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Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus  

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With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant ...

Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geo?rgia; Gomes, Vinicius Morais; Dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; Souza, Anto?nio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto Almeida; Costa, Maria Jose? Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

2012-01-01

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Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus  

Science.gov (United States)

With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2°C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption.

de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Georgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antonio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria Jose de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

2012-01-01

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Effect of Fertilizer and Drying Methods on Seed Germination of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cultivars at Different Harvesting Times  

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Full Text Available Okra hardseedness results in slow and uneven germination. This study determined the effects of fertilizer application and drying methods on hardseedness breakdown of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. cultivars (cv. Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylias’. Three fertilizer level (150, 300 and 450 mg L-1 N and two different drying methods (seeds and pods were applied. The results showed that by increasing N application from 150 to 450 mg L-1 N increased seed germination regardless of drying method, whereas the application of 450 mg L-1 N resulted in the higher seed germination percentage, regardless of cultivar and drying method. In addition, harvesting seeds at 40 days after flowering (DAF resulted in an increase of germination rate, especially when 450 mg L-1 N were applied. Seed germination of seeds harvested at 40 to 50 days after flowering (DAF was reduced, especially when seed drying instead of pod drying was applied. However, for cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ the application of 150 mg L-1 N resulted in higher percentage of hard seeds and lower seed germination rate, whereas pod drying reduced the occurrence of hardseedness. For all cultivars, seeds from the middle part of the plant had a higher seed germination percentage at 450 mg L-1 N level, regardless of drying methods. In conclusion, increasing the N application rate up to 450 mg L-1, harvesting seeds at 40 DAF and collecting seeds from the middle part of the plant could be a useful means for reducing the occurrence of hardseedness and increasing germination percentage of okra seeds.

Ghadir Mohammadi

2013-03-01

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Biochemical and Mineral Responses of Okra Seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Variety Marsaouia to Salt and Thermal Stresses  

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Full Text Available The present research has studied the effects of NaCl and temperature on germination and emergence of okra. Studies were carried out with seeds of a local okra variety (Marsaouia subjected to 0 and 100 mM NaCl, performed in the dark at 10, 15, 25, 35 and 40°C at germination stage and by 12 h light at emergence stage. The cumulative germination percentage, the cumulative emergence percentage, starch content, the reducing sugars levels, total amylase activity, sodium and potassium accumulation were quantified in germinated seeds at 15°C, 25 and 35°C. Temperature presented a significant effect on salt sensitivity of this species at germination and emergence stages. Germination of okra seeds was completely inhibited at 10 and 40°C. The best germination and emergence temperature was recorded at 25°C. The adverse effect of salt was more pronounced at low and high temperature. During the salt stress treatment, the level of starch reserves was higher at 25°C and lower at 15 and 35°C, an increase in reducing sugars content in cotyledons was observed. The activity of total amylase was most intensive at lower temperature in control seeds and at higher temperature in salt treated seeds. The sodium concentration on germinated seeds increased significantly at 15 and 35°C, but potassium amount did not change regularly within thermal and salt stress interaction.

D. Mounir

2010-01-01

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Biochemical and Mineral Responses of Okra Seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Variety Marsaouia) to Salt and Thermal Stresses  

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The present research has studied the effects of NaCl and temperature on germination and emergence of okra. Studies were carried out with seeds of a local okra variety (Marsaouia) subjected to 0 and 100 mM NaCl, performed in the dark at 10, 15, 25, 35 and 40°C at germination stage and by 12 h light at emergence stage. The cumulative germination percentage, the cumulative emergence percentage, starch content, the reducing sugars levels, total amylase activity, sodium and potassium accumulation...

2010-01-01

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Salt stress effects on some morphological and physiological characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.  

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Full Text Available Salinity is worldwide problem that limits the growth and productivity of all vegetations and it is going toincreasing day by day. The objective of the investigation was to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL. in terms of morphological and physiological characteristics under salt stress conditions. Okra seeds of cultivarChinese Red were grown in plastic pots having fine sand as growth medium. After 30 days of germination, theplants were subjected to salt stress under control, 25, 50, and 75 mM NaCl. Increasing salinity caused a decrease ofgermination percentage, shoot and root length, plant height, pod weight, pod length, photosynthesis rate, andstomatal conductance. The Na+ and Cl- accumulation were correlated with a decline in concentration of K+ inleaves and roots. Under salinity, a high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were noted in both leave and roots portions.

Muhammad Adnan Shahid*, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Rashid Mukhtar Balal, Rashid Ahmad, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Tahira Abbas and Naheed Akhtar

2011-04-01

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Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Ten Cultivars of Okra-Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn. Moench  

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Full Text Available Ten quantitative traits of 10 genotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus were investigated with a view to identifying the high yielding potential of the cultivars and to determining the extent of association among their contributing traits. The plant materials used are labeled according to their genotypes as follows: NH47-4, MHae 474, FEae 98, FEak, Agk98, Agkae, Aklc, Ilae, Ijae2000 and Alae- B. Using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications, the ten genotypes of okra were grown (one seed per hill at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria during the rainy season of 2002 and 2003. At the appropriate stages of growth, the following traits were investigated: days to flowering, height at flowering, number of pods per plant, pod length, pod width, number of branches per pant, days to maturity, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred seeds and final plant height. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and phenotypic and genotypic correlation analyses computed. Results show that there is a strong relationship between pod length and pod width with the juxtaposition of number of seeds per pod. Hence, selection programme based on these traits are most likely to bring about further improvement in the yield of okra under rainfed conditions.

O.S. Osekita

2008-01-01

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Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Anthocyanins, Membrane Permeability and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seedlings  

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To study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Marsaouia) to salinity, the effect on seedling growth, water content, anthocyanins content and chlorophyll fluorescence was investigated. Okra seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and sown in peat culture under controlled conditions and submitted during 2 weeks to saline stress ranging from 0 (distilled water) to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmol of NaCl. Results showed that salt has no significant effect on aerial part dry weight an...

Besma Ben Dkhil; Mounir Denden

2012-01-01

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Comparative study of quality changes in okra abelmoschus esculentus (L) moench stored at different relative humidities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) pods were stored at the relative humidity of 90% and 100% for up to 10 days. The moisture content, crude fibre, and protein, fat, viscosity, hydrolysable and condensed tannin, total phenol, vitamin C and reducing power of the okra were determined on alternate days. Okra pods stored at 100% RH experienced the least percentage loss in all the determined parameters though the loss of antinutrient was lower at this relative humidity. (author)

2008-01-01

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Effects of morphactin and gamma irradiation on the growth and yield in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations were carried out to examine the individual and combined influence of a morphactin (chlorflurenol) (10-100 ppm) and gamma-irradiation(40-60 KR) on growth and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Cv-Pusa Sawani. Morphactin caused inhibition of vegetative growth and weakened apical dominance. Gamma-irradiation of seeds reduced the growth and stimulated the branching. The combinations of gamma radiation and morphactin were found to inhibit the growth more vigorously. Morphactin application promoted fruit-set and yield at all the used concentrations. Gamma-irradiation enhanced the fruit-set and yield at 40 and 50 KR and reduced drastically at 60 KR. Combination of gamma radiation (40 KR) with morphactin (10-50 ppm) increased the yield while other combinations reduced this factor in okra. (author)

1983-06-01

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Physicochemical properties of pectins from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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Okra pectin obtained by hot buffer extraction (HBSS) consists of an unusual pectic rhamnogalacturonan I structure in which acetyl groups and alpha galactose residues are substituted on rhamnose residues within the backbone. The okra Chelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) pectin consists of slightly different structures since relatively more homogalacturonan is present within the macromolecule and the rhamnogalacturonan I segments carry slightly longer side chains. The rheological properties of...

2010-01-01

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Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

2014-01-01

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Genetic Variability and Diversity in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In the present investigation an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of some yield contributingcharacters, and the genetic diversity in fifty genotypes of okra collected from the NBPGR New Delhi, India. Analysis ofvariance indicated significant difference among the genotypes for different morphological characters. High values of GCV,PCV, heritability and genetic advance (% of mean observed for number of fruiting nodes, number of ridges per fruit, plantheight and number of fruiting nodes indicated these characters might be controlled by additive genes. On the basis of D2analysis, the 50 genotypes could be grouped into 5 clusters. Cluster I had the highest number of genotypes (45 followed bycluster II (2. Remaining clusters were monogenotypic. Plant height had the highest contribution towards the total geneticdivergence. The highest intra-cluster distances were recorded in cluster I followed by cluster II. The maximum inter-clusterdistance was recorded between cluster IV and cluster II, followed by cluster V and cluster II. Among the 50 genotypes, IC-332454 showed the highest cluster mean for fruit yield per plant and number of fruits per plant. The genotypes which were inthe cluster V, III and II also exhibited significant performance for fruit yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and plantheight sequentially. On the basis of groupings of individual genotypes into different clusters, contribution of individualcharacter towards total genetic divergence, inter-cluster distance and cluster mean, the genotypes such as IC-9856B, IC-331157, IC-342075, IC-332453 and IC-43736 were found promising for using in the hybridization programme.

Pradip K. Akotkar, D.K. De and A.K. Pal

2010-07-01

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Effect of Postharvest Storage Techniques on the Nutritional Properties of Benin Indigenous Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench  

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In Nigeria, okra Abelmoschus esculentus are packed and stored in polypropylene bag when moved from outlying villages to the city market. The study aims at assessing other storage method for Benin indigenous okra other than polypropylene bag with respect to nutrients, antinutrients and antioxidants. In this study fresh harvested Benin okra were harvested and divided into three parts. One part was stored in 100% RH at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C, another at the temperature of 10°C ...

Adetuyi, F. O.; Osagie, A. U.; Adekunle, A. T.

2008-01-01

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Characterisation of twenty-nine (29) accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of investigations were carried out to determine the genetic variability within 29 accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) through characterisation using morphological, biochemical, nutritional and molecular markers. The goal was to obtain information on key traits of okra germplasm relevant to breeders and other researchers towards improvement of the crop. Twenty six (26) indigenous (landraces) and three (3) exotic accessions of okra were collected from eight regions of Ghana and their morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated under field conditions at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research fields using the International Plant Genetic Research Institute (IPGRI) descriptor list for okra. The 29 exhibited significant variation in all but two quantitative traits studied. Block coefficients of variation were extremely low, implying that results obtained are reliable and repeatable over replications. The 29 accessions were grouped into two major clusters and subsequently into five sub-clusters based on both quantitative and qualitative characters studied. The association between pairs of quantitative yield traits in the okra landraces revealed that flowering and fruiting parameters had significant (P < 0.01) positive associations. Factor scores of 12 characters contributed substantially to total genetic variation among the 29 okra accessions studied. The pattern of clustering did not show distinct association between morpho-agronomic characters and geographic origin of the collections. The output of the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that different characters contributed differently to total genetic variation. The means of maximum viscosity values for mucilage extracted from the fruits ranged from 53.0 - 366.8bu, with three accessions; DKA (366.8bu), Yeji-Local (329bu) and Amanfrom (316.8bu) recording very high values whilst Cape (53.0bu) had the least maximum viscosity value. There was low level of polymorphism detected among all accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The accessions, Atomic and Akrave were detected to have originated from a common ancestry. While there was high variability among Okra accessions for the amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and total antioxidant activity in the fresh fruits and the quantities were generally high making okra a good source of natural antioxidants. Ethanol extraction yielded better antioxidant activity than aqueous (water) solvent. The accession, Agric short fruit recorded the highest total flavonoid content (TFC) of 5159.21±12.90?g/g/QE while Cs-Legon had the lowest TFC of 2003.69±2.55?g/g/QE in the ethanol extract. On the other hand, Kortebortor-ASR registered the highest total phenolic content of 63.22 ±3.95?/g/GAE) while Volta had the lowest TPC of 6.82±0.09?/g/GAE in the aquous extract. Debo and Kortebortor-ASR recorded the highest (25.83±5.30?/g/GAE) and lowest (8.0±0.37?/g/GAE) Total Phenolics Content in the ethanol extract respectively. Nine essential mineral elements (sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, bromine, chlorine, copper, aluminium and manganese) were detected among all accessions using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). There was significant variation in concentrations of these elements found in fresh fruits of the accessions. There were strong positive associations between five pairs of elements contained in the fruits of the accessions of okra.(au)

2012-01-01

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Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus to Lime and Phosphorus Fertilization in an Acid Soil  

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Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of lime (CaCO3 and phosphorus (P application on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus on an acid soil. This was followed by a field trial to validate the findings from the pot study. Three rates of lime equivalent to 0, 500 and 1000 kg CaCO3 ha 1 and five rates of P equivalent to 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg P ha 1 of single super phosphate were applied in combinations as treatments. Pot study results obtained showed that plant growth, dry matter and fruit yields of okra were significantly increased due to application of low rates of lime or P and varying combinations of both, when compared with the control (no fertilizer, no lime. Combination of the lowest rates of lime and P (10 kg P and 500 kg CaCO3 ha 1 was found to be optimum for plant growth. Dry matter yield of plant shoot and root increased with increasing rates of both lime and P applied. However, highest fruit yields were obtained when lime was applied with or without P, while P increased fruit yield to the highest values only in the presence of lime. The results obtained in the field were similar to the trend observed in the pot study. Lime had significantly positive effect on P concentration in plant and actually reduced the amount of fertilizer P required for optimum yield. Therefore, for good performance of okra on acid soils it is beneficial to apply low level of lime along with low rates of P.

F.I. Oluwatoyinbo

2005-12-01

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Effect of Drip Irrigation Levels and Emitters Depth on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Growth  

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Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (Climson Spineless CV.) growth, rooting, yield and water use efficiency were evaluated in a field trial, where four irrigation rates at 60 (T1), 80 (T2), 100 (T3) and 120% (T4) of the estimated evapotranspiration (ETo) and four drip irrigation emitters depth: surface 0.0 m depth (D0), sub-surface at 0.15 m depth (D1), at 0.25 m depth (D2) and at 0.35 m depth (D3) we...

2008-01-01

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Effect of Drip Irrigation Levels and Emitters Depth on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Growth  

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Full Text Available Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (Climson Spineless CV. growth, rooting, yield and water use efficiency were evaluated in a field trial, where four irrigation rates at 60 (T1, 80 (T2, 100 (T3 and 120% (T4 of the estimated evapotranspiration (ETo and four drip irrigation emitters depth: surface 0.0 m depth (D0, sub-surface at 0.15 m depth (D1, at 0.25 m depth (D2 and at 0.35 m depth (D3 were imposed following a split-plot in a randomized complete block experimental design with three replications in 2005 and 2006 seasons. Vegetative growth characters (plant height, number of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weight, rooting (weight, length, width and root/shoot ratio, early and total yields were measured. Marketable Total Yield (MTY increased significantly with the increase of irrigation level in both seasons. MTY for T3 treatments were 14.32 t ha-1 in 2005 and 10.29 t ha-1 in 2006 and for D1 treatments were 10.8 t ha-1 in 2005 and 9.75 t ha-1 in 2006 season. The Crop Water Use Efficiency (CWUE ranged from 1.45-2.93 kg m-3 and 1.29-2.43 kg m-3 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. MTY increased significantly as emitter depth increases from surface to 0.35 m in both seasons. Crop Water Production Function (CWPF was done on the results. It reflects the beneficial of applied water in increasing yield. The CWPF was represented by quadratic polynomial equations.

A.R. Al-Harbi

2008-01-01

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Biological Control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood, Root Knot Nematodes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In a greenhouse study P. lilacinus, T. harzianum and T. flavus were used as seed treatment and soil drench. Seed treatment by P. lilacinus reduced gall formation, egg mass production, nematode soil and root densities as compared to control and other treatments. P. lilacinus improved plant growth followed by T. flavus and T. harzianum comparing with control. In another experiment, where soil was treated with conidial suspension, maximum plant height and shoot weight was achieved by P. lilacinus > T. harzianum compared to control, whereas T. flavus was found less effective in the enhancement of plant tops. Maximum suppression in gall formation (at p<0.01 and egg mass production (at p<0.001 was obtained in okra plants treated with P. lilacinus whereas T. flavus and T. harzianum were almost equally effective. Conidial suspension of microbial antagonists used as soil amendment also reduced nematode root invasion (at p<0.001 as well as soil densities

Amer-Zareen

2001-01-01

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Nature and magnitude of genetic variability and diversity studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of yield contributing characters, and the genetic diversityin forty-four genotypes of okra collected from the IIHR, Bangalore, India. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among thegenotypes for different morphological characters. High GCV and PCV were observed for plant height, inter-nodal length, first flowering node,first fruit producing node, height of first flowering node, average fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit. On the basis of D2 analysis, the 44genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters. The cluster III was the largest with eight genotypes followed by cluster I and VIII with seven,cluster II with five, cluster XII with three while, clusters IV, V, VI, IX, X and XI included only two genotype in each. The intra-cluster distancewas maximum in cluster XII (28.14, while inter-cluster distance was maximum between cluster VI and VIII (35.57 followed by I and IX(35.31, thus being a good source for attempting hybridization. Among the 44 genotypes, IIHR-238, IIHR-241 showed maximum number offruits per plant and total yield per plant (g. The characters namely days to 50% flowering (35.62%, 100 seed weight (28.44%, number of seedsper fruit (17.23% and average fruit weight (8.14% directly contributed towards maximum divergence and, therefore, selection of divergentparents based on these characters is recommended for getting good hybrids or segregants in okra.

K. Prakash and M. Pitchaimuthu

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
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'Anjitha'- A new okra variety through induced mutation in inter specific hybrids of Abelmoschus SPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on inter specific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional combination breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistant genes and wild character of A. manihot. The present study envisaged the breaking of undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (10, 20, 30 and 40 kRad) of F1 seeds obtained by inter specific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluation and selection of high yielding YVM resistant types from the segregating generations till F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of gamma rays. The mutated hybrids and the wild parent showed complete resistance to YVM disease incidence which was confirmed through grafting trials. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more number of leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 20 kR while fruit yield was maximum in 40 kR due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 30kR which suggested that 30 kR could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Thirteen superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to three Comparative Yield Trials (CYT). Culture AE18 out yielded the others in CYTs and Farm trials and was released as 'Anjitha' by the XXIII State Seed Sub Committee during 2006 for cultivation in Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

2008-08-12

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Effect of Postharvest Storage Techniques on the Nutritional Properties of Benin Indigenous Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria, okra Abelmoschus esculentus are packed and stored in polypropylene bag when moved from outlying villages to the city market. The study aims at assessing other storage method for Benin indigenous okra other than polypropylene bag with respect to nutrients, antinutrients and antioxidants. In this study fresh harvested Benin okra were harvested and divided into three parts. One part was stored in 100% RH at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C, another at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C and the last part in polypropylene bag. The nutrients, antinutrients (Phytate and Saponin antioxidants (Vitamin C and Total Phenol and the Viscosity were subsequently determined. The result of the study indicates that the nutrient, antinutrient and antioxidant content reduces significantly (p>0.05 in the three storage methods: Moisture (88.73-84.62%, fibre (10.63-7.22%, protein (14.87-12.84%, fat (9.67-7.96%, phytate (3.84-1.18%, saponin (0.612-0.284%, vitamin C (46.28-14.39 mg/100g, total phenol (0.095-0.059% and the viscosity (58.16-53.42cp. The method of storage of 100%RH recorded the least percentage loss in moisture, fibre antioxidant and viscosity content of the okra while the least % loss was recorded for protein and fat in the polypropylene bag method. The highest loss of the antinutrient was recorded at the storage method of temperature of 10°C ± 2°C. On the average the storage method of 100%RH at temperature of 10°C ±2°C shows to be better method than the others.

F.O. Adetuyi

2008-01-01

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Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the high polysaccharide content of okra pods, resulting in a highly viscous solution with a slimy appearance when okra is extracted with water. In this study, we present a structural characterisation of...

2009-01-01

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Anjitha - A New Okra Variety through Induced Mutation in Interspecific Hybrids of Abelmoschus spp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on interspecific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistance genes and the wild character of A. manihot. This study was aimed at breaking this undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (100 200, 300 and 400 Gray) of F1 seeds obtained by interspecific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluating and selecting high yielding YVM resistant types from the generations segregating until F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of Gamma-rays. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 200Gy, while fruit yield was maximum in 400Gy due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease-resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 300Gy which suggested that 300Gy could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to CYTs and farm trials. Cultivar AE18 outyielded the others and was released as 'Anjitha' during 2006, for cultivation in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM-resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

2008-08-12

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Generation Mean Analysis of Some Economic Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In order to determine the mode of gene action involved in some okra economic traits, three different crosses as started genetic materials were used for this purpose applying generation mean analysis. Significant differences for all studied traits for six populations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 within each cross were found indicating the existence of genetic variation and possibility of selection for these traits. Insignificant negative or positive heterosis and inbreeding depression were registered in most crosses for all studied traits except in plant height. Additive-dominance model was adequate to demonstrate the genetic variation and it is important in the inheritance for weight of 100 seeds, fruit diameter, fruit length and total yield per plant traits. While, non-allelic interactions were found in the other traits for most crosses. The dominancexdominance effects were greater than additivexadditive and additivexdominance, when non-additive portion is larger than additive in most cases which recorded non-allelic interaction. Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV was higher than Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV for all traits indicating sensitivity of studied traits to the environmental conditions. GCV, PCV, heritability and expected Genetic advance GA% of mean in most crosses were found high or moderately high. As most studied traits are influenced by additive model and others showed non-allelic gene interaction, it is suggested that pedigree phenotypic selection method is a useful breeding program for improving these traits.

Soher E.A. El-Gendy

2013-01-01

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Interrelationships among Characters and Path Analysis for Pod Yield Components in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev Stevels  

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Full Text Available Correlation, stepwise multiple regression and path coefficient analysis were used to determine the relationships, direct and indirect effects of agronomic and reproductive characters on pod and seed yield. Eighteen F2 generation obtained from hybridization of West African okra were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications in a single locations. Data were collected on agronomic and reproductive characters. Significant differences were observed among the segregating population for pods/branch, seeds/pod, inter node distance, seeds/ridge branch length, height at flower bud initiation and height at flowering. A positive correlation (p<0.05 was recorded for number of pods/plant and seed weight, height at maturity, ridges/pod and seeds/ridge. The seed weight recorded a positive correlation coefficient with edible pod width, seeds/ridge and pods/plant. The stepwise multiple regression analysis identified two characters (height at maturity and number of pods/plant to have accounted for 31% of variation observed in seed weight. Mature pod length was responsible for 39% of variability in seed weight. The numbers of ridges per pod and plant height at maturity were responsible for 25% of variation due to regression in pod yield. The path analysis identified plant height at maturity, ridges/pod, pods/plant, mature pod length and seed/ridge as selection indicators for pod and seed yield improvement in West African Okra.

O.T. Adeniji

2007-01-01

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Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers  

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The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest ...

1999-01-01

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Synergistic Effect of Fungicides on the Incidence of Seed Mycoflora of Okra  

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Full Text Available Seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench variety Arka anamika were treated with 5 fungicides including Anucop, Bavistin, Captan, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax with different doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% and the combination Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Captan, Anucop + Vitavax, Bavistin + Vitavax, Anucop + Dithane, Bavistin + Dithane, Bavistin + Captan, Captan + Vitavax, Anucop + Bavistin + Captan, Anucop + Bavistin + Dithane, Anucop + Captan + Vitavax, Bavistin + Captan + Vitavax were used to test their potency against the seed-borne fungal diseases. Among these, Anucop at a concentration of 0.3%, Bavistin @ 0.2%, Captan @ 0.3%, Dithane @ 0.3%, Vitavax @ 0.3% and their combinations, like Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Dithane, Bavistin + Dithane, Anucop + Captan + Vitavax, Bavistin + Captan + Vitavax were most effective in the improvement of crop both in greenhouse and field conditions. These chemicals at different doses and in combinations increased the total number of leaves, fruits, mean length, girth and biomass of fruits. Apart from these, the total number of seeds per fruit, seed density and weight and ascorbic acid content were also enhanced. These chemicals reduced the incidence of seed mycoflora, thereby enhancing the seed germination percentage and vigour index of the seedlings.

S. Lokesh

2008-01-01

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Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) / Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El estudio de heterosis podría ayudar en la selección de cruzas heteróticas para la explotación comercial de híbridos F1 de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Cuarenta y cinco F1s fueron desarrolladas cruzando 10 líneas elite de gombo: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398- [...] A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) y P10(IC111443), en forma de medio dialelo durante el verano 2009. Todas las 45 F1s junto con sus 10 padres y un control estándar (Híbrido de Mahyco N° 10) fueron evaluadas en un diseno de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones durante kharif temprano (junio a septiembre) 2009 en la Estación de Investigación de Vegetales, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, para heterosis de la producción de gombo y sus componentes. La significancia de cuadrados medios debida a genotipos reveló la presencia de variabilidad genética considerable entre el material estudiado para casi toda la producción y atributos de producción excepto la altura de planta. La heterosis media total entre los padres y control estándar para la producción total por planta fue 6,92 y -15,44%, respectivamente, mientras para la producción comerciable por planta fue 6,64 y el -22,18%, respectivamente. Cruzas negativamente heteróticas como C19(P3XP5) para días a 50% floración (-4.35%) y C4(P1XP5) para primera floración y nudos fructíferos (-15,22%), respectivamente, son importantes para explotar heterosis de precocidad en quingombó. Las cruzas con heterosis estándar no significativa en cualquier dirección dada para producción total por planta C42, C31, C35, C25, y C36 (8,6; -0,08; -2,61; -3,26; y -4,57%, respectivamente) y producción comerciable por planta C42, C31, y C36 (-5,87; -6,56, y -10,54%, respectivamente), fueron estadísticamente iguales con el control estándar para rendimiento medio y fueron tan prometedoras como aquellas del control estándar. El híbrido F1 C42(P7XP10) con alto potencial de rendimiento tiene potencial para cultivo comercial después de evaluación adicional para la temporada kharif temprana. Abstract in english The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC8 [...] 9819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Mahyco Hybrid N° 10) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates during early kharif (June to September) 2009 at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, for heterosis of yield and its components of okra. Significance of mean squares due to genotypes revealed the presence of considerable genetic variability among the material studied for almost all yield and yield attributes except plant height. The overall mean heterosis over mid parent and standard control for total yield per plant was 6.92 and -15.44%, respectively, while for marketable yield per plant were 6.64 and -22.18%, respectively. Negatively heterotic crosses like C19 (P3XP5) for days to 50% flowering (-4.35%) and C4(P1XP5) for first flowering and fruiting nodes (-15.22%), respectively, are important to exploit heterosis for earliness in okra. The crosses with non-significant standard heterosis in any given direction for total yield per plant C42, C31, C35, C25, and C36 (8.63, -0.08, -2.61, -3.26, and -4.57%, respectively) and marketable yield per plant C42, C31, and C36 (-5.87, -6.56, and -10.54%, respectively), were statistically on par with the standard control in their mean performance and are found to be as promising as that of the standard control. The F1 hybrid C42(P7XP10) with high yield potential has the potential for commercial cultivation after f

Thirupathi, Reddy Medagam; Haribabu, Kadiyala; Ganesh, Mutyala; Begum, Hameedunnisa.

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Response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. moench. to different rates of nitrogen and lime on an acid soil  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Calabar in the south easternrainforest zone of Nigeria to evaluate the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench tofour rates of nitrogen (0, 40, 80 and 120kg/ha and three rates of lime (0, 5 and 10t/ha. Factorialcombinations of the treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with threereplications. Nitrogen had significant effects on plant height, number of leaves and branches/plant,number of pods/plant, fresh pod weight and total fresh pod yield. The 80kgN/ha rate maximized all thegrowth and yield attributes. Lime application had no consistent effect on plant height and number ofbranches/plant; but significantly improved all other growth and yield attributes. Total fresh pod yield washighest at 5t/ha lime rate, and this was 91% higher than the control. Significant interactions wererecorded between nitrogen and lime on number of leaves/plant and fresh pod yields, with thecombination of nitrogen and lime at 80kg/ha and 5t/ha giving the highest values.

Uwah D.F.

2010-06-01

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Callus Induced Organogenesis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculents L. Moench.)  

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A viable protocol has been developed for indirect shoot organogenesis of okra. To establish a stable and high-frequency plant regeneration system, leaf disc and hypocotyl explants were tested with different combinations of ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA),iIndole-3-butyric acid (IBA), thidiazuron (TDZ) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Morphogenic callus induction was observed in highest frequency from hypocotyl explant by culturing in MS medium supplemented wit...

Anisuzzaman, M.; Jarin, S.; Naher, K.; Akhtar, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Khalekuzzaman, M.; Alam, I.; Alam, M. F.

2008-01-01

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Irrigational impact of distillery effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Okra with special reference to heavy metals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed under natural environment to assess levels of different heavy metals in soil and Abelmoschus esculentus plants along with soil microbial population irrigated with five rates of distillery effluent (DE) viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % concentration in comparison with control (Bore well water). Results revealed that among various concentrations of DE, irrigation with 100 % DE significantly (P total bacteria (-45.23 %), fungi (-17.77 %) and actinomycetes (-42.57 %) in the soil. Enrichment factor of various heavy metals for soil was in the order Ni > Cr > Cd > Zn > Cu, and for A. esculentus plants, it was in the order Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Zn after irrigation with distillery effluent. The enrichment factor value was found maximum for Ni in comparison to other metals at 100 % DE concentration as compared with BWW. However, the values of these metals were below the recommended permissible limit. PMID:24638936

Srivastava, Sachin; Chopra, A K

2014-07-01

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Effect of Seed Treatment on the Incidence of Seed-borne Diseases of Okra  

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The experiment was conducted to know the effect of seed treatment on the incidence of seed-borne fungal diseases and on production of seed yield of okra. The lowest germination (95.0%) was recorded in unclean farmer`s seeds; while highest germination (99.0%) was recorded in Vitavax-200 treated seeds followed by clean apparently healthy seeds (98.5%). Seed-borne fungal diseases of okra in the field, five diseases viz. Foot and root rot, Anthracnose and die-back, Cercospora leaf spot, Corynespo...

Anam, M. K.; Fakir, G. A.; Khalequzzaman, K. M.; Hoque, M. M.; Abdur Rahim

2002-01-01

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Advances in breeding of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Okra, an important vegetable of the tropics and sub-tropics is very popular in India. Its production is limited by 'yellow vein mosaic virus'. Advances in breeding for resistance to this virus have been made through inter-specific hybridisation as well as mutagenesis. Hybridisation used A. manihot ssp. manihot and ssp. tetraphyllus. New varieties showed 87-146% yield increases over older virus susceptible varieties. The number of fruits increased by 13-30%, virus incidence decreased by 84-99%. An EMS induced mutant 'EMS8' showed a yield increase of 107%, a fruit number increase of 16% and a disease decrease of 99%. The mutant also carries a good amount of resistance to the fruit borer; infestation decreased by 46%. The mutant is the best among the tested varieties for canning, is suitable for dehydration, and can be stored prepacked at room temperature for 6 days. (author)

1990-01-01

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Ferti-irrigational Effect of Paper Mill Effluent on Agronomical Characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra  

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Full Text Available The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31 was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation of A. esculentus along with bore well water (control. The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO43¯, SO42¯, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (p>0.05 changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf of various heavy metals was Cr>Cd>Mn>Zn>Cu for soil and Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

A.K. Chopra

2013-01-01

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Gene action and combining ability of yield and its components for late kharif season in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Knowledge on the genetic system controlling the quantitative traits is important for devising an efficient selection program through the use of a suitable mating design. Forty five Fis were generated by crossing 10 germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) namely P1(IC282248), P2( [...] IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443) during summer 2009. Forty five F1s along with their 10 parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates during late kharif (August-November) 2009 at Vegetable Research Station, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, for studying gene action and combining ability of yield and its components. Significant general combining ability and specific combining ability variances were obtained in majority of the traits except fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots; implying that both the additive and non-additive gene effects operated in the genetic expression of the traits. The relative magnitude of general and specific combining ability variances indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for majority of the characters studied except number of branches per plant and fruit width. Combining ability analysis of parents revealed that the parental lines P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819) and P7(IC89976) were superior general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and other traits. The crosses C23(IC29119-B x IC99716), Cn(IC27826-A x IC111443), C42(IC89976 x IC111443) and C43(IC90107 x IC111443) were superior specific combiners for total as well as marketable yield per plant with the potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The crosses C17 (IC27826-A x IC111443) and C42(IC89976 x IC111443) involving one or both of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects for marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding.

Thirupathi Reddy, Medagam; Hari Babu, Kadiyala; Ganesh, Mutyala; Begum, Hameedunnisa; Dilipbabu, Jampala; Krishna Reddy, Reddivenkatagari Subbarama.

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Heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression and heritability study in okra(Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

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Full Text Available P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations of six crosses viz., HRB-55 x AOL-05-4, VRO-5 x Red Long, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3, GO-2 x AOL-04-3, Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 were used to study heterobeltiosis,inbreeding depression and heritability for days to first flowering, days to first picking, plant height, primary branches perplant, stem girth, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant in okra (A. esculentus (L.Moench. HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 showed heterobeltiosis in desirable direction for almost all the fruit yield and itscontributing characters particularly, 94.06 per cent for fruit yield per plant and 86.12 per cent fruits per plant. Moderate tohigh narrow sense heritability was observed for primary branches per plant in the crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E1,VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 (E2; fruit girth in the crosses VRO-5 x Red Long (E1, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1 and Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 (E1; fruit weight in the crosses HRB-55 xAOL-05-4 (E2, VRO-5 x Red Long (E1 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E2. The highest heritability identified 99.35 per centfor fruit length in the cross HRB-55 x AOL-05-4. The results of heterosbeltiosis revealed that the cross HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 may be exploited for fruit yield and its component traits. The positive and significant inbreeding depressionobserved for days to first flowering in cross, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1 and E2 and for days to first picking in the crossesHRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E2, VRO-5 x Red Long (E2, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E2 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 (E2. Thisindicates to obtain desirable segregants for earliness in subsequent segregating generations. The negative and significantinbreeding depression which is desirable for okra crop improvement also observed for different traits across theenvironments viz., twelve cases each in the crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 and VRO-5 x Red Long; four cases in crossVRO-6 x AOL-05-3; eight cases in cross GO-2 x AOL-04-3; seven cases in cross Arka Anamika x AOL-03-6 and sixcases in cross Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6. These findings would be useful for the improvement of fruit yield and itsquality traits while handling the segregating generation for the development of improved varieties.

Khanorkar S.M and K. B. Kathiria

2010-07-01

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Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny*  

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The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective ...

Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

2012-01-01

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Phosphorus-use Efficiency by Pepper (Capsicum frutescens and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentum at Different Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Levels on Two Tropical Soils  

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Full Text Available Crop growth is continuously threatened by Phosphorus (P limitation on most tropical and temperate soils. Besides P fertilizer management, soil type could significantly determine the efficiency of P use by specific crop species. In this study, the influence of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg P2O5 kg-1 soil on the growth, P nutrition and production of two fruit vegetables (hot pepper, Capsicum frutescens and okra, Abelmoschus esculentum were evaluated. The goal was to ascertain and compare P use efficiency by the crops on typical tropical soils (a medium acid, Oxic Paleustalf and a slightly acid, Typic Paleudalf. Growth in height, number of leaves and leaf area as well as biomass production, fruit yield, P content and uptake were determined. Increasing rates of P supply had insignificant (p<0.05 effect on the growth of the crops on both soil types within the first four Weeks After Planting (WAP. Phosphorus at 50 mg P2O5 kg-1 application level, however, produced the tallest pepper plants (27.0 cm on the Oxic Paleustalf after five weeks while it was the 150 mg P2O5 kg-1 level that produced the tallest plants (40.0 cm at the 6th week on the Typic Paleudalf. Soil available P values obtained after cropping increased significantly with increasing rates of added P. Okra plants were more efficient in their use of P than the pepper plants on the two soil types. It was evident that okra could be produced more successfully on soils with relatively low native or added P compared with pepper.

Ezekiel A. Akinrinde

2005-01-01

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Effect of Storage Conditons on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Fresh Okra (Abelmoschus esculenta Fruits  

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Full Text Available The effects of storage conditions on some physico-chemical and microbiological qualities of fresh okra were determined and compared. Fresh okra fruits were stored in open plates and sealed polyethylene bags in the refrigerator (F1, F2, on the shelf in the laboratory (S1, S2 and in the open sun (O1, O2 respectively for a period of nine (9 days. The moisture content, viscosity, microbiological composition and sensory properties of the stored fruits were determined on a daily basis during the period of storage. The moisture content and viscosity decreased during storage from 92.00% and 700 cP in fresh okra to 35.50% and 100 cP in okra stored in open plates in the sun (O2, respectively. On the other hand, bacterial count increased from 2.27x104 CFU/mL in fresh okra to 2.72x105 CFU/mL in okra stored in polyethylene bag in the sun (O2, while okra stored in open plates on the shelf (S1 had the highest mould count of 9.0x104 CFU/mL. Okra stored in polyethylene bag in the refrigerator (F2 had the highest moisture content of 84.50%, viscosity of 440 cP and the lowest bacterial and mould counts of 1.15x104 and 4.0x103 CFU/mL, respectively. Mean sensory scores in respect of colour, smell, texture and general acceptability showed that samples stored in the refrigerator scored higher in all attributes and had higher acceptability at the end of the storage period, which compared favourably with fresh okra fruits.

D.I. Gernah

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Avaliação da sensibilidade de plantas jovens de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) ao ozônio / Assessment of the sensitivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) to ozone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A sensibilidade de Abelmoschus esculentus ao ozônio (O3) foi determinada em plantas expostas por quatro dias, seis horas/dia, ao ar filtrado (AF) e ao AF enriquecido com 80 ppb de O3 (AF+O3), em câmaras de fumigação, analisando-se sintomas foliares visíveis e alterações nas trocas gasosas e em antio [...] xidantes. Avaliaram-se os sintomas foliares diariamente e as trocas gasosas e antioxidantes (ácido ascórbico e superóxido dismutase) ao fim do experimento. Todas as plantas em AF+O3 apresentaram sintomas foliares, caracterizados por pontuações avermelhadas na superfície adaxial, entre as nervuras. Em média, o índice de injúria foliar foi de 15% e a severidade de 62%. Fotossíntese líquida, condutância estomática, transpiração, concentração de ácido ascórbico e atividade da superóxido dismutase foram reduzidas significativamente nestas plantas, em comparação com as mantidas sob ar filtrado. Os resultados sugerem que Abelmoschus esculentus é sensível ao O3, apresentando baixos níveis de defesas antioxidativas e distúrbios fisiológicos. Abstract in english The sensitivity of Abelmoschus esculentus to ozone (O3) was assessed in plants exposed during four days, six hours/day, to filtered air (AF) and to AF plus 80 ppb of O3 (AF+O3) into fumigation chambers, by determining visible leaf symptoms and changes on gas exchange and on antioxidants. Visible sym [...] ptoms were daily evaluated. Gas exchange and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase) were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All plants from AF+O3 treatment showed leaf injury, characterized by interveinal reddish punctuations on the adaxial surfaces. In average, 15% of leaf injury index and 62% of severity were estimated. Net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, ascorbic acid level and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly reduced in those plants, compared to measurements performed in plants exposed to AF only. The results suggest that Abelmoschus esculentus is sensitive to ozone, showing low levels of antixidative defenses and physiological distubances.

Patricia, Bulbovas; Silvia Maria Romano, Sant' Anna; Regina Maria de, Moraes; Elisabeth de Souza, Lima; Juliana Moreno, Pina; Marisia Pannia, Esposito; Maurício Lamano, Ferreira; Adriano Afonso, Spielmann; Ciliane Matilde, Sollito; Cynthia Hering, Rinnert; Denílson Fernandes, Peralta; Juliana da Silva, Cardoso; Lílian, Carminitti; Luciana da Silva, Canêz; Marcelo M. dos Santos, Reis; Michel Navarro, Benatti; Silvia Ribeiro de, Souza; Marisa, Domingos.

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Effect of different levels of nitrogen alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cv. T-13 under the agro-climatic conditions of Mingora, Swat  

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Investigation were undertaken to study the effect of different level of nitrogen (0,100,120,140 kg ha-1) alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorous (90 kg ha-1) on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cv.T-13 at Agriculture Research Station (North) Mingora, Swat during 1997. Maximum plant height (185 cm), number of pods per plant (24.59) pod length (12.63 cm), and the highest yield per hectare (16950.79 kg) was recorded on the plot...

2000-01-01

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Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticides, Cascade (insect growth regulator and Pressurized water spray (M. Y. strategy was evaluated against insect pests of okra. Cascade was found to be the best efficient against Helicoverpa armigera and Earias spp. Pirate showed maximum efficacy against Amrasca biguttula biguttula, whereas, against Bemisia tabaci, the most effective treatment was Azodrin followed by M.Y. strategy.

Muhammad Tariq

2000-01-01

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Effects of Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus and Mixture Groundnut (Archis hypogaea  

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Full Text Available The effects of various row spacing on the yield and yield components of okra with groundnut were conducted at the training and research farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Yield and yield components of the crops in the various row spacing, monetary value of fresh okra fruits and dry groundnut pods were determined. The efficacy of the inter-cropping on weed suppression was evaluated. Okra plant height showed that R30 (30x50 cm was highly significant than the other treatments in the experiment. Treatment R90 (90x50 cm and R75 (75x50 cm had significantly higher number of branches (p=>0.05. The results show that productive nodes increased with increasing row spacing, R90 had 77%, while R75 and R60 had 69 and 66%, respectively. This actually affected crop yield. However, R75, R60 and R90 had the highest fruit yield and were significantly higher than R30 and R45 at p>0.05. Conversely, R30 and R45 suppressed weeds better but had low fruit yield compared to R75, R60 and R9d . The yield of groundnut showed that R60 and R75 had the highest yield although it was not significantly different from R90. Treatment R75 had the highest monetary yield of N 132,200.00 ha-1 than the other treatments compared.

I.I. Ibeawuchi

2005-01-01

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Effect of Chemical Paclobutrazol on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Har Lium Cultivar in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This investigation was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand in the late rainy season of the 2003 to 2004 with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults. The experiment aims to search for more information on the effect of different rates of chemical Paclobutrazol (PBZ application on growth, yield and quality of edible okra pods. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCDB with four replications was used for the experiment. The experiments consisted of five treatments, i.e., 0 (T1, 4,000 (T2, 8,000 (T3, 12,000 (T4 and 16,000 ppm ha-1 (T5 of chemical PBZ. The results showed that an increase in PBZ application rate highly decreased plant height, harvesting age and significantly decreased leaf area of the fifth leaf but highly increased pod length, fresh weight/pod and fresh pod yield ha-1 of the okra plants. PBZ had no significant effect on stem diameter and diameter of pods of the okra plants. Total soluble solid, fibre content, titratable acid, vitamin C and pectin contents in pods were not affected by chemical PBZ application. Pod yield highly increased with an increase in rate of PBZ application. The highest edible pod yield reached a value of 4,501 kg ha-1 for the highest rate of PBZ application (T5.

Chutichudet Benjawan

2007-01-01

46

Effect of Monocrotophos and Methamidophos on Jassid, Amrasca devastans
(Distant in Different Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cultivars
 

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Full Text Available Two commonly used insecticides, Methamidophos 60SL @ 1000ml/ha and Monocrotophos 40WSC @ 1500 ml/ha were evaluated on Amrasca devastans L. during 1999 on Pusa Swani, Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma okra varieties. Both insecticides provided effective control of Jassid and kept the population below economic threshold level up to ten days after insecticidal application. However, Methamidophos 60SL proved better on Pusa Swani as compared to Monocrotophos 40WSC, which decreased jassid population on Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma, respectively.

Munir Ahmad

2001-01-01

47

Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Brazil Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil  

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A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157) out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and introduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotide sequences exhibited...

Silvia de Araujo Aranha; Leonardo Cunha de Albuquerque; Leonardo Silva Boiteux; Alice Kazuko Inoue-Nagata

2011-01-01

48

Effects of Green Manures on Growth, Yield and Quality of Green Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Har Lium Cultivar  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults. The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., T1 (Control, T2 (Jack bean, T3 (Cowpea, T4 (Green gram and T5 (Giant sensitive plant. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four replications. The results showed that Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults contained some considerable mean values of organic matter (1.64-1.66% but soil available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were relatively low, particularly potassium. Green manures of the four legume plants slightly improved soil property of the Roi-Et soil series (tested at the end of the experimental period. The most effective green manure on stem diameter, bushy diameter, leaf numbers plant- 1 and leaf area of the fifth leaf of the okra plants, in most cases, was found with Jack bean and Cowpea ranked the second. However, in most cases, Cowpea gave a similar effect as that of Green gram and Giant sensitive plant. Pod length and weight pod- 1, pod diameter and edible fresh pod yields (5,941.86 kg ha- 1 were highest with Jack bean green manure treatment (T2, whilst the rest, in most cases, were similar. Green manure treatments gave highly significant effect on total soluble solids of pods over the control treatment, whilst total acidity, fibre and pectin contents were unaffected by green manure treatments. Green manure of Jack bean was the best legume crop for green manure to be used in improving soil fertility, particularly for Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults.

Chutichudet Benjawan

2007-01-01

49

Purification and biological activities of Abelmoschus esculentus seed lectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae) plant originated in Africa and has spread across a number of tropic countries, including northeastern Brazil. The plant has been used to treat various disorders, such as cancer, microbial infections, hypoglycemia, constipation, urine retention and inflammation. The lectin of A. esculentus (AEL) was isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a saturation level of 30/60 and purified by ion exchange chromatography (Sephacel-DEAE). The electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profile of the AEL showed two protein bands of apparent molecular mass of approximately 15.0 and 21.0 kDa. The homogenity of the protein was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which revealed the presence of a 10.29-kDa monomer and a 20.58-kDa dimer. The AEL exhibits agglutinating activity against rabbit (74.41 UH/mP) and human type ABO erythrocytes (21.00 UH/mP). This activity does not require the presence of divalent cations and is specifically inhibited by lactose, fructose and mannose. The intravenous treatment with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg of AEL inhibited the paw edema elicited by carrageenan by approximately 15, 22 and 44 %, respectively, but not that induced by dextran. In addition, treatment with 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg of AEL also inhibited the abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid by approximately 52, 57 and 69 %, respectively. In conclusion, AEL is a new lectin with a molecular mass of 20.0 kDa, which is -composed of a 10.291-Da monomer and a 20.582-kDa dimer, that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and hemagglutinating activities. In addition, the lectin hemagglutinating property is both metallo-independent and associated with the lectin domain. PMID:22965555

de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; de Morais Gomes, Vinicius; Delatorre, Plinio; da Conceição Simões, Rafael; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Leite, Joana Filomena; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Pinto, Nilson Vieira; de Luna Freire Pessoa, Hilzeth; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane

2012-12-01

50

Biological Control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood, Root Knot Nematodes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench  

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In a greenhouse study P. lilacinus, T. harzianum and T. flavus were used as seed treatment and soil drench. Seed treatment by P. lilacinus reduced gall formation, egg mass production, nematode soil and root densities as compared to control and other treatments. P. lilacinus improved plant growth followed by T. flavus and T. harzianum comparing with control. In another experiment, where soil was treated with conidial suspension, maximum plant height and shoot weight was achieved by P. lilacinu...

Amer-Zareen; Nargis Jamil Khan; Javed Zaki, M.

2001-01-01

51

Growth, yield and seed production of okra as influenced by different growth regulators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) affect various aspects of plant physiology, mainly vegetative and reproductive traits including yield and seed production. Therefore, different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of gibberellic acid (GA3) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), alone or in different combinations were sprayed on okra plants at 2-true leaf stage, to ascertain their impact on plant growth, pod production, seed yield and seed quality. All variables regarding vegetative and reproductive growth were significantly influenced by different concentrations of the growth regulators except number of days taken to flowering. Growth regulators were less effective when applied individually as compared to their combined use; however, performance of plants treated with individual PGR was better than the untreated plants. The number of leaves plant/sup -1/ and plant height was higher in plants when sprayed with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+100 ppm as well as with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. The number of pods plant/sup -1/, pod length, pod fresh and dry weight, seed yield and seed quality (in terms of germination percentage and 1000-seed weight) was maximum in plants receiving foliar spray of both GA3 and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. These results signify the role of GA/sub 3/ and NAA in okra pod production for fresh consumption as well as for seed yield. (author)

2013-07-01

52

Influence of Some Soil Amendments on Insect Pest Infestation and Damage to Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench in Umudike, Abia State  

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Full Text Available Field experiment to determine the effect of three soil amendments (Poultry manure, goat manure and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on insect pest infestation and damage to Okra (Oboro dwarf variety was conducted in 2006 at Umudike, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three treatments and control replicated five times. During the experiment, application of poultry manure and goat manure at 50g/plant and 20g/plant of NPK 15:15:15 were applied two weeks after planting in a ring form. Results obtained showed that the application of goat manure and poultry manure generally, significantly reduced the prevalence of Podagrica spps with regards to plant height and leaf area of Okra. The application of NPK 15:15:15 may have promoted vegetative growth of Okra, making it more succulent and thereby enhancing high pest attack, survival and damage of the Okra. Hence, increasing the application rates of the different soil amendments may have significant increase on the yield as well as reduce pest invasion.

2007-01-01

53

Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Oat Gum, Okra Gum, Quince Seed Gum, and Psyllium Seed Husk Gum as Food Ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report, by a group of qualified scientists designated the Select Committee of GRAS Substances (SCOGS), provides an independent evaluation of the safety of the health aspects of oat gum, okra gum, quince seed gum, and psyllium seed husk gum as food in...

1982-01-01

54

Effect of Chemical Paclobutrazol on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar in Northeast Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This investigation was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand in the late rainy season of the 2003 to 2004 with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The experiment aims to search for more information on the effect of different rates of chemical Paclobutrazol (PBZ) application on growth, yield and quality of edible okra pods. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCDB) with four replications was used for the experi...

Chutichudet Benjawan; Chutichudet, P.; Chanaboon, T.

2007-01-01

55

Combining Ability and Genetic Components for Length and Width of Pods in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev) Stevels)  

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In the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, okra pods are consumed fresh. The introduction of pure lines and hybrids with improved length and width into the cropping system, necessitate studies on the combining ability and genetic components for the length and width of pods. Seven parents and 21 F1 generations were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications. The results indicated that the means squares due to GCA and SCA for length ...

Adeniji, O. T.; Kehinde, O. B.

2007-01-01

56

Improvement of Okra Seed Quality by Pre-soaking in H2O2 Solution  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of H2O2 solution in improving the seed quality of two Indian okra varieties (Anamika and Parbhani kanti was investigated. The seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations for six hours. Vigour index and % germination were estimated. Root and shoot lengths as well as dry matter contents of the normal seedlings were determined. Moreover, crop growth rate (CGR at 10 and 20 days after sowing (DAS were also worked-out. It has been experienced that, pre-soaking at 2.0% concentration significantly enhanced all the parameters studied. However, in some cases, 1.5 to 2.5% concentrations also gave identically the best results. Afterwards toxicity was clearly manifested through reduction of the studied parameters. Contrastly, pre-soaking in plain water resulted in poor values for all the parameters noted. Moreover, in terms of variety, Anamika was significantly better than Parbhani kanti.

T. M. T. Iqbal

2001-01-01

57

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L. GENOTYPES FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS REVEALED BY AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity in 48 genotypes and accessions using eight Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP primer-pairs. The eight selected AFLP primer-pairs generated a total of 150 polymorphic loci. Using the generated AFLP data, the Un-Weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA ordered the genotypes into six groups based on Dice similarity coefficient. The range in taxonomic distance was from 0.23 to 1.0. Each cluster was found to have genotypes and accessions from different regions and climate and sometimes different continents. The size range of the loci ranged from 87-662 bp. Great variation between the genotypes and accessions in the different cluster could be of high value as the genetically diverse okra genotypes represent a potentially valuable source for improved pathogen and pest resistance.

Naser M. Salameh

2014-01-01

58

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Chlormequat Chloride (CCC Application and Terminal Apex Excision to Restrict Plant Height in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench. and Optimize Yield  

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Full Text Available Two methods for restricting plant height (CCC application and excision of the main shoot apex were applied to okra cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ with the aim of assisting crop management and optimizing yield. Apex excision 26 or 40 days after transplantation (DAT effectively restricted plant height, but either had no effect (40 DAT or reduced the number of side shoots per plant (26 DAT. Moreover, although the length of side shoots increased after apex excision, the number of nodes per side shoot was not affected. Hence pod number and weight was less than in the control (untreated. CCC application (500 and 2000 ppm reduced plant height due to a reduction in internode length; however, when applied at the time of transplantation (0 DAT (both concentrations or 26 DAT (2000 ppm it also caused a reduction in node number on the main stem. CCC did not affect the number of side shoots or the number of nodes per shoot, and side shoot length decreased due to shorter internode lengths. The number and weight of pods per plant was reduced by 2000 ppm CCC irrespective of the time of application, but was not affected by 500 ppm CCC at 0 DAT (pod number or 40 DAT (pod weight and number. We conclude that the application of 500 ppm CCC at 40 DAT may aid okra cultivation since it reduces overall plant size (height and diameter without adversely affecting yield, and may thus assist crop management (e.g. easier hand-harvesting and permit an increase in plant density.

Charalambos Thanopoulos

2013-08-01

59

Okra pectin contains an unusual substitution of its rhamnosyl residues with acetyl and alpha-linked galactosyl groups  

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The okra plant, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, a native plant from Africa, is now cultivated in many other areas such as Asia, Africa, Middle East, and the southern states of the USA. Okra pods are used as vegetables and as traditional medicines. Sequential extraction showed that the Hot Buffer Soluble Solids (HBSS) extract of okra consists of highly branched rhamnogalacturonan (RG) I containing high levels of acetyl groups and short galactose side chains. In contrast, the CHelating agen...

2009-01-01

60

The Effect of Combined Application of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on the Growth and Yield of Okra  

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Full Text Available The effect of combined application of poultry manure and sawdust on soil properties, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were investigated at the main campus of Tai solarin University of Education Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria during 2010/2011 dry season. This size of the plot was 45 m by 5m; the seed was planted with three seed per hole at a spacing of 0.5 m. The total numbers of plots were 27 plots, for the avoidance of doubt; it comprises three treatments and each treatment was replicate three times. The treatments consisted of 0, 5, 10 ton/ha Broiler litter (Poultry manure and 0, 2, 5 ton/ha (sawdust. The results indicated a significant increase in growth parameters in those plants planted in 0, 2, 5 ton/ha poultry manure plot than sawdust plot. However, treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters (plant height, stem girth and number of leaves were increased significantly (p<0.05 as manure rates increased. Poultry manure at 10 ton/ha has significant increase in fruit yield of okra increase. The combined application of poultry manure and sawdust does not have effect on yield and fruit number of okra but there is a slight effect on plant height. Based on the findings of the experiments it could be deduced that poultry manure seems to promote higher growth and yield of okra. Thus, it should be recommended for farmers growing okra in region.

Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

PRODUCTIVITY OF OKRA VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY SEASONAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA  

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In northern Nigeria, two distinct season are noticeable and these are the wet (April to October) and the dry (November to March) seasons. Due to little or no documented work conducted to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), this study is therefore undertaken to compare the performance of okra during the wet and the dry seasons of northern Niger...

Katung, M. D.

2007-01-01

62

Improvement of Okra Seed Quality by Pre-soaking in H2O2 Solution  

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The efficacy of H2O2 solution in improving the seed quality of two Indian okra varieties (Anamika and Parbhani kanti) was investigated. The seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations for six hours. Vigour index and % germination were estimated. Root and shoot lengths as well as dry matter contents of the normal seedlings were determined. Moreover, crop growth rate (CGR) at 10 and 20 days after sowing (DAS) were also worked-out. It has been experienced that, pre-so...

Iqbal, T. M. T.; Bahadur, M. M.; Kabir, M. A.; Hasan, M. A.; Majumder, D. A. N.

2001-01-01

63

Evaluating Border Cropping System for Management of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infesting Okra (Malvaceae) in Kenya  

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Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Four crops used as border crops; maize (Zea mays L.), Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan (L.) Milisp.) and millet (Pennissetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) were planted 14 days prior to okra sowing, providing a protection perimeter around the w...

Nderitu, J.; Kasina, M.; Malenge, F.

2008-01-01

64

Genotypic performance, character correlations and path analysis of pod yield in Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev. Stevels  

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Full Text Available Direct selection based on pod yield is often a problem in West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev. Stevels breeding programs. Information on inter-relationships among traits to implement indirect selection for pod yield is needed. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of West African okra varieties in two cropping seasons prevailing in Nigeria, and to determine the associations among main agronomic characters and their influence on pod yield. Twenty-five genotypes were grown in two planting seasons at the Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 2008-2009 using a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Sixteen plant characters were measured. The data were subjected to variance, correlation and path analyses. Four genotypes, viz., CEN 010, CEN 012, NGAE-96-04 and AGA 97/066-5780 demonstrated potential for high pod yield. CEN 012 and AGA 97/066-5780 in addition, demonstrated early flowering higher number of pods. Character associations varied between planting seasons. The dependence of pod yield on final plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per branch, number of pods per plant, number of ridges per pod, weight of 250 seeds, pod length and seed weight per plant was noted in both planting seasons. In both seasons, number of pods per plant exhibited a high positive direct effect on pod yield. In conclusion, the trait of most interest for improving pod yield under early and late-season conditions was number of pods per plant.

Moninuola A. Ayo-Vaughan

2012-10-01

65

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on seed borne fungal pathogens in okra  

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The effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates was tested against some seed borne fungal diseases. Among them B. pumilus

Mashooda Begum, V. Ravishankar Rai And S. Lokesh

2012-01-01

66

Seedling imaging analysis and traditional tests to assess okra seed vigor / Análise de imagens de plântulas e testes tradicionais para avaliação do vigor de sementes de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A avaliação do vigor é essencial em programas de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes. Uma das alternativas mais recentes para essa avaliação é o sistema computadorizado de análise de imagens de plântulas (SVIS), utilizado com sucesso para várias espécies de sementes de grandes [...] culturas e de hortaliças. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a eficiência do SVIS para identificar diferenças no potencial fisiológico de lotes de sementes de quiabo, em comparação com outros métodos utilizados para essa espécie. Cinco lotes da cultivar Clemson Americano e quatro da 'Santa Cruz' foram submetidos a testes de germinação (velocidade e porcentagem), germinação a baixa temperatura (15 ºC), envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com solução saturada de NaCl (41 ºC/72 e 96 horas) e emergência de plântulas. Também foi determinado o índice de vigor, o comprimento e a uniformidade de desenvolvimento de plântulas, por meio do SVIS. Essas avaliações foram realizadas no início, aos seis e doze meses de armazenamento. Concluiu-se que o índice de vigor e o comprimento de plântulas, avaliados por meio do software SVIS, são eficientes para identificar diferenças de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo, proporcionando resultados semelhantes aos obtidos no teste de envelhecimento acelerado (41 ºC/72 horas). Abstract in english Seed vigor testing is an important component of quality control programs adopted by seed industry. The software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) has been successfully used for seed vigor assessment in different species. The objective of this research was to verify the SVIS efficiency to assess okra [...] seed vigor in comparison to other vigor tests used for this species. Five seed lots of 'Clemson Americano' and four of 'Santa Cruz' were submitted to germination (speed and percentage), cold germination (speed and percentage), traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41 ºC/72 and 96 h) and seedling emergence tests during 12 months storage. Vigor index, uniformity of growth and seedling length were determined by the software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS). Results showed that the vigor index and seedling length determined by the SVIS analyses are efficient to determine okra seed vigor as well as the accelerated aging test (41 ºC/72 h).

Ana Lúcia Pereira, Kikuti; Júlio, Marcos-Filho.

67

Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo  

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The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density...

Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Marcelo Picanço; Gulab Newandram Jham; Márcio Dionízio Moreira

2005-01-01

68

Pheromone Technology for the Control of Helicoverpa armigera in Okra  

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Full Text Available Pheromone traps against American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were installed at 1.5 m from the ground in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. First moth, in the field, was appeared during 7th and 6th weeks of traps installation each year 1995 and 1996, respectively. Maximum mean numbers of moths (11th and 7th were captured during 9th and 7th weeks of traps installation, when the average temperatures were 28.38 and 25.78oC each year, respectively. A total mean number of 24 and 17 moths were captured during the two years of study respectively. The adult pest remained in the field till 11th and 4th August 1995 and 1996, respectively. The study strongly recommends the use of pheromones over pesticides against the said pest in okra.

Muhammad Faheem Malik

2003-01-01

69

Okra : Abelmoschus esculentus, A. caillei, A. manihot, A. moschatus (Malvaceae)  

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Le gombo est un légume-fruit tropical cultivé dans toute la zone intertropicale. Ce texte constitue une des monographies compilées dans la 2ème édition du livre "Evolution des plantes cultivées" de J. Smartt et N.W. Simmonds. Les auteurs S. Hamon (ORSTOM) et D.H. Van Sloten (IPGRI) ont contribué au cours des années 80 à développer des travaux sur cette plante. Dans cet article sont exposées les principales connaissances sur l'évolution de la systématique, les indications taxonomi...

Hamon, Serge; Sloten, D. H.

1995-01-01

70

Desempenho do quiabeiro consorciado com adubos verdes eretos de porte baixo em dois sistemas de cultivo / Okra performance intercropped with small size and erect green manure in two production systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o cultivo intercalar de adubos verdes eretos e de porte baixo na cultura do quiabeiro, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em cultivo convencional em Monte Alegre do Sul e outro em cultivo orgânico em São Roque-SP, de fevereiro a julho de 2008 e de dezembro de 2008 [...] a junho de 2009, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos, constando de quiabeiro em cultivo "solteiro" e consorciado com uma ou duas linhas de mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana) e de crotalária-espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis) nas entrelinhas. No cultivo orgânico, dois novos tratamentos foram adicionados ao experimento para avaliar os adubos verdes em cultivo solteiro. No quiabeiro avaliou-se a produção (g planta-1) e número de frutos por planta, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e altura média do dossel em diferentes épocas após a semeadura. Nos adubos verdes avaliaram-se altura média das plantas e produtividade de massa fresca. A eficiência do consórcio foi mensurada por meio da relação de área equivalente (RAE). A produção média do quiabeiro por planta foi de 190,9 e 582,0 g planta-1, respectivamente, no sistema convencional e orgânico. A RAE foi de 1,5 e 1,6 no consórcio do quiabeiro com duas linhas de mucuna-anã e crotalária-espectábilis, respecticamente. Verificou-se viabilidade agronômica da adoção do cultivo intercalar pelo agricultor familiar de quiabeiro, especificamente com duas linhas dos adubos verdes de porte ereto e baixo. Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic viability of the intercropping okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) with small size and erect green manuring species Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, two experiments were carried out, one in conventional system at Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo state, Brazil, fr [...] om February to July 2008 and one in an organic system at São Roque, São Paulo state, Brazil, from December 2008 to June 2009. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were constituted by okra monoculture and okra intercropped with one or two lines of M. deeringiana and one or two lines of C.spectabilis in the seeded at the same time of the okra crop. In organic farming two new treatments were added to the experiment to evaluate the green manures in single cropping. Production, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and diameter and plant height were evaluated in okra plants and plant height and fresh matter weight were determined in the green manuring plants at different periods after seeding.. The evaluation of the efficiency of the consortium was measured by the ratio of area equivalent (RAE). Average yield per okra plant was 190.9 and 582.0 g plant-1, respectively, under conventional and organic cropping. The RAE was 1.5 and 1.6 in the consortium of okra with two rows of M. deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, respectively. Intercropping erect short green manuring species with okra is agronomically viable and can be used by family farmers without interference with the yield of okra crop.

Sebastião Wilson, Tivelli; Cristiaini, Kano; Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Elaine B, Wutke; Issáo, Ishimura.

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Pheromone Technology for the Control of Helicoverpa armigera in Okra  

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Pheromone traps against American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were installed at 1.5 m from the ground in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). First moth, in the field, was appeared during 7th and 6th weeks of traps installation each year 1995 and 1996, respectively. Maximum mean numbers of moths (11th and 7th) were captured during 9th and 7th weeks of traps installation, when the average temperatures were 28.38 and 25.78oC each year, respective...

Muhammad Faheem Malik; Daud-ur-Rahman; Liaquat Ali

2003-01-01

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Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae. PMID:24426275

Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

2013-09-01

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Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro  

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The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. ...

Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Marcelo Picanço; José Cola Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael Gusmão

2007-01-01

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INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK  

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Full Text Available Dry seeds (cultivar I – tall, branched, moisture content 3.5%; cultivar II – dwarf, unbranched, moisture content 1.5% of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae; Common name: Ambrette; English name: Musk mallow were treated (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00% for 3h and 6h durations with chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS and hydroxylamine (NH2OH to raise desirable ‘plant type’ mutants. Mutagenic sensitivity (from M1 biological damages like lethality, injury and sterility; LD50 was ascertained, M2 mutation frequency and types (cv.I: pigmented stem, lax branching, long petiole, large flower and early flowering, 1089 plants scored; cv.II: funnel, thick stem and late flowering, 1945 plants screened, mutagenic effectiveness (EMS more effective than NH2OH and efficiency (variable response but threshold dose seems to be efficient and meiotic chromosome behaviour of the plant types were assessed. Macromutants evolved were viable and may be important genetic resources in the plant species.

Dubey Kumari Priyanka

2012-05-01

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PRODUCTIVITY OF OKRA VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY SEASONAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available In northern Nigeria, two distinct season are noticeable and these are the wet (April to October and the dry (November to March seasons. Due to little or no documented work conducted to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench, this study is therefore undertaken to compare the performance of okra during the wet and the dry seasons of northern Nigeria. Two okra varieties ('White velvet' and 'Ex-Borno' were evaluated during the 1997 and 1999 wet seasons and 1997/98 and 1999/2000 dry seasons at Samaru in northern Nigeria, in order to determine their productivity. The variables measured at the reproductive stage were plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf area, days to first flower, fruit weight/plant and fruit yield (t/ha. Significant differences were observed for all variables among seasons and among varieties. The wet season conditions were most favourable for increased growth, leaf formation and fruit yield, as compared with the dry season environment which resulted in less vegetative and reproductive growth. The interaction of season x variety was highly significant for plant height, fruit weight/plant, fruit yield and significant for leaf area and number of fruits/plant. The variety 'White velvet' produced more fruits than 'Ex-Borno'.

M. D. KATUNG

2007-08-01

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Molecular characterization of distinct bipartite begomovirus infecting bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yellow vein mosaic disease of okra is a whitefly transmitted begomovirus causing heavy economic loss in different parts of India. The okra isolate (OY131) of this virus from a bhendi plant [(Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench] showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting, reduced leaves, and a bushy appearance in the Palem region, New Delhi, India, was characterized in the present study. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B sequences have been determined and are comprised of 2,746 and 2,703 nucleotides, respectively. The betasatellite (DNA-?) component was absent in the sample. The genome organization was typically of biparite begomoviruses, which were characterized earlier. Comparison of DNA-A component with other known begomoviruses suggest that this virus, being only distantly related (ToLCNDV (AY158080). The phylogenetic analysis of the present isolate is distinct from all other viruses; however clusters with ToLCNDV group infect different crops. The recombination analysis revealed that this isolate has sequences originated from ToLCNDV. This is the first known bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease associated bipartite begomovirus from India. PMID:22447131

Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

2012-06-01

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Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

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To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

2010-09-01

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Influence of Time of Decomposition of Plants Materials on Okra Performance in Ogbomoso, Guinea Savanna Zone of South-West, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso in 2012 to determine the effect of plant biomass types and time of decomposition on the growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. moench. The treatment was a split plot laid out in randomized complete block design. The treatments involved two organic fertilizer types (Neem and Tithonia plant biomass, no fertilizer application (control and five periods of incorporation (0, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks before planting making a total of ten treatment combinations replicated three times with Okra as the test crop. Data were collected on growth parameters and yield attributes of Okra. The parameters assessed were significantly influenced (p?0.05 by the applied plant biomass types. The highest plant height, number of leaves stem circumference and fruits plant-1 were recorded at 6 weeks before planting irrespective of the plant biomass types. The significantly higher fruit weight were recorded at 4, 5 and 6 weeks before planting irrespective of the plant biomass types. The best performance of Okra in terms of growth were obtained from neem plant biomass type and the best yield was obtained from tithonia plant biomass type while those with no fertilizer recorded the least values. In conclusion, the growth and yield of Okra were improved by plant biomass types and best performance of Okra in terms of growth were obtained from neem plant biomass type while the best yield was obtained from tithonia plant biomass type and 4, 5 or 6 weeks before planting is adjudged as the best period for incorporation of plant biomass in Ogbomoso, Guinea Savanna zone of south west, Nigeria.

A.T. Ajibola

2014-01-01

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Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in okra germplasm  

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Full Text Available – Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’. Inoculation (in all assays was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates (‘Fus-194’ and ‘Fus-201’. Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-194’ during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-201’. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to ‘Fus-194’, and 32% were resistant to ‘Fus-201’. The accessions ‘Santa Cruz-47’, ‘BR-2399’ and ‘BR-1449’ were the most promising resistance sources.

Frederick Mendes Aguiar

2013-04-01

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Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays  

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Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiprolife...

Gul Mir Z; Bhakshu Lepakshi M; Ahmad Farhan; Kondapi Anand K; Qureshi Insaf A; Ghazi Irfan A

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Analgesic Activity of Abelmoschus manihot Extracts  

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Full Text Available The natural products served as important sources of medicines now a day increasing, as they possess the therapeutic activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae leaves using hot plate and tail immersion model. The air-dried, powdered leaves (1000 g were extracted over Soxhlet with petroleum ether and methanol. The crude dried petroleum ether (10 g and methanol (25 g extracts was prepared at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 and evaluated for analgesic activity using the hot plate and tail immersion test. The results obtained indicate that the extracts possessed significant (p-1 dose as compared with the standard drug. This study showed that the petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Abelmoschus manihot leaves possess potential pharmacological active constituents responsible for inhibition of the analgesic effect.

J. Surana Sanjay

2011-01-01

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Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra  

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The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74%) was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82%) and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%). Neem seed oil...

Moharam, Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed; Obiadalla Ali, Hazim Abd El-rahman

2012-01-01

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Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a polysaccharide from flowers of Abelmoschus esculentus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A water-soluble polysaccharide (OFPS11) was obtained from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) flowers using aqueous extraction and purification with DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl™ S-500 column. Its preliminary characterization and immunomodulating activity were investigated. Results showed that OFPS11 is mainly composed of galactose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 2.23:1 with molecular mass of 1,700 kDa. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with OFPS11 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG-2 cells. Additionally, OFPS11 enhanced the phagocytic ability and induced the elevation of NO production, TNF-? and IL-1? secretion of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, OFPS11 promoted both the expression of iNOS protein and of iNOS and TNF-? mRNA. OFPS11 can strongly increase NF-?B levels in nucleuses, which is an important transcription factor that can modulate expressions of iNOS, NO and TNF-?. These outcomes support that OFPS11 exerts its antitumor activity by probably stimulating macrophage activities through nuclear NF-?B pathway. PMID:24721087

Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Zou, Ye; Zheng, Daheng; Takase, Mohammed; Li, Qian; Wu, Huiyu; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

2014-06-15

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???????: ??  

Full Text Available ?? Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus esculentus[okra????????????????????? ???????????????600?g/100g????????? ????????????????????670?g/100g? ???????????????????????????? ??????????;[??]???:?????????

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Combining ability in bhindi [ Abelmoschus spp.  

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Full Text Available Combining ability was estimated for six diverse okra genotypes or varieties by diallel analysis. The combininganalysis revealed that Arka Anamika was found to be a good general combiner for fruit number, fruit weight and fruit length.KL9 showed high gca for days to first flowering, internode number and fruit weight. In this study, it was observed thatpresence of overdominance for most of the yield contributing traits

Divya Balakrishnan

2009-12-01

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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS AND INOCULUM LEVELS OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON OKRA  

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Among two methods of Macrophomina phaseolina inoculation used for pathogenicity test, soil infestation method comparatively checked more plant growth of okra plants than seed infestation method. Minimum plant length and weight, as well as seed germination were observed by soil infestation method. Significantly maximum plant mortality and root infection was also occurred in soil infestation method. Seed germination, plant growth, plant mortality and root infection o...

Khanzada, Anam M.; Lodhi, Abdul M.; Nargis Shah; Maitlo, Sultan A.

2012-01-01

87

Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites  

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Full Text Available The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2 okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

Srinivasababu

2009-10-01

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A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.)  

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The Abelmoschus manihot (L.) commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and spe...

Rewatkar, K. K.; Naiyer Shahzad; Ayaz Ahmed; Mohd. Irfan Khan; Ganesh, N.

2011-01-01

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A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.  

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Full Text Available

The Abelmoschus manihot (L. commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm count on sexually normal male mice. Two doses i.e. 100and 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract administered to Swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency.The result of the present study signatured for sexual enhancing capacity of the drug Abelmoschus manihot is an individual and also holds good aphrodisiac property when compared with standard drug. It was noticed that a 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect. Therefore, the conclusion suggestive that the Abelmoschus manihot will be a drug of choice or alternative therapy for a marketed product. Which may help the population to lead their sexual life perfectly with full of pleasure to interact body, mind and sole.

Keywords: Abelmoschus manihot, Aphrodisiac, Mounting frequency, Intromission frequency, Penile erection index.

K.K. Rewatkar

2011-04-01

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Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.  

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Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

2013-01-01

91

Complete nucleotide sequence and experimental host range of Okra mosaic virus.  

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Okra mosaic virus (OkMV) is a tymovirus infecting members of the family Malvaceae. Early infections in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) lead to yield losses of 12-19.5%. Besides intensive biological characterizations of OkMV only minor molecular data were available. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a Nigerian isolate of OkMV. The complete genomic RNA (gRNA) comprises 6,223 nt and its genome organization showed three major ORFs coding for a putative movement protein (MP) of M r 73.1 kDa, a large replication-associated protein (RP) of M r 202.4 kDa and a coat protein (CP) of M r 19.6 kDa. Prediction of secondary RNA structures showed three hairpin structures with internal loops in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) which comprises the anticodon for valine, typical for a member of the genus Tymovirus. Phylogenetic comparisons based on the RP, MP and CP amino acid sequences showed the close relationship of OkMV not only to other completely sequenced tymoviruses like Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (KYMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Erysimum latent virus (ErLV), but also to Calopogonium yellow vein virus (CalYVV), Clitoria yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Desmodium yellow mottle virus (DYMoV). This is the first report of a complete OkMV genome sequence from one of the various OkMV isolates originating from West Africa described so far. Additionally, the experimental host range of OkMV including several Nicotiana species was determined. PMID:18049886

Stephan, Dirk; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Ta Hoang, Anh; Engelmann, Jill; Winter, Stephan; Maiss, Edgar

2008-02-01

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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TABLETS BASED ON POLYELECTROLYTE COMPLEX BETWEEN OKRA MUCILAGE AND CHITOSAN  

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Full Text Available Recent years there has been greater utilization of natural polymers in the development of delivery systems. The present work is an effort towards development of matrix tablets using polyelectrolyte complex formed between the oppositely charged natural polymers like okra mucilage obtained from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus and chitosan. The effect of pH and polymer volume ratio on yield of polyelectrolyte complex was studied. It was observed that the yield was maximum (96.45% at pH 5 and at polymer volume ratio of 9:1 between okra mucilage and chitosan. The prepared polyelectrolyte complex was also characterised by conductimetry, FTIR, DSC. The results confirmed the formation of polyelectrolyte complex between the natural polymers. The matrix tablets were formulated for model drug diclofenac sodium using the best polyelectrolyte complex at different drug to polymer ratios and compared with formulations containing individual polymers as well as marketed formulation. The prepared formulations showed satisfactory physical parameters. Formulations F2 and F3 extended the drug release for more than 8 h with (83.87± 0.8321% and (77.125± 0.125% drug release respectively in 8 h. The formulations F2 and F3 followed zero order kinetics with anomalous diffusion mechanism. The mean dissolution times were 3.6042 and 3.5935 hrs and the % dissolution efficiency were 54.9467 and 55.7203 % for formulations F2 and F3 respectively. The similarity factor f2 for formulation F2 was 61.6751 and for formulation F3, it was found to be 60.5025.The formulations were found to be stable.

Ashwini Rajendra

2012-02-01

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MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK (MALVACEAE  

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Full Text Available Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03 of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76%, soil pH 6.85 during the rainfed seasons of 2009 and 2010 (July to December and morphological (taxonomical details, anatomical (transverse sections of ovary, stem and root, stomatal, cytological (meiotic chromosome behavior and pollen attributes (fertility, viability and acetolysis studies were assessed. Results indicated marked differences between the cultivars and based on observations cultivar I is recommended as tall, branched whereas cultivar II as dwarf, unbranched types and the cultivars may further be explored for pharmacological research.

Dubey Kumari Priyanka

2011-02-01

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Comparative study between microwave and conventional dehydration of okra.  

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This study was conducted to evaluate different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on the quality of okra. No significant differences were found among pretreatments and dehydration methods for the chemical composition of dehydrated okra samples. Dipping in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at room temperature and immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C improved the retention of ascorbic acid of okra samples after dehydration by either conventional or microwave ove...

Shams El Din, M. H. A.; Shouk, A. A.

1999-01-01

95

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...coat, are to be counted as âhard seed.â If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra, cotton and dichondra in these rules and regulations there are still present swollen seeds or seeds of these kinds which have just...

2009-01-01

96

Effect of Different Dose and Application Methods of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samson against Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoidand White Chitwood in Okra  

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Full Text Available The biocontrol potential of Paecilomyces lilacinus was evaluated in field conditions in two seasons during 2005-2008 at Annamalainagar and Vallambadugai of Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. In the field evaluation of different doses and application methods of P. lilacinus viz., seed treatment, seedling treatments, soil application treatments and the integration treatments produced mixed results on the growth of okra in both Annamalainagar and Vallambadugai. In two field trials of okra at two locations, shoot length, shoot weight and root length were significantly increased in mixture treatments compared to individual treatments, principally combination of seedling treatment (10g/l water + soil application treatment (5.0 kg/acre documented maximum shoot length (60 and 90 DAS, shoot weight (90 DAS and root length (90 DAS and they were positively correlated with fruit yield of okra.

Raja Kannan

2012-10-01

97

Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill  

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Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

1991-09-01

98

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Abelmoschus manihot Extracts  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae woody stems using paw edema model. The air-dried, powdered woody stems (900 g were extracted over Soxhlet with petroleum ether and methanol. The crude dried petroleum ether (12 g and methanol (18 g extracts was prepared at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 and evaluated for anti-inflammatory using the carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema test. The results obtained indicate that the extracts possessed significant (pAbelmoschus manihot woody stems possess potential pharmacological active constituents responsible for inhibition of the inflammation effect.

S.B. Bari

2010-01-01

99

Effect of Mulching on Growth and Productivity of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench under Saline Irrigation Condition  

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Full Text Available In present study the treatments comprises four levels of EC (0.87 EC, 4EC, 8EC and 12ECdS m-1 for Saline water irrigation, three levels Mulches (without Mulch, sugar cane trash at the rate of 10 tons ha-1 and 50 ? black plastic mulch and two varieties. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replication.Among the various saline irrigation water treatments under 4EC dS m-1 treatment higher value of transpiration rate, photosynthesis, pod length, pod girth and pod yield per plant were recorded as compared to EC8 and EC12 dS m-1. Black plastic mulch and sugarcane trash mulch significantly gave higher value of transpiration rate, photosynthesis, pod length and pod yield per plant as compared to without mulch except pod girth which was found lesser value under both types of mulches.

Hitendra Singh Bhadauria

2006-01-01

100

Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra  

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Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

Hazim Abd El-Rahman OBIADALLA ALI

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations / Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e par [...] asitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual) ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares) ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões. Abstract in english The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, [...] height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.

Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; José Cola, Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael, Gusmão.

102

Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  

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Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadens...

El Naggar, Salah M. I.

2001-01-01

103

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ASCORBATE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON OKRA (Hibiscus esculents L. GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH  

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Full Text Available Effect of drought stress was investigated at water potentials of-0.2 &-0.4 MPA (by using PEG 6000 on okra germination and seedling growth. In this study, percent germination, average time necessary for germination in day, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of okra seedlings were measured. Effect of ascorbate and salicylic acid and interaction of these tow substances were investigated on germination and seedling growth under normal condition and dry conditions. Drought inhabits from germination and seedling growth in this plant. Ascorbate and salicylic acid increase germination and decrease of average time necessary for germination under drought conditions. The seeds that were treated by ascorbate and salicylic acid, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of radical and plumule were increased. Results showed that ascorbate and salicylic acid decrease effects and damages of drought stresses on okra germination and seedlings growth. In general, adding salicylic acid and ascorbic acid significantly relieved the harsh effects of drought on okra germination and growth parameters and it seems that ascorbate and salicylic acid were able to enhance the tolerant ability of the plant to drought stress.

Amin Baghizadeh

2011-03-01

104

Studies on the control of insect pests in vegetables (Okra, Tomato, and Onion) in Sudan with special reference to Neem-preparations  

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Field trials were conducted for three years (1997-1999) to study the effectiveness of different neem formulations against the major insect pests complex and on yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus), tomato (Lycopersicon escculentum), and onion (Allium cepa). Neem kernel powder was applied into the soil (NKPS), sprayed as water extract on the target plants (ANKE) or applied as water extract into the soil (ANKES). The registered German formulated neem seed extract ( NeemAzal), incl...

Ahmed, Mohamed Mudathir Mohamed

2000-01-01

105

Effect of Different Dose and Application Methods of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson against Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoidand White) Chitwood in Okra  

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The biocontrol potential of Paecilomyces lilacinus was evaluated in field conditions in two seasons during 2005-2008 at Annamalainagar and Vallambadugai of Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. In the field evaluation of different doses and application methods of P. lilacinus viz., seed treatment, seedling treatments, soil application treatments and the integration treatments produced mixed results on the growth of okra in both Annamalainagar and Vallambadugai. In two f...

Raja Kannan; Renganathan Veeravel

2012-01-01

106

FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone were prepared. The prepared tablets were found to have better pharmacopoeial parameters with low standard deviation values. The swelling behavior and release rate characteristics were studied. The in-vitro dissolution study proved that the dried Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone in combination can be used as a matrix forming polymers for making controlled release matrix tablets.

Hindustan Abdul Ahad

2011-02-01

107

Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer  

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Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

2013-12-01

108

Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra  

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Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

I. A. Siddiqui

2000-06-01

109

Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV) and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid  

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Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Correlation of environ...

Muhammad Irfan Ali; Muhammad Aslam Khan; Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Ehetisham-ul-haq; Muhammad Talha Javed; Muhammad Sajid

2012-01-01

110

Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid  

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Full Text Available Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Correlation of environmental factors (maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall with percent plant infection of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV was also determined. There was a significant correlation between environment and disease severity.

Muhammad Irfan Ali

2012-12-01

111

Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated potential antiproliferative activity against two human cell lines - Colorectal adenocarcinoma (COLO-205 and retinoblastoma (Y79. Conclusion The seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus possess significant antioxidant activity and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger, or substitute, probably as primary antioxidants. The plant possesses moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains used in this study. Hydroalcoholic seed and leaf extracts also exhibited antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines. A. moschatus may therefore, be a good candidate for functional foods as well as pharmaceutics.

Qureshi Insaf A

2011-08-01

112

Roles of arginine in growth of Clostridium botulinum Okra B.  

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Group I strains of Clostridium botulinum are known to degrade arginine by the arginine deiminase pathway. We have found that C. botulinum Okra B consumed a level of arginine (20 g/liter) higher than the basal requirement for growth (3 g/liter). Arginine was probably the preferred source of nitrogen for biosynthesis but did not serve as a major source of energy. Citrulline and proline were produced as major fermentation products in media containing high levels of arginine, but in media with ba...

1992-01-01

113

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

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Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resu...

Adekunle O.K.; Akinlua A.

2007-01-01

114

Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent  

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A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeline. In this study, the effect of the presence of a Drag Reducing Agent (DRA) on the pressure drop in horizontal pipes carrying water is investigated. An experimental rig is set-up. The test section...

Abdul Bari, Hayder A.; Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam; Rohaida Che Man

2011-01-01

115

Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells  

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The proliferation and apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells are often abnormal. We have evaluated the action of a pectic rhamnogalacturonan obtained by hot buffer extraction of okra pods (okra RG-I) on melanoma cell growth and survival in vitro. We added okra RG-I containing an almost pure RG-I carrying very short galactan side chains to 2D (on tissue culture polystyrene, tPS) and 3D (on poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate), polyHEMA) cultures of highly metastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. We...

2010-01-01

116

First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt  

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During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS) at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Sample...

Farrag, Eman S. H.

2011-01-01

117

Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos / Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância [...] Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto. Abstract in english Twenty-seven morphological characteristics (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative) were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 39 Abelmoschus accessions by hierarchic method of single linkage and principal component analysis for the grouping of the genotypes. Standardized average Euclidean distance [...] was used as dissimilarity measure. Plants were grown in field conditions at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, using randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The accessions groups formation based on the hierarchic method of single linkage showed similar results to those obtained by principal components analysis since both methods grouped A. esculentus and A. caillei accessions. The hierarchic method has grouped the genotypes in the same way as for the 27 descriptors (quantitative and qualitative) as for the 13 quantitative descriptors, demonstrating that qualitative descriptors had a little influence on the genotypic discrimination. Qualitative descriptors were able to correctly classify species, although they masked the genetic variability at the germplasm, not allowing a comprehensive survey of the genomes. The characters that less contributed for the genotypes discriminations were the epicalyx length, 100 seeds weight, number of stigma segments, plant height, leaf width, first flowering node and fruit length.

Gilmar Efrem, Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T., Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

118

Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics  

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Full Text Available Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto.Twenty-seven morphological characteristics (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 39 Abelmoschus accessions by hierarchic method of single linkage and principal component analysis for the grouping of the genotypes. Standardized average Euclidean distance was used as dissimilarity measure. Plants were grown in field conditions at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, using randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The accessions groups formation based on the hierarchic method of single linkage showed similar results to those obtained by principal components analysis since both methods grouped A. esculentus and A. caillei accessions. The hierarchic method has grouped the genotypes in the same way as for the 27 descriptors (quantitative and qualitative as for the 13 quantitative descriptors, demonstrating that qualitative descriptors had a little influence on the genotypic discrimination. Qualitative descriptors were able to correctly classify species, although they masked the genetic variability at the germplasm, not allowing a comprehensive survey of the genomes. The characters that less contributed for the genotypes discriminations were the epicalyx length, 100 seeds weight, number of stigma segments, plant height, leaf width, first flowering node and fruit length.

Gilmar Efrem Martinello

2002-03-01

119

An Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Abelmoschus esculentus on Clinically Isolated Infectious Disease Causing Bacterial Pathogen from Hospital  

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Full Text Available Six different organic solvents such as n-butanol, petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus to screen the antibacterial activity against infectious disease causing bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by paper disc method. The butanolic extract of Abelmoschus esculentus was more active against almost 90% of the organism tested. It was followed by Ethyl acetate, Methanol, Petroleum ether, Chloroform in inhibiting the growth of organism tested

Yogesh Chaudhari

2012-11-01

120

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da Silva

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro / Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g [...] ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infest [...] ed with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da, Silva; Aurenice Lucena, Pereira.

122

New Matrix Tablet from Okra Gum: Effects of Method of Preparation and Gum Concentration on Tablet Properties  

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The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of methods of preparation and concentration of gum on the compressional and mechanical properties of Okra gum matrix. The compressional behavior of Okra gum matrices prepared by direct compression and wet granulations is analyzed using density measurements, Heckel and Kawakita analysis while the mechanical properties of the formulations were assessed using crushing strength...

Bakre Lateef Gbenga; Abimbola Zulikha

2013-01-01

123

Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop. PMID:19274256

Ritzinger, C H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

1998-12-01

124

RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi t from intercrop is 10% higher than monocrops. This is because of the attendant reduction in variable costs of labour and fertilizer that are associated with intercrops. The economic implication of this study is that any strategy that reduces cost of production in maize/ okra intercrops will increase its profi tability and attractiveness to farmers.

R ALABI

2007-04-01

125

Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants  

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The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

1994-11-01

126

RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA  

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This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT) of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI) of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi t from intercrop is 10% higher than monocrops. This is because of the attendant reduction in variable costs of labour and fertiliz...

Alabi, R.; Esobhawan, A.

2007-01-01

127

The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength.

Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

2014-01-01

128

The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

2014-01-01

129

Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mungbean. Apart from suppressing root knot nematode, T. harzianum also elevated plant height and fresh shoot weight of both okra and munhbean.

Imran A. Siddiqui

2001-01-01

130

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the respondents are males and married. Women do not own personal okra farms but they do work with their husband on the family farms and mostly involved independently at the processing, preservation and marketing levels more than at the production level. About 49.0% of the respondents did not have any formal education while 51.0% were literates who have access to intermediate farm technology. The mean years of okra production experience is 16.91 years and the mean okra farm size is 3.64 acres with standard deviation of 2.58 acres. All the respondents practiced mixed cropping where other crops such as yam, banana, pineapples, cassava and others were planted with okra. Land preparation for okra production includes land clearing, ploughing, harrowing and heaping or ridging. About 80.0% of the okra farmers used cutlass and hoe regularly, which might have been responsible for okra production at subsistence or small-scale level. Only 20.0% of the okra farmers employed use of tractor. Majority of the farmers hired labour to supplement family labour. The mean persons day of family labour was 6.03 and that of hired labour was 1.25 persons day. Processing and preservation are carried out using traditional techniques of slicing, sun drying and grinding (using mortar and pestle. Sliced and dried okra are stored in gourd, basket and clay-pots. Fresh okra are put in basket lined with leave for maximum of three days during which it is marketed on retail and wholesale basis. Okra is consumed fresh and dried mostly to make draw soup by 81.0% of the respondents. Positive and significant relationships existed between socioeconomic characteristics of respondents investigated and total yield of okra produced. The r-value for variable related to land preparation and operation are low, between r = 0.234 and r = 0.470. The r-value of variables related to farm size and output (yield are very high between r = 0.550 and r = 0.922, which spelt out a situation tending towards a perfect relationship. There is also sharp difference in the r-value of farm size for okra (0.922 and farm size for other crops (0.550. It therefore means that okra yield depends on the size of the farm.

A.J. Farinde

2006-01-01

131

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

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Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the...

Farinde, A. J.; Owolarafe, O. K.; Ogungbemi, O. I.

2006-01-01

132

Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo  

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Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus) for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the most popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately...

Fernando Luiz Finger; Maria Edith Della-Justina; Vicente Wagner Dias Casali; Mário Puiatti

2008-01-01

133

An Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Abelmoschus esculentus on Clinically Isolated Infectious Disease Causing Bacterial Pathogen from Hospital  

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Six different organic solvents such as n-butanol, petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus to screen the antibacterial activity against infectious disease causing bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by paper disc method. The butanolic extract of Abelm...

2012-01-01

134

Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of "1"3"1I in fenugreek and Okra plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne "1"3"1I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 ?m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of "1"3"1I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m"3 kg"-"1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m"3 kg"-"1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m"3 kg"-"1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m"3 kg"-"1. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

1994-11-01

135

Anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like activity of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract and its potential active components in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Searching for antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and antidepressant-like medicines from natural products is very important for the treatment of this disease. The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been reported to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury. In order to further explore the activity of Abelmoschus manihot on the central nervous system, the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like effects of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract (AMEE) as well as its potential active components in vivo was investigated in the present study. It was found that AMEE could protect mice against PTZ-induced clonic convulsions and mortality. AMEE could also decrease immobility time in the FST in mice. Furthermore, the potential active components of AMEE in rat brain were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS). Five parent components including isoquercitrin, hyperoside, hibifolin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin and three metabolites were detected in rat brain after administration of AMEE. In conclusion, eight flavonoids were identified in rat brain after administration of AMEE; meanwhile, these flavonoids might represent the potential bioactive components of AMEE and contribute to its anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activity in vivo. PMID:21784623

Guo, Jianming; Xue, Caifu; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; You, Yi

2011-11-15

136

Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus  

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Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 ?m. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 ?m pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

Mohammed Jurial Baloch

2001-01-01

137

Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments  

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The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments ...

Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.; Mcsorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

1998-01-01

138

Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra  

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Full Text Available Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05 reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lilacinus alone.

M. J. Zaki

1998-01-01

139

Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra  

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Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05) reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran f...

Zaki, M. J.; Maqbool, M. A.

1998-01-01

140

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

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Full Text Available Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resulted in reduced nematode population, reduced galling, reduced nematode reproduction rate and enhanced fruit weight. Chemical analysis revealed that G. sepium leaves contained phenolic compound and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of aromatic amide, phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. L. leucocephala leaves showed the presence of phenolic compound, aromatic amide and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. The results of this study suggest that leaf and root extracts of L. leucocephala and G. sepium at the rate of 40,000 mg / kg could be useful in root knot nematode management in vegetable beds.

Adekunle O.K.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Novel extraction and application of okra gum as a film coating agent using theophylline as a model drug.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction and application of okra gum as an aqueous film coating agent. Powdered okra pods dispersed in demineralized water was heated at 80 ± 2(o)C for 30 minutes in the presence of sodium chloride. The filtrate was successively centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30, 60, or 120 minutes and freeze dried. The samples were used as film former at different concentrations in aqueous film coating operations. Near infrared (nIR) absorption spectra, photomicrographs, and some physicochemical properties of the coated tablets were evaluated. The okra gum samples had different nIR spectra and possessed good processing and application quality due to relatively low viscosity. A six-fold concentration of this gum from the novel extraction yielded glossy theophylline tablets within a short time. A t (18) = 2.895, P hardness of core and coated theophylline tablets. A 3.0% concentration of the okra samples at a flow rate of 3 ml/min for 100 minutes showed that F = 3.798, DF = 29, P hardness among samples and F = 15.632, DF = 29, P < 0.0001, F critical = 2.152 were obtained on film thickness among tablet samples during the coating and drying operation. Novel extraction process enhanced the film coating potential of okra gum by delivering more solids on the substrate at a shorter time with improved operation efficiency. PMID:24959415

Ogaji, Ikoni J; Hoag, Stephen W

2014-04-01

142

Simultaneous determination of seven active flavonols in the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot by HPLC.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-performance liquid chromatography method is developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven flavonols, namely quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, and quercetin, in the flower of Abelmoschus manihot. These seven flavonols are selected as chemical markers because they are the major pharmacologically active constituents in the flower. The method involves the use of a Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL reversed-phase column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) at 25 degrees C with a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous H(3)PO(4) as the mobile phase and detection at 370 nm. The recovery of the method is 94.31-107.08% with an RSD 0.9996) is obtained for all the flavonoids. The current assay method can be readily utilized for the determination of the flavonols present in the flower and is considered to be suitable for the quality control of A. manihot samples. The comparison of flowers collected from nine locations shows that flavonoid glucoside is more stable than aglycon in the flower. This is the first study that analyzes the stability of flavonoids in the flower of A. manihot. This research also provides important evidence that the flower is a potentially abundant resource for obtaining hibifolin. PMID:19298707

Lai, Xianyin; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin

2009-03-01

143

Response of young plants to mercury. [Pennisetum typhoideum, Medicago sativa L. var. Raska, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. var. Pusa-savni  

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Young individuals of three plant species viz., Pennisetum typhoideum Stapf. var. PHB-14, Medicago sativa L. var. Raska and Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. var. Pusa-savni, were tested for their response to Hg. All of them were found to be affected, Pennisetum being the most sensitive, followed by Medicago and Abelmoxchus in that order. The visible injury to leaves of plants, chlorophyll content and total dry matter was found to be affected in proportion to the metal doses administered. Measurement of Leaf Injury Index (LII) as a simple parameter of the susceptibility of the species is discussed.

Mhatre, G.N.; Chaphekar, S.B.

1984-01-01

144

Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

Ikoni Ogaji

2011-01-01

145

Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent  

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The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1) or was first treated with base (F2), acid (F3) or heating in the presence of salt (F4) before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in ac...

Ikoni Ogaji

2011-01-01

146

Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed. PMID:24956765

Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

2014-08-01

147

Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil) Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil  

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The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil). Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Petri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10%) until the emergence of lepidopterans ...

Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara; Bruno Rafael Spera; Danielle Roberta Versuti; Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes; Terezinha Monteiro Santos-Cividanes; Nelson Wanderley Perioto

2012-01-01

148

Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  

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Full Text Available Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.. Seed shape, size and colour as well as outer epidermal cell patterns as seen by SEM, anticlinal cell boundaries and periclinal cell walls sculpture allow the recognition of two distinct groups among studied taxa. Seed coat features indicated both intra-group and inter-group relationships. Recognized groupings do not correspond well with the classical treatments of the Malvaceae, rather they suggest restructuring of tribal and generic taxonomy in the family. One important conclusion of this study is the inclusion of Lavatera cretica L. in the genus Malva as M. linnaei, M. F. Ray.

Salah M. I. El Naggar

2001-01-01

149

Persistence of new insecticides and their efficacy against insect pests of okra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistence and efficacy of bifenthrin (25 and 50 g ai ha(-1)), fipronil (50 and 100 g ai ha(-1)) and indoxacarb (70 and 140 g ai ha(-1)) has been studied in okra fruits. The initial deposits varied from 0.259-0.382 microg g(-1) at low and 0.461-0.688 microg g(-1) at high rate of application. The residues persisted upto 10 days with half-life of 1.32-1.58 days for bifenthrin, 0.65-1.12 days for fipronil and 0.58-1.02 days for indoxacarb. Based on ADI, the suggested waiting period was 1 day for bifenthrin and indoxacarb and 3 days for fipronil. All the insecticides were found effective against leafhopper and shoot and fruit borer. PMID:18946625

Gupta, Suman; Sharma, R K; Gupta, R K; Sinha, S R; Singh, Rai; Gajbhiye, V T

2009-02-01

150

Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD / Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de a [...] grupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado. Abstract in english RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods [...] to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

Martinello, Gilmar E.; Leal, Nilton R.; Amaral Júnior, Antônio T. do; Pereira, Messias G.; Daher, Rogério F..

151

Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Periods of weed interference in okra crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos cresce [...] ntes de 0 (testemunha), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE), com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo. Abstract in english Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 [...] , and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE) with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

L.P.S, Bachega; L.B, Carvalho; S, Bianco; A.B, Cecílio Filho.

152

Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop  

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Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

L.P.S Bachega

2013-03-01

153

Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean  

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Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

Amer-Zareen

1999-01-01

154

Evaluation of Synthetic and Neem-Based Insecticides for Managing Aphids on Okra (Malvaceae) in Eastern Kenya  

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-1 (Gaucho FSR) and Lambda-cyhalothrin 17.5 g L-1 (Karate 1.75 ECR), two neem products (Azadirachtin 0.15%w/w (AchookR) and Azadirachtin 0.6% w/w (Neem extractiveR) and a spray alternation of Azadirachtin 0.6% w/w and Lambda-cyhalothrin, in the management of aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) infesting okra (

Nderitu, J. H.; Kasina, J. M.; Kimenju, J. W.; Malenge, F.

2008-01-01

155

Application of the exploratory analysis of data in the geographical discrimination of okra of Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco  

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Full Text Available The contents of Cu, Zn, Na, Fe, K, Ca, Mn, Mg, PO43-, Cl- and SO42- were determined in samples of okra of the municipal districts of Caruaru and Vitória de Santo Antão, in Pernambuco, as well as in the municipal districts of Ceará-Mirim, Macaíba and Extremoz in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. The objective of this work is the application of two methods of  exploratory analysis of data: Principal Component Analysis - PCA and Hierarquical Cluster Analysis - HCA in the geographical discrimination of okra originating in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco. The results showed that Cl- and Na were the main elements for the differentiation of the samples of Rio Grande do Norte and, the samples of Pernambuco presented the largest amount of Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ca, Zn, K, PO43-, and SO42-. Boths the methods of exploratory analysis of data investigated are efficient for geographical discrimination of okra originating in Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco.

Francisco Santos Panero

2009-11-01

156

Identification of a disease complex involving a novel monopartite begomovirus with beta- and alphasatellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Oman.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is an important viral disease of okra in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is caused by begomovirus-satellite complexes. A begomovirus and associated betasatellite and alphasatellite were identified in symptomatic okra plants from Barka, in the Al-Batinah region of Oman. Analysis of the begomovirus sequences showed them to represent a new begomovirus most closely related to cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV), a begomovirus of African origin. The sequences showed less than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to CLCuGeV isolates. The name okra leaf curl Oman virus (OLCOMV) is proposed for the new virus. Further analysis revealed that the OLCOMV is a recombinant begomovirus that evolved by the recombination of CLCuGeV isolates with tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Oman (TYLCV-OM). An alpha- and a betasatellite were also identified from the same plant sample, which were also unique when compared to sequences available in the databases. However, although the betasatellite appeared to be of African origin, the alphasatellite was most closely related to alphasatellites originating from South Asia. This is the first report of a begomovirus-satellite complex infecting okra in Oman. PMID:24287711

Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Akhtar J; Singh, Achuit S; Briddon, Rob W

2014-05-01

157

Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos  

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In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wo...

Jain, Pritam S.; Bari, Sanjay B.

2010-01-01

158

Field Efficacy of CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis Biopesticide to Control Helicoverpa armigera (H?bner and Earias vitella (Fabricius in Okra Crop  

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Full Text Available CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis formulation and two other commercial Bt formulations (Agree and Larvo Bt were tested on Okra fields to control two lepidopteran pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vitella. CAMB Bt formulation was tested from 250-g/h dose to 1500 g/h dose to see the efficacy against target insect pests. Commercial Bt formulations, Agree and Larvo Bt were used as standard with one dose of 1000 g/h. All microbial insecticides successfully controlled H. armigera and E. vitella larvae in okra field. The efficacy of locally developed Bt formulation was promising in comparison to Agree and Larvo BT.

Shahid Karim

2000-01-01

159

Degradation dynamics and persistence of Quinolphos and Methomyl in/on Okra (Ablemoschus esculentus) fruits and cropped soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissipation of Quinalphos (Ekalux 20 AF) and Methomyl (Lannate 12.5 L) residues were studied in/on Okra (var. Pusa Sawani) fruits and cropped soil at Baruipur, West Bengal, India. The insecticides were applied at 21 days after sowing by foliar spray at the recommended and double the recommended dose (i.e. 500 and 1,000 g a.i. ha(-1) in both the cases). Four sprays were given at 15 days interval in all the cases. The initial build-up residue on Okra fruits was to the magnitude of 3.20 and 7.50 microg g(-1) for Quinalphos, 5.61 and 8.42 microg g(-1) for Methomyl at lower and higher doses respectively. The half-lives (t(1/2)) in Okra fruit were found to be 1.25-1.43 days for Quinalphos and 0.88-0.94 days for Methomyl. The safe waiting period (T(MRL)) determined were 6.7 and 5.3 days at the lower dose of Quinalphos. The corresponding waiting period for Methomyl were 5.7 and 4.9 days. Decontamination process like washing and cooking dislodged 25.50%-81.50% residue depending on insecticides and doses, whereas 20.00%-69.60% surface residue was removed by washing alone. The residues of both insecticides in soil persisted for 6-8 days depending on dose. The half-lives in soil were found to be 1.07-1.20 days for Quinalphos and 0.97-1.25 days for Methomyl. PMID:18058046

Aktar, Md Wasim; Sengupta, Dwaipayan; Chowdhury, Ashim

2008-01-01

160

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo foram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido, tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC por oito dias. Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1% durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento.This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilization of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid, time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC during eight days. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1% used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo / Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo fo [...] ram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido), tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC) por oito dias). Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1%) durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilizatio [...] n of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid), time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC) during eight days). On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1%) used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Marcelo Augusto G., Carnelossi; Paula, Yaguiu; Anita Caroline L., Reinoso; Gláucia Regina de O., Almeida; Moema L., Lira; Gabriel Francisco da, Silva; Vahideh R.R., Jalali.

162

Improvement of the in vitro digestible iron and zinc content of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) sauce widely consumed in Sahelian Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the formulation (okra, fish, soumbala, extract of wood ash) and cooking time of okra sauce on total iron and zinc content and on their in vitro digestibility were evaluated following a Doehlert uniform shell design with 5 factors and 33 trials. Cooking time had no significant effect on in vitro digestible iron and zinc content, whereas formulation did. Each ingredient had a specific effect. Extract of wood ash, which is a source of soluble and digestible iron and zinc, is a good way of increasing the digestible mineral content of the dish. Okra, the main ingredient in this sauce, has a negative effect and should be added in moderate quantities (recipe that enabled the quantity of digestible iron to be doubled and the quantity of digestible zinc to be increased by one third. This recipe calls for a mixture of 37.7% okra, 26.3% dried fish, 18.5% soumbala, and 3.7% extract of wood ash cooked for 25 min. PMID:17995857

Avallone, Sylvie; Bohuon, Philippe; Hemery, Youna; Treche, Serge

2007-03-01

163

Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L in a Sub-tropical Environment  

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Full Text Available Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD where 2.3.2 (22 an inorganic fertilizer was used as a control, and was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level of kraal manure there were significant (p<0.05 increases in all the growth parameters that were measured. There were also significant (p<0.05 differences of fresh mass and dry mass yield of wild okra. There was an increase in fresh and dry mass yield with every increase in application level of kraal manure while the least fresh and dry mass was recorded in plants provided with 2.3.2 (22. Kraal manure applied at 60 ton/ha gave the highest yield of wild okra under the conditions of this experiment.

Michael T. Masarirambi

2012-01-01

164

Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo  

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The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tested substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite a...

Edilson Costa; Souza, Taynara G.; Benteo, Gleciane L.; Ss, Katiane Benett; Gs, Cleiton Benett

2013-01-01

165

Genetic architecture of fruit yield and its contributing quantitative traits in Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic architecture of fruit yield and its related quantitative traits viz., days to first flowering, days to first picking, plantheight, primary branches per plant, stem girth, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, fruits per plant and fruit yield per plantstudied through generation mean analysis using six basic generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of six crosses HRB-55 xAOL-05-4, VRO-5 x Red Long, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3, GO-2 x AOL-04-3, Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 and Parbhani Kranti xAOL-03-6 in two environments (E1 and E2. Among the generations within the crosses, the sum of squares showed significantdifferences for all characters. Fixable type of gene effects viz., additive [d] and additive x additive [i] found significant fordays to first flowering in crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E1, VRO-5 x Red Long (E2 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1. The similarkind of gene effects also observed for days to first picking (E1 and fruit weight (E2 in the cross GO-2 x AOL-04-3. In anothercase, dominance [h] and dominance x dominanace [l] which non-fixable gene effects were significant for days to firstflowering in crosses VRO-5 x Red Long (E2 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1; stem girth in VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1 and fruitlength in Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 (E1. Duplicate type of epistasis observed for days to first flowering in crosses, VRO-5 xRed Long (E2 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1; stem girth in VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1 and fruit length in cross Arka Anamika xAOL-03-1 (E1. Results revealed additive and additive x additive types of fixable gene effects for days to first flowering anddays to first picking as well as fruit yield and its contributing traits in some cross-environment combinations. This suggestssimple selection or a single seed descent method could help for improvement of these traits. The results on epistatic geneeffects for fruit yield and its contributing component traits in different cross-environment combinations suggests that recurrentselection, bi-parental mating and inter se mating between desirable segregants followed by selection or multiple crosses offergood promising methods.

Khanorkar S.M. and K. B. Kathiria

2010-07-01

166

Comparative sorptive removal of direct red-28 dye from water using acid, base and 2-propanol treated okra stem powder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summary: Use of agro-waste material for adsorption is studied now-a-days extensively. But the main problem is their low adsorption capacity as compared to synthetic adsorbents. So, in the following study, adsorption capacity of Okra stem powder had been investigated after chemical modification by acid, base and 2-propanol for adsorption of Direct Red-28 dye from water in batch mode. The results indicated that as compared to untreated biosorbent , acid treated and 2-propanol treated biosorbents had more adsorption capacity, i.e. 1.86, 2.74 and 6.61 mg.g/sub -1/ correspondingly, whereas base treated biosorbent had lower adsorption capacity for this anionic dye, i.e.1.02 mg.g/sub -1/. (author)

2013-02-01

167

Nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization Nitrogênio aplicado à cultura do quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the Amazonian rainy season, the effect of nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization. The trial was carried out in the Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, in Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil, between October/2010 and February/2011, in dystrophic Yellow Argisoil, medium texture, using pits with residual fertility. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four repetitions (two lines with four plants, spacing of 1....

Cardoso, Marinice O.; Berni, Rodrigo F.

2012-01-01

168

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide ...

Henz, Gilmar P.; Lopes, Carlos A.; Ailton Reis

2007-01-01

169

Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration) were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningi...

1999-01-01

170

Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus  

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Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 ?m. At...

Mohammed Jurial Baloch; Abdul Rahim Lakho; Hidayatullah Bhutto; Mohammed Yousuf Solangi

2001-01-01

171

Efeito de alguns herbicidas na cultura do quiabeiro, em testes efetuados em casa de vegetação Effect of some herbicides on okra crop in trials performed in the greenhouse  

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Full Text Available Duas variedades de quiabeiro foram testadas, em condições de casa de vegetação, com solo de textura areno-barrenta, na sua tolerância para 16 herbicidas, cada qual aplicado em uma única dose. Dentre os herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado o triflu-ralin destacou-se no combate às ervas daninhas gramíneas e não causou nenhum dano para a planta do quiabeiro. Os herbicidas cloroxuron, linuron, norea e propachlor mostraram ótimos resultados no cambate às ervas más e quanto à tolerância dessa malvácea. Do grupo das triazinas, todos os herbicidas usados nas condições do teste provocaram danos para o quiabeiro.Two okra (Hibiscus esculentus L. varieties were tested for their tolerance to sixteen herbicides at one rate each, as a pre-planting and as a pre-emergence applications in greenhouse trials. The results with the incorporated herbicides showed that only tri-fluralin at 0,75 kg/ha active ingredient was promising to this crop. Different results were obtained with the pre-emergence applications of the group of urea and anilide herbicides. While no symptoms of injury were observed with chloroxuron, norea, linuron, and propachlor, injury symptoms were evident with diuron, fluometuron, metobromuron and siduron. The four triazine herbicides were very damaging to the okra plants. Under the conditions of these tests, only the herbicides trifluralin, chloroxuron, norea, and linuron were promising to the okra crop.

Aldo Alves

1970-01-01

172

Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPAR?, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

2014-07-01

173

Traveling Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners make three different "seed" types and determine which design flies the farthest. Learners wad a piece of paper, wad a piece of tape, and make a paper helicopter to represent plant seeds. Learners measure and record the distance each seed travels. Use this activity to help learners practice measuring and recording data. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2014-03-10

174

Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle.

Pritam S. Jain

2010-11-01

175

Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats / Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi [...] realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle. Abstract in english In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was [...] undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.

Pritam S., Jain; Sanjay B., Bari.

176

Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits  

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Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless.This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

Wagner Ferreira da Mota

2008-06-01

177

Comparative Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (Okro and Corchorus olitorius L (Jew Mallow on Soil Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum Products  

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Full Text Available The comparative effects of Abelmoschus esculentus and Corchorus olitorius on soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum products were evaluated in this study. The pH, moisture, organic matter, microbial population and total petroleum hydrocarbon of the soils at the beginning and the end of the study were evaluated. Growth of A. esculentus led to loss of more TPH from the soil than the growth of C. olitorius. The growth of A. esculentus increased soil alkalinity and the soil moisture content more than that of C. olitorius. More bacteria and fungi were isolated from soil that had A. esculentus than from soil that had C. olitorius. Significant differences were noticed between the impacts of A. esculentus and that of C. olitorius on the soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. The findings in this study show that A. esculentus has better ability to remediate petroleum contaminated soils than C. olitorius. Since both crops are easily propagated and readily grow in most soils, they can be very useful in combating the problems associated with contamination of soil with petroleum products.

Kelechi L. Njoku

2012-04-01

178

Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure  

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Full Text Available Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11, catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6, glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1 which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied and concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively applied to plant in the soil shows a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the respective metal accumulation. It reveals a mechanism for constant detoxification of H2O2 that have to be associated with adaptations and ultimate survival of this plant species during stress conditions. A reduction of catalase activities was observed on exposure to these metals, which is supposedly due to the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Root length, shoot length, number of leaves showed an enhancement with 0.05 mM CdCl2 dose then a gradual decline with the increase in concentrations. The results indicate that A. esculentus is tolerant to high concentrations of these metals, a property related to a differential activation of its enzymatic antioxidant system, and also reveal that this species has a higher capacity of Cd absorption.

Asiya Hameed

2011-01-01

179

Comparative Evaluation of Zinc and Lead and their Synergistic Effects on Growth and Some Physiological Responses of Hassawi Okra (Hibiscus esculentus Seedlings  

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Full Text Available Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a worldwide problem, leading to a reduction of plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was carried out to compare the effect of different levels of zinc (Zn2+ or lead (Pb2+and their interactions on growth and physiological changes of Hassawi okra seedlings. These seedlings were grown in a soil, to which different levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mM of Zn2+ or Pb2+ were added with water (control, singly or in combinations. The results revealed that, okra seedlings growth were reduced gradually with increasing Zn2+ or/and Pb2+. These parameters were completely inhibited at 80 mM of Zn2+ or Pb2+, when they added in combination. While, 5 mM Zn2+ had a favorable effect on these growth parameters. The contents of chl. a and chl. b were significantly reduced as a result of exposure to Zn2+ or/and Pb2+. However, carotenoids content was increased at lower levels as compared with control. The increased of Zn2+ or/and Pb2+ levels inhibited sugars accumulation while the contents of protein, total free amino acids and proline were promoted. Pb2+ had more toxic effect than Zn2+. The toxicity caused by each metal alone was lower than that caused when they were added in combinations. Our data suggested that Zn2+ and Pb2+ exhibited synergistic effects on the growth and physiological responses of Hassawi okra seedlings, leading to injurious effects followed by death of these seedlings at 80 mM. Combined exposure to Zn2+ and Pb2+ enhanced or inhibited some of the effects, that were induced when only one metal was applied to growth medium.

M.A. Al-Omair

2011-01-01

180

Seed Catalogues  

Science.gov (United States)

The Smithsonian Institutions Libraries Web site currently features a unique collection of seed and nursery catalogs dating from 1830 to the present. Online visitors may view a portion of the exhibit, which offers a look at "the history of the seed and agricultural implement business in the United States, as well as provides a history of botany and plant research such as the introduction of plant varieties into the US." Although this site does include much material, gardeners and anyone else with a horticultural bent should enjoy a casual browse through the online exhibit.

 
 
 
 
181

International Seed Saving Institute: Basic Seed Saving  

Science.gov (United States)

This straightforward site from the International Seed Saving Institute on Basic Seed Saving will be of use to any growers interested in learning how to save seeds from season to season. The site provides links "to specific seed saving instructions for 27 common vegetables" including many favorites like corn, carrots, broccoli, and lettuce. The site also links to a glossary of seed saving terms and a six-step Seed Saving Tutorial.

182

Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro / Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David [...] e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David an [...] d Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

Mota, Wagner Ferreira da; Finger, Fernando Luiz; Silva, Derly José Henriques da; Corrêa, Paulo César; Firme, Lúcia Pittol; Ribeiro, Rosilene Antônio.

183

Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2 prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3 and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2. The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2, malate dehydrogenase (N3, superoxide dismutase (N2 and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3. This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

2007-03-01

184

21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura (cusparia...

2009-04-01

185

21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura (cusparia bark)...

2009-04-01

186

SPE-HPLC method for the determination of four flavonols in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

A SPE-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of flavonols, isoquercitrin (1), hibifolin (2), myricetin (3), quercetin-3'-O-d-glucoside (4) and quercetin (5) in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of the total flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot (TFA). The astragalin (6) and kaempferol (7) were used as internal standards (IS). Plasma and urine samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction using Winchem C(18) reversed-phase cartridges. Analysis of the plasma and urinary extract was performed on YMC-Pack ODS-A C(18) and Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL C(18) reversed-phase column, respectively and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid was employed. HPLC analysis was conducted with different elution gradients. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 370 nm. Calibration ranges in plasma for flavonols 2-5 were at 0.011-2.220, 0.014-2.856, 0.022-4.320, and 0.028-5.600 microg/mL, respectively. In urine calibration ranges for flavonols 1, 2, 4 and 5 were at 2.00-16.00, 8.56-102.72, 2.70-21.60, and 3.00-24.00 microg/mL, respectively. The RSD of intra- and inter-day was less than 5.40% and 4.89% in plasma, and less than 3.96% and 6.85% in urine for all the analyses. A preliminary experiment to investigate the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of the flavonols after oral administration of TFA to rats demonstrated that the present method was suitable for determining the flavonols in rat plasma and urine. PMID:17258944

Lai, Xianyin; Zhao, Yuying; Liang, Hong; Bai, Yanjing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Dean

2007-06-01

187

Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1) which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied a [...] nd concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively) applied to plant in the soil shows a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the respective metal accumulation. It reveals a mechanism for constant detoxification of H2O2 that have to be associated with adaptations and ultimate survival of this plant species during stress conditions. A reduction of catalase activities was observed on exposure to these metals, which is supposedly due to the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Root length, shoot length, number of leaves showed an enhancement with 0.05 mM CdCl2 dose then a gradual decline with the increase in concentrations. The results indicate that A. esculentus is tolerant to high concentrations of these metals, a property related to a differential activation of its enzymatic antioxidant system, and also reveal that this species has a higher capacity of Cd absorption.

Asiya, Hameed; Tabasum N., Qadri; , Mahmooduzzafar; T.O., Siddiqi; M., Iqbal.

189

Seed Magazine  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed is an online (and print) magazine dedicated to increasing the scientific awareness and knowledge of the general public. The site is updated six days a week and features news articles, original-content articles on a variety of science topics, columns, and reviews. "Cribsheets," a downloadable feature, provide brief tutorials on scientific issues and innovations that may occur in everyday conversation. The magazine also features a collection of multimedia materials, such as podcasts, slide shows, and video content. The web site's main page features articles from the latest issue; back issues may be browsed by category, author, or date. Information about subscribing to the print version is also provided.

190

Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following treatments: 1. sprinkler irrigation with spread manure; 2. sprinkler irrigation with placed manure; 3. drip irrigation with placed manure and 4. drip irrigation with fertigation. Fertigation was done only two times (two weeks after emergence and immediately after flowering) during the first experiment while weekly fertigation (8 times from two weeks after emergence) was done during the second experiment. The treatment effects on growth, yield, biomass, water use efficiency of the economical fresh pod yield (WUEy), and on the total above ground biomass (WUEtbm) were studied. The results showed that the okra crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice; however, the second experiment in the major dry season, the 2012 season, showed a marked improvement in the fertigated treatment compared to the others when fertigation was done weekly. In the second experiment despite the application of the same amount of nitrogen (89 kg N/ha), there were significant differences (Pâ?¤0.05) between yield obtained with sprinkler spread manure (11.2 t ha-1), sprinkler placed manure (13.7 t ha-1), and drip fertigated (17.5 t ha-1); however, the yield difference between sprinkler placed manure (13.7 t ha-1) and drip placed manure (13.9 t ha-1) was insignificant (Pâ?¤0.05) and WUEy and WUEtbm in the drip fertigated treatment was significantly (Pâ?¤0.05) higher than in other treatments. Seasonal crop water use (ETc) for drip irrigation was 236 mm compared to 339 mm for sprinkler in the 2011 season. In the 2012 season, ETc for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted in significant water savings and yield increase compared with sprinkler irrigation.

Plauborg, Finn

191

Efeito da temperatura e reação de genótipos de quiabeiro ao mofo branco / Effect of temperature and reaction of okra genotypes to white mold  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O quiabeiro é suscetível a várias doenças que podem causar prejuízos ao agricultor, caso não sejam manejadas. Objetivaram-se avaliar o efeito da temperatura e a reação de genótipos de quiabeiro ao mofo branco. Plantas de 30 dias inoculadas na região do colo, com e sem ferimento, com dois isolados de [...] Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, foram mantidas por duas semanas nas temperaturas de 15; 20; 25; 30 ou 35ºC. Quatorze genótipos de quiabeiro com um e dois meses de emergência, assim como frutos no ponto de colheita comercial tiveram seus comportamentos avaliados quanto à doença. Avaliaram-se a incidência de plantas com tombamento ou mortas e o comprimento da lesão nos frutos inoculados. A doença foi favorecida por temperaturas entre 15 e 20ºC e, de maneira geral, não foram observadas diferenças entre os isolados e influência do ferimento na ocorrência da doença. Não foram encontrados genótipos de quiabeiro resistentes ao mofo branco, pois todos apresentaram incidência superior a 30% de plantas mortas, sendo as plantas mais novas mais suscetíveis, e comprimento de lesão nos frutos >6,0 cm. Entretanto, diferenças de suscetibilidade entre os genótipos foram observadas em plantas de 30 e de 60 dias e podem ser informações úteis aos produtores para escolha de cultivares em clima ameno, assim como ser exploradas em programas de melhoramento. Abstract in english The okra plant is susceptible to several diseases that can cause losses to the farmer if not managed. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and the reaction of okra genotypes to white mold. Plants aged 30 days, inoculated in the collar region, injured or not, including two strains o [...] f Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were maintained for two weeks at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 or 35ºC. Fourteen okra genotypes at one and two months after emergence, as well as fruits at commercial harvest time, had their behavior evaluated for the disease. Damping-off or dead plants were evaluated, as well as the injure length in the inoculated fruits. The disease was favored by temperatures between 15 and 20ºC and, in general, no differences were observed between the isolates and the influence of the injury on the disease occurrence. There were no okra genotypes resistant to white mold, since all of them had more than 30% of incidence of dead plants; younger plants were more susceptible and the injure length in fruits was > 6.0 cm. However, differences in the susceptibility between genotypes were observed for plants aged 30 and 60 days, which could constitute useful information for producers in the choice of cultivars under moderate climate and could be explored in breeding programs.

Ivan Herman, Fischer; Mirian de Souza, Filetti; Juliana Cristina Sodário, Cruz; César Júnior, Bueno.

192

Potential Impact of Spacing and Fertilizer Levels on the Flowering, Productivity and Economic Viability of Hybrid Bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench under Drip Fertigation System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drip irrigation provides an efficient method of fertilizer delivery and allows precise timing and uniform distribution of applied nutrients. Fertilizer application through drip irrigation (fertigation can reduce fertilizer usage and minimize groundwater pollution due to fertilizer leaching from excessive irrigation. For this purpose, field experiments were carried out in the farmers’ field at Thoppur, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, during 2010-2012 to study the effect of spacing and fertilizer levels on the flowering, pod yield and economic viability of Bhendi Hybrid (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench under drip fertigation system. The treatments consisted of two spacings (M1—60 × 45 cm and M2— 60 × 30 cm and eight drip fertigation levels (S1—Drip fertigation with WSF at 125 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S2—Drip fertigation with WSF at 100 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S3—Drip fertigation with WSF at 75 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S4—Drip fertigation with WSF at 100 per cent RDF, S5—Drip fertigation with SF at 125 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S6—Drip fertigation with SF at 100 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S7—Drip fertigation with SF at 75 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S8—Drip fertigation with SF at 100 per cent RDF, and were replicated thrice in a split plot design. Results showed that the earliest flowering (26.21 days, 50% flowering (51.31, number of flowers per plant (25.33 and highest pod yield of 596.70 g/plant, 24.91 t/ha was registered in drip fertigation at 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers as water soluble fertilizer combination with Azophosmet and humic acid under wider spacing. The economics of the study clearly showed that drip fertigation at 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers as water soluble fertilizer along with Azophosmet and humic acid under wider spacing was found to record higher BCR of 2.99.

Govindarasu Rajaraman

2013-08-01

193

How Seeds Travel  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will rotate around to 7 different stations to identify how the 7 presented seeds travel, whether it be by wind, water, or animal. They will then record it in their plant journals by illustrating the seed, listing its characteristics, and identifying the way in which it travels. Designer Seeds 7 Stations Coconut-Water Maple Seed- Wind Burdock (burrs) - Animals ...

Liston, Mrs

2009-11-09

194

Modeling the Time Elapsing from Seed Sowing to Emergence in Some Vegetable Crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple regression model based on mean temperature was developed to be used for predicting the time elapsing from seed sowing to seedling emergence for some vegetable crops, namely tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., pepper (Capsicum annum, L., aubergine (Solanum melongena, L., pea (Pisum sativum, L., carrot (Daucus carota, L., sweat corn (Zea mays, cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.var. capitata (L Alef, cauliflower Brassica oleraceae L.var. botrytis L, onion (Allium cepa, L., celery (Apium graviolens, L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L., parsley (Petroselinum hortense , garden beet (Beta vulgaris, L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L., melon (Cucumis melo, L., runner bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Thunb., okra (Hibiscus esculentus, L., asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L., spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L., radish (Rhaphanus sativus, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The prediction performance of the model with respect to the data used was highly acceptable. R2 values of regression co-efficients for each crop varied from 0.94 to 0.99 depending on the species. Plotting the actual days from seed sowing to emergence for all the crops against the predicted ones showed that the prediction performance of the model was good explaining 98% of the variation for combined data from all the crops. The present model also predicted optimum temperatures (To for tried vegetables in the limits of acceptability.

Sezgin Uzun

2001-01-01

195

Vegetable Seed Saving Handbook  

Science.gov (United States)

This Vegetable Seed Saving Handbook online is a great resource for anyone wanting to harvest viable Fast Plants seeds to plant right away (as in selection experiments) or save for future use. Follow the instructions for cabbage family seeds (Brassica raps, in particular). If you're planning on saving your seeds, treat Fast Plants seeds as "desiccation-tolerant" as described here: http://howtosaveseeds.com/store.php

196

The seed nuclear proteome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate...

Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, He?le?ne; Larre?, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

2012-01-01

197

The Seed Biology Place  

Science.gov (United States)

This remarkable site was created by Professor Gerhard Leubner and his colleagues at the University of Freiburg in Germany. Here, visitors can take advantage of a veritable cornucopia of reference materials related to seed biology, such as diagrams and illustrations of seed germination, plant hormones, endosperm weakening, and seed dormancy. Neophytes may wish to start by looking at the Seed Structure and Anatomy area, which features a concise and well-written overview of the structure, anatomy, and morphology of mature seeds. The same section contains information on the seed structure of the castor bean and other legumes. Another fascinating section on the site is dedicated to Seed Evolution. Visitors can discover a wealth of information here, including such topics as the evolutionary trends of angiosperm seeds and the seed ferns of the Late Permian period. All told, the site is a wonderful resource, and visitors will want to share it with friends.

Leubner, Gerhard

2012-02-10

198

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH. The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR. A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil.

Gilmar P. Henz

2007-06-01

199

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil / Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch) e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência [...] da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR). A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil. Abstract in english Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani b [...] ased on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH). The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.

Gilmar P., Henz; Carlos A., Lopes; Ailton, Reis.

200

Determinação da demanda hídrica do quiabeiro em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ / Determination of water requirement of okra in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as necessidades hídricas do quiabeiro em cada estádio do seu desenvolvimento, por meio da determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura e dos coeficientes de cultivo (Kc). O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Evapotranspirométrica da Universidade Estadual do No [...] rte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A cultivar utilizada foi a Santa Cruz 47, plantada no espaçamento 0,25 m x 1,00 m, em uma área de 1024 m², irrigada por aspersão convencional. Na área foram feitas as determinações da evapotranspiração da cultura e do coeficiente cultural, utilizando-se um lisímetro de 6 m² com balança eletrônica com variação de peso de 0,58 kg. Os resultados obtidos permitiram quantificar a evapotranspiração da cultura no período em 314 mm. O Kc do quiabeiro no primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento variou entre os valores de 0,8 e 0,5, obtendo o valor médio de 0,68; no segundo estádio variou de 0,5 a 1,0, sendo a média de 0,79; e no terceiro estádio o Kc variou de 1,0 a 0,3, sendo a média de 0,54. Abstract in english This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc) providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Esta [...] dual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m², irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m² with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, with a mean of 0,79,and the third stage Kc ranged from 1.0 to 0.3, the average being 0.54.

Herval Martinho Ferreira, Paes; Barbara dos Santos, Esteves; Elias Fernandes de, Sousa.

 
 
 
 
201

Resposta do quiabeiro às doses de fósforo aplicadas em solo arenoso / Response of phosphorus levels on okra planted in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da adubação fosfatada no rendimento do quiabeiro, cultivar Santa Cruz, em experimento com delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0; 44; 88; 132 e 176 kg ha-1 de P), em quatro repetições. O número máximo de frutos por planta (43) foi obtido na dos [...] e máxima de 176 kg ha-1 de P. A produtividade máxima estimada de frutos comerciais (38,6 t ha-1) ocorreu com 139 kg ha-1 de P. A dose de P que proporcionou maior retorno econômico foi 137 kg ha-1, com produção de 38,3 t ha-1 de frutos comerciais, o que representa um incremento de 17,4 t ha-1 de frutos. A dose mais econômica representou 98% daquela responsável pela máxima produção, o que pode indicar que o quiabeiro responde economicamente à adubação fosfatada no solo estudado e a dose de P responsável pela máxima produção comercial de frutos foi relacionada com 40 mg dm-3 de P disponível no solo (Mehlich 1). Da mesma forma, a dose responsável pelo maior retorno econômico foi associada com 38 mg de P dm-3. Abstract in english The influence of phosphorus fertilization on yield of okra, cv. Santa Cruz was evaluated. The research was carried out in the experimental design of randomized blocks, with five treatments (0; 44; 88; 132 and 176 kg ha-1 of P), and four replications. The maximum number of fruits per plant (43) was o [...] btained with the maximum level of 176 kg ha-1 of P. The estimated maximum yield of commercial fruits (38.6 t ha-1), was related to 139 kg ha-1 of P. The application of 137 kg ha-1 of P provided the highest economical income, yielding 38.3 t ha-1 of commercial fruits, with an increment of fruits of 17.4 t ha-1. The most economic level represented 98% of that responsible for the maximum yield, indicating that the okra responded economically to the use of P in sandy soil and, of the P level responsible for the maximum commercial yield of fruits were related to 40 mg dm-3 of available P in soil (Mehlich 1), and the level responsible for the highest economic income was related to 38 mg dm-3.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Carina Seixas M., Dornelas; Adriana U., Alves; Anarlete U., Alves; Jandiê Araújo da, Silva; Arnaldo Nonato P. de, Oliveira.

202

Aplicação da técnica de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS) na análise de pesticidas em quiabo por CG-EM / Application of the matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique in the analysis of pesticides in okra by GC-MS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A matrix solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass selective detection method for the simultaneous determination of monocrotophos, methyl parathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in okra is described. Analyses of 2 g of fortified okra (0.05-0.75 mg kg-1) showed an average recovery of 96.2% [...] (71.4-128.4%) and average relative standard deviation of 11.7% (1.4-37.1%). The cypermethrin recovery at the lower level was above 130%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 mg kg-1. The procedure was applied to the okra samples and has found 0.56 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-cis, 0.75 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-trans and 2.71 mg kg-1 of deltamethrin.

Haroldo Silveira, Dórea; Waneide Gomes, Lopes.

203

Aplicação da técnica de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS na análise de pesticidas em quiabo por CG-EM Application of the matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD technique in the analysis of pesticides in okra by GC-MS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A matrix solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass selective detection method for the simultaneous determination of monocrotophos, methyl parathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in okra is described. Analyses of 2 g of fortified okra (0.05-0.75 mg kg-1 showed an average recovery of 96.2% (71.4-128.4% and average relative standard deviation of 11.7% (1.4-37.1%. The cypermethrin recovery at the lower level was above 130%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 mg kg-1. The procedure was applied to the okra samples and has found 0.56 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-cis, 0.75 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-trans and 2.71 mg kg-1 of deltamethrin.

Haroldo Silveira Dórea

2004-12-01

204

What Are Chia Seeds?  

Science.gov (United States)

... The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native Americans in ... Sprinkle ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called ...

205

Grape Seed Extract  

Science.gov (United States)

... our disclaimer about external links Menu Grape Seed Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera grapes.jpg © Steven Foster ... fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, what the science says, potential side ...

206

Needs of Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

Keeley, Page

2011-01-01

207

EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

Yvo de Carvalho

2007-09-01

208

Evaluation of the Uptake and Accumulation of Metals by Some Commonly Irrigated Vegetables in Soils Treated with Different Concentrations of these Metals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The uptake of some trace elements namely, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead by some vegetables commonly irrigated were studied under glasshouse conditions. Experiments were conducted in plastic pots using some selected vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and pepper (Capsicum annum) grown on sandy loam soils treated with different concentrations of these metals. The treatments investigated include zero application (control), 10, 50 a...

Haliru, M.; Ajibola, V. O.; Agbaji, E. B.

2009-01-01

209

Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field / Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O quiabeiro é hortaliça de clima quente, encontrando condições favoráveis de desenvolvimento no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de mudas e a produtividade de quiabeiro. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul e [...] m Aquidauana. Na fase de mudas, foram testados substratos (100% ramas de mandioca triturada; 75% ramas de mandioca triturada + 25% de vermiculita; 50% ramas de mandioca triturada + 50% de vermiculita; 25% ramas de mandioca triturada + 75% vermiculita e 100% vermiculita). Estes substratos foram dispostos em dois ambientes protegidos (viveiro agrícola de tela de monofilamento de 50% de sombreamento e viveiro agrícola de tela aluminizada de 50% de sombreamento). Cada ambiente foi considerado um experimento, conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições. Em seguida, realizou-se a análise conjunta. No campo, foram distribuídos os 10 tratamentos gerados a partir das combinações entre ambientes e substratos (2 ambientes x 5 substratos), no delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As proporções médias de ramas de mandioca e vermiculita podem ser indicadas para a formação de mudas de quiabeiro. Pelas fitomassas seca aérea e total o ambiente com tela aluminizada pode ser indicado para produção de mudas de quiabeiro com a utilização do substrato na proporção 1:1. Mudas provenientes de maiores porcentagens de vermiculita antecipam a produção, enquanto que mudas oriundas apenas de ramas tendem a retardar essa fase. Mudas oriundas do ambiente aluminizado tendem a incrementar a produção de frutos de quiabeiro. Proporções médias de vermiculita e ramas, para mudas produzidas na tela aluminizada, propiciam maior número de frutos e produtividade do quiabeiro em Aquidauana. Abstract in english The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tes [...] ted substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite and 100% vermiculite). These substrates were placed in two protected environments (nursery with black screen, 50% of shading, and aluminized screen, 50% of shading). Each environment was considered an experiment conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications. After that we realized joint analysis. In the field, a total of 10 treatments generated from combinations of environments and substrates (2 environments x 5 substrates) were distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The average proportions of cassava stems and vermiculite may be suitable for okra seedlings. The results of shoot and total dry phytomass indicate that the aluminized screen can be recommended for okra seedlings production when the substrate with a 1:1 ratio is used. Seedlings grown on higher percentages of vermiculite anticipate production, while seedlings produced only in cassava stems tend to slow it down. The aluminized screen tends to increase the yield of okra seedlings. Average proportions of vermiculite and cassava stems for seedling production under aluminized screen, provide more fruits and yield of okra in Aquidauana.

Costa, Edilson; Souza, Taynara G de; Benteo, Gleciane de L; Benett, Katiane SS; Benett, Cleiton GS.

210

Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tested substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite and 100% vermiculite. These substrates were placed in two protected environments (nursery with black screen, 50% of shading, and aluminized screen, 50% of shading. Each environment was considered an experiment conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications. After that we realized joint analysis. In the field, a total of 10 treatments generated from combinations of environments and substrates (2 environments x 5 substrates were distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The average proportions of cassava stems and vermiculite may be suitable for okra seedlings. The results of shoot and total dry phytomass indicate that the aluminized screen can be recommended for okra seedlings production when the substrate with a 1:1 ratio is used. Seedlings grown on higher percentages of vermiculite anticipate production, while seedlings produced only in cassava stems tend to slow it down. The aluminized screen tends to increase the yield of okra seedlings. Average proportions of vermiculite and cassava stems for seedling production under aluminized screen, provide more fruits and yield of okra in Aquidauana.O quiabeiro é hortaliça de clima quente, encontrando condições favoráveis de desenvolvimento no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de mudas e a produtividade de quiabeiro. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul em Aquidauana. Na fase de mudas, foram testados substratos (100% ramas de mandioca triturada; 75% ramas de mandioca triturada + 25% de vermiculita; 50% ramas de mandioca triturada + 50% de vermiculita; 25% ramas de mandioca triturada + 75% vermiculita e 100% vermiculita. Estes substratos foram dispostos em dois ambientes protegidos (viveiro agrícola de tela de monofilamento de 50% de sombreamento e viveiro agrícola de tela aluminizada de 50% de sombreamento. Cada ambiente foi considerado um experimento, conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições. Em seguida, realizou-se a análise conjunta. No campo, foram distribuídos os 10 tratamentos gerados a partir das combinações entre ambientes e substratos (2 ambientes x 5 substratos, no delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As proporções médias de ramas de mandioca e vermiculita podem ser indicadas para a formação de mudas de quiabeiro. Pelas fitomassas seca aérea e total o ambiente com tela aluminizada pode ser indicado para produção de mudas de quiabeiro com a utilização do substrato na proporção 1:1. Mudas provenientes de maiores porcentagens de vermiculita antecipam a produção, enquanto que mudas oriundas apenas de ramas tendem a retardar essa fase. Mudas oriundas do ambiente aluminizado tendem a incrementar a produção de frutos de quiabeiro. Proporções médias de vermiculita e ramas, para mudas produzidas na tela aluminizada, propiciam maior número de frutos e produtividade do quiabeiro em Aquidauana.

Edilson Costa

2013-03-01

211

The seed nuclear proteome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight. PMID:23267364

Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

2012-01-01

212

Identification of the potential active components of Abelmoschus manihot in rat blood and kidney tissue by microdialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, microdialysis combining with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify components in blood and kidney dialysis after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract. Microdialysis probe was implanted in the jugular vein and the kidney medulla, respectively; microdialysis samples were collected continuously, transferred to microtubes and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The components in microdialysis samples were separated by an UPLC HSS T3 column and eluted with acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The results showed that unbound constituents in blood circulation of the rat include hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin, myricetin, and hibifolin while unbound constituents in kidney are hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, which might be the potential active components in vivo. The developed method was simple and reliable, and could be adopted to rapidly screen and identify potential active components contributing to pharmacological effects of TCM and to better clarify its action mechanism. PMID:21247814

Xue, Caifu; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shang, Erxin; Shu, Yan; Lu, Yuwei

2011-02-15

213

Sesame seed lignans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sesame seed has been an important oilseed since ancient times. It contains 25% protein and 50% oil. Sesame seed possesses many health promoting effects, some of which have been attributed to a group of compounds called lignans (sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol and sesamolinol). Sesame seed contains lignan aglycones in oil and lignan glucosides. Sesamin, the major sesame oil lignan, is known to reduce plasma cholesterol and to increase plasma ?-tocopherol in humans. This thesis aimed at investig...

2006-01-01

214

Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

Wagner F. da Mota

2005-07-01

215

Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo / Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade com [...] ercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores. Abstract in english In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruit [...] s of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

Mota, Wagner F. da; Finger, Fernando Luiz; Silva, Derly José H. da; Corrêa, Paulo César; Firme, Lúcia P.; Neves, Ludmila L. de M..

216

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

2003-12-01

217

Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality of seeds acquired from the informal SS, and compared this with the quality of seeds obtained from the formal SS. Cowpea seed production in northern Nigeria was used as a case study to evaluate the ...

Biemond, P. C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T. J.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; Struik, P. C.

2013-01-01

218

Millennium Seed Bank Project  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of organizations have developed a concerted interest in establishing seed banks to protect the wide diversity of existing plant life for future generations. The Royal Botanic Gardens is currently working on their own project, whose ultimate goal is to collect 24,000 plant species. So far, they have successfully secured samples from almost all of the native flowering plants in the United Kingdom, and their work continues on in the present day. Many visitors to the site will want to peruse their homepage and the helpful graphic (a peapod) helps orient first-time visitors to the various sections on the site, such as "Solving Seed Problems" and their publications and data area. The site also includes a field manual for those who would like to collect their own seeds in the field as well as data about the seeds collected thus far in the Seed Information Database.

2005-01-01

219

Neutron irradiation of seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

1967-09-01

220

Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Seed recovery and regeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetohydrodynamic's (MHD) electric power generation capability depends on Faraday's law of induction. An ionized gas, called plasma, passes through a fixed magnetic field. The plasma is produced by seeding flue gases at a temperature of around 2500 deg C with potassium carbonate or formate. In a coal-fired open cycle MHD power plant the potassium seed material is in direct contact with the polluted flue gas from coal combustion. The molten slag droplets will capture a certain amount of potassium. The sulphur dioxide in the flue gases will react with potassium to potassium sulphate. The spent seed material has to be recovered and reprocessed so that the potassium can be reused as seed material. We can distinguish a preprocessing and a regeneration step. Seed preprocessing removes the minerals and volatile coal constituents from the potassium salts. Seed regeneration transforms the purified potassium sulphate into potassium carbonate or formate. Eight regeneration processes have been evaluated. The processes that convert the sulphur of the coal into saleable sulphur or sulphuric acid are still at an early stage of development. Considering all pros and cons, the Formate/Econoseed process appears most suited for seed regeneration purposes in coal-fired MHD systems. For an advanced MHD power plant the mass flow rates of the flue gas and of the potassium containing off-product streams will be calculated. It will be shown that the sulphur content of coal will influence the economical efficiency of the power plant

1990-11-15

222

Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L) Mell.,) in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agri...

Khalil, Shad K.; Mexal, John G.; Murray, Leigh W.

2001-01-01

223

Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente / Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdividida [...] s, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless), e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet. Abstract in english The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red [...] Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual browning. The PVC was efficient in controlling the weight loss and retained the water content through storage. The lowest losses were observed for the cvs. Amarelinho and Star of David, without and with PVC, respectively. There was higher retention of vitamin C in the fruits wrapped with PVC and the cvs. Red Velvet and Star of David kept higher content of it. In general, the cv. Mammoth Spinless kept higher content of chlorophyll. The higher incidence of browning was in fruits stored without PVC. The Red Velvet had better shelf life due to lower browning.

Mota, Wagner F da; Finger, Fernando Luiz; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Silva, Derly José H da; Corrêa, Paulo César; Firme, Lúcia P; Neves, Ludmila L de M.

224

Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless, e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet.The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual browning. The PVC was efficient in controlling the weight loss and retained the water content through storage. The lowest losses were observed for the cvs. Amarelinho and Star of David, without and with PVC, respectively. There was higher retention of vitamin C in the fruits wrapped with PVC and the cvs. Red Velvet and Star of David kept higher content of it. In general, the cv. Mammoth Spinless kept higher content of chlorophyll. The higher incidence of browning was in fruits stored without PVC. The Red Velvet had better shelf life due to lower browning.

Wagner F da Mota

2006-06-01

225

Conservação e qualidade pós-colheita de quiabo sob diferentes temperaturas e formas de armazenamento Postharvest conservation and quality of okra submitted to different temperatures and storage forms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do filme plástico de PVC e da temperatura de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de frutos de cultivares de quiabo. O experimento foi organizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo nas parcelas as duas temperaturas (5 e 10 ºC, nas subparcelas um fatorial 2 (sem e com PVC x 4 (cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless e nas subsubparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem, com quatro blocos. A temperatura de 10ºC e o uso do filme de PVC foram mais eficientes no controle da perda de massa da matéria fresca. O filme foi mais eficiente na manutenção de maior teor relativo de água no pericarpo dos frutos armazenados a 5 e 10ºC. A cv. Amarelinho perdeu menos massa da matéria fresca e manteve maior teor relativo de água. Os frutos armazenados a 5ºC apresentaram maiores teores de vitamina C, com menor perda de vitamina C nas cvs. Mammoth Spinless e Star of David. Observou-se maior incidência de injúria por frio e escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC e a 5ºC. A cv. Amarelinho apresentou melhor conservação pós-colheita com temperatura de 10ºC e o uso da embalagem de PVC.This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of PVC film and temperature on the postharvest storage life in four cultivars of okra. The treatments were displayed in randomized complete blocks, in split-split-plot design, where the parcels were the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC, and in the sub parcels a 2 (control and PVC wrapped fruits x 4 (cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless factorial, and in the sub-sub parcels six sampling moments, containing four blocks. Storage at 10ºC and wrapping the fruits with PVC film improved the control of fresh mass loss. The film was more efficient in maintaining higher water content in the fruit pericarp at 5 or 10ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho lost less fresh mass and maintained higher water content. Fruits stored at 5ºC had higher vitamin C content. The cultivars Mammoth Spinless and Star of David showed lower losses of vitamin C. Cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of chlorophyll and Amarelinho the lowest. In general the development of chilling and browning was higher in fruits without PVC film at 5ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho had better postharvest conservation at 10ºC and using PVC film.

Wagner F da Mota

2010-03-01

226

SEED PRODUCTION IN EU COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents seed production in EU countries. EU as a whole is one of the biggest seed markets. Certified seed production differs considerably with regard to crops and country. Highest level of seed production reach: Denmark, France, Germany and United Kingdom. The opposite refers to Bulgaria and Poland.

Jerzy Rembeza

2013-12-01

227

Seed output and the seed bank in Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed banks and sexual reproduction are known to be significant in colonization and re-establishment of some aquatic macrophyte communities. For highly clonal aquatic macrophytes, however, there is a lack of information on seed production and seed fate as compared with annual sexual species. The seed bank for three populations of Vallisneria americana in the Huron-Erie corridor of the Great Lakes was sampled and quantified in the spring of 1994, and related to seed production in the previous season at these sites. Seed deposition rates during 1994 were also assessed. Sites varied in the proportion of plants flowering and in their tertiary sex ratios, but did not differ in seed numbers produced per unit area. The size of the seed bank was not significantly related to the previous season's seed output, and estimates of seed deposition in the following year tended to be approximately tenfold greater than seed densities found in the seed bank. The stages between seed production and subsequent seed germination are generally very dynamic, with dispersal, mortality, and predation as likely regulating factors. The potential for seedling establishment in V. americana needs to be assessed more fully before the role of seeds in population processes can be determined. PMID:21708549

Lokker, C; Lovett-Doust, L; Lovett-Doust, J

1997-10-01

228

Priorities in seed pathology research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of seedborne pathogens that might go undetected using more conventional means. These types of research will be fundamental in guaranteeing seed health quality standards and achieving phytosanitary requirements throughout the world in the new millennium.

Nameth S.T.

1998-01-01

229

Quality Seed Production,  

Science.gov (United States)

In many arid and semiarid regions, seed production has not kept pace with the development of new varieties. To remedy the situation, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) is working closely with national programs and...

A. J. G. van Gastel J. Kerley

1988-01-01

230

Nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization / Nitrogênio aplicado à cultura do quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar, no período chuvoso amazônico, o efeito do nitrogênio aplicado ao quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual. O ensaio foi conduzido na Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, em Iranduba-AM, entre outubro/2010 e fevereiro//2011, em Argissolo Amarelo distrófico, textura média, u [...] tilizando-se covas com níveis residuais de fertilidade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições (duas linhas com quatro plantas, espaçadas de 1,5x1,0 m) e quatro tratamentos principais (ureia, em cobertura: 0,0; 20,0; 40,0 e 60 g planta-1 correspondendo a 0,0; 60,0; 120,0 e 180,0 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, em duas parcelas), com a cv Dardo. Além de dois tratamentos adicionais, representados pelo esterco de galinha (1,0 L por cova, com a cv Dardo) e pela cv Santa Cruz-47 (com 40 g planta-1 de ureia). As covas receberam micronutrientes e irrigação por gotejamento. As características avaliadas mostraram incrementos quadráticos com as doses de ureia. Os maiores valores da altura de planta (39,7 cm), do diâmetro de copa (86,2 cm), do número de frutos (36 unidades planta-1), da massa média de fruto (17,3 g), do número de colheitas no ciclo produtivo (26,4 unidades ciclo-1) e da produtividade (4051 kg ha-1) ocorreram com (g planta-1 de ureia): 48,3; 43,5; 38,5 g; 49,7; 32,7; e 40,5, respectivamente. As características originais concorreram com razoável equilíbrio para o desempenho geral da planta (CP1), evidenciando-se, secundariamente, antagonismo entre colheitas por ciclo e frutos por planta contra a massa média de fruto e o diâmetro de copa (CP2). O esterco de galinha proporcionou desempenho idêntico ao da ureia e sobressaiu ao tratamento sem ureia, para todas as características. A cv Santa Cruz-47 superou a cv Dardo somente para o diâmetro de copa e número de colheitas. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi 40,2 g de ureia planta-1 (120,6 kg ha-1 de N), com renda líquida por hectare de 2,09 toneladas de quiabo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the Amazonian rainy season, the effect of nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization. The trial was carried out in the Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, in Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil, between October/2010 and February/2011, [...] in dystrophic Yellow Argisoil, medium texture, using pits with residual fertility. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four repetitions (two lines with four plants, spacing of 1.5x1.0 m) and four main treatments (urea: 0.0; 20.0; 40.0 and 60.0 g plant-1 corresponding to 0.0; 60.0; 120.0 and 180.0 kg ha-1 of N, respectively, in two portions) using cv Dardo. Besides two additional treatments: chicken manure (1.0 L pit-1, with the cv Dardo) and cv Santa Cruz-47 (with urea rate of 40.0 g plant-1). Micronutrients in pits and dripping system irrigation were applied. All the studied traits had significant quadratic response with the increase of the urea rates. The highest estimated value for the plant height (39.7 cm), canopy diameter (86.2 cm), fruit number (36.0 un plant-1), fruit average mass (17.3 g), harvest number within production cycle (26.4 un cycle-1) and of the yield (4051 kg ha-1) were observed with (g plant-1 of urea): 48.3; 43.5; 38.5; 49.7; 32.7; and 40.5, respectively. Those original traits contributed reasonably poised for plant overall performance (PC1), but subordinate there was antagonism between harvest number and fruit number versus fruit average mass and canopy diameter (PC2). The chicken manure showed positive response compared to the control treatment, but didn't differ from urea rates for all these characteristics. When compared to cv Dardo, the cv Santa Cruz-47 only presented higher values to canopy diameter and number of harvests. The economical efficiency maximum dose was 40.2 g plant-1 of urea (120.6 kg ha-1 of N), with net income per hectare equal to 2.09 tons of okra fruits.

Marinice O, Cardoso; Rodrigo F, Berni.

231

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

Nascimento Warley Marcos

2004-01-01

232

Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L Mell., in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Seeds planted in January, February, and March matured during hot weather conditions (June, July, produced heavier seeds, but had lower germination, and higher infection with seed borne pathogens. Seed planted in July and August reached maturity after hot weather conditions in October and November had ended and exhibited higher germination, little infection with seed borne pathogen, but produced smaller seeds. Seed size was inversely related to germination. Conditions that favor production of large seeds also favor infection with seed borne pathogens and lower germination.

Shad K. Khalil

2001-01-01

233

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

2012-02-01

234

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dem [...] atium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa) and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity), and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm) and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum) were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds) and six (6.5 mm large seeds) replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

Wain-Tassi, Adriana Luiza; Santos, Juliana Faria dos; Panizzi, Rita de Cássia; Vieira, Roberval Daiton.

235

Macronutrient contents in okra plants under different sources and levels of organic matter on soil / Teores foliares de macronutrientes em quiabeiro cultivado sob diferentes fontes e níveis de matéria orgânica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out during the period of November of 2001 to April of 2002 in order to evaluate the effects of sources and doses of organic matter on leaf mineral composition of okra cv. Santa Cruz. The treatments were distributed in a randomized blocks design with four replications with 25 holes with two plants in each plot. The treatments were arranged in a 3x4 factorial design, with three sources of organic matter: cattle manure, chicken manure and caprine manure incorporated at soil in four levels in volume of: 0.0; 5.0; 10.0 and 15.0% of the hole (capacity for 48 liters. Okra plants treated with chicken manure had higher foliar content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus; with the goat manure the higher content of potassium, and with bovine manure higher values of nitrogen in leaf dry matter of plants, but with no difference among doses of manure.Um experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de fontes e níveis de matéria orgânica sobre os teores foliares de macronutrientes em quiabeiro ‘Santa Cruz’. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial, com quatro repetições, com duas plantas por cova e 25 plantas por parcela. Foram utilizadas três fontes de matéria orgânica: esterco bovino, esterco de frango e esterco de caprino, fornecidos em quatro níveis: 0, 5, 10 e 15% do volume da cova com capacidade para 48 litros. O esterco de frango proporcionou maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio, o esterco de caprino maior de potássio e o esterco de bovino maiores valores de nitrogênio nas folhas das plantas de quiabeiro, mas sem definição estatística de doses entre as distintas fontes de matéria orgânica.

Míriam Alice da Silva Brehm

2010-04-01

236

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

1997-10-20

237

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

1997-10-01

238

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57 Customs...General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed...

2009-04-01

239

Seeding experiments at SPARC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the DS4 EUROFEL collaboration, a research work plan at the SPARC free-electron laser (FEL) test facility aiming at the investigation of seeded and cascaded FEL configurations is under implementation. The main goal of the collaboration is to study and test the amplification and the FEL harmonic generation process of an input seed signal obtained as higher-order harmonics generated both in crystals (400 and 266 nm) and in gases (266, 160, 114 nm). The SPARC FEL can be configured to test several cascaded FEL configurations. In this paper we introduce SPARC and its main parameters and we analyze the superradiant cascade and the harmonic cascade seeded with a signal with the typical time structure of the harmonics generated in gas.

Giannessi, L. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: giannessi@frascati.enea.it; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.; Boscolo, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Carre, B. [Service des Photons Atomes et Molecules, CEA Saclay, DSM/DRECAM (France); Castellano, M.; Cianchi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ciocci, F. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Chiadroni, E.; Clozza, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Couprie, M.E. [SOLEIL, Sant-Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cultrera, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Dattoli, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); De Silvestri, S. [National Laboratory for Ultrafast and Ultraintense Optical Science, CNR-INFM, Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Di Pace, A. [ENEA C.R. Portici, Napoli (Italy); Di Pirro, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Doria, A. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Drago, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)] (and others)

2008-08-01

240

Seeding experiments at SPARC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the DS4 EUROFEL collaboration, a research work plan at the SPARC free-electron laser (FEL) test facility aiming at the investigation of seeded and cascaded FEL configurations is under implementation. The main goal of the collaboration is to study and test the amplification and the FEL harmonic generation process of an input seed signal obtained as higher-order harmonics generated both in crystals (400 and 266 nm) and in gases (266, 160, 114 nm). The SPARC FEL can be configured to test several cascaded FEL configurations. In this paper we introduce SPARC and its main parameters and we analyze the superradiant cascade and the harmonic cascade seeded with a signal with the typical time structure of the harmonics generated in gas

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on ...

2007-01-01

242

Conservação e qualidade pós-colheita de quiabo sob diferentes temperaturas e formas de armazenamento / Postharvest conservation and quality of okra submitted to different temperatures and storage forms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do filme plástico de PVC e da temperatura de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de frutos de cultivares de quiabo. O experimento foi organizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo nas parcelas [...] as duas temperaturas (5 e 10 ºC), nas subparcelas um fatorial 2 (sem e com PVC) x 4 (cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless) e nas subsubparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem, com quatro blocos. A temperatura de 10ºC e o uso do filme de PVC foram mais eficientes no controle da perda de massa da matéria fresca. O filme foi mais eficiente na manutenção de maior teor relativo de água no pericarpo dos frutos armazenados a 5 e 10ºC. A cv. Amarelinho perdeu menos massa da matéria fresca e manteve maior teor relativo de água. Os frutos armazenados a 5ºC apresentaram maiores teores de vitamina C, com menor perda de vitamina C nas cvs. Mammoth Spinless e Star of David. Observou-se maior incidência de injúria por frio e escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC e a 5ºC. A cv. Amarelinho apresentou melhor conservação pós-colheita com temperatura de 10ºC e o uso da embalagem de PVC. Abstract in english This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of PVC film and temperature on the postharvest storage life in four cultivars of okra. The treatments were displayed in randomized complete blocks, in split-split-plot design, where the parcels were the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC, and in the sub parce [...] ls a 2 (control and PVC wrapped fruits) x 4 (cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless) factorial, and in the sub-sub parcels six sampling moments, containing four blocks. Storage at 10ºC and wrapping the fruits with PVC film improved the control of fresh mass loss. The film was more efficient in maintaining higher water content in the fruit pericarp at 5 or 10ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho lost less fresh mass and maintained higher water content. Fruits stored at 5ºC had higher vitamin C content. The cultivars Mammoth Spinless and Star of David showed lower losses of vitamin C. Cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of chlorophyll and Amarelinho the lowest. In general the development of chilling and browning was higher in fruits without PVC film at 5ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho had better postharvest conservation at 10ºC and using PVC film.

Mota, Wagner F da; Finger, Fernando Luiz; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Silva, Derly José H da; Corrêa, Paulo César; Firme, Lúcia P; Mizobutsi, Gisele P.

243

Landscape Corridors Provide Pathway for Seed Dispersal  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pathway for Seed Dispersal Birds help habitats maintain diversity Seeds were more often found in ... seeds that came from plants in the central patches. The results were clear: on average, seeds in ...

244

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

1996-01-16

245

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

246

Physical View of Cloud Seeding  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

Tribus, Myron

1970-01-01

247

21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura (cusparia...

2010-01-01

248

21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura (cusparia bark) Galipea...

2010-01-01

249

Corridors cause differential seed predation.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds? primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

JOHN L. ORROCk; ELLEN I. DAMSCHEN

2005-06-01

250

The SEED Initiative  

Science.gov (United States)

Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

Teich, Carolyn R.

2011-01-01

251

Study on Seed Quality Status and Fibre Yield of Different Seed Categories of Jute (Corchorus spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purity, viability, vigour, green yield and fibre yield of O-9897 (Corchorus olitorius L. and CVL-1 (Corchorus capsularis L. were studied. Different seed categories were breeder seed, foundation seed, certified seed and farmers seed. Purity, viability and vigour of breeder seed were the best in all respects and of farmers seed were poor. However moisture content was the highest in farmers seed and lowest in breeder seed. The 1000 seeds weight was highest in farmers seed among the seed categories and in CVL-1 over the variety O-9897. Base diameter, green yield and fibre yield were influenced significantly due to seed categories studied. The highest fibre yield was obtained from the breeder seed (3.20 t ha-1 in 0-9897 and 2.64 t ha-1 in CVL-1. Declining trend of fibre yield were observed like- breeders seed > foundation seed > certified seed > farmer`s seed as well.

M. Mahbubul Islam

2002-01-01

252

Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate levels of pathogens and influence seed mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of fungi and seed density within buried mesh bags on the mortality of seeds. Striga hermonthica ...

Mourik, T. A.; Stomph, T. J.; Murdoch, A. J.

2005-01-01

253

Subset seed automaton  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the pattern matching automaton introduced in [KucherovNoeRoytbergJBCB06] for the purpose of seed-based similarity search. We show that our definition provides a compact automaton, much smaller than the one obtained by applying the Aho-Corasick construction. We study properties of this automaton andpresent an efficient implementation of the automaton construction. We also present some experimental results and show that this automaton can be successfully applied to more general situati...

2007-01-01

254

Construct Arguments: Pumpkin Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the Common Core Practice Standard #3âConstruct viable arguments for conclusions reached and critique the reasoning of others. In this lesson, learners work in groups to discuss and revise their estimates of how many seeds are in a small pumpkin. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

255

Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Material and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, [...] PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85). Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8%) patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4%) treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%): 88.7/82, D90(Gy): 149.2/140.3, D90(%): 104.2/93.8, V150 (%): 53.8/47, respectively). No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33), PSA (p = 0.391), prostate volume (p = 0.397), activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109), number of seeds (p = 0.338), V100 (p = 0.332), although significant differences were measured in the values of D90(% and Gy) (p = 0.022 and 0.011) and V150 (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry.

Carlos A. S., Franca; Sergio L., Vieira; Antonio C. P., Carvalho; Antonio J. S., Bernabe; Antonio B. R., Penna.

256

Improving soybean seed quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the meal and oil fractions of soybeans may be genetically improved, either by mutagenesis or by genetic engineering. There are a number of mutant lines of soybeans containing a low raffinosaccharide meal, which can be used for animal feed, with an improved total metabolizable energy content. Mutant lines with an improved fatty acid profile of the oil include high oleic and high stearic soybeans. Cloning of the mutant genes facilitates the integration of these traits into high yielding elite lines by providing molecular markers. Cloned genes may also be reintroduced into soybeans to create transgenic lines with improved meal and oil traits, such as seeds with an increased lysine content and stable soybean oils with a very low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The design of transgene constructs has been assisted by using soybean somatic embryos in suspension culture as a model system for soybean seed transformation. This system has allowed selection of those genes and promoters that are the most effective way of achieving the desired phenotypes in soybeans. Experiments with constructs containing fatty acid biosynthesis genes in somatic embryos have also led to the conclusion that, in soybeans, gene-transgene sense suppression is a more effective way of silencing endogenous genes than antisense. Sense suppression of genes encoding microsomal, fatty acid omega-6 desaturates has resulted in soybean lines with over 80% oleic acid in their seed oil, and this trait is stable over at least three generations. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

1995-11-01

257

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol ...

Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi; Juliana Faria dos Santos; Rita de Cássia Panizzi; Roberval Daiton Vieira

2012-01-01

258

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes...subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

2009-04-01

259

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2009-04-01

260

Magnetic biostimulation of wheat seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigation carried out at the Department of Physics, University of Agriculture in Lublin consisted in the application of an alternating magnetic field (50 Hz, harmonic vibration for the biostimulation of wheat seeds.The purpose of research was to define the effect of the magnetic biostimulation on the germination of seeds. The wheat seeds were subjected to 18 different magnetic ex- posure doses. For the next investigation two magnetic exposure doses were selected. On the basis of the research, it can be said that germination capacity of wheat seeds de- pends on the magnetic exposure dose. The speed of germi- nation of the treated seeds was higher than in the case of untreated ones. The seeds with the highest moisture content and subjected to a higher magnetic exposure dose had the highest speed of germination. Maximum speed of germi- nation for all the studied combinations was observed 35 h after magnetic biostimulation.

Kornarzyński K.

1999-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

Bogdan Nowicki

1995-12-01

262

Influence of Seed Size and Seed Rate on Phenology, Yield and Quality of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size and seed rate on wheat performance. It was concluded that yield components like number of fertile tillers, spike length, 1000-grain weight were significantly affected by seed size and seed rate. Similarly photobiomass producing contributers like plant density and plant height were also found responsive to seed sizes. Seed sizes and seed rates also showed significant results regarding phenology. Protein content, however was increased by large seed size.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry

2001-01-01

263

Metal deposition using seed layers  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

2013-11-12

264

Grafted natural polymer as new drag reducing agent: An experimental approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present investigation introduces a new natural drag reducing agent which has the ability to improve the flow in pipelines carrying aqueous or hydrocarbon liquids in turbulent flow. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) mucilage drag reduction performance was tested in water and hydrocarbon (gas-oil) media after grafting. The drag reduction test was conducted in a buildup closed loop liquid circulation system consists of two pipes 0.0127 and 0.0381 m Inside Diameter (ID), four testing sectio...

Abdulbari Hayder A.; Kamarulizam Nuraffini Siti; Nour A.H.

2012-01-01

265

Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: farmers' varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides (93%), seed treatment (90%) or insecticides (41%). In contrast barley growers had low awareness (36%) and use (0.5%) of modern varieties, herbicides (4%), insecticides (3%) and fertilizers (56%). Gra...

Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A. J. G.

2011-01-01

266

Physical properties of psyllium seed  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical properties ie dimensions, volume, surface area, sphericity, true density, porosity, angle of repose, terminal velocity, static and dynamic friction coefficients on plywood, stainless steel, glass and galvanized iron sheet, force required for initiating seed rupture in horizontal and vertical orientations of psyllium seed at a moisture content of 7.2% (w.b.)were determined.

Ahmadi, R.; Kalbasi-Ashtari, A.; Gharibzahedi, S. M. T.

2012-02-01

267

Two light yellow seed embryos  

Science.gov (United States)

The style of the carpel of a flower (female reproductive structure) leads to the ovary. The ovary holds eggs, which become seeds once fertilized. Seeds hold embryos. The embryo becomes a new plant. In animals, the embryo becomes a new animal.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

268

Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, Syriaokra as a function of planting densities and doses of swine biofertilizer. The experiment was carried out at the EPAMIG Experimental Farm, in Oratorios-MG, Brazil, from 16/10/2007 to 22/02/20 [...] 08. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with four replications, in a 2 x 5 factorial, with two plant populations and five doses of biofertilizer obtained by the fermentation of liquid swine waste. The two populations were 23809 and 35714 plants.ha-1, obtained in the 1.4 x 0.30 m spacing with a plant per hole and 1.4 x 0.40 m with two plants per hole. Biofertilizer doses were: 0; 6; 12; 24 and 48 m3.ha-1, with 80% applied in furrow 15 days before transplantation and 20% top-dressing at 30 days after seedling transplantation. The characteristics evaluated included nutrient leaf content, SPAD index, plant height, number of stems and production of commercial and non-commercial fruits. The use o the swine biofertilizer gave plants with a good nutritional status. The SPAD index correlated positively with N leaf content, with the highest concentrations at the highest doses of the swine biofertilizer, mainly in the smallest plant population. The number and commercial fruit production per plant were larger when a smaller plant population was used. The highest yield achieved in the population of 35714 plants ha-1 was 31.23 ton ha-1, and in the population of 23809 plant.ha-1 was 21.9 ton ha-1, both at the highest dose of biofertilizer. The highest commercial yield of okra fruits was obtained with the largest plant population.

Maria Aparecida Nogueira, Sediyama; Marlei Rosa dos, Santos; Sanzio Mollica, Vidigal; Luís Tarcísio, Salgado; Marinalva Woods, Pedrosa; Luciano Luís, Jacob.

278

Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

1978-05-01

279

DILL (ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L.) SEED STALK ARCHITECTURE AND SEEDS INFESTATION WITH FUNGI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the years 2002-2004 seeds of dill 'Amat' harvested from four different umbel position were evaluated for their infestation with fungi. On the tested seeds Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp., Epicoccum purpurascens, Gonatobotrys simplex and Trichothecium roseum were occurring the most frequently. The seed stalk architecture influenced infestation of disinfected seeds with A. alternata and non-disinfected seeds with Cladosporium spp.

Dorota, Szopinska; Bralewski, Tomasz W.

2006-01-01

280

Getting Acquainted with a Seed  

Science.gov (United States)

Description: In this activity students become acquainted with the anatomy and biology of seeds. They will use lenses and scales and make drawings to scale. Students will measure and calculate magnifications and they will begin to understand relationships among these. They will organize and summarize their data and, as they do so, they will be developing the understanding and skills needed to undertake more detailed investigations on the biology and reproduction of Fast Plants.Learning ObjectivesThis activity is designed to strengthen students' observational and quantitative skills. In participating in this activity students will:- learn to use magnifying lenses, microscopes and dissecting tools for detailed observation; - measure scales with rulers; - draw to scale, with accuracy and precision to understand scale and magnification; - learn features of the external anatomy of seeds that are associated with certain features of the internal anatomy of seeds; and - estimate the amount of water required to be taken up by seeds in order to initiate germination.

Program, The W.

 
 
 
 
281

Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm [times] 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 [sup 125]I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Alberti, W.; Divoux, S. (Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany)); Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P. (Universitaetsklinikum, Essen (Germany)); Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D. (Universitaet Goettingen (Germany))

1993-04-02

282

Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities  

CERN Multimedia

In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms that are designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes increasingly important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

Lee, Conrad; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

2011-01-01

283

On subset seeds for protein alignment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We apply the concept of subset seeds proposed in [1] to similarity search in protein sequences. The main question studied is the design of efficient seed alphabets to construct seeds with optimal sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs. We propose several different design methods and use them to construct several alphabets. We then perform a comparative analysis of seeds built over those alphabets and compare them with the standard BLASTP seeding method [2], [3], as well as with the family of vect...

2009-01-01

284

Mechanical properties of pea seed coat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, the change of shape and the characteristic geometrical values of seed and seed coat at various moisture contents, during seed swelling and drying were determined. A preliminary study was conducted to establish the time required for the strain of seed coat after being dried to final moisture content. The next series of drying tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of different drying condition on the development of stress and strain of pea seed coat. Three air velocit...

Dobrzański B.; Szot B.

1997-01-01

285

Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brachytherapy seed therapy is an increasingly common way to treat prostate cancer through localized radiation. The current standard of care relies on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for imaging guidance during the seed placement procedure. As visualization of individual metallic seeds tends to be difficult or inaccurate under TRUS guidance, guide needles are generally tracked to infer seed placement. In an effort to improve seed visualization and placement accuracy, the use of photoacoustic (PA...

2011-01-01

286

Aerodynamic and geometric properties of amaranth seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geometrical properties (thickness, width and length) of individual amaranth seeds were measured by means of an optic device. The measurements allowed us to be calculated the values of seeds bearing surface for esti- mating aerodynamic properties. The determination of aero- dynamic properties was performed using prototype ap- paratus adapted to suit the size of amaranth seeds. With such parameters as: dynamic pressure, seed mass and seed bear- ing surface basic aerodynamic properties: critical...

1999-01-01

287

The seed proteome web portal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Seed Proteome Web Portal (SPWP; http://www.seed-proteome.com/) gives access to information both on quantitative seed proteomic data and on seed-related protocols. Firstly, the SPWP provides access to the 475 different Arabidopsis seed proteins annotated from two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) maps. Quantitative data are available for each protein according to their accumulation profile during the germination process. These proteins can be retrieved either in list format or directly on scanned 2DE maps. These proteomic data reveal that 40% of seed proteins maintain a stable abundance over germination, up to radicle protrusion. During sensu stricto germination (24?h upon imbibition) about 50% of the proteins display quantitative variations, exhibiting an increased abundance (35%) or a decreasing abundance (15%). Moreover, during radicle protrusion (24-48?h upon imbibition), 41% proteins display quantitative variations with an increased (23%) or a decreasing abundance (18%). In addition, an analysis of the seed proteome revealed the importance of protein post-translational modifications as demonstrated by the poor correlation (r(2)?=?0.29) between the theoretical (predicted from Arabidopsis genome) and the observed protein isoelectric points. Secondly, the SPWP is a relevant technical resource for protocols specifically dedicated to Arabidopsis seed proteome studies. Concerning 2D electrophoresis, the user can find efficient procedures for sample preparation, electrophoresis coupled with gel analysis, and protein identification by mass spectrometry, which we have routinely used during the last 12?years. Particular applications such as the detection of oxidized proteins or de novo synthesized proteins radiolabeled by [(35)S]-methionine are also given in great details. Future developments of this portal will include proteomic data from studies such as dormancy release and protein turnover through de novo protein synthesis analyses during germination. PMID:22701460

Galland, Marc; Job, Dominique; Rajjou, Loïc

2012-01-01

288

The Seed Challenge - `How many seeds can you get from a single seed?  

Science.gov (United States)

A 23-page PDF file (644 KB) with a complete set of activities for elementary students (can also work with middle level) to learn about the life cycle of flowering plants. Students predict how many seeds their Fast Plant will produce and engage in planting, growing, observing doing supporting learning activities to understand the life cycle.Carolina Biological sells a kit to accompany this activity for a class of 32 students, containing the seeds and planting materials. Alternatively, the activity can be taught using seeds from a packet of Standard Wisconsin Fast Plants (or seeds from Fast Plants you grow yourself) and your own potting mix and growing system.A 24-hour fluorescent light source is needed for this activity.

Program, The W.

289

Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

O. Singh

2011-11-01

290

Effects of APETALA2 on embryo, endosperm, and seed coat development determine seed size in Arabidopsis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arabidopsis APETALA2 (AP2) controls seed mass maternally, with ap2 mutants producing larger seeds than wild type. Here, we show that AP2 influences development of the three major seed compartments: embryo, endosperm, and seed coat. AP2 appears to have a significant effect on endosperm development. ap2 mutant seeds undergo an extended period of rapid endosperm growth early in development relative to wild type. This early expanded growth period in ap2 seeds is associated with delayed endosperm ...

Ohto, Masa-aki; Floyd, Sandra K.; Fischer, Robert L.; Goldberg, Robert B.; Harada, John J.

2009-01-01

291

Seed Development and Quality in Maize Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate seed development and quality of maize (Zea mays cultivars (DC-370, SC-500, OSSK-602 and SC-604, a split plot experiment (using R.C.B. design with three replicates was conducted in 2009 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Subsequently, the quality of seed samples was determined in the laboratory. Germination percentage and seedling dry weight were enhanced, but electrical conductivity of seed leachates was reduced with increasing seed weight on mother plant. Maximum seed quality of maize cultivars was attained at the end of seed filling phase. Seed quality at earlier harvests was low, because of immaturity. Differences in maximum seedling dry weight of maize cultivars were attributed to variation in genetic constitution. It was concluded that in maize cultivars, maximum seed quality could be achieved at physiological maturity.

Yaeghoob RAEY

2011-05-01

292

Relationships among the seed rain, seed bank and vegetation of a Hawaiian forest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hawaiian ecosystems are prone to invasion by alien plant species. I compared the seed rain, seed bank, and vegetation of a native Hawaiian forest to examine the potential role that seed ecology plays in allowing alien species to invade a native forest. Absolute cover of seed plants in the forest was 126 %, annual seed rain was 5713 seeds m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, and the mean density of seedlings emerging from the seed bank averaged across four seasons was 1020/m{sup 2}. The endemic tree Metrosideros polymorpha was the most abundant species in the vegetation, seed rain and winter seed bank. Overall, native seed plants comprised 95 % of the relative cover in the vegetation and 99 % of the seeds in the seed rain, but alien species comprised 67 % of the seeds in the seed bank. Alien species tended to form persistent seed banks while native species formed transient or pseudo-persistent seed banks. Dominance of the seed bank by alien species with persistent seed banks suggests that aliens are favourably placed to increase in abundance in the vegetation if the forest is disturbed 55 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

Drake, D.R. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Botany

1998-02-01

293

Effect of Seed Fortification with Pulse Sprout Extract on Crop Growth and Seed Yield in Rice Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for over half of the Indian population, main emphasis has to be laid on ways and means to fortify seeds organically for better seed vigour. Seed fortification is one of the important seed invigouration treatment. Germinated grains are good sources of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, choline, thiamine, tocopherols and pantothenic acid which increases the nutritional quality. Extract has prepared from the sprouted pulses. With these background, an experiment was conducted during 2008 to study the effect of seed fortification with pulse sprout extract on crop growth and seed yield in rice seeds. Field experiment was conducted with the treatments include fortification of rice seeds with 2 and 3% of horse gram sprout extract and 4 and 5% of cowpea sprout extract and dried back to original moisture content and untreated seeds served as control. The observations made on crop growth and yield factors such as field emergence (%, plant height (cm at vegetative and maturity stages, dry matter production (g plant-1, No. of tillers plant-1, No. of productive tillers plant-1, chlorophyll content, panicle length (cm, No. of seeds panicle-1, 1000 seed weight (g and seed yield. Among these treatments 2% horse gram sprout extract recorded the highest yield of 3951 kg ha-1. The yield enhancement may be due to the presence of bioactive substances in sprouted horse gram and cowpea extracts were found effective towards yield maximization in rice seeds.

V. Vijayalakshmi

2013-01-01

294

Vigour tests as indicators of seed viability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seed marks the beginning of each plant production and therefore ensuring its quality is the priority of modern seed science and a prerequisite for obtaining high yields of all plant species. Determination of seed quality and its viability indicates what seed lots can be placed onto the market, and for that reason it is very important to have reliable methods and tests to be used for seed quality and seed vigour testing. The term vigour of viability is used to describe the physiological charac...

Miloševi? Mirjana; Vujakovi? Milka; Karagi? ?ura

2010-01-01

295

The future prospects of electronic seed lists:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For many botanic gardens worldwide, seed lists have provided a cost-effective means to replace plant losses in their collections for many decades, if not centuries. In seed lists, seeds are offered on the basis of what each garden can manage to collect and considers ‘of interest’ to other botanic gardens, some offering relatively few, while others offer many, or only wild collected seeds. Seed lists have always been printed on paper. With the use of printed seed lists, the amount of infor...

Den Wollenberg, L. J. W.

2011-01-01

296

Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

2012-03-28

297

Efficient seeding techniques for protein similarity search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We apply the concept of subset seeds proposed in [1] to similarity search in protein sequences. The main question studied is the design of efficient seed alphabets to construct seeds with optimal sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs. We propose several different design methods and use them to construct several alphabets.We then perform an analysis of seeds built over those alphabet and compare them with the standard Blastp seeding method [2,3], as well as with the family of vector seeds propose...

2008-01-01

298

Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L) of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude pro...

Milovanovi? Mirjana; Pi?uri?-Jovanovi? Ksenija

2005-01-01

299

Relationship Between Seed Size, Protein Content and Cooking Time of Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek] Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory Experiments were carried out during October 2001 to observe the relationships between seed size, protein content and cooking time of mungbean seeds. Mungbean seeds of Barimung-2, Barimung-3, Barimung-4, Barimung-5, Binamung-5 and BUmug-1 were selected for the test. Significant variation was observed in seed size, protein content and cooking time of dehulled mungbean seeds. The biggest seed (42.63 mg was observed in Barimung-5 and the smallest (24.97 mg in Barimung-2. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.9586** detected between seed size and protein content in mungbean seeds. Contrary, it was positive correlation (r = 0.9851** was detected between seed size and cooking time of dehulled mungbean seeds. Cooking time however showed a negative impact on protein status of mungbean seeds.

M.A. Afzal

2003-01-01

300

Vigour tests as indicators of seed viability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed marks the beginning of each plant production and therefore ensuring its quality is the priority of modern seed science and a prerequisite for obtaining high yields of all plant species. Determination of seed quality and its viability indicates what seed lots can be placed onto the market, and for that reason it is very important to have reliable methods and tests to be used for seed quality and seed vigour testing. The term vigour of viability is used to describe the physiological characteristics of seeds that control its ability to germinate rapidly in the soil and to tolerate various, mostly negative environmental factors. MCDONALD grouped vigour tests into three groups: Physical tests - determine seed characteristics such as size and mass. These tests are inexpensive, quick, can be applied to large number of samples, and are positively correlated with seed vigour. The main feature of seed development is accumulation of nutritive materials, which is also in direct correlation with vigour, i.e. with size and mass of seed; Physiological tests - using germination and growth parameters. There are two types of these tests. First type, when germination is done under favourable conditions (standard laboratory germination, and test of growth intensity. Second type, when seed is exposed to unfavourable environmental conditions (cold test, accelerated aging test, and Hiltner test; Biochemical tests - are considered as indirect methods for estimation of seed value. These are Tetrazolijum test, conductometric measurements, enzyme activity and respiration.

Miloševi? Mirjana

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Iodin 125 seed lost after prostate brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution induced by lost radioactive seeds is an important social problem. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the time and place where lost seeds were found and to develop a method to prevent the loss of seeds from the time of insertion to the discharge of the patient from the hospital. A total of 121 cases (7718 seeds) who received permanent insertion treatment from July 2006 to Dec 2007 were evaluated. During this period, the time and place of lost seeds was estimated from the place where the seeds were found. A total of 43 seeds were found before discharge for a rate of 0.56% (43/7718). Four seeds were found in the operating room. Two seeds were found in the in-patient room before the balloon catheter was removed. Five seeds were removed from the bladder by surgery using cystoscopy. In addition, 32 seeds were found in the room when surveying the room for patient discharge. Five seeds were brought from the patient's house after discharge. To prevent the loss of seeds from the patients' room, which is the best way prevent environmental pollution, careful monitoring and careful surveys of the room are needed. (author)

2009-12-01

302

Salmonella in sesame seed products.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the context of an international outbreak of multiresistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 that was correlated to the consumption of halvah ("helva," an Asian candy made from sesame seed), we examined several sesame seed products for the occurrence of Salmonella. Of 117 ready-to-eat food items containing sesame, we isolated salmonellae from 11 (9.4%) samples. In addition to finding Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in the halvah involved in the outbreak, we also isolated different Salmonella Typhimurium strains out of halvah from other manufacturers and countries of origin, as well as Salmonella Offa, Salmonella Tennessee, and Salmonella Poona from sesame paste (tahini) and sesame seed, which is sold for raw consumption in cereals. PMID:14717370

Brockmann, Stefan O; Piechotowski, Isolde; Kimmig, Peter

2004-01-01

303

Seed protein variability in safflower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total seed proteins in two safflower species (Carthamus tinctorius L. and C. lanatus L have been separated by the SDS-PAGE method. Their molecular masses ranged from 120 to 20 kDa. All C. tinctorius genotypes under study exhibited identical electrophoretic patterns which differed from the pattern exhibited by the wild species C. lanatus in the number and position of protein bands. Differences in protein profiles occurred in regions around 60 kDa, from 43 to 36 kDa and around 30 kDa. Statistically significant differences in seed protein content were found among safflower genotypes from different countries as well as among genotypes from the same country but from different sites. The highest seed protein content was found in a genotype originating from the USA.

Obreht Dragana R.

2002-01-01

304

Effect of Seed Fortification with Pulse Sprout Extract on Crop Growth and Seed Yield in Rice Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rice is the staple food for over half of the Indian population, main emphasis has to be laid on ways and means to fortify seeds organically for better seed vigour. Seed fortification is one of the important seed invigouration treatment. Germinated grains are good sources of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, choline, thiamine, tocopherols and pantothenic acid which increases the nutritional quality. Extract has prepared from the sprouted pulses. With these background, an experiment was conducte...

Jayanthi, M.; Umarani, R.; Vijayalakshmi, V.

2013-01-01

305

Thermal properties of guna seed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of whole and ground guna seed and kernel were evaluated and their change with moisture content and temperature investigated. The specific heat of whole and ground seed increased from 1391.1 to 3020.13 and from 1459.14 to 3058.15 J kg-1 K-1, respectively, as the moisture content and temperature increased from 4.7 to 25.35% (d.b. and 307.12 to 368 K. The specific heat of whole and ground kernel also increased from 2135.15 to 4275.56 and from 2173.4 to 4340.06 J kg-1 K-1, respectively, as the moisture content and temperature increased from 5.6 to 19.13% (d.b. and 308 to 368 K. The thermal conductivity of whole seed and kernel increased from 0.0711 to 0.1282 and 0.087 to 0.126 W m-1K-1, respectively, as the moisture content and temperature increased. Thermal conductivity of ground seed and kernel increased also from 0.1 25 to 0.223 and 0.107 to 0.191 W m-1K-1, respectively, as the moisture content and temperature increased. The thermal diffusivity of whole seed and kernel decreased from 8.5 10-8 to 9.311 10-8 and 3.42 10-8 to 4.397 10-8 m2 s-1, respectively, as the moisture content and temperature increased. The thermal diffusivity of ground seed and kernel decreased from 3 10-7 to 8.468 10-8 and 1.768 10-7 to 4.214 10-8 m2 s-1, respectively, as the moisture content and temperature increased.

L.A.O. Ogunjimi

2008-12-01

306

SEEDS Moving Group Status Update  

Science.gov (United States)

I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

McElwain, Michael

2011-01-01

307

Internal damage identification of seeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

X-ray method to determine internal damage of seed, mainly its endosperm, was used. A roentgenogram obtained by this method was analysed manually only (at present time). Number of cracks, size and location was assessed for each kernel of sample. Kernels of wheat, barley and malt were used. An algorithm for analysis of biological damage of barley was used. In this case the surface of kernels of barley was damage. For quantification of the internal damage of seeds it is very important to obtain the clear roentgenograms for next semi-automatic processing. Current works are undertaken to computerize the analysis of the roentgenograms. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs.

Pecen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Praque (Czech Republic)

1994-12-31

308

Cereal seed mycopopulations in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycopopulation of cereals-durum wheat (cultivars Žitka and Durumko triticale (cultivars Goranac and NS tritikale, winter barley (cultivars NS 131, ZA 37 and Jagodinac and oat (cultivars Slavuj and Rajac had been studied during three years (harvest 2002, 2003 and 2004 from numerous Serbian localities. In all three investigated years and four cereal species the predominant fungal genus were Alternaria and Fusarium. On seeds there were determinated representatives of genus Penicillium, Mucor, Bipolaris Aspergillus, Stemphylium and Epicoccum, too. The established fungi can significantly affect quality of seeds and flour products.

Bagi Ferenc F.

2005-01-01

309

Fruitful properties of seeds of spring wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to establish the dependence of the properties of yielding seed varieties of spring wheat Zemlyachka different origin from the seed of standardized monitoring and evaluation of agro-chemical data of grain.

Nadejda Zaharova

2013-04-01

310

Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutri [...] ent seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.

Farooq, M; Wahid, A; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

311

Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutrient seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.

M Farooq

2012-01-01

312

Mechanical properties of pea seed coat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the change of shape and the characteristic geometrical values of seed and seed coat at various moisture contents, during seed swelling and drying were determined. A preliminary study was conducted to establish the time required for the strain of seed coat after being dried to final moisture content. The next series of drying tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of different drying condition on the development of stress and strain of pea seed coat. Three air velocities and five temperatures were used as parameters of drying tests. After each 10% loss of weight, the seed's deformations were measured up to the total loss of moisture. The resistance of seed coat to tension was studied for three pea cultivars. This approach is more likely to lead to an understanding of the possible causes and mechanisms that affect the cracking of the seed coat.

Szot B.

1997-12-01

313

Preliminary Studies on the Characterization of Orange Seed and Pawpaw Seed Oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of seeds and oil extracted from both papaya and orange seeds. The seeds of papaya and orange are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of papaya and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. The seeds were collected from homes and the oils obtained by solvent extraction were analysed for pH, moisture content, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification value, free fatty acid, acid value, iodine value and peroxide value. The orange seed cake was analysed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, nitrogen and crude protein. Results showed that the oil content of the pawpaw seeds was 25.8% while that of the orange seeds was 34%. Crude protein of the orange seed was 43.72%, which was higher than that of established high protein seeds and nuts. The orange seeds had higher yield of oil than the pawpaw seeds and the nutritive content of the orange seeds makes it suitable as feed for animals. However, the acid value for pawpaw seed oil was 47.12 while that of orange seed oil was 51.40. With respect to the acid value, the oil from pawpaw seed might be better oil. However, both oils still need to be refined before they are utilized.

J.N. Ihedioha

2011-01-01

314

Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...

Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M. P. M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W. J. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P. C.

2010-01-01

315

Music Therapy in Africa: Seeds and Songs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The seed of Music Therapy has been planted in African soil. Some water the seed, some are not convinced that it is necessary to have such a seed in this particular garden and others are unaware that the seed has been planted at all. My vision is that music therapy grows, flourishes and produces much fruit in Africa. My vision for Voices is that it plays a key role in that growth.

Andeline Dos Santos

2005-03-01

316

Efficient chaining of seeds in ordered trees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider here the problem of chaining seeds in ordered trees. Seeds are mappings between two trees Q and T and a chain is a subset of non overlapping seeds that is consistent with respect to postfix order and ancestrality. This problem is a natural extension of a similar problem for sequences, and has applications in computational biology, such as mining a database of RNA secondary structures. For the chaining problem with a set of m constant size seeds, we describe an al...

Allali, Julien; Chauve, Ce?dric; Ferraro, Pascal; Gaillard, Anne-laure

2010-01-01

317

Multi-seed lossless filtration (Extended abstract)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study a method of seed-based lossless filtration for approximate string matching and related applications. The method is based on a simultaneous use of several spaced seeds rather than a single seed as studied by Burkhardt and Karkkainen [1].We present algorithms to compute several important parameters of seed families, study their combinatorial properties, and describe several techniques to construct efficient families. We also report a large-scale application of the proposed technique to...

2004-01-01

318

Study on the seed laser phase error multiplication in seeded free electron lasers  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) hold a great promise for generating high brilliant radiation with a narrow bandwidth. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser noise will be amplified in the harmonic up-conversion process, which may degrade the output radiation pulse quality of a seeded FEL. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies of seeded FEL schemes with seed laser imperfections are presented. It is found that the slippage effect in the modulator will slow down the multiplication process of the seed laser phase error, which may aid in the production of transform-limited short-wavelength pulses for seeded FELs.

Wang, Guanglei; Feng, Chao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Dong; Deng, Haixiao

2014-02-01

319

Study on the seed laser phase error multiplication in seeded free electron lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) hold a great promise for generating high brilliant radiation with a narrow bandwidth. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser noise will be amplified in the harmonic up-conversion process, which may degrade the output radiation pulse quality of a seeded FEL. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies of seeded FEL schemes with seed laser imperfections are presented. It is found that the slippage effect in the modulator will slow down the multiplication process of the seed laser phase error, which may aid in the production of transform-limited short-wavelength pulses for seeded FELs

2014-02-11

320

A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem – a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model – that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds.

Kucherov, Gregory; Noe, Laurent; Roytberg, Mihkail

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

A Unifying Framework for Seed Sensitivity and Its Application to Subset Seeds  

CERN Document Server

We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem -- a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model -- that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds.

Kucherov, G; Roytberg, M; Kucherov, Gregory; No\\'{e}, Laurent; Roytberg, Mihkail

2006-01-01

322

A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem--a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model--that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds. PMID:16819802

Kucherov, Gregory; Noé, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

2006-04-01

323

A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds (Extended abstract)  

CERN Document Server

We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem - a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model - that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds.

Kucherov, G; Roytberg, M; Kucherov, Gregory; Noe, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

2006-01-01

324

Effect of Seed Cleaning, Washing and Seed Treatment on Seedling Disease Incidence and Yield of Rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Six treatments viz. farmer`s seed (uncleaned and unwashed), farmer`s clean seed, farmer`s washed seed, farmer`s clean and washed seed, garlic (1:10) and Vitavex-200 @ 0.3% treated seeds were used for studying their comparative effect on incidence of seedling diseases and grain yield of rice. Seed cleaning followed by washing decreased the seedling diseases viz. brown spot, blast, bakanae, foot rot and seedling blight as of seed treatment with garlic and Vitavex-200. Use of healthy seedling in...

Asad-ud-doullah, M.; Anam, M. K.; Md. Nazrul Islam; Rahman, M.; Fakir, G. A.; Hossain, I.

2002-01-01

325

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2009-01-01

326

Physicochemical Properties of Moringa stenopetala (Haleko Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physical and chemical properties of Moringa stenopetala (Haleko seeds produced in Mella district of Gamo Gofa Zone in southern Ethiopia are reported here for the first time. The average weight of the whole intact seeds (g/100 seeds, the kernel (g/100 seeds and an individual seed (g seed-1 was 73.6, 59.6 and 0.6 g, respectively. The kernel accounted for 79.7% of the seed’s dry weight and the hull accounted for 20.3%. The M. stenopetala seeds analyzed had an average length, width and bulk density of 17.6 mm, 8.2 mm and 0.9 g cm3, respectively. The mean moisture, oil, protein, ash and crude fiber contents of the M. stenopetala seeds analyzed were 6.1, 41.4, 42.6, 4.6 and 5.1 (g/100 g, respectively. The residue that remained after oil extraction of the seeds had an average crude protein content of 55.6 (g/100 g. The results showed that M. stenopetala seed contains high oil and protein contents suggesting that it could be used as important source of oil and protein.

Eyassu Seifu

2012-01-01

327

Preparation of Protein Isolates from Safflower Seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to this patent application, protein isolates with improved properties are prepared from safflower seeds by applying to the seeds the following steps: (a) pressing the seeds to remove oil therefrom, (b) extracting the press-cake with hexane at 20...

A. A. Betschart

1977-01-01

328

Storage Requirements for Sugar Maple Seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2 and -10C) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significant...

C. M. Carl H. W. Yawney

1974-01-01

329

Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour.

Hampton, J. G.; Boelt, B.; Rolston, M. P.; Chastain, T. G.

2013-01-01

330

The effect of storage temperature storage period and seed moisture content on seed viability to soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of different seed moisture contents, temperatures and storage period on seed viability of soybean variety, NARC 2. Three factors were included in the experiment, which were storage temperature, storage period and seed moisture content. During storage, the interaction among the three above-mentioned factors was statically significant. In soybean, the maximum seed viability was observed in control with seed having low moisture content. There was a decline in germination percentage after two months of storage at all temperature in seed with high and medium moisture contents. High moisture content and high temperature decreases germ ability of seeds. Viability was zero at .37°C after two months storage in seeds with low, medium and high moisture contents. The storage life of soybean seed can be increased by lowering temperature and seed moisture content during storage.

Syeda Nasreen

2000-01-01

331

Kinetics of endothelial cell seeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endothelial cell seeding improves patency of small-diameter Dacron grafts and facilitates the development of a complete endothelial flow surface. However, the ideal number of cells relative to the length of graft to be seeded has not been determined. With a canine model previously shown to result in a well-endothelialized graft within 4 to 6 weeks, this study measured the quantity of autogenous endothelial cells labeled with indium 111-oxine that initially adhered to 10 cm long, experimental, porous 4 mm I.D. polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and then calculated their subsequent disappearance following implantation as carotid interposition grafts. Graft radioactivity was monitored with a gamma camera and compared with that of control vials of indium 111 implanted in the same animals. The mean number of harvested endothelial cells was 6.2 X 10(5). A mean of 19.8% of the harvested cells were adherent to the grafts initially after seeding. In the first 30 minutes following restoration of flow, there was a rapid loss of these cells to a mean value, which was 70.2% of those initially present. From 30 minutes to 24 hours, cell losses continued at a constant rate of 3.7%/hr. Beyond 24 hours, further loss was insignificant. Consequently, approximately 2.72 X 10(4) cells, or only 4.4% of all cells originally harvested, appear adequate to seed 12.5 cm2 of graft

1985-01-01

332

Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

2011-12-14

333

Climate Kids: Make Seed Paper  

Science.gov (United States)

The recycled paper produced from the instructions provided contains an additional component - wildflower seeds. The entire paper disc can be planted; the sprouting of the flowers can be observed and analyzed. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

334

Sowing the Seeds of Neuroscience  

Science.gov (United States)

Sowing the Seeds of Neuroscience seeks to increase student interest and understanding of neuroscience through simple, safe lab investigations using plants. The site contains 8 laboratory investigations exploring properties of compounds found in plants and their effect on the behavior and growth of invertebrates. The site also provides general neuroscience and medicinal plant information.

Chudler, Eric

2014-04-04

335

DILL (ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L. SEED STALK ARCHITECTURE AND SEEDS INFESTATION WITH FUNGI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the years 2002-2004 seeds of dill 'Amat' harvested from four different umbel position were evaluated for their infestation with fungi. On the tested seeds Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp., Epicoccum purpurascens, Gonatobotrys simplex and Trichothecium roseum were occurring the most frequently. The seed stalk architecture influenced infestation of disinfected seeds with A. alternata and non-disinfected seeds with Cladosporium spp.

Szopinska DOROTA

2006-08-01

336

A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem--a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model--that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset see...

2006-01-01

337

A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds (Extended abstract)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem - a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model - that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset s...

2005-01-01

338

A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem -- a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model -- that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset...

2004-01-01

339

A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem – a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model – that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subs...

2006-01-01

340

Effect of climatic conditionsand seeds dressing on the yield and protein content in seeds of pea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In three-year field trial, completed in 2004–2006, the influence of climatic conditions and fungicide-insecticide seed dressing preparations on the content and yield of protein in seeds of several seed pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L.) was assessed. The study was conducted with three fungicide and insecticide seed dressing chemicals: Sarfun T 65 and Funaben T (disease control) and Super Homai 70 DS (disease and pest control). Four seed pea cultivars were grown: two edible ones – cv. ‘Bry...

Szwejkowska, Beata; Duchovskis, Pavelas

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Uncoupling the effects of seed predation and seed dispersal by granivorous ants on plant population dynamics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Secondary seed dispersal is an important plant-animal interaction, which is central to understanding plant population and community dynamics. Very little information is still available on the effects of dispersal on plant demography and, particularly, for ant-seed dispersal interactions. As many other interactions, seed dispersal by animals involves costs (seed predation) and benefits (seed dispersal), the balance of which determines the outcome of the interaction. Separate quantification of ...

2012-01-01

342

Uncoupling the Effects of Seed Predation and Seed Dispersal by Granivorous Ants on Plant Population Dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Secondary seed dispersal is an important plant-animal interaction, which is central to understanding plant population and community dynamics. Very little information is still available on the effects of dispersal on plant demography and, particularly, for ant-seed dispersal interactions. As many other interactions, seed dispersal by animals involves costs (seed predation) and benefits (seed dispersal), the balance of which determines the outcome of the interaction. Separate quantification of ...

2012-01-01

343

Inflorescence characteristics, seed composition, and allometric relationships predicting seed yields in the biomass crop Cynara cardunculus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cynara (Cynara cardunculus) is a perennial C3 herb that has its potential as bioenergy crop. This paper aims (a) to derive empirical relationships to predict cynara seed yield per head and per unit area, avoiding laborious extraction of seeds from the complex structure of its inflorescences; (b) to determine the head-weight distribution per unit area, the seed composition and the oil profile of cynara seeds; and (c) to estimate the range of cynara biomass, seed and oil yield in representative...

Archontoulis, S. V.; Struik, P. C.; Yin, X.; Bastiaans, L.; Vos, J.; Danalatos, N. G.

2010-01-01

344

Mutation breeding in seed spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed spice is one of the important groups of crops cultivated in India for their large domestic consumption and bright export potential. But while the yield potential of the crops covered under this group is generally low, these crops generally also suffer from lack of usable variation for important yield traits and disease resistance in the germplasm collection and even if present may not be used with ease on account of very small size of their flower, thus restricting the crop improvement programs. We have, therefore, applied mutation breeding using gamma irradiation and chemical mutagens (EMS and Sodium Azide) for creation of variability for improvement of yield of major seed spice crops like Cumin, Coriander, Fennel and Fenugreek. Both M1 and M2 generations resulting from treatment of the mutagens were studied in respect of yield and yield attributes and other phenotypic alterations (Chlorophyll and other macro mutations) in certain genotype of these crops. Fenugreek was found relatively most radio and chemo-resistant followed by cumin. Mutagenic efficiency also varied noticeably between crops and mutagens; gamma rays were relatively more potent on cumin as compared to chemical mutagens whereas on fennel it was just reverse. Efficient mutagens more often yielded superior M2 progenies, i.e. progenies with significantly higher yield than their parent in fenugreek, fennel and cumin. Seed yield per plant of M2 progenies varied to different extents e.g. the yield was as high as 289% in coriander, 269 % in cumin, 122% in fennel and least in fenugreek (83%). In coriander specifically, one of the advance generation mutant showed increase in essential oil content along with seed yield comparable to the parent. The usefulness of induced mutations for improvement of seed yield is discussed (author)

2008-08-12

345

Production of true seed shallots in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shallot production in Indonesia is based on crops grown from seed bulbs. The introduction of True Seed Shallot (TSS) could be an option to improve competiveness of Indonesian shallot production. In the period 2007 till 2010 a research project was conducted to improve growing techniques of TSS. Seed emergence in the nursery was improved if the seed was sown in furrows 0.5-1.5 cm deep and by closing the furrow after sowing with soil instead of burned rice husks. Compared to traditional seed bul...

Brink, L.; Basuki, R. S.

2012-01-01

346

Breaking Seed Dormancy in Sesbania rostrata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three physical treatments viz. Sand paper scraping, beating and hot water treatments and two chemical treatments viz. Concentrated sulphuric acid and ethyl alcohol were included in the study. These treatments were applied on seeds of two sizes viz. large and small. Results of the experiments revealed that sand paper scraping and concentrated H2SO4 showed more effective performance than beating and hot water treatments in breaking seed dormancy of Sesbania rostrata. Ethyl alcohol had no effect on breaking seed dormancy. Large seed showed lesser dormancy than small one. Sand paper scraping (13 revolutions of large seed gave the highest germination (97.8%.

P.C. Sarker

2000-01-01

347

Evolution of research on recalcitrant seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some comments about seeds that show sensitivity to desiccation and short viability period, called recalcitrants, were made. Further studies showed that there was a gradient of sensitivity to desiccation and an intermediate class was proposed. The research demonstrated different factors related to desiccation tolerance such as ABA, proteins and sugars. It was analyzed the research of recalcitrant seeds in Brazil, that started around 1950 and nowadays the major aspects studied are recalcitrant seeds identification, seed low temperature and drying tolerance, storage capacity under different rooms and packages, chemical composition and viability during storage, fungicide treatment efficiency on seed conservation.

Barbedo C.J.

1998-01-01

348

Self-seeding ring optical parametric oscillator  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical parametric oscillator apparatus utilizing self-seeding with an external nanosecond-duration pump source to generate a seed pulse resulting in increased conversion efficiency. An optical parametric oscillator with a ring configuration are combined with a pump that injection seeds the optical parametric oscillator with a nanosecond duration, mJ pulse in the reverse direction as the main pulse. A retroreflecting means outside the cavity injects the seed pulse back into the cavity in the direction of the main pulse to seed the main pulse, resulting in higher conversion efficiency.

Smith, Arlee V. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Darrell J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-12-27

349

Comparative Analysis of Functional and Nutritive Values of Amla (Emblica officinalis Fruit, Seed and Seed Coat Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present investigation amla seed and seed coat was investigated separately for their compositional, functional property. Water retention capacity and swelling capacity of seed coat powder was higher than seed powder. Among the three, fruit powder showed strongest free radical (DPPH activity followed by seed coat whereas, seed had only 30% of DPPH* scavenging activity. Both seed and seed coat powder were found to be good sources of P, K, Mg, Fe etc. Seed powder had high value of P(395.44 mg/100 g in comparison to fruit powder and seed coat powder while seed coat was found to be a good source of Ca, Cr and Mn. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC of seed coat and seed powder was lower than fruit powder. The 9, 12, 15, octadecatrienoic acid (z, z, z and tetradecanoic acid were the major fatty acids present in seed and seed coat.

Poonam Mishra

2014-01-01

350

Seed improvement by selection and invigoration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basis of differences in seed quality are described for two groups of crops, grain legumes and vegetables and approaches to the improvement of quality are proposed. In grain legumes the major factors affecting seed quality are imbibition damage, seed ageing and their interaction. It is proposed that use of seed vigour tests, specifically the electrical conductivity test, to identify the incidence of imbibition damage and ageing allows the selection of seed lots for sale and for use under different field conditions. Alternatively in grain legume species in which there is a genotypic influence on predisposition to imbibition damage the approach to seed improvement may lie through selection in breeding programmes. Thus identification of testa characteristics that favour slow imbibition would enable selection for these characteristics. Seed ageing is also the major cause of reduced seed quality in vegetable species, leading to slow and asynchronous germination. An approach to their seed improvement has been the development of seed invigoration treatments based on seed hydration. The principle of these treatments is described and several treatments outlined, with emphasis being given to aerated hydration, a treatment completed within 36h. The physiological basis of improvement by invigoration is discussed.

Powell A.A.

1998-01-01

351

Effect of Physical Seed Sorting, Seed Treatment with Garlic Extract and Vitavax 200 on Seed Borne Fungal Flora and Seed Yield of Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of physical seed sorting, seed treatment with garlic extract (1:2 and Vitavax 200 (0.4% were investigated for controlling seed borne fungal flora and seed yield of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.. Seed health test of jute revealed that farmer`s saved seed (control yielded all together 13 different fungi of 11 genera. Prevalence of Colletotrichum corchori, Macrophomina phaseolina, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were by 4.25, 10.75, 2.00, 4.25, 27.20, 8.00 and 22.50%, respectively. Septonema secedens Corda. was recorded as seed borne for the first time in jute. Garlic extract and Vitavax 200 increased the yield of jute by 47.38% and 46.05%, respectively over farmer`s saved seed (control when grown in the net house. Under field conditions seed treatment with garlic extract and Vitavax 200 increased seed yield by 77.50 and 82.50%, respectively over farmer`s saved seed.

S.M.A. Islam

2001-01-01

352

Aerodynamic and geometric properties of amaranth seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geometrical properties (thickness, width and length of individual amaranth seeds were measured by means of an optic device. The measurements allowed us to be calculated the values of seeds bearing surface for esti- mating aerodynamic properties. The determination of aero- dynamic properties was performed using prototype ap- paratus adapted to suit the size of amaranth seeds. With such parameters as: dynamic pressure, seed mass and seed bear- ing surface basic aerodynamic properties: critical velocity, coefficient of aerodynamic resistance and coefficient of fineness were calculated. Critical velocity was found de- pendant on seed bearing surface, width, length and mass of the seed. With an increase of these parameters the critical velocity increased linearly and the coefficient of fineness decreased following the same formula. Both relationships were described with linear equations.

Szot B.

1999-06-01

353

Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seed quality is important for subsequent establishment of baby leaf and other spinach products. The indeterminate flowering pattern in spinach produces seeds of different sizes, and consequently a non-uniform seed lot. Sorting seeds based on novel sorting methods might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest times 6 d apart were selected for further studies of seed development and germination counts. Analysis of mean germination time (MGT) of four germination counts (3, 7, 14 and 21 d) showed that smaller seed sizes ( 3.25 mm). A larger proportion of 2.5â??3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide a useful tool for enhancing seed quality. Here our results demonstrate that a greater number of seeds with a low CF level had germinated on day 3 compared to the seeds with high CF levels. It is of relevance to develop a technology that could identify seeds that are sufficiently developed to germinate and successfully establish in the field regardless of seed size.

Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

2013-01-01

354

Cultivating knowledge on seed systems and seed strategies: Case of the rice crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review gives key information about seed systems with the objective of helping countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA to design appropriate strategies based on their own local realities. It starts with an in-depth assessment of the rice seed sector and emphasizes the factors that can influence its development. These factors may be associated with the biological characteristics of the rice crop, the complexity of farming systems, the policy environment, and the markets. The historical background of the seed sector in SSA is described in order to give a clear picture of the different attempts to find solutions in different countries and sub-regions. Five major strategic models and several alternative seed strategies are identified. However, local traditional seed systems will remain the primary source of seed supply for the majority of farmers for many years to come. These systems are based on farmer-saved seed and farmer-to-farmer seed exchanges, which are efficient tools in seed dissemination and food security. It is time to recognize local traditional systems and their contribution to the maintenance of seed quality and crop diversity and to develop tools for their better utilization. The community-based seed system (CBSS is proposed as such a tool. CBSS encourages technicians to recognize local traditional seed systems and to build integrated seed approaches that take into consideration local realities and the socio-cultural dimension of seed within African communities. This will likely require a transition period of 5 to 10 years to build the fundamentals of sustainable seed systems through the structuring of the seed sector and the creation of appropriate conditions to ensure food security, enriched biodiversity and sustainable production. With climate change, local traditional seed systems, as well as integrated seed approaches, will likely play a more important role to improve the performance of agricultural systems while ensuring farmer autonomy.

Amadou Moustapha Bèye

2014-01-01

355

Suppressive mechanism of seed coat pigmentation in yellow soybean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In soybean seeds, numerous variations in colors and pigmentation patterns exist, most of which are observed in the seed coat. Patterns of seed coat pigmentation are determined by four alleles (I, ii, ik and i) of the classically defined I locus, which controls the spatial distribution of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in the seed coat. Most commercial soybean cultivars produce yellow seeds with yellow cotyledons and nonpigmented seed coats, which are important traits of high-quality seeds...

Senda, Mineo; Kurauchi, Tasuku; Kasai, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Shizen

2012-01-01

356

Peroxidase: Purification from Soybean Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peroxidase, extracted from soybean seeds and was partially purified by precipitating with ammonium sulfate and 85 % saturation resulted in an increase in the activity of peroxidase up to 1.21 fold. Purification was carried out by diethyl amminoethyl cellulose chromatography and purification fold obtained was 2.62. Then, the enzyme was subjected to 10 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which resulted in a marked decrease in unwanted proteins.

Farzana Habib

2003-01-01

357

Cereal seed mycopopulations in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycopopulation of cereals-durum wheat (cultivars Žitka and Durumko) triticale (cultivars Goranac and NS tritikale), winter barley (cultivars NS 131, ZA 37 and Jagodinac) and oat (cultivars Slavuj and Rajac) had been studied during three years (harvest 2002, 2003 and 2004) from numerous Serbian localities. In all three investigated years and four cereal species the predominant fungal genus were Alternaria and Fusarium. On seeds there were determinated representatives of genus Penicillium, Muc...

Bagi Ferenc F.; Stojšin Vera B.; Balaž Ferenc

2005-01-01

358

Jatropha seed oils for energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil contents, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and energy values of seed samples of four species of Jatropha (J. curcas, J. glandulifera, J. gossypifolia and J. multifida) were determined. The energy value of J. multifida oil was found to be the highest (13.647 kcal/g). All the oil samples were rich in oleic and linoleic acids (72.2-84.0%). However, no correlation between the energy values and fatty acid composition could be obtained.

Banerji, R.; Chowdhury, A.R.; Misra, G.; Sudarsanam, G.; Verma, S.C.; Srivastava, G.S.

1985-01-01

359

Proteomics of rice seed germination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles, and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the de...

He, Dongli; Yang, Pingfang

2013-01-01

360

Vertical Bridgman growth of sapphire-Seed crystal shapes and seeding characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth of sapphire by the traditional vertical Bridgman (VB) method was studied by using various shapes of seed crystals and tungsten (W) crucibles shaped to match the seeds. Approximately 2-in. diameter, c-axis sapphire single crystals were reproducibly grown from three kinds of seed: thin, tapered and full diameter. Factors relating seed type to single-crystal growth are discussed, including the reproducibility of seeding processes, and the generation and elimination of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs). What was learned facilitated the subsequent growth of large-diameter, 3-, 4- and 6-in., c-axis single-crystal sapphires from full-diameter seeds.

Hoshikawa, K.; Osada, J.; Saitou, Y.; Ohba, E.; Miyagawa, C.; Kobayashi, T.; Yanagisawa, J.; Shinozuka, M.; Kanno, K.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Seed loss through the urinary tract and retrieval after prostate seed implant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes our experience with seed loss and retrieval through the urinary tract following seed implants for prostate cancer, and offers Japanese guidelines for safety and management. Two hundred consecutive patients were analyzed. All patients were preplanned with a modified peripheral loading technique and implanted with a Mick applicator under ultrasound guidance. All patients were instructed to return excreted seeds, if any, to our center. Seed loss occurred in 6% of patients and 0.13% of seeds. Seed loss tended to occur in the early period through either urine or ejaculation. (author)

2005-07-01

362

Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

2008-06-01

363

Local Evolution of Seed Flotation in Arabidopsis  

Science.gov (United States)

Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 ?-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Macquet, Audrey; Kronholm, Ilkka; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Salle, Christine; Poulain, Damien; Granier, Fabienne; Botran, Lucy; Loudet, Olivier; de Meaux, Juliette; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

2014-01-01

364

Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

2011-07-01

365

Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

2011-01-01

366

Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents  

Science.gov (United States)

Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is a distinctive and charismatic plant of the Mojave Desert. Although floral biology and seed production of Joshua tree and other yuccas are well understood, the fate of Joshua tree seeds has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that Joshua tree seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents. We radioactively labelled Joshua tree seeds and followed their fates at five source plants in Potosi Wash, Clark County, Nevada, USA. Rodents made a mean of 30.6 caches, usually within 30 m of the base of source plants. Caches contained a mean of 5.2 seeds buried 3-30 nun deep. A variety of rodent species appears to have prepared the caches. Three of the 836 Joshua tree seeds (0.4%) cached germinated the following spring. Seed germination using rodent exclosures was nearly 15%. More than 82% of seeds in open plots were removed by granivores, and neither microsite nor supplemental water significantly affected germination. Joshua tree produces seeds in indehiscent pods or capsules, which rodents dismantle to harvest seeds. Because there is no other known means of seed dispersal, it is possible that the Joshua tree-rodent seed dispersal interaction is an obligate mutualism for the plant.

Vander Wall, S. B.; Esque, T.; Haines, D.; Garnett, M.; Waitman, B. A.

2006-01-01

367

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the ...

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

368

The seed-blanket core concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the seed-blanket core concept, the major portion of the core power is typically produced in subcritical regions known as ''blankets.'' The small supercritical regions that drive the blanket are known as ''seeds.'' The concept lends itself to geometry control in which moving the seeds varies th leakage of neutrons into fertile material, thus avoiding the loss of neutrons to parasitic control devices. As a burner, the seed-blanket concept has significant advantages in the reduction of initial fuel loading and improvement in resource utilization. As a breeder, the seed-blanket concept has further advantages in making it feasible to obtain nega tive void and moderator reactivity coefficients. A summary is presented of recent studies of the application of the seed-blanket core concept with both heavy water and light water moderation

1985-01-01

369

Tamarind seed: properties, processing and utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tamarind seed is an underutilized byproduct of the tamarind pulp industry. Only a small portion of the seed, in the form of tamarind kernel powder (TKP), is used as a sizing material in the textile, paper, and jute industries. Though many applications of this seed are possible, there have been hardly any other uses for it including using it as an additive in food formulations. The excellent gelling cum adhesive characteristics of the decorticated seed powder can lead to several applications in food and pharmaceutical industries which are evident by the number of research papers as well as patent applications. This article thus focuses on the possibilities of using the seed in several food and non-food industries with particular reference to physical and engineering properties, hydration behavior, rheological properties, functional and nutritional characteristics, and the processing of the tamarind seed for wider applications. PMID:18274963

Kumar, Chandini S; Bhattacharya, Sila

2008-01-01

370

Seed Potato Systems in Ecuador: A Case Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds and seed systems, provide a vital link between cropping seasons. The research report, one of a series of case studies of seed potato programs, examines the seed potato system in Ecuador. The system is dominated by a farmer-based informal seed system...

C. C. Crissman J. E. Uquillas

1989-01-01

371

How nanoscale seed particles affect vapor-liquid nucleation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we used constrained lattice density functional theory to investigate how nanoscale seed particles affect heterogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation. The effects of the physical properties of nanoscale seed particles, including the seed size, the strength of seed-fluid attraction, and the shape of the seeds, on the structure of critical nuclei and nucleation barrier were systemically investigated. PMID:22088072

Liu, Yawei; Men, Yumei; Zhang, Xianren

2011-11-14

372

Intellectual Property over Seeds versus Civil Liberties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article draws attention to the fundamental contradiction between civil liberties and intellectual property rights attributed to and transported by living self-reproducing organisms. Intellectual property over seeds establishes fields of ownership that crosscut and contradict property over land and labour that John Locke regarded as the basis for civil liberties. With the seed whose cells carry a patented transgenic seed a new bundle of power is introduced into the field. It determines wh...

2013-01-01

373

Isothermal seed germination of Adenanthera pavonina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work reports aspects of seed germination at different temperatures of Adenanthera pavonina L., a woody Southeast Asian Leguminosae. Germination was studied by measuring the final percentages, the rate, the rate variance and the synchronisation of the individual seeds calculated by the minimal informational entropy of frequencies distribution of seed germination. Overlapping the germinability range with the range for the highest values of germination rates and the minimal informational en...

Francisco Antonio Zpevak; Sônia Cristina Juliano Güaltieri de Andrade Perez; Marcos Silveira Buckeridge

2012-01-01

374

Mycoflora of Viola wittrockiana Games seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirty seed speciments of Viola wittrockiana harvested in the years 1985-1987 were investigated. As a result of mycological analysis, 1808 fungi isolates belonging to 19 species were obtained. Most frequently isolated species was Alternaria alternata whose isolates made 26 % of isolations of all the fungi. Among the fungi isolated particularly from undisinfected seeds the species from the Penicillium kind were dominant. Pathogenic fungi like Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium culmorum were also isolated from the investigated seeds.

Danuta Pi?ta

1991-12-01

375

MRI-BASED PROSTATE BRACHYTHERAPY SEED LOCALIZATION  

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A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pulse sequence and a corresponding image processing algorithm to localize prostate brachytherapy seeds during or after therapy are presented. Inversion-Recovery with ON-resonant water suppression (IRON) is an MRI methodology that generates positive contrast in regions of magnetic field susceptibility, as created by prostate brachytherapy seeds. Phantoms comprising of several materials found in brachytherapy seeds were created to assess the usability of the I...

2010-01-01

376

Saponaria officinalis Seeds Germination Morphology and Biology  

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Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Saponaria officinalis seed quality, stored in different containers (paper, plastic, fabric and glass, in the different temperature conditions, under light or darkness. The morphology, biology of Saponaria officinalis seeds was described. Basing in the obtained results, we recommend to store Saponaria officinalis seeds within 3 months in paper container at the temperature of - 18??.

Margaret Yu. Ishmuratova

2013-01-01

377

Impact of Weed Seed Mixture in Seed Health of Aus Rice and Factors Affecting it  

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Full Text Available A socio-agronomical survey and a laboratory experiment on weed seed mixture with rice seed were carried out at the three different villages of Mymensingh district and in the laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh respectively during the period from January to June 2002 to know the farmer’s knowledge and idea about the impact of weed seed mixture on the quality of rice seeds, and to know the status of seed purity in rice collected from different locations of Bangladesh. In the socio-agronomical survey, 100 farmers from six villages e.g. Kazirshimla, Dewanibari, Seedstore, Bharadoba, Churkhai and Rampur under three Upazilas namely Trishal, Bhaluka and Sadar were randomly selected for interview. Pre-prepared questionnaire were used to ask questions on different aspects of weed contamination with rice seeds. Results revealed that 90% farmers of the area cultivated IR50 and only 3% farmers grew BR2 rice variety. They got higher average yields from IR50 (1.96 t ha-1 than other varieties e.g. BR2 (1.65 t ha-1 and BR3 (1.75 t ha-1. Farmers found five noxious weed seeds e.g. Echinochloa crusglli, E. colonum, Cyperus iria, Scirpus spp. and C. difformis in the rice seeds. E. crusgalli was appeared as the notorious weed to rice farmers. Forty percent of the interviewed farmers were educated up to class five and literate farmers used higher seed rate, which led to less weed infestation in the field. Eighty nine percent farmers used their own seed, which were produced and processed with care, and there was less possibility of weed seed contamination. Eight percent farmers used seeds from market, which contained more weed seeds in rice seeds. Laboratory analysis of seed samples collected from different locations of the country revealed that location has an impact on the weed seed mixture in rice seeds. Samples collected from the village more away from Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh contained more weed seeds. The purity percentage of farmers saved seed was about 95% and it contained 0.08% weed seed. The weed seeds found in the farmers saved seed samples were E. crusgalli, E.colonum, Scirpus spp. and Cyperus difformis.

Md. Fazlul Islam

2003-01-01

378

Storage crambe seed treated with insecticides  

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Full Text Available The use of low quality seeds with a lower physiological reflects one of the major causes of low productivity. Thus the storage conditions of seed must be taken into consideration. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of natural and synthetic insecticides on emergence and seed storage of crambe, as these substances are essential to prevent infestation of seeds of other species by harmful organisms. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 3 x 8 ( 8 substances and 3 storage times with 4 replications. We assessed the following natural insecticides: saffron, lime, ash, neem, diatomaceous earth, and synthetic: chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin; besides the control consisting of seeds without any treatment. We evaluated the percentage of emergence, speed of emergence index and time to reach 50 % of emergency. In all characteristics, it was found that no influence of neem on seed vigor. There are disadvantages in the application of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diatomaceous earth, which interfered with the emergence rate of seeds of crambe. The seeds treated with other insecticides had different behavior of untreated seeds after 120 days of storage to assess the time that they take to reach 50 % germination.

Geraldo Cabral e Souza

2014-02-01

379

Weed Seed Labelling with Rare Earth Elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dormancy period of weed seed under field conditions so far could not be determined with reliability because of the lack of a suitable method for labelling seed. Rademacher and co-workers labelled weed seed with 35S for studying germination in relation to different methods of soil cultivation. Since 35S has a half-period of 87.1 d only, labelling is practically ineffective after one year. The authors of this paper therefore tried to label weed seed with lanthanum, europium and dysprosium. Since these elements (1) do not occur in the standard soils in interfering quantities, and (2) can easily be determined by neutron activation analysis, they are useful for non-radioactive labelling. In pot experiments they were added like fertilizers before the soil was seeded with Sinapsis alba or Vicia villosa. After harvesting, samples of the plants' roots, stems, leaves, and seed were irradiated in the reactor and the rare earth elements determined by neutron-activation analysis. Evaluation of the results disclosed that traceable quantities of lanthanum, europium, and dysprosium were present in roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the grains of seed. It is the intention, in further experiments, to increase the concentration of the applied elements up to the limit of compatibility, and to find out whether a more concentrated supply will increase the incorporation in seeds. If one of these elements is present in a reasonable concentration, experiments with labelled weed seed will be possible for periods of several years. (author)

1966-05-01

380

Efficient chaining of seeds in ordered trees  

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We consider here the problem of chaining seeds in ordered trees. Seeds are mappings between two trees Q and T and a chain is a subset of non overlapping seeds that is consistent with respect to postfix order and ancestrality. This problem is a natural extension of a similar problem for sequences, and has applications in computational biology, such as mining a database of RNA secondary structures. For the chaining problem with a set of m constant size seeds, we describe an algorithm with compl...

Allali, Julien; Chauve, Ce?dric; Ferraro, Pascal; Gaillard, Anne-laure

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds  

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Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

Bogdan Nowicki

1995-12-01

382

Physicochemical and grinding characteristics of dragonhead seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of investigations on the physicochemical and grinding characteristics of Moldavian dragonhead seeds are presented. The data obtained showed that the physical properties (average size, sphericity, surface area, 1 000 seed mass, dynamic angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, and bulk and true densities) of the white and blue form of dragonhead seeds were not significantly different. Both forms of dragonhead showed similar levels of protein (average of 21%), whereas the blue form of dragonhead had a lower fat content (average of 23.1%) and higher mucilage content (13.35%) in comparison to the blue form of seed (24.6 and 9.95%, respectively). Antioxidant capacity of dragonhead seeds was comparable for both forms and averaged about 40%, which corresponded to EC50 values of 0.12 and 0.13 mgml-1 for the white and blue forms, respectively. The grinding material showed similar particle size distribution of ground material for both forms of dragonhead seeds. The lowest values of specific grinding energy were obtained for the white form of dragonhead seeds, those for the blue form were significantly higher. Grinding of dragonhead seeds using a screen 2.0 mm mesh size caused screen hole clogging. This problem did not occur when dragonhead seeds were mixed with wheat grain.

Dziki, D.; Mi?, A.; G?adyszewska, B.; Laskowski, J.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Gawlik-Dziki, U.

2013-12-01

383

Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds  

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Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

Bogdan Nowicki

1997-12-01

384

Supermassive Seeds for Supermassive Black Holes  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z >~ 7 constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we elucidate the implications of the radiative feedback from early generations of stars and from BH accretion for popular models for the formation and growth of seed BHs. We show that by properly accounting for (1) the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from cosmological simulations of early star formation and radiative feedback, (2) the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and (3) the large radiative efficiencies epsilon of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift (epsilon >~ 0.1), we are led to the conclusion that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as >~ 105 M ?. This presents a strong challenge to the Population III seed model, which calls for seed masses of ~100 M ? and, even with constant Eddington-limited accretion, requires epsilon seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 104-106 M ? seed BH. These results corroborate recent cosmological simulations and observational campaigns which suggest that these massive BHs were the seeds of a large fraction of the SMBHs residing in the centers of galaxies today.

Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Li, Hui; Holz, Daniel E.

2013-07-01

385

Effect of Seed Filling Period on Quality of White Jute (Corchorus capsularis L. Seed  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Dhaka in 1997 and 1998 with white jute (Corchorus capsularis L. varieties CVL-1 and CVE-3 to study the seed filling period and attainment of physiological maturity of white jute seeds and its effect on seed quality attributes. In white jute, physiological maturity of seed attains at 60 days after anthesis irrespective of variety and there was significant positive correlation between seed filling period and seed quality attributes. Seed filling period (SFP and effective seed filling period (ESFP were 36 and 21.2 days in both the varieties respectively. The single seed filling rate (SSFR was 0.08 mg/seed/day and total seed sink filling rate (TSSFR was 10.25 kg/ha/day in both the varieties also. A significant positive correlation among the seed attributes with the seedling dry weight, vigour and emergence percentage in both CVL-1 and CVE-3 indicated that germination percentage and emergence percentage influenced crop establishment.

F. A. Hayder Talukder

2001-01-01

386

The seeded growth of graphene  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we demonstrate the seeded growth of graphene under a plasma chemical vapor deposition condition. First, we fabricate graphene nanopowders (~5?nm) by ball-milling commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The graphene nanoparticles were subsequently subject to a direct current plasma generated in a 100?Torr 10%CH4 - 90%H2 gas mixture. The plasma growth enlarged, over one hour, the nuclei to graphene sheets larger than one hundred nm2 in area. Characterization by electron and X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images provide evidence for the presence of monolayer graphene sheets.

Lee, Jae-Kap; Lee, Sohyung; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Min, Bong-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Il; Park, Yeseul; John, Phillip

2014-01-01

387

Seed protein variability in safflower  

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Total seed proteins in two safflower species (Carthamus tinctorius L. and C. lanatus L) have been separated by the SDS-PAGE method. Their molecular masses ranged from 120 to 20 kDa. All C. tinctorius genotypes under study exhibited identical electrophoretic patterns which differed from the pattern exhibited by the wild species C. lanatus in the number and position of protein bands. Differences in protein profiles occurred in regions around 60 kDa, from 43 to 36 kDa and around 30 kDa. Statisti...

Obreht Dragana R.; Vapa Ljiljana B.; Kiš Sándor A.; Takács Mária-Hajos; Stefánovics Éva-Bányai; Vörösvári Gábor; Kastori Rudolf R.

2002-01-01

388

Tumor interventional therapy using 125I seed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the feasibility, safety, and effect of interventional technology for inserting 125I seeds into tumor focus and to study the advantage or shortcome of different image equipment used in seed implantation. Methods: Fifteen cases of advanced stage tumor with metastasis and another 15 cases of advanced unresectable esophageal cancer were enrolled. Method of seed implantation was carried out by inserting 125I seeds into tumor foci through percutaneous puncture under ultrasound or CT guidance, and placed the esophageal stent binding with 125I seed to the diseased esophageal segment under DSA. Results: All 125I seeds were successfully released to the target places under ultrasound, CT and DSA guidance, except one seed was found to be lost from one esophageal 125I seed irradiated stent due to misoperation. A follow-up showed obvious improvement of clinical symptom, no significant changes of hemogram, immunity markers, and no complications including esophageal perforation, hemorrhage, and skin necrosis. No radiation seeds shedded during the releasing processes by ECT. One month follow-up by CT showed the target places were thinned in 13 cases, thickened in 2 cases. 3 cases had been followed-up for 13 months, CT revealed the obvious thinning of the foci. Three-month follow up with gastroendoscopy and biopsy demonstrated that the foci within the 125I seede binding stent placement segment resolved markedly, with no tumor cells found in biopsy for 3 of 5 cases. 15 cases by percutaneous puncture implantation had been followed-up for two months, showed the foci becoming obviously small under diagnostic imaging. Conclusions: It is feasible and safe to insert 125I seeds into tumor foci by interventional technology and the confirmed effect is favorable. (authors)

2005-12-01

389

7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.  

Science.gov (United States)

...cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged...producer to pledge the seed cotton to CCC as...redeemed; (6) Be production from acreage that...and (b) The quality of cotton which...cotton in each lot of seed cotton as...

2010-01-01