in treated soil and this adversely and severely affects the crop agronomic growth and development and probably its yield. Therefore, contamination of agricultural soils with crude oil should be avoided and public awareness should be created on the detrimental effects of crude oil pollution in our terrestrial ecosystem. Innovative and environmental-friendly remediation strategies should be carried out on our agricultural soils that have been grossly polluted by crude oil exploitation and exploration.

A. A. Oyedeji

2012-10-01

335

Modeling the Time Elapsing from Seed Sowing to Emergence in Some Vegetable Crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple regression model based on mean temperature was developed to be used for predicting the time elapsing from seed sowing to seedling emergence for some vegetable crops, namely tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., pepper (Capsicum annum, L., aubergine (Solanum melongena, L., pea (Pisum sativum, L., carrot (Daucus carota, L., sweat corn (Zea mays, cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.var. capitata (L Alef, cauliflower Brassica oleraceae L.var. botrytis L, onion (Allium cepa, L., celery (Apium graviolens, L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L., parsley (Petroselinum hortense , garden beet (Beta vulgaris, L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L., melon (Cucumis melo, L., runner bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Thunb., okra (Hibiscus esculentus, L., asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L., spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L., radish (Rhaphanus sativus, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The prediction performance of the model with respect to the data used was highly acceptable. R2 values of regression co-efficients for each crop varied from 0.94 to 0.99 depending on the species. Plotting the actual days from seed sowing to emergence for all the crops against the predicted ones showed that the prediction performance of the model was good explaining 98% of the variation for combined data from all the crops. The present model also predicted optimum temperatures (To for tried vegetables in the limits of acceptability.

Sezgin Uzun

2001-01-01

336

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2). At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis), which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determi...

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS SOUZA DAVID; EDUARDO FONTES ARAÚJO; GLAUCO VIEIRA MIRANDA; DENISE CUNHA FERNANDES DOS SANTOS DIAS; JOÃO CARLOS CARDOSO GALVÃO; VERÔNICA CARNEIRO

2003-01-01

337

Efeito da temperatura e reação de genótipos de quiabeiro ao mofo branco / Effect of temperature and reaction of okra genotypes to white mold  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O quiabeiro é suscetível a várias doenças que podem causar prejuízos ao agricultor, caso não sejam manejadas. Objetivaram-se avaliar o efeito da temperatura e a reação de genótipos de quiabeiro ao mofo branco. Plantas de 30 dias inoculadas na região do colo, com e sem ferimento, com dois isolados de [...] Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, foram mantidas por duas semanas nas temperaturas de 15; 20; 25; 30 ou 35ºC. Quatorze genótipos de quiabeiro com um e dois meses de emergência, assim como frutos no ponto de colheita comercial tiveram seus comportamentos avaliados quanto à doença. Avaliaram-se a incidência de plantas com tombamento ou mortas e o comprimento da lesão nos frutos inoculados. A doença foi favorecida por temperaturas entre 15 e 20ºC e, de maneira geral, não foram observadas diferenças entre os isolados e influência do ferimento na ocorrência da doença. Não foram encontrados genótipos de quiabeiro resistentes ao mofo branco, pois todos apresentaram incidência superior a 30% de plantas mortas, sendo as plantas mais novas mais suscetíveis, e comprimento de lesão nos frutos >6,0 cm. Entretanto, diferenças de suscetibilidade entre os genótipos foram observadas em plantas de 30 e de 60 dias e podem ser informações úteis aos produtores para escolha de cultivares em clima ameno, assim como ser exploradas em programas de melhoramento. Abstract in english The okra plant is susceptible to several diseases that can cause losses to the farmer if not managed. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and the reaction of okra genotypes to white mold. Plants aged 30 days, inoculated in the collar region, injured or not, including two strains o [...] f Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were maintained for two weeks at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 or 35ºC. Fourteen okra genotypes at one and two months after emergence, as well as fruits at commercial harvest time, had their behavior evaluated for the disease. Damping-off or dead plants were evaluated, as well as the injure length in the inoculated fruits. The disease was favored by temperatures between 15 and 20ºC and, in general, no differences were observed between the isolates and the influence of the injury on the disease occurrence. There were no okra genotypes resistant to white mold, since all of them had more than 30% of incidence of dead plants; younger plants were more susceptible and the injure length in fruits was > 6.0 cm. However, differences in the susceptibility between genotypes were observed for plants aged 30 and 60 days, which could constitute useful information for producers in the choice of cultivars under moderate climate and could be explored in breeding programs.

Ivan Herman, Fischer; Mirian de Souza, Filetti; Juliana Cristina Sodário, Cruz; César Júnior, Bueno.

2014-03-01

338

Water relations in seed biology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

Villela F. A.

1998-01-01

339

Potential Impact of Spacing and Fertilizer Levels on the Flowering, Productivity and Economic Viability of Hybrid Bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench under Drip Fertigation System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drip irrigation provides an efficient method of fertilizer delivery and allows precise timing and uniform distribution of applied nutrients. Fertilizer application through drip irrigation (fertigation can reduce fertilizer usage and minimize groundwater pollution due to fertilizer leaching from excessive irrigation. For this purpose, field experiments were carried out in the farmers’ field at Thoppur, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, during 2010-2012 to study the effect of spacing and fertilizer levels on the flowering, pod yield and economic viability of Bhendi Hybrid (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench under drip fertigation system. The treatments consisted of two spacings (M1—60 × 45 cm and M2— 60 × 30 cm and eight drip fertigation levels (S1—Drip fertigation with WSF at 125 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S2—Drip fertigation with WSF at 100 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S3—Drip fertigation with WSF at 75 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S4—Drip fertigation with WSF at 100 per cent RDF, S5—Drip fertigation with SF at 125 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S6—Drip fertigation with SF at 100 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S7—Drip fertigation with SF at 75 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S8—Drip fertigation with SF at 100 per cent RDF, and were replicated thrice in a split plot design. Results showed that the earliest flowering (26.21 days, 50% flowering (51.31, number of flowers per plant (25.33 and highest pod yield of 596.70 g/plant, 24.91 t/ha was registered in drip fertigation at 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers as water soluble fertilizer combination with Azophosmet and humic acid under wider spacing. The economics of the study clearly showed that drip fertigation at 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers as water soluble fertilizer along with Azophosmet and humic acid under wider spacing was found to record higher BCR of 2.99.

Govindarasu Rajaraman

2013-08-01

340

Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local Tc suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

 
 
 
 
341

Growth and accumulation of nutrients of the okra cropsCrescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes da cultura do quiabeiro  

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Full Text Available With the objective to quantify the okra crop’s growth and macro and micronutrients accumulation during its life-cycle obtaining equations that best represent it, an experiment was carried out at Jaboticabal city, SP, Brazil, from January 14th to May 14th, 2009. The cv. Santa Cruz 47 was directly sowed into open soil furrows, in a spacing of 1 x 0,2 m. During the life-cycle were realized random samples of plants at 15 days intervals. The means were adjusted to polynomial regression equations set of non-linear parameters. After 50 days from sowing there has been a large increase of dry matter in plant’ parts. At the final harvest, 120 days after sowing, the leaves, stems and fruits accounted for 21, 71 and 8%, respectively, from the total plant dry matter. The decreasing sequence of nutrient accumulation was K, Ca, N, Mg, P, Fe, B, Mn, Zn and Cu equivalent to 6,002.8; 4,733.8; 2,930.8; 1,196.3; 473.7; 436.2; 49.8; 10.4; 7.1; 7.1 e 1.5 mg plant-1. The quantity accumulated of culture were 146.5; 23.7; 300.1; 236.7; 59.8 e 21.8 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, respectively, and 520.0; 76.0; 2,491.0; 355.0 e 355.0 de B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively. Com o objetivo de quantificar o crescimento e o acúmulo de macro e micronutrientes da cultura do quiabeiro, no decorrer do ciclo, e obter equações que melhor os representem, um experimento foi realizado de 14 de janeiro a 14 de maio de 2009, na UNESP Câmpus de Jaboticabal, SP. A cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi semeada diretamente no sulco, em espaçamento de 1 x 0,2 m. No decorrer do ciclo, realizaramse coletas aleatórias de plantas com intervalos de quinze dias. As médias foram ajustadas às equações de regressão polinomial e de modelos não lineares. A partir de 50 dias após a semeadura (DAS houve grande aumento no acúmulo de matéria seca nas partes da planta. Na colheita final, 120 DAS, as folhas, hastes e frutos representaram 21, 71 e 8%, respectivamente, da matéria seca total da planta. A seqüência decrescente de acúmulo de nutrientes pelo quiabeiro foi K, Ca, N, Mg, P, S, Fe, B, Mn, Zn e Cu, o equivalente a 6.002,8; 4.733,8; 2.930,8; 1.196,3; 473,7; 436,2; 49,82; 10,4; 7,1; 7,1 e 1,52 mg planta-1. As quantidades acumuladas pela cultura foram 146,5; 23,7; 300,1; 236,7; 59,8 e 21,8 kg ha-1 de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, respectivamente, e de 520,0; 76,0; 2.491,0; 355,0 e 355,0 g ha-1 de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, respectivamente.

Anarlete Ursulino Alves

2013-03-01

342

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

2003-12-01

343

Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables Comparação da promoção de crescimento de plantas por Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Bacillus subtilis em três vegetais  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spin...

Adesemoye, A. O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E. O.

2008-01-01

344

Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spin...

Adesemoye, A. O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E. O.

2008-01-01

345

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 2...

Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

2004-01-01

346

Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality of seeds acquired from the informal SS, and compared this with the quality of seeds obtained from the formal SS. Cowpea seed production in northern Nigeria was used as a case study to evaluate the ...

Biemond, P. C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T. J.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; Struik, P. C.

2013-01-01

347

Estimating seed mass and volume from linear dimensions of seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seeds from eight species common in soil banks and covering two orders of magnitude of seed size were individually weighted and measured. Adopting simple but sound assumptions on seeds geometry, seed length and width together or not with thickness were found to be highly accurate estimators of seed mass and volume at intra- and inter-specific levels. Thereby, by abstracting the vast amount of published data of seed length and width, seed volume rather than seed mass only can be used to investi...

Casco, H.; Dias, L. S.

2008-01-01

348

Examining Children's Models of Seed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

Jewell, Natalie

2002-01-01

349

Neutron irradiation of seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

350

7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

2010-01-01

351

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH. The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR. A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil.

Gilmar P. Henz

2007-06-01

352

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil / Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch) e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência [...] da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR). A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil. Abstract in english Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani b [...] ased on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH). The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.

Gilmar P., Henz; Carlos A., Lopes; Ailton, Reis.

2007-06-01

353

Resposta do quiabeiro às doses de fósforo aplicadas em solo arenoso / Response of phosphorus levels on okra planted in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da adubação fosfatada no rendimento do quiabeiro, cultivar Santa Cruz, em experimento com delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0; 44; 88; 132 e 176 kg ha-1 de P), em quatro repetições. O número máximo de frutos por planta (43) foi obtido na dos [...] e máxima de 176 kg ha-1 de P. A produtividade máxima estimada de frutos comerciais (38,6 t ha-1) ocorreu com 139 kg ha-1 de P. A dose de P que proporcionou maior retorno econômico foi 137 kg ha-1, com produção de 38,3 t ha-1 de frutos comerciais, o que representa um incremento de 17,4 t ha-1 de frutos. A dose mais econômica representou 98% daquela responsável pela máxima produção, o que pode indicar que o quiabeiro responde economicamente à adubação fosfatada no solo estudado e a dose de P responsável pela máxima produção comercial de frutos foi relacionada com 40 mg dm-3 de P disponível no solo (Mehlich 1). Da mesma forma, a dose responsável pelo maior retorno econômico foi associada com 38 mg de P dm-3. Abstract in english The influence of phosphorus fertilization on yield of okra, cv. Santa Cruz was evaluated. The research was carried out in the experimental design of randomized blocks, with five treatments (0; 44; 88; 132 and 176 kg ha-1 of P), and four replications. The maximum number of fruits per plant (43) was o [...] btained with the maximum level of 176 kg ha-1 of P. The estimated maximum yield of commercial fruits (38.6 t ha-1), was related to 139 kg ha-1 of P. The application of 137 kg ha-1 of P provided the highest economical income, yielding 38.3 t ha-1 of commercial fruits, with an increment of fruits of 17.4 t ha-1. The most economic level represented 98% of that responsible for the maximum yield, indicating that the okra responded economically to the use of P in sandy soil and, of the P level responsible for the maximum commercial yield of fruits were related to 40 mg dm-3 of available P in soil (Mehlich 1), and the level responsible for the highest economic income was related to 38 mg dm-3.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Carina Seixas M., Dornelas; Adriana U., Alves; Anarlete U., Alves; Jandiê Araújo da, Silva; Arnaldo Nonato P. de, Oliveira.

2007-06-01

354

Determinação da demanda hídrica do quiabeiro em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ / Determination of water requirement of okra in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as necessidades hídricas do quiabeiro em cada estádio do seu desenvolvimento, por meio da determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura e dos coeficientes de cultivo (Kc). O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Evapotranspirométrica da Universidade Estadual do No [...] rte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A cultivar utilizada foi a Santa Cruz 47, plantada no espaçamento 0,25 m x 1,00 m, em uma área de 1024 m², irrigada por aspersão convencional. Na área foram feitas as determinações da evapotranspiração da cultura e do coeficiente cultural, utilizando-se um lisímetro de 6 m² com balança eletrônica com variação de peso de 0,58 kg. Os resultados obtidos permitiram quantificar a evapotranspiração da cultura no período em 314 mm. O Kc do quiabeiro no primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento variou entre os valores de 0,8 e 0,5, obtendo o valor médio de 0,68; no segundo estádio variou de 0,5 a 1,0, sendo a média de 0,79; e no terceiro estádio o Kc variou de 1,0 a 0,3, sendo a média de 0,54. Abstract in english This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc) providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Esta [...] dual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m², irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m² with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, with a mean of 0,79,and the third stage Kc ranged from 1.0 to 0.3, the average being 0.54.

Herval Martinho Ferreira, Paes; Barbara dos Santos, Esteves; Elias Fernandes de, Sousa.

2012-06-01

355

Determinação da demanda hídrica do quiabeiro em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Determination of water requirement of okra in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as necessidades hídricas do quiabeiro em cada estádio do seu desenvolvimento, por meio da determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura e dos coeficientes de cultivo (Kc. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Evapotranspirométrica da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A cultivar utilizada foi a Santa Cruz 47, plantada no espaçamento 0,25 m x 1,00 m, em uma área de 1024 m², irrigada por aspersão convencional. Na área foram feitas as determinações da evapotranspiração da cultura e do coeficiente cultural, utilizando-se um lisímetro de 6 m² com balança eletrônica com variação de peso de 0,58 kg. Os resultados obtidos permitiram quantificar a evapotranspiração da cultura no período em 314 mm. O Kc do quiabeiro no primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento variou entre os valores de 0,8 e 0,5, obtendo o valor médio de 0,68; no segundo estádio variou de 0,5 a 1,0, sendo a média de 0,79; e no terceiro estádio o Kc variou de 1,0 a 0,3, sendo a média de 0,54.This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m², irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m² with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, with a mean of 0,79,and the third stage Kc ranged from 1.0 to 0.3, the average being 0.54.

Herval Martinho Ferreira Paes

2012-06-01

356

Aplicação da técnica de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS) na análise de pesticidas em quiabo por CG-EM / Application of the matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique in the analysis of pesticides in okra by GC-MS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A matrix solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass selective detection method for the simultaneous determination of monocrotophos, methyl parathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in okra is described. Analyses of 2 g of fortified okra (0.05-0.75 mg kg-1) showed an average recovery of 96.2% [...] (71.4-128.4%) and average relative standard deviation of 11.7% (1.4-37.1%). The cypermethrin recovery at the lower level was above 130%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 mg kg-1. The procedure was applied to the okra samples and has found 0.56 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-cis, 0.75 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-trans and 2.71 mg kg-1 of deltamethrin.

Haroldo Silveira, Dórea; Waneide Gomes, Lopes.

2004-12-01

357

Oil seed marketing prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

358

UTILIZATION OF VERMIWASH POTENTIAL ON CERTAIN SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of vermiwash on the growth, flowering and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus, lobia (Vigna unguiculata and radish (Raphnus sativus. Vermiwash was extracted from different vermicompost which was composted from different animal agro and kitchen wastes through earthworm Eisenia foetida. It was observed that treatment of vermiwash shows significantly increased in growth and productivity and decreased flowering period. The maximum significant growth was observed in 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with rice bran 38.0±1.3 cm. in case of okra, 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with gram bran (seed of Cicer arientinum 215.5±5.2 cm., in lobia crops and 30 mg/m2 concentration of buffalo dung with gram bran 20.4±1.4 cm. The significant early starting of flowering and increased in productivity was found in all treated groups with respect to control.

GORAKH NATH

2010-06-01

359

EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

Lincoln Fonseca Zica

2007-09-01

360

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

Nascimento Warley Marcos

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

New environmental applications for an ancient crop  

Science.gov (United States)

New technologies are providing new opportunities for kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to provide environmental solutions in a diverse range of applications. Kenaf is a warm-season annual crop closely related to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) that can be successful...

362

Kenaf: Production, potential, and promises  

Science.gov (United States)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is a warm season annual fiber crop closely related to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvaceae) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, Malvaceae) that can be successfully produced in a large portion of the United States, particularly in the southern sta...

363

Preface  

Science.gov (United States)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is a warm season annual fiber crop closely related to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvaceae) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, Malvaceae) that can be successfully produced in a large portion of the United States, particularly in the southern sta...

364

Multiple Quantum-Well Technology Takes SEED  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Progress in the development of self-electrooptic-effect devices (SEEDs) is discussed. The devices include the resistor-SEED (R-SEED) device, which can be viewed as a simple NOR gate. The symmetric SEED (S-SEED) and the logic-SEED (L-SEED) devices with improved features, functionality, and performance are also considered. The integration of FETs with multiple quantum well (MQW) modulators (FET-SEED), enables optical interconnections of electronic circuits. Where the SEED technology can be used...

Hinton, Harvard S.

1993-01-01

365

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dem [...] atium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa) and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity), and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm) and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum) were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds) and six (6.5 mm large seeds) replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

Adriana Luiza, Wain-Tassi; Juliana Faria dos, Santos; Rita de Cássia, Panizzi; Roberval Daiton, Vieira.

2012-02-01

366

Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field / Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O quiabeiro é hortaliça de clima quente, encontrando condições favoráveis de desenvolvimento no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de mudas e a produtividade de quiabeiro. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul e [...] m Aquidauana. Na fase de mudas, foram testados substratos (100% ramas de mandioca triturada; 75% ramas de mandioca triturada + 25% de vermiculita; 50% ramas de mandioca triturada + 50% de vermiculita; 25% ramas de mandioca triturada + 75% vermiculita e 100% vermiculita). Estes substratos foram dispostos em dois ambientes protegidos (viveiro agrícola de tela de monofilamento de 50% de sombreamento e viveiro agrícola de tela aluminizada de 50% de sombreamento). Cada ambiente foi considerado um experimento, conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições. Em seguida, realizou-se a análise conjunta. No campo, foram distribuídos os 10 tratamentos gerados a partir das combinações entre ambientes e substratos (2 ambientes x 5 substratos), no delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As proporções médias de ramas de mandioca e vermiculita podem ser indicadas para a formação de mudas de quiabeiro. Pelas fitomassas seca aérea e total o ambiente com tela aluminizada pode ser indicado para produção de mudas de quiabeiro com a utilização do substrato na proporção 1:1. Mudas provenientes de maiores porcentagens de vermiculita antecipam a produção, enquanto que mudas oriundas apenas de ramas tendem a retardar essa fase. Mudas oriundas do ambiente aluminizado tendem a incrementar a produção de frutos de quiabeiro. Proporções médias de vermiculita e ramas, para mudas produzidas na tela aluminizada, propiciam maior número de frutos e produtividade do quiabeiro em Aquidauana. Abstract in english The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tes [...] ted substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite and 100% vermiculite). These substrates were placed in two protected environments (nursery with black screen, 50% of shading, and aluminized screen, 50% of shading). Each environment was considered an experiment conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications. After that we realized joint analysis. In the field, a total of 10 treatments generated from combinations of environments and substrates (2 environments x 5 substrates) were distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The average proportions of cassava stems and vermiculite may be suitable for okra seedlings. The results of shoot and total dry phytomass indicate that the aluminized screen can be recommended for okra seedlings production when the substrate with a 1:1 ratio is used. Seedlings grown on higher percentages of vermiculite anticipate production, while seedlings produced only in cassava stems tend to slow it down. The aluminized screen tends to increase the yield of okra seedlings. Average proportions of vermiculite and cassava stems for seedling production under aluminized screen, provide more fruits and yield of okra in Aquidauana.

Edilson, Costa; Taynara G de, Souza; Gleciane de L, Benteo; Katiane SS, Benett; Cleiton GS, Benett.

2013-03-01

367

Macronutrient contents in okra plants under different sources and levels of organic matter on soil /
Teores foliares de macronutrientes em quiabeiro cultivado sob diferentes fontes e níveis de matéria orgânica
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was carried out during the period of November of 2001 to April of 2002 in order to evaluate the effects of sources and doses of organic matter on leaf mineral composition of okra cv. Santa Cruz. The treatments were distributed in a randomized blocks design with four replications with 25 holes with two plants in each plot. The treatments were arranged in a 3x4 factorial design, with three sources of organic matter: cattle manure, chicken manure and caprine manure incorporated at ...

Míriam Alice da Silva Brehm; Járisson Cavalcante Nunes; Alex Matheus Rebequi; Luís Carlos Francisco dos Santos; Adriana Araujo Diniz; Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante

2010-01-01

368

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57 Customs...General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed...

2010-04-01

369

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

1997-10-01

370

Ways of seeing the seed: Navdanya's seed satyagraha  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the 1960s, introduction of Green Revolution seeds in India has resulted in erosion of crop diversity and has had catastrophic effects on soil, water and farmers. More than 200,000 farmers have committed suicide since 1997. In 1987, Vandana Shiva started the Navdanya seed savers’ movement with the goal of conserving remaining crop diversity and assisting farmers in retaining seed sovereignty by developing and sustaining village-level seed supply systems and traditional farming practice...

Singh Decosas, Manisha

2010-01-01

371

Seeded calcite sonocrystallization  

Science.gov (United States)

The seeded sonocrystallization of calcite was investigated by measuring the volumetric crystallization rate at constant composition conditions. The crystallization rate of calcite was enhanced by 46% through ultrasonic irradiation (42,150 Hz, 17 W dm -3) of a supersaturated crystal suspension. It was shown that this effect was related to the alteration of the seed crystals' habit and size. During ultrasonic irradiation disruption of conglomerates and erosion of single crystals occurred, accompanied by the production of many fines. The increased surface area available for crystal growth resulted in the observed crystallization rate enhancement.

Boels, L.; Wagterveld, R. M.; Mayer, M. J.; Witkamp, G. J.

2010-03-01

372

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

373

Light water seed blanket reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seed blanket light water breeder reactor and a light water seed blanket thorium burner reactor have been considered. Both these proposals make use of geometry control in order to regulate reactivity

374

Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo / Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade com [...] ercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores. Abstract in english In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruit [...] s of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

Wagner F. da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Derly José H. da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia P., Firme; Ludmila L. de M., Neves.

2005-07-01

375

Grass and grain seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Many types of grasses grow back after they have been cut back or mowed. Some weeds also do this, but other kinds of weeds stop growing once cut. Grains are seeds, but they are also valuable sources of food for humans and animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

376

Improving soybean seed quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the meal and oil fractions of soybeans may be genetically improved, either by mutagenesis or by genetic engineering. There are a number of mutant lines of soybeans containing a low raffinosaccharide meal, which can be used for animal feed, with an improved total metabolizable energy content. Mutant lines with an improved fatty acid profile of the oil include high oleic and high stearic soybeans. Cloning of the mutant genes facilitates the integration of these traits into high yielding elite lines by providing molecular markers. Cloned genes may also be reintroduced into soybeans to create transgenic lines with improved meal and oil traits, such as seeds with an increased lysine content and stable soybean oils with a very low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The design of transgene constructs has been assisted by using soybean somatic embryos in suspension culture as a model system for soybean seed transformation. This system has allowed selection of those genes and promoters that are the most effective way of achieving the desired phenotypes in soybeans. Experiments with constructs containing fatty acid biosynthesis genes in somatic embryos have also led to the conclusion that, in soybeans, gene-transgene sense suppression is a more effective way of silencing endogenous genes than antisense. Sense suppression of genes encoding microsomal, fatty acid omega-6 desaturates has resulted in soybean lines with over 80% oleic acid in their seed oil, and this traiteic acid in their seed oil, and this trait is stable over at least three generations. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

377

Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

378

Seeds for effective oligonucleotide design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA oligonucleotides are a very useful tool in biology. The best algorithms for designing good DNA oligonucleotides are filtering out unsuitable regions using a seeding approach. Determining the quality of the seeds is crucial for the performance of these algorithms. Results We present a sound framework for evaluating the quality of seeds for oligonucleotide design. The F - score is used to measure the accuracy of each seed. A number of natural candidates are tested: contiguous (BLAST-like, spaced, transitions-constrained, and multiple spaced seeds. Multiple spaced seeds are the best, with more seeds providing better accuracy. Single spaced and transition seeds are very close whereas, as expected, contiguous seeds come last. Increased accuracy comes at the price of reduced efficiency. An exception is that single spaced and transitions-constrained seeds are both more accurate and more efficient than contiguous ones. Conclusions Our work confirms another application where multiple spaced seeds perform the best. It will be useful in improving the algorithms for oligonucleotide design.

Khoshraftar Shima

2011-06-01

379

Breeding for Grass Seed Yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

2010-01-01