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Sample records for okra seed abelmoschus

  1. Nutritional evaluation of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds

    The proximate, functional properties, in-vitro multi enzyme protein digestibility and amino acid compositions of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds were evaluated. the ash, moisture, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate of the okra seeds were: 4.8%, 13.5%, 39.9%, 8.82%, 26.4% and 6.62%, respectively. the water and oil absorption capacities were: 220% and 200% which makes okra seeds exhibit a high water retention capacity. the least gelation concentration was 8% while, emulsion capacity was 45.5% and foaming capacity and stability were: 12% and 2%, respectively. the in vitro protein digestibility was 69.3%. glutamic acid was the most concentrated amino acid (121.1 mg/g crude protein) while, cystine (10.0 mg/g crude protein) was the least concentrated amino acid. the total amino acid was 706 mg/g crude protein. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Vegetative Growth Parameters in Biofield Treated Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the growth contributing characters of biofield treated bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds. The seeds of both crops were divided into two groups, one was kept aside and denoted as untreated, while the other group was subjected biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. Further the level of glutathione (GSH) in okra leaves, along with...

  3. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  4. Germination and seedling growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) as influenced by organic amendments

    Banashree Sarma; Nirmali Gogoi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to understand the effects of different soil organic amendments on germination and seedling vigour of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Five treatments with organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and biochar) and mineral fertilizers were designed in randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that organic amendments significantly enhanced per cent seed germination and emergence speed index compared to inorganic fertilizer. Highest homogene...

  5. Germination and seedling growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. as influenced by organic amendments

    Banashree Sarma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to understand the effects of different soil organic amendments on germination and seedling vigour of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. Five treatments with organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and biochar and mineral fertilizers were designed in randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that organic amendments significantly enhanced per cent seed germination and emergence speed index compared to inorganic fertilizer. Highest homogeneity of seed germination (CVgt = 20.74 was observed in vermicompost. Plant height, root length and leaf area were higher in vermicompost and biochar than farmyard manure. Both allocation of biomass to above ground parts and Dickson quality index were highest in seedlings from the plots amended with vermicompost. The study revealed that compared to biochar, vermicompost and farmyard manure significantly enhanced the germination and growth of Okra seedling, but the stimulation was best in vermicompost-amended plots.

  6. Salt stress effects on some morphological and physiological characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.

    Muhammad Adnan Shahid*, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Rashid Mukhtar Balal, Rashid Ahmad, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Tahira Abbas and Naheed Akhtar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is worldwide problem that limits the growth and productivity of all vegetations and it is going toincreasing day by day. The objective of the investigation was to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL. in terms of morphological and physiological characteristics under salt stress conditions. Okra seeds of cultivarChinese Red were grown in plastic pots having fine sand as growth medium. After 30 days of germination, theplants were subjected to salt stress under control, 25, 50, and 75 mM NaCl. Increasing salinity caused a decrease ofgermination percentage, shoot and root length, plant height, pod weight, pod length, photosynthesis rate, andstomatal conductance. The Na+ and Cl- accumulation were correlated with a decline in concentration of K+ inleaves and roots. Under salinity, a high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were noted in both leave and roots portions.

  7. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    Messing, Jutta; Thoele, Christian; Niehues, Michael; Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Boren, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology: A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori...

  8. Study on Extraction Method of Caffeine from Okra(Abelmoschus esculentus) Seeds%黄秋葵种子中咖啡碱的提取方法研究

    傅狄华

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The purpose was to discuss the extraction method of caffeine from okra seeds, and lay a foundation for its deeply development and utilization. [ Method ] Microwave extraction method, reflux extraction method and ultrasonic extraction method were used to extract caffeine from okra seeds, and visible-ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine its content. [ Result] When using microwave extraction method, the highest caffeine ratio of 0. 149% was obtained under the conditions of medium power and 8 min extraction time. When using reflux extraction method, the highest caffeine ration of 0. 156% was obtained under the conditions of water-alcohol ratio of 1:2 and extraction time 1 hour. When using ultrasonic extraction method, the highest caffeine ratio of 0. 142% was obtained under the conditions of extraction agent 25 ml and extraction time 30 min. [ Conclusion ] The study obtains the most convenient and the most effective extraction method of caffeine from okra seeds when using microwave extraction method, reflux extraction method and ultrasonic extraction method, lays a foundation for research on effective components extraction from okra seeds.%[目的]探讨黄秋葵(Abelmoschus esculentus)种子中咖啡碱的提取方法,为其进一步开发利用奠定基础.[方法]采用微波提取法、回流提取法和超声提取法3种方法提取黄秋葵种子中的咖啡碱,并采用可见-紫外分光光度法测定其含量.[结果]采用微波提取法时,在中等功率、微波时间8 min条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.149%.采用回流提取法时,在提取剂水∶乙醇为1∶2、提取时间为1h条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.156%.采用超声提取法时,在提取剂用量为25ml、超声时间为30 min条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.142%.[结论]该研究得出了采用微波提取法、回流提取法和超声提取法提取黄秋葵种子中咖啡碱含量的最方便最有

  9. Physicochemical properties and adsorption of cholesterol by okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) powder.

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Bing-Cheng; Sun, Yu-Han; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Han-Ju; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a widely used medicine and functional food. In order to clarify the effects of the particle size on its functional properties, okra pods were subjected to superfine grinding, and its properties were determined using different methods. Four particle size levels of okra powders were prepared: 380 to 250, 250 to 75, 75 to 40 and less than 40 μm. The results showed that superfine grinding technology could efficiently pulverize the particles into the submicron scale, whose distribution was close to a Gaussian distribution. With decreasing okra powder size, the specific surface area, water holding capacity (WHC), water-retention capacity (WRC), oil-binding capacity (OBC), tapped density and total flavonoids extraction were increased significantly (p grinding. These results suggest that okra powder can be used in food manufacturing as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26359588

  10. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)

    Lee, Siah Lee; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John P.; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25–90 °C), time (0.25–5...

  11. Inheritance of resistance to Okra yellow vein mosaic disease in interspecific crosses of Abelmoschus.

    Jambhale, N D; Nerkar, Y S

    1981-09-01

    Two Abelmoschus species, viz., A. manihot (L.) Medik and A. manihot (L.) Medik ssp. manihot, resistant to Okra yellow vein mosaic (YVM) were crossed to A. esculentus cv. 'Pusa Sawani', a susceptible culture. The hybrids were resistant and partially fertile. Segregation pattern for disease reaction in F2, BC1 and subsequent generations of the two crosses revealed that resistance to YVM is controlled by a single dominant gene in each species. PMID:24276872

  12. Antiadhesive properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra immature fruit extract against Helicobacter pylori adhesion.

    Jutta Messing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. METHODOLOGY: A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewis(b, sialyl-Lewis(a, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. (125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. CONCLUSION: Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects.

  13. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4; Mutyala Ganesh; Kadiyala Haribabu2; Medagam Thirupathi Reddy; Hameedunnisa Begum; Reddivenkatagari Subbararama Krishna Reddy1; Jampala Dilip Babu1

    2012-01-01

    Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)were studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) andP10(IC111443) during mid kharif (July-October), 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both addit...

  14. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice

    Sathish Kumar Doreddula; Srinivasa Reddy Bonam; Durga Prasad Gaddam; Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu; Nadendla Ramarao; Vijayapandi Pandy

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus ...

  15. Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench

    M. B Adewole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR, NPK (IO, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY or no soil amendment as the control (CT] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05 higher nutrient uptake [N (0.0034 mg kg-1, K (0.0160 mg kg-1, Na (0.9753 mg kg-1, Ca (0.0130 mg kg-1 and Cu (0.01136 mg kg-1] in the okra roots than in the other treatments, yet the significantly (p < 0.05 highest uptake of P (0.0012 mg kg-1 was obtained with the MY treatment. Lower values of these nutrient contents were obtained in the shoots. The control treatment gave the significantly highest values of crude fibre (27.33% and total ash (14.05%, as compared to the other treatments, whereas the other nutritional properties obtained showed no significant difference among any of the treatments. The results indicated that high-quality okra pods could be effectively produced with no soil amendment when planted in soils with a high fertility, such as those treated with sewage sludge.

  16. Characterisation of twenty-nine (29) accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) in Ghana

    A series of investigations were carried out to determine the genetic variability within 29 accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) through characterisation using morphological, biochemical, nutritional and molecular markers. The goal was to obtain information on key traits of okra germplasm relevant to breeders and other researchers towards improvement of the crop. Twenty six (26) indigenous (landraces) and three (3) exotic accessions of okra were collected from eight regions of Ghana and their morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated under field conditions at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research fields using the International Plant Genetic Research Institute (IPGRI) descriptor list for okra. The 29 exhibited significant variation in all but two quantitative traits studied. Block coefficients of variation were extremely low, implying that results obtained are reliable and repeatable over replications. The 29 accessions were grouped into two major clusters and subsequently into five sub-clusters based on both quantitative and qualitative characters studied. The association between pairs of quantitative yield traits in the okra landraces revealed that flowering and fruiting parameters had significant (P < 0.01) positive associations. Factor scores of 12 characters contributed substantially to total genetic variation among the 29 okra accessions studied. The pattern of clustering did not show distinct association between morpho-agronomic characters and geographic origin of the collections. The output of the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that different characters contributed differently to total genetic variation. The means of maximum viscosity values for mucilage extracted from the fruits ranged from 53.0 - 366.8bu, with three accessions; DKA (366.8bu), Yeji-Local (329bu) and Amanfrom (316.8bu) recording very high values whilst Cape (53.0bu) had the least maximum viscosity value. There was low level of

  17. Genetic architecture of resistance to yellow vein mosaic and leaf spot diseases in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    P. Sindhumole and P. Manju

    2015-01-01

    Generation mean analysis of four crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) viz., NBPGR/TCR-1498 x NBPGR/TCR-2060, NBPGR/TCR-2019 x Parbhani Kranti, MDU-1 x Varsha Uphar, NBPGR/TCR-985 x Parbhani Kranti was conducted for studying gene action of resistance to two major diseases viz., yellow vein mosaic (YVM) and Alternaria leaf spot under Kerala conditions. Duplicate gene action was observed for resistance to both diseases, which indicated hindrance to improvement by simple selection...

  18. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moenchwere studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248, P2(IC27826-A, P3(IC29119-B, P4(IC31398-A, P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819, P7(IC89976, P8(IC90107, P9(IC99716 andP10(IC111443 during mid kharif (July-October, 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819 and P7(IC89976 were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716, C17(IC27826-A × IC111443, C42(IC89976 × IC111443 were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443 and (IC27826-A × IC89819 having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize

  19. Genetic architecture of resistance to yellow vein mosaic and leaf spot diseases in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    P. Sindhumole and P. Manju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis of four crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench viz., NBPGR/TCR-1498 x NBPGR/TCR-2060, NBPGR/TCR-2019 x Parbhani Kranti, MDU-1 x Varsha Uphar, NBPGR/TCR-985 x Parbhani Kranti was conducted for studying gene action of resistance to two major diseases viz., yellow vein mosaic (YVM and Alternaria leaf spot under Kerala conditions. Duplicate gene action was observed for resistance to both diseases, which indicated hindrance to improvement by simple selection. Hence reciprocal recurrent selection would be useful for the effective utilisation of both types of additive and non-additive gene effects simultaneously.

  20. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Reddivenkatagari Subbarama Krishna Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during kharif, 2008. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively, for thirteen quantitative characters, namely plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, internodal length(cm, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node, first fruiting node, fruit length (cm, fruit width (cm, fruit weight (g, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield per plant (g and marketable yield per plant (g for the identification of appropriate selection indices. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant and total yield per plant had significant positive correlation, while number of branches per plant, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node and first fruiting node had significant negative correlation with marketable yield per plant.Genotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant not only had positively significant association with marketable pod yield per plant, but also had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant and are regarded as the main determinants of marketable pod yield per plant. The improvement in marketable pod yield per plant will be efficient, if the selection is based on fruit weight, total number of fruits per

  1. Induction of genetic variability in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] by gamma and ems.

    Peddi Sudharshan Reddy, L. K. Dhaduk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to study the extent of genetic variability induced through physical and chemical mutagens in okra. Seeds of two popular okra varieties viz. GO-2 and GJO-3 were treated with 20 kR, 30 kR and 40 kR of gamma rays and 0.15% and 0.25% EMS to raise M1 generation in summer 2011 and the seed obtained from all of the M1 competitive plants were used to raise M2 in progeny rows of each of the treatments including control (the untreated one in kharif 2011.In M2 generation, increase in GCV, heritability and genetic advance was considerable under different mutagenic treatments for most of the traits studied in both varieties. In GO-2, high heritability and genetic advance was observed for some important yield contributing characters like fruit length at 40 kR and 0.25% EMS; fruit weight at 20 kR and 40 kR; and fruit yield per plant at 20, 30, 40 kR and 0.15% EMS.Similarly in GJO-3, high heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for fruit length at 30 kR and fruit yield per plant at 20 kR. YVMV percentage exhibited high PCV and GCV with high heritability and genetic advance in 0.25% EMS treatment in GO-2 and 40kR treatment in GJO-3. Thus selection for these characters at specific mutagenic treatments will be effective for improvement in okra.

  2. 'Anjitha'- A new okra variety through induced mutation in inter specific hybrids of Abelmoschus SPP

    Studies on inter specific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional combination breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistant genes and wild character of A. manihot. The present study envisaged the breaking of undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (10, 20, 30 and 40 kRad) of F1 seeds obtained by inter specific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluation and selection of high yielding YVM resistant types from the segregating generations till F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of gamma rays. The mutated hybrids and the wild parent showed complete resistance to YVM disease incidence which was confirmed through grafting trials. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more number of leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 20 kR while fruit yield was maximum in 40 kR due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 30kR which suggested that 30 kR could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Thirteen superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to three Comparative Yield Trials (CYT). Culture AE18 out yielded the others in CYTs and Farm trials and was released as 'Anjitha' by the XXIII State Seed Sub Committee during 2006 for cultivation in Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

  3. Nature and magnitude of genetic variability and diversity studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    K. Prakash and M. Pitchaimuthu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of yield contributing characters, and the genetic diversityin forty-four genotypes of okra collected from the IIHR, Bangalore, India. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among thegenotypes for different morphological characters. High GCV and PCV were observed for plant height, inter-nodal length, first flowering node,first fruit producing node, height of first flowering node, average fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit. On the basis of D2 analysis, the 44genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters. The cluster III was the largest with eight genotypes followed by cluster I and VIII with seven,cluster II with five, cluster XII with three while, clusters IV, V, VI, IX, X and XI included only two genotype in each. The intra-cluster distancewas maximum in cluster XII (28.14, while inter-cluster distance was maximum between cluster VI and VIII (35.57 followed by I and IX(35.31, thus being a good source for attempting hybridization. Among the 44 genotypes, IIHR-238, IIHR-241 showed maximum number offruits per plant and total yield per plant (g. The characters namely days to 50% flowering (35.62%, 100 seed weight (28.44%, number of seedsper fruit (17.23% and average fruit weight (8.14% directly contributed towards maximum divergence and, therefore, selection of divergentparents based on these characters is recommended for getting good hybrids or segregants in okra.

  4. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  5. Anjitha - A New Okra Variety through Induced Mutation in Interspecific Hybrids of Abelmoschus spp

    Studies on interspecific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistance genes and the wild character of A. manihot. This study was aimed at breaking this undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (100 200, 300 and 400 Gray) of F1 seeds obtained by interspecific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluating and selecting high yielding YVM resistant types from the generations segregating until F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of Gamma-rays. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 200Gy, while fruit yield was maximum in 400Gy due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease-resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 300Gy which suggested that 300Gy could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to CYTs and farm trials. Cultivar AE18 outyielded the others and was released as 'Anjitha' during 2006, for cultivation in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM-resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

  6. Isolation of the mucilages from Hibiscus rosasinensis linn. and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus linn.) and studies of the binding effects of the mucilages

    Ameena K; Dilip C; Saraswathi R; Krishnan PN; Sankar C; Simi SP

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and evaluate comparatively the binding efficacy of the mucilages obtained from the plants of Hibiscus rosasinensis and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Methods:Extraction of mucilages from the leaves of Hibiscus and pods of Okra (Ladies finger) was carried out by a cold maceration process. The extracted mucilages were subjected to various physicochemical properties for its suitability as an excipient in the formulation of tablet dosage form. Different concentrations (10, 8, 5, 2 and 1%w/v) of binder solutions of Hibiscus and Okra were used for the formulation of tablets and the formulated tablets were evaluated by studying the standard parameters like diameter, thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and in vitro dissolution. Stability studies of the formulated tablets were conducted for four weeks. Results:The formulated tablets prepared using the mucilages of both Hibiscus and Okra had good appearance. The in vitro drug release profile of the tablets prepared using Okra mucilage had an optimum of 90%at a mucilage concentration of 1%w/v concentration mucilage itself within 4 h. Conclusions:According to the observations, the lower concentration levels of Okra can be used as an alternative binder to starch. The higher concentration levels of Okra mucilage show a slow and sustained release, and can be considered as an alternative natural excipient in the modified drug delivery systems. At the same time, the above natural excipient of Hibiscus mucilage could be used as a platform for prolonged release if its binder concentrations are increased.

  7. The effects of color plastic mulches and row covers on the growth and yield of okra

    Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench'Clemson Spineless'] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in shorter, AL. Okra was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (3...

  8. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. in Mice

    Sathish Kumar Doreddula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM and forced swimming test (FST in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o. for seven days significantly (P< 0.01 attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  9. Decontamination of sliced and powdered okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and some aspects of nutrient quality before and after gamma irradiation

    Food security in Africa is crucial for survival of the increasing population. However, agricultural produce in the field are drastically reduced along the food pipeline (from farm gate to the consumer's table) by bioderioagents including microorganisms. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is one such farm produce of economic importance in Ghana with a great potential of providing essential nutrients and vitamins in our diet. The high moisture content of the fresh fruit makes it susceptible to microbial deterioration in a short time. Dehydration methods (sun-drying and solar drying) are practiced worldwide but in Africa, this is attended by contamination by aeromycoflora and other agents such as insect eggs and larvae. In addition are physical and chemical contaminants. In this thesis, the mycoflora and Total Aerobic Bacteria load of market samples and solar-dried okra (Clemson spineless and Legon Finger) chips and powder were ascertained with the view to documenting toxin-producing fungal species and update the resident mycoflora and bacteria load. Insects resident in the samples were detected by the hidden infestation technique; mycoflora was determined by the decimal serial dilution method on different media and Total Aerobic Bacteria population was determined on Plate Count Agar at 320C for 48hr. In order to establish storage stability of the okra, the chips and powdered samples were placed in glass desiccators with glycerol: water mixtures providing Environmental Relative Humidities of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95% representative of the Ghanaian Tropic Conditions to undergo sorption at the same temperature. Gamma irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 20kGy) were used as a preservation process to decontaminate resident mycoflora and total aerobic bacteria. This was supplemented by an in vitro study in the radio-resistance of six selected resident fungi (Aspergillus; Penicllium spp). The veracity of the dry okra supporting growth of selected Aspergillus and Penicillium

  10. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P potassium (122.59-318.20), zinc (3.83-6.31), phosphorus (25.62-59.72), and sodium (3.33-8.31) on dry weight bases. The Okra Pods of "OPA#6" accession contained significantly higher amounts of crude protein, total ash, crude fat, calcium, iron, and zinc than all other accessions evaluated in this study. The results of antinutrients analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P bioavailability of calcium, iron, and zinc in these accessions could be high. The results of the study revealed that Okra pod contain appreciable amount of vital nutrients like protein, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc and low in antinutrient contents with high mineral bioavailability. Therefore, increase in the production and consumption of these nutrient-rich indigenous Okra pods will help to supplement/formulate the diets and alleviate the problems associated with malnutrition in the country. PMID:27004112

  11. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  12. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the h

  13. Efecto del raleo sobre el rendimiento de dos variedades de okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench, en el Valle de Lerma, Salta, Argentina

    Astorga, R.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of thethinning on fruit yield components in two okra (Abelmoschusesculentus (L Moench varieties. On October 20, 2008, followinga completely random design with factorial arrangement(varieties and thin a total of 40 seeds (two per hill of everyvariety were sown in the experimental unit. Thirty-eight dayslater they were thined, leaving a plant per hill, in each plot. Thefruits were harvested immature from December, 2008 untilMarch, 2009. The measured variables were: total weight offruits per plot during the reproductive period, fruit weight perplot per harvest, weight per fruit, total number of fruits duringreproductive period and number of fruits per harvest. Therewas a trend (P = 0,054 that the total weight and the weight perharvest were highest in the plots without thinning for bothvarieties. The thinning diminished significantly the number oftotal fruits and the number of fruits per harvest in both varieties,because the thinned plots were presenting half of the numberof plants. Finally, there was no significant effect of the thinningon the average weight of the fruit in any of the studiedvarieties.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto del raleo sobre los componentes del rendimiento en dos variedades de okra (Abelmoschus esculentus. El 20 de octubre de 2008, siguiendo un diseño completamente aleatorio con arreglo factorial (variedades y raleo se sembró en cada unidad experimental un total de 40 semillas (dos por golpe de siembra de la variedad correspondiente. A los 38 días, se raleó, dejando una planta por golpe de siembra, en las parcelas indicadas. Los frutos fueron cosechados inmaduros desde diciembre de 2008 hasta marzo de 2009. Las variables analizadas fueron: peso total de frutos por parcela durante todo el ciclo de producción, peso por parcela por cosecha, peso

  14. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

    Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

  15. Yellow vein mosaic virus resistant hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench)

    K. Nirosha, P. Irene Vethamoni and V. A. Sathiyamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Seven parents and 42 hybrids of okra were screened for resistance/susceptibility to yellow vein mosaic virus. The parents P1 (AE 64 (White)), P2 (AE 64 (Pink)) and P4 (AE 65 (Pink) were found complete resistance to disease. The parents P3 (AE 65 (White)), P6 (AE 70 (White)) and P7 (AE 71 (White) were found tolerant to disease. The parent P5 (AE 66 (Pink) found susceptible to disease. 42 hybrids are obtained by crossing seven parents in diallel design. Twelve out of 42 hybrids did not show any...

  16. Rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and yellow vein mosaic virus infected okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants.

    Singh, S J; Tewari, R P

    1979-01-01

    Investigations on the rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and virus (YVMV) infected okra plants showed a higher fungal population in the rhizosphere of healthy plants at preflowering and post-flowering stages than in that of diseased ones. Maximum population was observed during flowering both in healthy and diseased plant rhizosphere as well as in non-rhizosphere soil. However, virus infected plants showed a higher population at the flowering stage than healthy ones. The quantitative differences in the rhizosphere of healthy and diseased plants during flowering seem to be due to a change in C/N ratio and amino acids. The drastic reduction in diseased plant rhizospheres during the post-flowering stage may be due to either change in C/N ratio unfavourable to mycoflora or production of some toxic substances inhibiting multiplication of the mycoflora. PMID:94749

  17. Advances in breeding of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] in India

    Full text: Okra, an important vegetable of the tropics and sub-tropics is very popular in India. Its production is limited by 'yellow vein mosaic virus'. Advances in breeding for resistance to this virus have been made through inter-specific hybridisation as well as mutagenesis. Hybridisation used A. manihot ssp. manihot and ssp. tetraphyllus. New varieties showed 87-146% yield increases over older virus susceptible varieties. The number of fruits increased by 13-30%, virus incidence decreased by 84-99%. An EMS induced mutant 'EMS8' showed a yield increase of 107%, a fruit number increase of 16% and a disease decrease of 99%. The mutant also carries a good amount of resistance to the fruit borer; infestation decreased by 46%. The mutant is the best among the tested varieties for canning, is suitable for dehydration, and can be stored prepacked at room temperature for 6 days. (author)

  18. Quantitative inheritance for fruit traits in inter varietal crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Deepak Arora, Salesh Kumar Jindal and T. R. Ghai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene effects for important fruit traits of four inter-varietal crosses of okra were estimated by partitioning the means and variances of means of sixbasic generations from each cross into their genetic components to assess the gene action governing the inheritance of fruit yield and earlinessrelated traits in spring and rainy season. The additive, dominance and digenic non-allelic gene interactions were observed to govern most of thefruit traits. The non-additive gene effects were more pronounced than additive ones for most of the traits in both the environments. The evidenceof duplicate type of epistasis has been obtained for all the characters in different crosses in both the seasons. Thus for developing high yieldingokra cultivars, recurrent selection in biparental progenies would help in exploiting the duplicate type of non-allelic interactions and allowrecombination and concentration of genes having cumulative effects in population.

  19. Genetic analysis for fruit yield and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    P. K. Akotkar and D. K. De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The components of gene effects for yield and its components in okra were studied using generation mean analysis from six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 derived from six different genotypes. Joint scaling test was applied to detect the presence of epistasis. Epistasis was detected in both the cases. Prevalence of duplicate type of epistasis was observed in all the cases except number of fruits/ plant, fruit length in C1 (IC 3307 x IC 433645, fruit diameter, inter node length in C2 (IC- 43736 x Parbhani Kranti, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit weight in C3 (IC-342075 X IC-332453. Additive, dominance and epistatic gene effects contribute significantly to the inheritance of various yield characters studied. The joint scaling test confirmed the inadequacy of the additive dominance model in most of the crosses for majority of the characters and indicated the presence of epistasis. Low narrow sense heritability values for most of the characters indicating that these characters are more influenced by the environment and they cannot be improved by simple selection.

  20. Yellow vein mosaic virus resistant hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    K. Nirosha, P. Irene Vethamoni and V. A. Sathiyamurthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven parents and 42 hybrids of okra were screened for resistance/susceptibility to yellow vein mosaic virus. The parents P1 (AE 64 (White, P2 (AE 64 (Pink and P4 (AE 65 (Pink were found complete resistance to disease. The parents P3 (AE 65 (White, P6 (AE 70 (White and P7 (AE 71 (White were found tolerant to disease. The parent P5 (AE 66 (Pink found susceptible to disease. 42 hybrids are obtained by crossing seven parents in diallel design. Twelve out of 42 hybrids did not show any symptom of YVMV and were P1 x P2, P1 x P3, P1 x P4, P1 x P5, P1 x P7, P2 x P1, P2 x P4, P4 x P1, P4 x P2, P4 x P3, P4 x P5 and P4 x P7. Eight hybrids viz., P2 x P3, P3 x P1, P3 x P2, P3 x P4, P4 x P6, P5 x P1, P6 x P4 and P7 x P4 were highly resistant to the YVMV disease with the incidence of 7.14, 3.57, 7.14, 7.14, 7.14, 3.57, 3.57 and 3.57 per cent respectively at 105 DAS.

  1. Heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression and heritability study in okra(Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Khanorkar S.M and K. B. Kathiria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations of six crosses viz., HRB-55 x AOL-05-4, VRO-5 x Red Long, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3, GO-2 x AOL-04-3, Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 were used to study heterobeltiosis,inbreeding depression and heritability for days to first flowering, days to first picking, plant height, primary branches perplant, stem girth, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant in okra (A. esculentus (L.Moench. HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 showed heterobeltiosis in desirable direction for almost all the fruit yield and itscontributing characters particularly, 94.06 per cent for fruit yield per plant and 86.12 per cent fruits per plant. Moderate tohigh narrow sense heritability was observed for primary branches per plant in the crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E1,VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 (E2; fruit girth in the crosses VRO-5 x Red Long (E1, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1 and Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 (E1; fruit weight in the crosses HRB-55 xAOL-05-4 (E2, VRO-5 x Red Long (E1 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E2. The highest heritability identified 99.35 per centfor fruit length in the cross HRB-55 x AOL-05-4. The results of heterosbeltiosis revealed that the cross HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 may be exploited for fruit yield and its component traits. The positive and significant inbreeding depressionobserved for days to first flowering in cross, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1 and E2 and for days to first picking in the crossesHRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E2, VRO-5 x Red Long (E2, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E2 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 (E2. Thisindicates to obtain desirable segregants for earliness in subsequent segregating generations. The negative and significantinbreeding depression which is desirable for okra crop improvement also observed for different traits across theenvironments viz., twelve cases each in the crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 and VRO-5 x Red Long; four cases in crossVRO-6 x AOL-05-3; eight

  2. Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seed and Oil

    J.M. Nzikou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1 (Blye and Dyer.The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet to 21.98%(Blye & Dyer. The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters,unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differential scanning calorimetry w eredetermined. Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds have ash content of 5.68% (with the presence of followingminerals: Ca, M g, K and N a. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especiallyoleic (up to 24.89% and linoleic (up to 42.78%. Abelmoschus esculentus L. oil can be classified in theoleic-linoleic acid group. The dominant saturated acid w as palmitic (up to 25.79%. Abelmoschus esculentusL. seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (24.85%. The content of insaponifiables is1.53%. Taking into account these results, the gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. finds its applications in thefood and cosmetic industry.

  3. Effect of Storage Conditons on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Fresh Okra (Abelmoschus esculenta Fruits

    D.I. Gernah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage conditions on some physico-chemical and microbiological qualities of fresh okra were determined and compared. Fresh okra fruits were stored in open plates and sealed polyethylene bags in the refrigerator (F1, F2, on the shelf in the laboratory (S1, S2 and in the open sun (O1, O2 respectively for a period of nine (9 days. The moisture content, viscosity, microbiological composition and sensory properties of the stored fruits were determined on a daily basis during the period of storage. The moisture content and viscosity decreased during storage from 92.00% and 700 cP in fresh okra to 35.50% and 100 cP in okra stored in open plates in the sun (O2, respectively. On the other hand, bacterial count increased from 2.27x104 CFU/mL in fresh okra to 2.72x105 CFU/mL in okra stored in polyethylene bag in the sun (O2, while okra stored in open plates on the shelf (S1 had the highest mould count of 9.0x104 CFU/mL. Okra stored in polyethylene bag in the refrigerator (F2 had the highest moisture content of 84.50%, viscosity of 440 cP and the lowest bacterial and mould counts of 1.15x104 and 4.0x103 CFU/mL, respectively. Mean sensory scores in respect of colour, smell, texture and general acceptability showed that samples stored in the refrigerator scored higher in all attributes and had higher acceptability at the end of the storage period, which compared favourably with fresh okra fruits.

  4. Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny

    Ikram-ul-HAQ; Asif Ali KHAN; Iqrar Ahmad KHAN; Muhammad Abubakkar AZMAT

    2012-01-01

    The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage.An 80 mmol/L NaCI concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes.The pooled ranking of the genotypes,based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length,germination percentage,and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations,was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes.Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCI during plant ontogeny,suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective.Among 39 okra genotypes,five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant,high-yield okra cultivars.

  5. Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Muhammad Tariq

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticides, Cascade (insect growth regulator and Pressurized water spray (M. Y. strategy was evaluated against insect pests of okra. Cascade was found to be the best efficient against Helicoverpa armigera and Earias spp. Pirate showed maximum efficacy against Amrasca biguttula biguttula, whereas, against Bemisia tabaci, the most effective treatment was Azodrin followed by M.Y. strategy.

  6. Influence of Wastewater Application and Fertilizer use on Growth, Photosynthesis, Nutrient Homeostatis, Yield and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Neelima Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl¯, Ca++, Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater (GW. The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120 proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for the cultivation of okra.

  7. Effect of Monocrotophos and Methamidophos on Jassid, Amrasca devastans
    (Distant in Different Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cultivars

    Munir Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two commonly used insecticides, Methamidophos 60SL @ 1000ml/ha and Monocrotophos 40WSC @ 1500 ml/ha were evaluated on Amrasca devastans L. during 1999 on Pusa Swani, Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma okra varieties. Both insecticides provided effective control of Jassid and kept the population below economic threshold level up to ten days after insecticidal application. However, Methamidophos 60SL proved better on Pusa Swani as compared to Monocrotophos 40WSC, which decreased jassid population on Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma, respectively.

  8. Effect of different levels of nitrogen alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cv. T-13 under the agro-climatic conditions of Mingora, Swat

    Humayun Khan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation were undertaken to study the effect of different level of nitrogen (0,100,120,140 kg ha-1 alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorous (90 kg ha-1 on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cv.T-13 at Agriculture Research Station (North Mingora, Swat during 1997. Maximum plant height (185 cm, number of pods per plant (24.59 pod length (12.63 cm, and the highest yield per hectare (16950.79 kg was recorded on the plots fertilized with 120:90:60 kg ha-1. No significance differences were observed in days to emergence, flowering, and first picking respectively.

  9. Urea polymer coated with controlled release in physiological quality okra seeds

    Miquéias de Oliveira Assis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of urea coated with controlled release polymer in the seed quality of okra cultivar Santa Cruz 47.The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications.The experiment consisted of two parts. At first, we evaluated four doses of nitrogen (0, 48, 96, and 144 kg ha-1 applied using as a source, a commercial mixture containing 30% urea and 70% common urea polymer controlled release. In the second part, we tested the effect of two nitrogen sources, urea and conventional urea polymer controlled release at a dose of 120 kg ha-1. In the first part, the treatment means were compared by regression analysis and the second, the “t” test at 5%. To evaluate the physiological quality of seeds, the following tests and / or determinations were carried out: moisture, seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings, and electrical conductivity. The seed quality of okra cultivar Santa Cruz 47, reduces to the application of doses of conventional commercial mixture containing urea and urea polymer coated controlled release. The nitrogen sources used did not affect the physiological quality of seeds of okra.

  10. Growth, yield and seed production of okra as influenced by different growth regulators

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) affect various aspects of plant physiology, mainly vegetative and reproductive traits including yield and seed production. Therefore, different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of gibberellic acid (GA3) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), alone or in different combinations were sprayed on okra plants at 2-true leaf stage, to ascertain their impact on plant growth, pod production, seed yield and seed quality. All variables regarding vegetative and reproductive growth were significantly influenced by different concentrations of the growth regulators except number of days taken to flowering. Growth regulators were less effective when applied individually as compared to their combined use; however, performance of plants treated with individual PGR was better than the untreated plants. The number of leaves plant/sup -1/ and plant height was higher in plants when sprayed with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+100 ppm as well as with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. The number of pods plant/sup -1/, pod length, pod fresh and dry weight, seed yield and seed quality (in terms of germination percentage and 1000-seed weight) was maximum in plants receiving foliar spray of both GA3 and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. These results signify the role of GA/sub 3/ and NAA in okra pod production for fresh consumption as well as for seed yield. (author)

  11. Volatile organic nitrogen-containing constituents in ambrette seed Abelmoschus moschatus Medik (Malvaceae).

    Du, Zhizhi; Clery, Robin A; Hammond, Christopher J

    2008-08-27

    A detailed investigation of the basic fraction of a CO2 extract of ambrette seeds (Abelmoschus moschatus) revealed a total of 58 nitrogen-containing compounds. The identification of these compounds was carried out by GC-MS and NMR. All the identified nitrogen-containing compounds are reported here for the first time in ambrette seeds. Among these are 27 pyrazine derivatives and 12 pyridines, including the tentative identification of four new natural compounds, 1-(6-ethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)ethanone (1), 1-(3-hydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)ethanone (2), 1-(3-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethanone (3), and 1-(3-hydroxy-5-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethanone (4). The odor of the basic fraction was assumed to be due to these pyrazines and pyridines and also the presence of seven thiazoles. The odors described suggest that these N-compounds contribute to what is described in perfumery terms as the "natural and rounded" character of the ambrette extract. PMID:18656937

  12. Influence of Some Soil Amendments on Insect Pest Infestation and Damage to Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench in Umudike, Abia State

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment to determine the effect of three soil amendments (Poultry manure, goat manure and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on insect pest infestation and damage to Okra (Oboro dwarf variety was conducted in 2006 at Umudike, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three treatments and control replicated five times. During the experiment, application of poultry manure and goat manure at 50g/plant and 20g/plant of NPK 15:15:15 were applied two weeks after planting in a ring form. Results obtained showed that the application of goat manure and poultry manure generally, significantly reduced the prevalence of Podagrica spps with regards to plant height and leaf area of Okra. The application of NPK 15:15:15 may have promoted vegetative growth of Okra, making it more succulent and thereby enhancing high pest attack, survival and damage of the Okra. Hence, increasing the application rates of the different soil amendments may have significant increase on the yield as well as reduce pest invasion.

  13. Chemical, physical and biological features of Okra pectin

    Sengkhamparn, N.

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, many plants have been used as vegetables as well as for traditional medicine. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is an example of such a plant. Examples for the medical use are treatment of gastric irritation, treatment of dental diseases, lowering cholesterol level and preventing cancer. These biological activities are ascribed to polysaccharide structures of okra in particular pectin structures. However, the precise structure of okra pectins and also of other polysacchar...

  14. Qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro em função da idade e do repouso pós-colheita dos frutos Okra seed quality as a function of age and fruit post harvest rest

    Márcia Maria Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCA-UNESP, em Botucatu (SP, objetivando-se estudar o efeito da idade do fruto e o período de repouso pós-colheita sobre a qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.. No dia da antese, as flores foram etiquetadas e os frutos foram colhidos com 34, 41, 48 e 55 dias após a antese (DAA. Para cada idade, em metade dos frutos as sementes foram extraídas imediatamente e a outra metade ficou em repouso por quatorze dias, antes da extração das sementes. Para verificar a qualidade das sementes os seguintes testes foram realizados: teor de água no dia da extração das sementes, massa de 100 sementes, teste de germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e condutividade elétrica. Pode-se concluir que o armazenamento para qualquer idade do fruto melhora o vigor das sementes. Para germinação final, o armazenamento é favorável quando os frutos são colhidos ainda novos (34 e 41 DAA.The work was carried out at FCA-UNESP, in Botucatu (SP, with the aim of studying the effect of fruit age and post harvest rest on quality of okra seeds cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.. At the day of the anthesis, the flowers were labeled and fruits were picked with 34,41,48 and 55 days after the anthesis (DAA. For each age, in half of the fruits the seeds were immediately extracted and the another half was stored for fourteen days before seed extraction. To verify the quality of seeds the following tests were accomplished: seed water content at extraction, weight of 100 seeds, germination test, first counted of germinated seeds and eletrical conductivity. It may be concluded that the fruit storage for any fruit age increases seed vigour, and for final germination, the rest is favorable when fruits are picked still new (34 and 41 DAA.

  15. Germination and hardseedness of seeds in okra elite lines Germinação e dureza de sementes em linhas elite de quiabo

    Luis Felipe V Purquerio; Antonio A. do Lago; Francisco Antonio Passos

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of hardseedness and the low percentage of seed germination are major challenges when growing okra. For this reason, five elite lines of okra developed at the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC), three with angular pods (lines 8.1, 20.1.2 and 47.1) and two with cylindrical pods (lines 13.1.2 and 20.1.R), were evaluated for seed quality and compared to two commercial seed samples (Horticeres Sementes and Sakata Seed Sudamerica) of cultivar Santa Cruz 47. Seeds were field produced ...

  16. Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India

    Venkataravanappa V; Lakshminarayana Reddy CN; Swaranalatha P; Jalali Salil; Briddon Rob W; Reddy M Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae) is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, sympt...

  17. Pre-germinative treatments in okra seeds in different stadiums of fruit maturationTratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de quiabo em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto

    Célia Maria Peixoto de Macedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the pre-soak and of the thermotherapy in the germination and in the energy of the okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus in different stadiums of maturation of the fruit. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5 x 9, five maturation stadiums (green, semi-hard, hard, dry and dehiscent and nine treatments pre-germination: pre-soak for immersion of the seeds in water to the temperature of 30ºC for 6, 12 and 24 hours; immersion of the seeds in water to 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC for 3 minutes; thermotherapy for immersion of the seeds in water to the ebullition temperature (97ºC until cooling and intact seeds (control. The seeds were sowed in paper-towel rolls and they were maintained in camera type BOD regulated to 20-30ºC and photoperiod of 8-16 hours. The okra seeds originating from dry and dehiscent fruits presented larger germination performance. The pre-germination treatments more effective to accelerate the germination of seeds obtained from dry and dehiscent fruits are the pre-soak for 6 hours and thermotherapy at 60 °C for 3 minutes, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da pré-embebição e da termoterapia na germinação e no vigor das sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 5 x 9, cinco estádios de maturação (verde, semi-duro, duro, seco e deiscente e nove tratamentos pré-germinativos: pré-embebição por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de 30ºC por 6, 12 e 24 horas; imersão das sementes em água a 40, 50, 60 e 70ºC por 3 minutos; termoterapia por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de ebulição (97ºC até esfriar e sementes intactas (testemunha. As sementes foram semeadas em rolos de papel-toalha que foram mantidos em câmara tipo

  18. Differential Responses for Harvesting Times and Storage on Hardness of Different Varieties of Okra

    Ghadir MOHAMMADI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Okra seed hardness results in slow and nonuniform germination. This study was conducted to determine the effects of time of harvest and storage on seed germination of four different cultivars of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The study was carried out at Agricultural faculty of Razi University in years 2009 and 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block under factorial arrangement with three replications. Four different cultivars of okra included, �Boiatloy�, �Beloudo�, �Clemsson Seinless� and �Pleas� and six harvesting times of 20-25-30-35-40 and 50 days after flowering were considered in the present study. The results showed that seed germination increased in 2009 from 3.4%, at first harvesting time, to 46.4% at fifth harvesting time, and in 2010 from 2.9%, at the first harvesting time, to 49.7% at fifth harvesting time. Different cultivars varied in seed germination. In 2009 �Plea� and in 2010 �Clemson� cultivars showed the highest germination. Seeds from different parts of the plant also showed different germination rate. In 2009 seeds from the middle part of the plant with 54.3% and in 2010 seed from the lower part with 50.3 % showed the highest germination. In 2009 seeds from the lower part of pod showed more germination, whereas in 2010 seeds from middle part of pod produced higher germination. By increasing time to harvest, the percentage of seed germination after storage highly increased. Different cultivars during storage showed different behaviors on germination. �Beloudo� cultivar produced more seed germination than other varieties after storage, and �Pleas� after storage produced lower seed germination. Seeds from the middle part of plant and middle part of pod showed a higher germination after storage.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Extract and Its Major Constituents from Okra Seed on Rat Hepatocytes Injured by Carbon Tetrachloride

    Lianmei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1→6 glucoside (QDG and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG. TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.

  20. Chemical, physical and biological features of Okra pectin

    Sengkhamparn, N.

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, many plants have been used as vegetables as well as for traditional medicine. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is an example of such a plant. Examples for the medical use are treatment of gastric irritation, treatment of dental diseases, lowering cholesterol level and preven

  1. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    Danso, E O; Abenney-Mickson, S; Sabi, E B;

    2015-01-01

    yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha−1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation...... uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the...... and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not...

  2. Protective Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus Against Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Wistar Strain Rats.

    Mishra, Neetu; Kumar, Dileep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) has been reported to possess many important biological properties. We undertook in vivo studies on male Wistar rats to examine the antioxidative potential of okra in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic rats. Okra extract was administered to control and diabetic rats for 35 consecutive days. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity (p diabetes for prevention of oxidative stress-mediated complications. PMID:27065051

  3. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  4. Selection for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Disease of Okra by Induced Mutation

    Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production for both exporting and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of two okra varieties, Annie and Okura, were irradiated with Gamma-rays at doses of 400 and 600Gy. Screening of YVMD resistant plants was conducted for M3 and M4 plants under field conditions in Petchaburi and Phichit provinces, and greenhouse conditions using whitefly transmission in Bangkok. One M4 plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400Gy was found to be highly resistant, but none of Annie. M5 plants of B-21 were screened further for YVMD resistance under both greenhouse and field conditions. Ten resistant lines obtained by screening for YVMD resistance up to the M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS), both located in the northern Thailand. Three of the mutant lines were further tested at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi province, an okra growing area in the west of central Thailand where YVMD was seriously widespread. At the KHRC, all tested mutant lines showed resistance up to a month, when the susceptible check variety already showed symptoms of the disease. However, only a small portion of the plants of the mutant lines appeared to be resistant throughout the whole growth duration; others eventually exhibited the yellow vein symptom. Plants were further screened in two growers' fields. Growers were satisfied with the plant stature and fruit shape of the mutants and their delayed disease development, and further screening is underway to select uniformly YVMD resistant lines for okra production in Kanchanaburi. (author)

  5. Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug

    Ogaji Ikoni; Nnoli Obiageli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time were evaluated. Aqueous coating suspensions of okra gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.6%w/v) were prepared and used to coat the tablets in Hi-co...

  6. An Overview of Okra Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Srinivasababu, Nadendla

    2015-05-01

    Increasing attention towards “sustainable environment” invited the development of new materials to satisfy the needs of the public with less/no damage on surroundings. In this regard a specific attempt is made by the author to do review and understand the performance of the variable vegetable fibres of okra which is botanically called ‘Abelmoschus Esculentus’ and their composites under various conditions of load. Further the results exist in the literature are also reviewed for the purpose of comparison.

  7. Some effects of feeding Tribulus terrestris, Ipomoea lonchophylla and the seed of Abelmoschus ficulneus on fetal development and the outcome of pregnancy in sheep.

    Walker, D; Bird, A; Flora, T; O'Sullivan, B

    1992-01-01

    Pregnant ewes and their fetuses were chronically catheterized using aseptic procedures under general anaesthesia, and the ewes were then fed either lucerne chaff alone, or lucerne mixed with dried plant material obtained from one of three forb species, Tribulus terrestris (caltrop), Abelmoschus ficulneus (native rosella) or Ipomoea lonchophylla (cowvine), from 103-112 days gestation until term. Ingestion of the forb material was not associated with changes in maternal blood gases, plasma glucose concentrations, or the length of gestation. However, ingestion of rosella seed was associated with a significantly greater fall of fetal arterial pO2 with advancing gestation, and ingestion of either rosella or cowvine was associated with significantly lower fetal mean arterial pressure at 127-131 days, compared with the Tribulus and lucerne groups. Also, the incidence of fetal breathing movements was significantly lower, and did not show a normal day-night variation, in each of the forb-fed groups compared with the lucerne-fed group. The results indicate that these forb plants may contain substances that affect the functional development of the fetal brain. Although ingestion of these plants did not appear to affect the outcome of pregnancy in this study, the possibility that these forbs have a greater impact in sheep populations with poor nutrition and in more extreme environmental conditions is discussed. PMID:1438942

  8. Genotypic performance, character correlations and path analysis of pod yield in Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev. Stevels

    Christopher O. Alake

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct selection based on pod yield is often a problem in West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev. Stevels breeding programs. Information on inter-relationships among traits to implement indirect selection for pod yield is needed. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of West African okra varieties in two cropping seasons prevailing in Nigeria, and to determine the associations among main agronomic characters and their influence on pod yield. Twenty-five genotypes were grown in two planting seasons at the Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 2008-2009 using a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Sixteen plant characters were measured. The data were subjected to variance, correlation and path analyses. Four genotypes, viz., CEN 010, CEN 012, NGAE-96-04 and AGA 97/066-5780 demonstrated potential for high pod yield. CEN 012 and AGA 97/066-5780 in addition, demonstrated early flowering higher number of pods. Character associations varied between planting seasons. The dependence of pod yield on final plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per branch, number of pods per plant, number of ridges per pod, weight of 250 seeds, pod length and seed weight per plant was noted in both planting seasons. In both seasons, number of pods per plant exhibited a high positive direct effect on pod yield. In conclusion, the trait of most interest for improving pod yield under early and late-season conditions was number of pods per plant.

  9. Effect of plant growth regulators on the quality of bast fibres in Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench.

    Fathima, M; A Balasubramanian

    2006-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn) Moench. vernacularly variously called okra, bhindi or ladies’ fingers, is a vegetable crop and a source of soft fibre which has not been commercially exploited. The use of its fibre as an admixture with jute and also in paper and cardboard manufacture is already documented. The present investigation highlights the effect of plant growth regulators like gibberelic acid (GA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on the quality of bast fibres in A. esculentus. The fibre...

  10. Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India

    Venkataravanappa V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. Results The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein, were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB. This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect βC1 gene. βC1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity

  11. Optimization of microwave-assisted hot air drying conditions of okra using response surface methodology.

    Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, Suresh; Murthy, Ganti S

    2014-02-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was dried to a moisture level of 0.1 g water/g dry matter using a microwave-assisted hot air dryer. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the drying conditions based on specific energy consumption and quality of dried okra. The drying experiments were performed using a central composite rotatable design for three variables: air temperature (40-70 °C), air velocity (1-2 m/s) and microwave power level (0.5-2.5 W/g). The quality of dried okra was determined in terms of color change, rehydration ratio and hardness of texture. A second-order polynomial model was well fitted to all responses and high R(2) values (>0.8) were observed in all cases. The color change of dried okra was found higher at high microwave power and air temperatures. Rehydration properties were better for okra samples dried at higher microwave power levels. Specific energy consumption decreased with increase in microwave power due to decrease in drying time. The drying conditions of 1.51 m/s air velocity, 52.09 °C air temperature and 2.41 W/g microwave power were found optimum for product quality and minimum energy consumption for microwave-convective drying of okra. PMID:24493879

  12. STUDY OF CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE IN SEEDS OF CORN,

    Ana Cláudia Rebessi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an agrochemical from the group of phosphonates, which is widely used as a herbicide. Although it kills almost any plant, it can be used to eliminate weeds during the growth of crops that are resistant to glyphosate. This research aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of the herbicide in a study using as test organism seeds of maize (Zea mays, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench and arugula (Eruca sativa. The toxicological testing was to use a paper towel dampened with a sample of glyphosate and twenty seeds evenly distributed in containers with lids, left in a dry and airy place, and watered once a day for 5 days. It was possible to check the toxic effect of glyphosate for corn seeds at concentrations above 90 mg.L-1, for okra seeds at concentrations above 75 mg L-1 and arugula seeds in concentrations above 2 mg L - 1. Thus it was concluded that the seeds studied showed a high sensitivity with the possibility to be applied in toxicity testing, representing a simple and low cost.

  13. Effect of endophytic pseudomonas aeruinosa and trichoderma harzianum on soil-borne diseases, mycorrhizae and induction of systemic resistance in okra grown in soil amended with vernonia anthelmintica (L.) seeds powder

    Biostimulants are used in agricultural practices for plant growth improvement. These fertilizers improve microbial activity and cause a negative impact on soil-borne pathogens. In recent years, stimulating plant natural defense is considered as most promising alternative strategy for crop productivity. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum in soil amendment with Vernonia anthelmintica seeds powder, on root rotting fungi, plant growth, mycorrhizal population around roots, phosphorous uptake and stimulation of plant defense markers like poylphenol and antioxidant status in okra. Combine application of Vernonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum significantly (p<0.05) suppressed Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum with complete reduction of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil significantly reduced nematode galls on roots. Organic amendment also improved plant resistance against root diseases as evident from enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capacity and polyphenol content in treated plants as compare to control. VA Mycorrhizal spores were found significantly (p<0.05) higher in number around roots received Pseudomonas aeruginosa or T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil. Whereas, higher concentrations of phosphorus in okra shoots were found in plants received biocontrol agents in amended soil. Mixed application of PGPR and T. harzianum in amended soil produced tallest plants than other treatments. Soil amendment with Vernonia seed powder alone or with biocontrol agents offer a non-chemical means of plant disease control. (author)

  14. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Marcelo Picanço; Gulab Newandram Jham; Márcio Dionízio Moreira

    2005-01-01

    The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density...

  15. Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug

    Ogaji Ikoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time were evaluated. Aqueous coating suspensions of okra gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.6%w/v were prepared and used to coat the tablets in Hi-coater. The coated tablets were evaluated for weight uniformity, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and moisture uptake at controlled humidity. The coating remained intact, durable, and resistant to chipping when challenged to catastrophic fall or rubbed on a white paper. The coated tablets had lower friability, increased disintegration time (24 min compared to the core (3 min and improved hardness, but there was no difference in the dissolution profile of the samples from the batches containing okra and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as film formers. Changes were observed in some of the physicochemical properties of the formulations containing okra gum as with the known film former and it was convenient to conclude that these changes were due to the effect of the mechanical properties of the film formers. It was our conclusion that okra gum is a promising natural, biodegradable, cheap and eco-friendly film former in aqueous tablet film coating operation, particularly when masking of taste or objectionable odor in a solid dosage formulation is desired.

  16. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  17. Molecular characterization of distinct bipartite begomovirus infecting bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in India.

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

    2012-06-01

    Yellow vein mosaic disease of okra is a whitefly transmitted begomovirus causing heavy economic loss in different parts of India. The okra isolate (OY131) of this virus from a bhendi plant [(Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench] showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting, reduced leaves, and a bushy appearance in the Palem region, New Delhi, India, was characterized in the present study. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B sequences have been determined and are comprised of 2,746 and 2,703 nucleotides, respectively. The betasatellite (DNA-β) component was absent in the sample. The genome organization was typically of biparite begomoviruses, which were characterized earlier. Comparison of DNA-A component with other known begomoviruses suggest that this virus, being only distantly related (yellow vein mosaic Delhi virus [BYVDV-IN (India: Delhi: okra)]. DNA-B showed highest sequence identity (87.8% identical) to that of a ToLCNDV (AY158080). The phylogenetic analysis of the present isolate is distinct from all other viruses; however clusters with ToLCNDV group infect different crops. The recombination analysis revealed that this isolate has sequences originated from ToLCNDV. This is the first known bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease associated bipartite begomovirus from India. PMID:22447131

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS AND INOCULUM LEVELS OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON OKRA

    Sultan A. Maitlo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among two methods of Macrophomina phaseolina inoculation used for pathogenicity test, soil infestation method comparatively checked more plant growth of okra plants than seed infestation method. Minimum plant length and weight, as well as seed germination were observed by soil infestation method. Significantly maximum plant mortality and root infection was also occurred in soil infestation method. Seed germination, plant growth, plant mortality and root infection of okra plants were adversely affected with the increasing inoculum levels of M. phaseolina. Seed germination and plant growth were negatively correlated with inoculated pathogen population; whereas, plant mortality and root infection were positively correlated with the inoculum level of M. phaseolina.

  19. Heavy metals phyto-assessment in commonly grown vegetables: water spinach (I. aquatica) and okra (A. esculentus)

    Ng, Chuck Chuan; Rahman, Md Motior; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Abas, Mhd Radzi

    2016-01-01

    The growth response, metal tolerance and phytoaccumulation properties of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were assessed under different contaminated spiked metals: control, 50 mg Pb/kg soil, 50 mg Zn/kg soil and 50 mg Cu/kg soil. The availability of Pb, Zn and Cu metals in both soil and plants were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals from soil to roots and shoots (edible parts) were evaluated...

  20. Expression de différents écotypes de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. au déficit hydrique intervenant pendant la boutonnisation et la floraison

    Sawadogo M., Zombre G., Balma D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of different ecotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under water deficit during budding and flowering phases. Despite numerous uses and its well known nutritional value, okra is cultivated on very small surfaces, on surroundings of traditional houses and often in dumping ground. To this little interest are added drought, diseases and pests that generate an important reduction of yield, leading okra to play the last roles in agricultural research programs of the country and this, despite the existence of early maturing ecotypes or resistant to some abiotic constraints. The low rate of improved varieties is the proof that it is necessary to develop strategies for participatory breeding programs that take into account farmers selection criteria including genotypes tolerant or resistant to drastic conditions such as water deficit to periods where the plant is expressing its genetic potential. Six ecotypes obtained through participatory plant breeding process in five agricultural districts of the country have been assessed for the tolerance to the drought occurring during the budding and the flowering phases. Results show that water deficit during budding phase has disastrous consequences for okra plants. The yield declines, and also the length, the number and the weight of fruits. Two types of period of flowering phases of okra plant have been observed: the period which intervenes during the accelerated growth phase of the main stem (type 1 and the one which starts once the growth of main stem begins to decline (type 2; this last type is the most frequently met. Water deficit during the phase of budding causes earlier flowering of type 2 plants and leads to delayed flowering of the type 1 plants. The best variables for discriminating okra ecotypes during water deficit are the relative water content (RWC, the length and the number of fruits. Three ecotypes (V1, V3 and V4 are chosen to be used in breeding program of okra for resistance

  1. PRODUCTIVITY OF OKRA VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY SEASONAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    M. D. KATUNG

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In northern Nigeria, two distinct season are noticeable and these are the wet (April to October and the dry (November to March seasons. Due to little or no documented work conducted to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench, this study is therefore undertaken to compare the performance of okra during the wet and the dry seasons of northern Nigeria. Two okra varieties ('White velvet' and 'Ex-Borno' were evaluated during the 1997 and 1999 wet seasons and 1997/98 and 1999/2000 dry seasons at Samaru in northern Nigeria, in order to determine their productivity. The variables measured at the reproductive stage were plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf area, days to first flower, fruit weight/plant and fruit yield (t/ha. Significant differences were observed for all variables among seasons and among varieties. The wet season conditions were most favourable for increased growth, leaf formation and fruit yield, as compared with the dry season environment which resulted in less vegetative and reproductive growth. The interaction of season x variety was highly significant for plant height, fruit weight/plant, fruit yield and significant for leaf area and number of fruits/plant. The variety 'White velvet' produced more fruits than 'Ex-Borno'.

  2. Heavy metals phyto-assessment in commonly grown vegetables: water spinach (I. aquatica) and okra (A. esculentus).

    Ng, Chuck Chuan; Rahman, Md Motior; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Abas, Mhd Radzi

    2016-01-01

    The growth response, metal tolerance and phytoaccumulation properties of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were assessed under different contaminated spiked metals: control, 50 mg Pb/kg soil, 50 mg Zn/kg soil and 50 mg Cu/kg soil. The availability of Pb, Zn and Cu metals in both soil and plants were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals from soil to roots and shoots (edible parts) were evaluated in terms of translocation factor, accumulation factor and tolerance index. Okra recorded the highest accumulation of Pb (80.20 mg/kg) in its root followed by Zn in roots (35.70 mg/kg) and shoots (34.80 mg/kg) of water spinach, respectively. Different accumulation trends were observed with, Pb > Zn > Cu in okra and Zn > Pb > Cu in water spinach. Significant differences (p Malaysian Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985 (2006) as well as the international Codex Alimentarius Commission limits. This study has shown that both water spinach and okra have good potential as Pb and Zn phytoremediators. PMID:27119073

  3. Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria

    Adewole Moses B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO, compost organic fertilizer (OR, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05 higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

  4. Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot

    WANG Xiao-fei; ZHOU Qi-xing

    2005-01-01

    Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium(Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p < 0.05) inhibitory effects of Cd on root elongation of the tested plant. When the concentration of added Cd was low( < 20 mg/L), significant antagonistic effects on root elongation were observed. And synergic effects were observed when Cd was added in high dose( > 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd.

  5. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis) Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays), Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus) and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum)

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI; Kehinde Stephen OLORUNMAIYE

    2014-01-01

    This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) with maize (Zea mays Linn.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum). This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely ran...

  6. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3 ~ 12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9 ~ 2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  7. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in okra germplasm

    Frederick Mendes Aguiar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available – Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’. Inoculation (in all assays was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates (‘Fus-194’ and ‘Fus-201’. Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-194’ during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-201’. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to ‘Fus-194’, and 32% were resistant to ‘Fus-201’. The accessions ‘Santa Cruz-47’, ‘BR-2399’ and ‘BR-1449’ were the most promising resistance sources.

  8. Impact Of Chlorpyriphos On The Morphological Parameters Of Cauliflower, Tomato And Okra

    Mosmi Raina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to work out the effect of a wide spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, chlorpyriphos (O, O-Diethyl O- 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate on the morphological features of three commonly grown vegetables in the study area i.e. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, Variety: Snowball 16, Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Variety: Pusa Ruby and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L., Variety: Pusa Sawani. Results revealed that on an average, the impact of chlorpyriphos on various morphological parameters of all the three vegetables have been statistically insignificant (using t- Test except for height of the plants in cauliflower treated with double the recommended dose which exhibited a significant decrease and weight of the head in cauliflower treated with recommended dose of chlorpyriphos which showed a significant increase. Also in okra total number of flowers/plant at treatment with both the dosages along with total number of fruits/plant at treatment with the recommended dose has exhibited statistically significant increase.

  9. Single and interactive effects of root-knot nematode and coal-smoke on okra

    Khan, M.R.; Khan, M.W. (Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1994-02-01

    Effects of coal-smoke pollutants and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1, singly and jointly, were investigated on okra, Abelmoschus esculentus in 1988 and 1989. Plants in clay pots were placed at two sites (K1 and K2), 1 and 2 km away from the stack of a coal-fired thermal power plant, and also at a control site. The mean concentrations of SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2] and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 141, 76 and 309 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K1, and 184, 93 and 205 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K2, but the concentrations of the pollutants at the control site were very low. Okra plants at the K2 site showed browning of the leaves, whereas injury was mild at K1. The intensity of the browning and the impact of nematode disease was appreciably higher in the infected plants at the polluted sites in both the years. The plants grown at the two sites exhibited suppressions in plant growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments, particularly at K2. M. incognita at the control site also cause significant reductions, but joint effects of the nematode and coal-smoke were synergistic.

  10. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  11. Combining ability studies in okra (abelmoschus esculentus (l. moench for yield and its component characters

    J.P. Bhatt, K.B. Kathiria, S. S. Christian and R. R. Acharya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted with 28 F1s developed through diallel hybridization technique excluding reciprocals along with eight parents in RBD with three replications. The gca and sca mean squares were significant for all the traits except gca mean square for fruit length. The ratio of gca and sca variances indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene effect for inheritance of all the traits. Genotypes AOL-09-25 and GO-2 showed good general combining ability for fruit yield appear to be worthy for exploitation of segregation and varietal development. The estimates of sca effects revealed that the cross combinations AOL-09-25 x AOL-09-26, GO-2 x AOL-09-28 and AOL-08-10 x AOL-08-2 were observed most promising for fruit yield and some of its related traits.

  12. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM; Hazim Abd El-Rahman OBIADALLA ALI

    2012-01-01

    The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74%) was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82%) and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%). Neem seed oil...

  13. Effect of electromagnetic field on okra (Hibiscus sculentus L. developmental stages and the effect of okra extract on breast cancer cells

    Z. Hasani Sadrabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields can act as stress factors with different effects on biological systems. Due to the nutritional and medicinal values, and the increasing electromagnetic radiations, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field on the developmental stages and cytotoxic properties of okra. Methods: Both dry and wet seeds were exposed to electromagnetic field with the intensities of 2 and 4 mT for 60 minutes. MTT assay was applied to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of okra extract on MCF-7 cell line. The anatomical structure of leaves in both treated and untreated (control plants were examined. Results: The results showed that a field intensity of 4 mT increased the speed of germination of wet treated seeds and the stem length of dry treated seeds. MTT assay revealed no cytotoxicity of the aqueous extracts of okra pods up to the concentration of 100 μg/mL from either the treated or the control plants towards the MCF-7 cell line. Conclusion: The results suggest that the electromagnetic fields would be able to increase the speed of germination without effects on percentage of germination.

  14. Combining ability in bhindi [ Abelmoschus spp.

    Divya Balakrishnan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability was estimated for six diverse okra genotypes or varieties by diallel analysis. The combininganalysis revealed that Arka Anamika was found to be a good general combiner for fruit number, fruit weight and fruit length.KL9 showed high gca for days to first flowering, internode number and fruit weight. In this study, it was observed thatpresence of overdominance for most of the yield contributing traits

  15. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    Reynaud Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF, we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1 molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB (88 to 98% nucleotide identity. One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA (89% nucleotide identity, whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity, provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA. Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009 and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765. Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD.

  16. Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Srinivasababu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2 okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

  17. Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Srinivasababu; K. Murali Mohan Rao; J.Suresh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2) okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

  18. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    2012-02-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... possible revisions to the United States Standards for Grades of Okra. AMS has been reviewing the Fresh... identified the United States ] Standards for Grades of Okra for possible revisions. AMS would remove...

  19. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

  20. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  1. A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.

    K.K. Rewatkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Abelmoschus manihot (L. commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm count on sexually normal male mice. Two doses i.e. 100and 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract administered to Swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency.The result of the present study signatured for sexual enhancing capacity of the drug Abelmoschus manihot is an individual and also holds good aphrodisiac property when compared with standard drug. It was noticed that a 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect. Therefore, the conclusion suggestive that the Abelmoschus manihot will be a drug of choice or alternative therapy for a marketed product. Which may help the population to lead their sexual life perfectly with full of pleasure to interact body, mind and sole.

    Keywords: Abelmoschus manihot, Aphrodisiac, Mounting frequency, Intromission frequency, Penile erection index.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence and experimental host range of Okra mosaic virus.

    Stephan, Dirk; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Ta Hoang, Anh; Engelmann, Jill; Winter, Stephan; Maiss, Edgar

    2008-02-01

    Okra mosaic virus (OkMV) is a tymovirus infecting members of the family Malvaceae. Early infections in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) lead to yield losses of 12-19.5%. Besides intensive biological characterizations of OkMV only minor molecular data were available. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a Nigerian isolate of OkMV. The complete genomic RNA (gRNA) comprises 6,223 nt and its genome organization showed three major ORFs coding for a putative movement protein (MP) of M r 73.1 kDa, a large replication-associated protein (RP) of M r 202.4 kDa and a coat protein (CP) of M r 19.6 kDa. Prediction of secondary RNA structures showed three hairpin structures with internal loops in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) which comprises the anticodon for valine, typical for a member of the genus Tymovirus. Phylogenetic comparisons based on the RP, MP and CP amino acid sequences showed the close relationship of OkMV not only to other completely sequenced tymoviruses like Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (KYMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Erysimum latent virus (ErLV), but also to Calopogonium yellow vein virus (CalYVV), Clitoria yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Desmodium yellow mottle virus (DYMoV). This is the first report of a complete OkMV genome sequence from one of the various OkMV isolates originating from West Africa described so far. Additionally, the experimental host range of OkMV including several Nicotiana species was determined. PMID:18049886

  3. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    2010-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  4. Effect of Light Stress on Germination and Growth Parameters of Corchorus olitorius, Celosia argentea,Amaranthus cruentus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Delonix regia

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU; Adekunle Ajayi ADELUSI; Kehinde Peter ADEKOYA

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus, Amaranthus cruentus, Celosia argentea, Corchorus olitorius and Delonix regia were germinated under light and dark conditions. The germination parameters revealed that germination was higher in seeds of A. cruentus and C. olitorus under light while the seeds of D. regia germinated more in the dark. However, no major difference was observed in the germination of C. argentea and A. esculentus in light and darkness. The above findings point out that germination is...

  5. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins

    Christian Thöle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL led to reduced binding to 3ʹ-sialyl lactose, sialylated Lea and Lex. A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity.

  6. Selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease of okra by induced mutation

    Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmochus esculentus) production for both export and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were gamma-irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and planted at Huaysai King's Project in Petchaburi Province. M3 plants were screened for OYVMD (Okra YVMD) resistance under field conditions at Huaysai King's Project and Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) in Phichit Province. In addition, M4 plants were screened for OYVMD resistance under greenhouse conditions at Crop Protection Research and Development Office using whitefly transmission. None of Annie was found resistant but one plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400 Gy was found to be highly resistant. Ten resistant lines obtained through rescreening of B-21 descendants up to M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at PHRC and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS). The mutants had good stature and fruit shape but the fruits have spines on the ridges. Selections for OYVMD resistance and spineless fruits were performed at PHRC in three generations and seven of the lines were chosen for yield trial at PHRC. Three of the mutant lines were also screened for OYVMD resistance at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi Province, okra growing area, where OYVMD was seriously widespread. All mutant lines showed resistance against the local OYVMV isolates up to a month before they started showing signs of the disease. Seeds were collected from resistant individuals and planted in farmers's fields for further selection. The farmers were very satisfied with the stature and fruit shape of the mutants when tested against a commercial variety. (author)

  7. Okra Leaf Cotton, its Commercial Utilization in Sindh

    A.R. Soomro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were under taken to assess the yield, earliness and insect pest resistance of some newly developed okra leaf strains compared with normal leaf commercial varieties CRIS-9 and NIAB-78. Accordingly, almost all the okra leaf mutants yielded better than NIAB-78. Out of nine okra leaf strains, three were better yields, two equally good and four gave low yield than CRIS-9 the second check variety. Highest yielding okra leaf strain produced 27 and 35 percent higher yield than CRIS-9 and NIAB-78 respectively. Okra leaf strains were documented as early maturing, whitefly tolerant and boll rot disease resistant. Realizing the better performance of okra leaf strains with reduced insecticide applications, the commercial utilization of these varieties in Sindh can not be ignored and may prove better replacement of current cultivars.

  8. Study on the degumming process of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic fiber

    Chun-Yan Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic has drawn much attention recently due to its potential beneficial health effects. The roots, flowers and seeds of A.manihot play an important role as medical materials. In this paper, the result of the chemical composition testing shows that the main constituent of A.manihot bast of the stems is cellulose (41.80 %. A.manihot fibers are extracted from A.manihot bast by the treatment of degumming. In the degumming process, the key parameters have been optimized. The results of FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other impurities can be effectively removed by this degumming process, and the main components of A.manihot fiber was cellulose much the same as cotton, the crystallinity of A.manihot bast and fiber were 50.45% and 63.73% respectively.

  9. FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Hindustan Abdul Ahad; Mallapu Rani E; Gangadhar P; Suma Padmaja B; Lavanya G

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povid...

  10. Morphological and biochemical responses of Abelmoschus esculantus (L.) Moench to zinc nanoparticles

    Gokak, I. B.; Taranath, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing application and use of nanoparticles are directly related to their release in the environment. There has arisen the necessity to study the interactions of nanoparticles with plants and other organisms. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the morphological and biochemical responses of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench to zinc nanoparticles treatment. Seeds were treated with zinc nanoparticles at concentrations of 50 100, 200, 500 ppm. The morphological and biochemical responses recorded include germination percentage, root, shoot length, number of root hairs and number of leaves. Chlorophyll, protein, proline and carbohydrate contents in the leaves of 30-days-old treated plants were estimated. A greater amount of total dissolved solids (TDS) leached out from the seeds soaked in different concentrations of Zn nanoparticles compared to the control. Zinc nanoparticles executed a positive impact on the seed germination. The seed germination percentage increased in all the treatments compared to control. Increase in the chlorophyll and protein content was also observed in the treated plants. The proline content increased in treated plants indicating the stress. The carbohydrate content of leaves decreased drastically in response to the treatment.

  11. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays, Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. with maize (Zea mays Linn., okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum. This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with five (5 replicates. The treatments comprised of intercropping distances of 1 m, 2 m and 3 m each for the three (3 crops (maize, okra and pepper and a plot for each of the three (3 arable crops without oil palm trees as control. Weed species distribution was carried out in each of the plots to determine the Simpson’s Diversity Index (D, Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1-D and Simpson’s Reciprocal Index (1/D. Weed species’ frequency, density, relative density, relative frequency, importance value, abundance, dominance and relative dominance were also computed from data collected at 3WAP and 6WAP. The results showed that the control plot has the highest weed species distribution at 3WAP having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.0930. Okra plot has the least weed species distribution with the highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2726. At 6WAP, the pepper plot has the highest weed species distribution having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.1741. Control plot has the least weed species distribution with highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2831.

  12. Genetic variability and heritability in cultivated okra [Abel moschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    Nwangburuka, C. C.; Denton, O. A.; Khinde, O. B.; Ojo, D. K.; Popoola, A. R.

    2012-11-01

    Twenty-nine okra accessions from different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria were grown during the rainy and dry seasons, between 2006 and 2007 at Abeokuta (derived savanah) and Ilishan (rainforest) and assessed to determine their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance from eight yield related characters. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. There was high genotypic coefficient of variability, % broad-sense heritability and genetic advance in traits such as plant height (26.2, 90.7, 51.5), fresh pod length (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), fresh pod width (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), mature pod length (28.6, 98.5, 52.3), branching per plant (29.3, 82.3, 54.8) and pod weight per plant (33.9, 90.0, 63.3), suggesting the effect of additive genes and reliability of selection based on phenotype of these traits for crop improvement. The positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation between plant height at maturity, fresh pod width, seeds per pod and pods per plant, branches per plant with seed weight per plant and pod weight per plant, suggests that selection on the basis of the phenotype of these characters will lead to high seed and pod yield in okra. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. Flavonoids Derived from Abelmoschus esculentus Attenuates UV-B Induced Cell Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts Through Nrf2-ARE Pathway

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a smaller fraction of the total radiation reaching the Earth but leads to extensive damage to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and other biomolecules through formation of free radicals altering redox homeostasis of the cell. Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) has been known in Ayurveda as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, demulscent, antispasmodic, diuretic, purgative, etc. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of flavonoids from A. esculentus against UV-B-induced cell damage in human dermal fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: UV-B protective activity of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of okra was studied against UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, antioxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway. Results: Flavonoid-rich EA fraction depicted a significant antioxidant potential also showing presence of rutin. Pretreatment of cells with EA fraction (10–30 μg/ml) prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated for the 1st time that EA fraction of okra may reduce oxidative stress through Nrf2-ARE pathway as well as through endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. These results suggested that flavonoids from okra may be considered as potential UV-B protective agents and may also be formulated into herbal sunscreen for topical application. SUMMARY Flavonoid-enriched ethyl acetate (EA) fraction from A. esculentus protected against ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced oxidative DNA damageEA fraction prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, and intracellular reactive oxygen species

  14. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  15. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection and eggs (magnifying lens occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total

  16. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  17. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  18. Impact of poultry manure on fruit yield and yield components of inland valley okra (Albelmoschus esculentus L. in a forest – Savannah transition ecology of Nigeria

    Olaiya A. O.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in an inland valley at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2009 and 2010 to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus to different rates of poultry manure. The poultry manure rates were 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 120 kgha-1 NPK (20-10-10 as check and no amendment as control. All these were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with five treatments and three replicates. Data collected on growth and yield parameters were analysed using general linear model and treatment means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Application of poultry manure at 37.5 kgha-1 produced the tallest plant (58.1 cm which was significantly different from the rest treatments, it was followed by 25 kgha-1 (55.3 cm and 12.5 kgha-1 (52.5 cm and shortest plants were observed in the control. NPK produced the largest leaf area (1.36 m2plant-1 compared to other treatments. Fruit length and number of fruit plant-1 were similar among plants treated with 25 and 37.5 kgha-1. Similarly, fresh fruit weight was similar among the plants treated with 25 and 37.5 kgha-1 in the two years. It is therefore concluded that 25 kgha-1 of poultry manure may be adequate to meet the okra nutritional need in the partially depleted inland valley and can be produced twice using the residual moisture in dry season.

  19. FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Hindustan Abdul Ahad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone were prepared. The prepared tablets were found to have better pharmacopoeial parameters with low standard deviation values. The swelling behavior and release rate characteristics were studied. The in-vitro dissolution study proved that the dried Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone in combination can be used as a matrix forming polymers for making controlled release matrix tablets.

  20. Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER

    N Tavakoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w and P.V.P (22 %w/w were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

  2. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

  3. Induced mutation breeding for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus in okra

    Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were irradiated by gamma rays to induce mutations for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD). In experiment I, seeds were irradiated at 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then planted at Huaysai King's Project, Petchaburi Province. Plants with a good plant type and green pods were selected for M2 generation. M3 plants were grown at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) where YVMD was seriously widespread. 33 plants without disease symptoms were selected for further screening. By using white fly transmission under greenhouse conditions, only four lines showed no disease symptoms. They were transplanted to the field at PHRC. Only Okura irradiated at 400 Gy, designated Rd53-3 showed disease resistance. Subsequent selections were conducted under greenhouse and field conditions up to M7 generation. Twelve resistant lines showing uniformity of plant type were selected for yield trial observation. All bore reasonable yield but their fruit shape was not suitable for the export market. They will be used as parental lines in further breeding programs. In experiment II, seeds of Annie and Okura were irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and then planted at Huaysai. M2 seeds were collected by two methods, the pedigree method by collecting seeds from selected healthy plants, and then planted them at Huaysai. The other method was bulk selection and then seeds were planted at Huaysai and PHRC. The M3 generation was screened for disease resistance under greenhouse and field conditions. The plants from bulk selection were all infected. By pedigree selection, 34 and 35 lines of Annie and Okura, respectively were obtained. Screening for okra YVMD resistance under greenhouse and field conditions in M4 generation, it was found that only one plant of Okura irradiated at 400 Gy designated B-21, showed no disease symptoms. Disease resistance screenings under greenhouse and field conditions were performed during M5 to M7 generation. Ten

  4. 78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    2013-05-01

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 6772), soliciting comments regarding removing the... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of the United...

  5. 78 FR 63158 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    2013-10-23

    ... On February 9, 2012, AMS published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 6772) soliciting comments..., 2013, AMS published a second notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 25416) soliciting comments about...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra...

  6. The Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus on Blood Levels of Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus

    Khosrozadeh, Maryam; Heydari, Naval; Abootalebi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), this problem has a fast growing prevalence and, unfortunately, leaves permanent complications on different body systems. For this reasons, nowadays attentions has been paid to the traditional medicine such as Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus). The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) on blood levels of glucose in diabetes. Methods: This is a review article, which was obtained by a search in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Magiran by using keywords such as diabetes, Okra, and hypoglycemic effect. Results: Various studies on Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) showed that Abelmoscus esculentus (AE)/Okra extract has a hypoglycemic effect that helps decrease blood glucose level. Its properties can be a useful remedy to manage diabetes mellitus. In addition, it leads to inhibition of cholesterol absorption and subsequently decreases the level of lipid and fat in the blood. The results of an investigation on diabetic mice by using this material has shown the same effect and confirmed this conclusion. Conclusion: Based on the positive effects of Okra on reducing blood sugar level, the widespread use of this plant is recommended. Clearly, further research is required.

  7. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML

  8. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Okra Drying Machine

    O.K. Owolarafe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An okra dryer was designed, constructed and evaluated in this study for post-harvest processing of the fruit. The dryer consists of a heating chamber, two drying trays, a blower of 1hp, two heating elements of 2000 W each, 4 roller tyres for ease of mobility, a control box which consist of a thermostat that regulates the temperature in the dryer. The result of evaluation of the dryer in no load indicated that it was able to yield temperature very close to the preset (by the thermostat after about 3 min. The dryer was evaluated by drying okra of different thickness (5 and 10 mm, in two trays at two heights (25 and 50 cm from the bottom and at a preset temperatures of 50º and 70ºC. Moisture losses from the slices were obtained at intervals of 30, 45, 60 and 90 min. The result showed that increase in temperature from 50º to 70ºC, increases moisture loss from the slices. Slices of 5 mm thickness were observed to dry faster than 10 mm slices with those on the upper tray losing more moisture. The study further showed that slice thickness of 5 mm dried at 70ºC in the upper tray level of 60 cm from the base of the dryer are suitable for drying okra slices in the dryer.

  9. 76 FR 64001 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra

    2011-10-17

    ...The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the Department of Agriculture (USDA) has revised the United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra. The grade standards for frozen okra have been changed from a ``variables score point'' system to an ``individual attributes'' grading system. The ``dual grade nomenclature'' has been replaced with single letter grade designations and editorial......

  10. Analysis and comparison of the active components and antioxidant activities of extracts from Abelmoschus esculentus L

    Haibing Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. is a healthy vegetable belonging to the family Malvaceae. This article reports the contents of total phenolics (TP and total flavonoids (TF in 80% methanol extracts of the flower (FL, fruit (FR, leaf (L, and seed (S of A. esculentus, and in 0, 10, 30, 50, and 70% methanol eluates (ME, through the HP-20 column chromatography of 80% of the methanol fruit extract after it is defatted with petroleum and extracted with ethyl acetate. All the names of the samples are shortened for AEE-FL, AEE-FR, AEE-L, AEE-S and 0% MEF-WE, 10% MEF-WE, 30% MEF-WE, 50% MEF-WE, 70% MEF-WE respectively. In addition, the effects of the aforementioned extracts on 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging and on ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP have been evaluated. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and the enrichment fraction of A. esculentus were also evaluated by two assays, the DPPH radical-scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The content measurement of TF and TP adopts the UV-2102 PCS method, and the measurement of the antioxidant activity adopts the Infinite M 200 method. Results: The experiment results show that all the different parts and different enrichment fractions of the water extracts of A. esculentus contain phenolics and flavonoids. Through the research of antioxidant activity we know that all the parts of the methanol extracts and different enrichment fractions of water extracts in the A. esculentus have the effect of scavenging free radicals, among which the antioxidant activity in the 50% MEF-WE part is the strongest. Here, the main components of antioxidant activity must be the flavonoids and phenolics, and furthermore, we know that there is a direct relationship between the contents of flavonoids and phenolics and the antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The study suggests that A. esculentus may be the potential rich source of natural antioxidant. The

  11. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Okra Drying Machine

    Owolarafe, O. K.; Obayopo, S. O.; O. A. Amarachi; O. Babatunde; O.A. Ologunro

    2011-01-01

    An okra dryer was designed, constructed and evaluated in this study for post-harvest processing of the fruit. The dryer consists of a heating chamber, two drying trays, a blower of 1hp, two heating elements of 2000 W each, 4 roller tyres for ease of mobility, a control box which consist of a thermostat that regulates the temperature in the dryer. The result of evaluation of the dryer in no load indicated that it was able to yield temperature very close to the preset (by the thermostat) after ...

  12. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  13. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  14. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    Sheikh Hasna Habib; Hossain Kausar; Halimi Mohd Saud

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzym...

  15. The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was...

  16. Variability studies for yield and its contributing traits in okra

    Salesh Kumar Jindal, Deepak Arora and T R Ghai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve okra genotypes were crossed in diallel fashion excluding reciprocals to generate 66 one-way hybrids. All the F1’s along with their parentswere grown at Vegetable Research Farm of the Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab during therainy season of 2004-05. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were noticed for number of primary branches per plantindicating maximum variability among the different genotypes. High estimates of heritability coupled with high genetic advance obtained fornumber of branches per plant, total yield per plant and marketable yield per plant indicating presence of additive gene effects which indicated theeffectiveness of selection for these traits. Presence of high heritability coupled with low genetic advance for days to fruit picking, average fruitweight, plant height, internodal length, number of fruits per plant, fruit diameter and average fruit length revealed that straight selection haslimited scope for further improving these traits.

  17. Comparative Studies on the Effect of Sowing Dates and Spacing on the Growth and Yield of Okra in Different Years

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain A. Wahab

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of sowing time and spacing on the growth and fruit yield of okra in 1999 and 2000 in the farmer = s field, Lakshmipur, Bangladesh. The highest plant height was recorded 87.5 cm when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm and the lowest height was 73.3 cm when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm. The maximum number of leaves per plant was observed when it was sown on 5 March 2000 and the minimum was when sown on 20 May, 1999. Moreover, the fruit yield, number of fruit picking per plant, fruit length and weight per fruit were higher when okra was sown on 5 March, 5 April and 5 May, 2000 spaced at 45 x 45 cm than when okra was sown on 20 March, 20 April and 20 May, 1999 spaced at 35 x 40 cm. The highest number of percent mosaic infected plant was counted when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm and the lowest was when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm. In addition to that the highest number of vector of okra mosaic disease was counted when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm and the lowest was when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm. Percent mosaic infected plants was highest in 1999 and the lowest was in 2000 when it was sown on 20 May and 5 March due to the presence of the number of vectors of okra mosaic disease.

  18. Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant

    Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5, three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of

  19. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was

  20. Comparison between the DNA Fingerprints Obtained from the Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Tolerant Okra Mutants and Their Parental Variety

    The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is a widespread disease that is found among export orchards of okra. In this report, we studied gamma radiation-induced YVMD tolerant okra mutants and other commercial okra varieties at DNA level. We found that DNA extraction method that utilized sodium dodecyl sulfate and potassium acetate to precipitate other biomolecules was a suitable method to use for DNA finger printing of okra. The MFLP finger printing technique was superior to the AFLP technique in finding polymorphisms among different okra varieties. Also polymorphisms between the YVMD-tolerant mutant lines and their parental variety could be detected, indicating that gamma radiation could induce some changes at DNA level in these plants

  1. DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO QUIABEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DAS DATAS DE PLANTIO GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATES

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A influência de quatro épocas de plantio (15 de maio, 15 de junho, 15 de julho e 15 de agosto de 1998 no desenvolvimento e na produção do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi investigada em Goiânia, GO. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, cultivado há muitos anos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (Tukey 5% entre épocas de plantio, para as seguintes características: número de frutos produzidos durante as trinta primeiras colheitas, altura das plantas no início da colheita, número de ramos laterais e número de dias da semeadura ao início do florescimento, ao início da colheita e ao início da colheita em 75% das covas. A temperatura média dos meses seguintes às datas de plantio aumentou de maio para agosto. Observou-se uma redução do período da semeadura até o início do florescimento, até o início da colheita e até o início da colheita em 75% das covas. O número de ramos laterais também foi reduzido no mesmo período. Entretanto verificou-se aumento na altura das plantas e no rendimento das primeiras trinta colheitas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abelmoschus esculentus; data de plantio; épocas de plantio.

    The influence of four sowing dates (May 15th, June 15th, July 15th and August 15th, 1998 on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus

  2. RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA

    R ALABI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi t from intercrop is 10% higher than monocrops. This is because of the attendant reduction in variable costs of labour and fertilizer that are associated with intercrops. The economic implication of this study is that any strategy that reduces cost of production in maize/ okra intercrops will increase its profi tability and attractiveness to farmers.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Responses of growth of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus [/i]L. to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater

    Rana Ibrahim Al-Dulaimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus[/i] L.. Materials and methods. A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady’s fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The plants were watered using (WW raw dairy wastewater, (T1 chemicals treatment, (T2 physical treatment, (T3 dilution method treatment and tap water (TW in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter pos-tharvest. Results. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with

  5. The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form

    Nurul Dhania Zaharuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength.

  6. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  7. First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt

    Eman S.H. Farrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L. in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Samples of diseased leaves were collected to isolate the causal organisms. Isolated fungi were purified using single spore culture technique. Developed fungus was identified as Cercospora sp. Fresen based on cultural and morphological characteristics after light microscope examination. Also, Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus niger were isolated as associated fungi. Pathoginicity test confirmed efficiency of Cercospora sp. to induce typical symptoms on okra plants compared with other fungi. Foliar application using different concentrations of Topsin M-70WP and lemongrass oil was significantly reduced disease incidence compared with control. According to the available literature, this is the first record of CLS on okra in Egypt under natural infection in the field.

  8. Effect of blanching, dehydration method and temperature on the ascorbic acid, colour, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit.

    Inyang, U E; Ike, C I

    1998-03-01

    Freshly harvested okra fruits were blanched in boiling water (with or without 0.2% sodium metablsulphite salt) and the effect of this treatment, dehydration methods and temperature on certain characteristics of okra investigated. Blanching resulted in the slight decrease in carbohydrate, fat, ash, colour components, ascorbic acid and viscosity. Besides this initial loss, blanching in sulphite solution led to the retention of more of the colour components and ascorbic acid during dehydration. All dehydrated okra samples had higher contents of carbohydrate, fat and ash but lesser contents of protein and ascorbic acid than fresh okra. Fresh okra fruits, on the other hand, had higher content of the colour pigments and were more viscous than all dehydrated products. Samples blanched prior to dehydration retained more of the colour components but were less viscous than unblanched samples. Vacuum dehydrated samples retained more ascorbic acid, colour pigment and mucilage at each of the dehydration temperatures than those from a hot air oven. High dehydration temperatures had negative effect on the colour, ascorbic acid and viscosity of okra. PMID:9713583

  9. La culture du gombo (Abelmoschus spp) Legume fruit tropical avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire

    Siemonsma, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for crop improvement.The se

  10. Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus

    Mohammed Jurial Baloch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 μm. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 μm pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

  11. Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review

    Thant Zin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature.

  12. Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra

    M. J. Zaki

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05 reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lilacinus alone.

  13. Genetics of the radiation-induced yellow vein mosaic disease resistance mutation in okra

    The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. AFLP and MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 population revealed DNA fragments that are potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

  14. Genetics of the Radiation-Induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra

    Yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 populations revealed a DNA fragment that is potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

  15. In vivo and in vitro antiviral activity of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L) medik

    Lin-lin WU; Xin-bo YANG; Zheng-ming HUANG; He-zhi LIU; Guang-xia WU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L) medik. Methods: The human hepatoma Hep G2.2.15 cell culture system and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection model were used as in vivo and in vitro models to evaluate the anti-HBV effects. Results:In the cell model, the 50% toxic concentration of hyperoside was 0.115 g/L; the maximum nontoxic concentration was 0.05 g/L. On the maximum nontoxic concentrations, the inhibition rates of hyperoside on HBeAg and HBsAg in the 2.2.15 cells were 86.41% and 82.27% on d 8, respectively. In the DHBV infection model, the DHBV-DNA levels decreased significantly in the treatment of 0.05g. kg-1·d-1 and 0.10 g·kg-1·d-1 dosage groups of hyperoside (P<0.01). The inhibition of the peak of viremia was at the maximum at the dose of 0.10 g·kg-1·d-1 and reached 60.79% on d 10 and 69.78% on d 13, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggested that hyperoside is a strong inhibitor of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion in 2.2.15 cells and DHBV-DNA levels in the HBV-infected duck model.

  16. Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

  17. Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1) or was first treated with base (F2), acid (F3) or heating in the presence of salt (F4) before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in ac...

  18. Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Okra and Brinjal Grown in Peri-Urban Environment of Big Cities of Punjab

    Peri urban farming system is main supplier of vegetables to urban population and organophosphate pesticides exposure due to consumption of okra and brinjal to urban population has been estimated in this study. Okra and brinjal samples (90 samples for each vegetable) were collected from peri-urban farming area of Faisalabad, Multan and Gujranwala and were analysed by GC-ECD for quantification of chlorpyrifos, profenophos and triazophos residues. Data were statistically analyzed to calculate, mean and standard deviation. Quantification of pesticides residues revealed that 85 (47.22 percentage) samples were contaminated and 15 (8.33 percentage of total samples and 17.64 percentage of contaminated) samples showed residues value higher than MRL'S. Out of 85 contaminated samples 27 (31.76 percentage) samples were contaminated with chlorpyrifos, 30 (35.29 percentage) samples with profenofos and 29 (34.11) were contaminated with triazophos. The mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in okra was 0.192 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.197 mg Kg-1. The mean concentration for profenofos in okra was 0.02 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.035 mg Kg-1. Similarly mean concentration for triazophos in okra was 0.009 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.01 mg Kg-1. Overall, 6.67 percentage samples of okra and 6.66 percentage samples of brinjal contaminated with chlorpyrifos exceeded EU MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Okra samples were found contaminated at frequency of 4.44 percentage and brinjal samples at frequency of 5.56 percentage with higher profenofos residues level than MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Approximately, 6.67 percentage samples of okra and 5.6 percentage samples of brinjal had profenofos residue level above MRL of 0.01 mg kg-1. This study may be helpful for building database regarding regional exposure of urban population and facilitate in estimation of possible risk to their health in our daily life. (author)

  19. Potential of Soil Amendments (Biochar and Gypsum in increasing Water Use Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Aniqa eBatool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger. A six weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after thirty days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were determined weekly under stressed (60% field capacity and non-stressed (100% field capacity conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto five weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, water use efficiency improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of Abelmoschus esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  20. Method validation and dissipation dynamics of chlorfenapyr in squash and okra.

    Abdel Ghani, Sherif B; Abdallah, Osama I

    2016-03-01

    QuEChERS method combined with GC-IT-MS was developed and validated for the determination of chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra matrices. Method accuracy, repeatability, linearity and specificity were investigated. Matrix effect was discussed. Determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.9992 and 0.9987 in both matrices. LODs were 2.4 and 2.2μg/kg, while LOQs were 8.2 and 7.3μg/kg. Method accuracy ranged from 92.76% to 106.49%. Method precision RSDs were ⩽12.59%. A field trial to assess chlorfenapyr dissipation behavior was carried out. The developed method was employed in analyzing field samples. Dissipation behavior followed first order kinetics in both crops. Half-life values (t1/2) ranged from 0.2 to 6.58days with determination coefficient (R(2)) ranged from 0.78 to 0.96. The developed method was utilized for surveying chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra samples collected from the market. Monitoring results are discussed. PMID:26471587

  1. Inheritance of Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance, a Mutant Phenotype from Gamma Radiation Mutagenesis in Okra

    Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting export-grade okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. This study aimed at determining the inheritance of YVMD resistance from B4610 through genetic analysis. Segregation analysis of the F2 and BC1F1 progeny from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a susceptible variety, indicated that YVMD resistance phenotype resulted from a single locus mutation (p > 0.05). In addition, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to aid in the assignment of YVMD resistance phenotype. Combinations of primers AV1F1 or AV1F2 with AV1R1 successfully amplified a DNA fragment from infected susceptible individuals but not from resistant individuals. DNA sequencing of the PCR product confirmed the identity of AV1 gene belonging to the yellow vein mosaic virus

  2. Novel extraction and application of okra gum as a film coating agent using theophylline as a model drug

    Ikoni J. Ogaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction and application of okra gum as an aqueous film coating agent. Powdered okra pods dispersed in demineralized water was heated at 80 ± 2 o C for 30 minutes in the presence of sodium chloride. The filtrate was successively centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30, 60, or 120 minutes and freeze dried. The samples were used as film former at different concentrations in aqueous film coating operations. Near infrared (nIR absorption spectra, photomicrographs, and some physicochemical properties of the coated tablets were evaluated. The okra gum samples had different nIR spectra and possessed good processing and application quality due to relatively low viscosity. A six-fold concentration of this gum from the novel extraction yielded glossy theophylline tablets within a short time. A t (18 = 2.895, P < 0.005, t critical = 1.734 were obtained for the independent analysis of the hardness of core and coated theophylline tablets. A 3.0% concentration of the okra samples at a flow rate of 3 ml/min for 100 minutes showed that F = 3.798, DF = 29, P < 0.035, F critical = 3.354 in tablet hardness among samples and F = 15.632, DF = 29, P < 0.0001, F critical = 2.152 were obtained on film thickness among tablet samples during the coating and drying operation. Novel extraction process enhanced the film coating potential of okra gum by delivering more solids on the substrate at a shorter time with improved operation efficiency.

  3. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ASCORBATE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON OKRA (HIBISCUS ESCULENTS L.) GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH

    Amin Baghizadeh; Mahmood Hajmohammadrezaei

    2011-01-01

    Effect of drought stress was investigated at water potentials of-0.2 &-0.4 MPA (by using PEG 6000) on okra germination and seedling growth. In this study, percent germination, average time necessary for germination in day, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of okra seedlings were measured. Effect of ascorbate and salicylic acid and interaction of these tow substances were investigated on germination and seedling growth under normal condition and dry conditions. Drought inhab...

  4. La culture du gombo (Abelmoschus spp) Legume fruit tropical avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire

    Siemonsma, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for crop improvement.The second purpose of the programme was a study of the agronomic limitations in the case of intensive cultivation and in what ways such problems might be solved.The inventories of vegetables offered for ...

  5. GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY LIVE MULCH IN SAMARU, ZARIA

    I. L HAMMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of theInstitute for Agricultural Research; Ahmadu Bello University Zaria located on latitude11011’N, longitude 7038’E and 686m above sea level in the Northern Guinea SavannahEcological Zone of Nigeria in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons. The objective of thestudy was to compare the yield of okra grown under different weed managementstrategies. The experiment consisted of four treatments namely: control, cucumber,watermelon and pumpkin. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomised blockdesign (RCBD with three replications. From the results so far obtained, pumpkinsignificantly gave higher mean values in both growth and yield characters measured,whereas the control treatment, significantly gave lower mean values of both growth andyield parameters throughout the period of assessment.

  6. Pretreatment with the Total Flavone Glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot and Hyperoside Prevents Glomerular Podocyte Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

    Lei ZHOU; An, Xiao-Fei; Teng, Shi-Chao; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shang, Wen-bin; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Yuan, Yang-Gang; Yu, Jiang-yi

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important diabetic complication, and podocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in the development of DN. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot (TFA) on urinary microalbumin and glomerular podocyte apoptosis in experimental DN rats. The preliminary oral administration of TFA (200 mg/kg/day) for 24 weeks significantly decreased the urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio and 24-h urinar...

  7. Role of Antagonistic Microorganisms and Organic Amendment in Stimulating the Defense System of Okra Against Root Rotting Fungi.

    Shafique, Hafiza Asma; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. Stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. Organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cysts nematodes were examined individually and in combination in soil amended with cotton cake for suppressing the root rotting fungi and stimulating the synthesis of polyphenols and improving the antioxidant status in okra. Application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus in soil amended with cotton cake significantly (P Rhizoctonia solani. Combine use of biocontrol agents in cotton cake amended soil showed maximum positive impact on plant growth, polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity in okra. PMID:26373176

  8. Identification of DNA Fragments that Showed Linkage to the Radiation-induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra

    Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease resistant mutant of okra was crossed to Pichit 03, a susceptible variety. Their progeny showed prolonged resistance when compared with Pichit 03. DNA fingerprints of F2 and BC1F1 individuals from the cross indicated that most DNA bands did not segregate with either the resistance or the susceptible characteristics. Nonetheless, polymorphic DNA bands could be identified between the mutant and Okura, the parental variety

  9. Advancing cultivation technology for okra in greenhouse%大棚黄秋葵提早栽培技术

    方明清

    2015-01-01

    从品种选择、播期选择、育苗、整畦施肥、田间管理、采收等方面总结大棚黄秋葵提早栽培技术。%Advancing cultivation technology for okra in greenhouse were summarized,which included the selection of variety and sowing date,seedling culture,field preparation and fertilization,field management,harvesting,etc.

  10. Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean

    Amer-Zareen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

  11. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  12. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. PMID:25040189

  13. Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC

    This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

  14. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Batool, Aniqa; Taj, Samia; Rashid, Audil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Saleem, Aansa R.; Ghufran, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger). A 6 weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after 30 days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance and WUE were determined weekly under stressed [60% field capacity (F.C.)] and non-stressed (100% F.C.) conditions. Stomatal conductance and Tr decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto 5 weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, WUE improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of A. esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum. PMID:26442046

  15. Occurrence and Control of Okra Pests in Jianyang City%建阳市黄秋葵害虫的发生与防治

    范德友

    2012-01-01

    The morphological characteristics, occurrence features and prevention methods of cotton leaf roller, tobacco cutworm, yellow tea mite and aphid in Okra in Jianyang City were summarized, so as to provide reference for the prevention of Okra pests.%总结了建阳市黄秋葵主要害虫棉大卷叶螟、斜纹夜蛾、茶黄螨和蚜虫的形态特征、发生特点及其防治方法.以期为黄秋葵害虫的防治提供参考。

  16. Extraction of Flavonoids from the Flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic by Modified Supercritical CO₂ Extraction and Determination of Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activity.

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic has been used for many years in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, supercritical CO₂ plus a modifier was utilized to extract flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic. The effects of temperature (40 °C-60 °C), pressure (10-30 MPa) and different concentrations of ethanol as modifier (60%-90%, ethanol:water, v/v) on major flavonol content and the antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied by response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken design. The flavonol content was calculated as the sum of the concentrations of seven major flavonoids, namely rutin, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside and quercetin, which were simultaneously determined by a HPLC method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay. The results showed that three factors and their interactions could be well fitted to second-order polynomial models (p extraction conditions for flavonol content (20 MPa, 52 °C, and 85% ethanol content), the yield of flavonoids was 41.96 mg/g and the IC50 value was 0.288 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting the extract has high antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic activity of the extract on the 3T3-L1 cell line was investigated. The results indicated that it can downregulate PPARγ and C/EBPα expression at mRNA. In summary, in this study, we have established a cost-effective method for the extraction of flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic using supercritical fluid extraction and the extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:27347916

  17. Seed proteomics

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  18. Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L in a Sub-tropical Environment

    Michael T. Masarirambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD where 2.3.2 (22 an inorganic fertilizer was used as a control, and was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level of kraal manure there were significant (p<0.05 increases in all the growth parameters that were measured. There were also significant (p<0.05 differences of fresh mass and dry mass yield of wild okra. There was an increase in fresh and dry mass yield with every increase in application level of kraal manure while the least fresh and dry mass was recorded in plants provided with 2.3.2 (22. Kraal manure applied at 60 ton/ha gave the highest yield of wild okra under the conditions of this experiment.

  19. Formulation of Okra-natural Mucilage as Drag Reducing Agent in Different Size of Galvanized Iron Pipes in Turbulent Water Flowing System

    R.B.M. Yunus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of pumping power losses in pipelines carrying liquids and flowing in turbulent mode is one of the major challenges in the power saving field. Pumping power saving by the addition of minute quantities of additives to the main flow was applied in the present study. Natural drag reducing agent was prepared and extracted from okra fruit and it was tested in a closed loop of turbulence water flowing system. Flow tests were conducted using water as the carrying liquid. The experimental work starts by pumping water from reservoir tank that had mixed with mucilage was pumped with six different flow rates in two different pipe diameters (0.015, 0.025 m ID. The types of pipe used are galvanized iron pipe. The testing length of this flow system is 1.5 m. The aim of this study is to formulate and to test the efficiency of okra-natural mucilage as drag reducer agent on transport of water in pipes; different concentrations of mucilage (100, 300, 500, 700 and 1000 ppm were used. Six different flow rates were used in the purpose to investigate the flow rates effect. The efficiency of mucilage was tested using clear water. The results shows that, percentage drag reduction (Dr% increases by increasing the concentration of okra-natural mucilage. Maximum Dr% of 71% was obtained using 1000 ppm of okra-natural mucilage in water flow system.

  20. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  1. OKRA(HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS)AND FENUGREEK(TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRACEUM)MUCILAGE:CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION AS FLOCCULANTS FOR TEXTILE EFFLUENT TAEATMENTS

    Rajani Srinivasan; Anuradha Mishra

    2008-01-01

    The use of new food grade polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Hibiscus esculentus and Trigonella foenum graceum,commonly called Okra and Fenugreek,respectively,as flocculants was described.These polysaccharides were used for removal of solids (suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS)) and dyes from real textile effluents and aqueous solutions of different class of synthetic dyes.Influences of varying polysaccharide concentration,contact time and pH on removal of pollutant from the textile wastewater were investigated.Results showed that polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Okra and Fenugreek were capable of removing 90%-94% of SS,30%-44% of TDS and 30%-35% of dye using a very low concentration of polysaccharide.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of solid waste material obtained before and after the treatment with polysaccharides were used as a supportive evidence to explain the mechanism of flocculation.

  2. Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers

    Gilmar E. Martinello

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado.RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase

  3. Project SEED.

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  4. Association of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus DNA-B with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus in okra showing yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms.

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, S; Krishna Reddy, M

    2015-06-01

    Okra samples showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting and bushy appearance were collected from different locations of India during the surveys conducted between years 2005-2009. The dot blot and PCR detection revealed that 75.14% of the samples were associated with monopartite begomovirus and remaining samples with bipartite virus. Whitefly transmission was established for three samples representing widely separated geographical locations which are negative to betasatellites and associated with DNA-B. Genome components of these three representative isolates were cloned and sequenced. The analysis of DNA-A-like sequence revealed that three begomovirus isolates shared more than 93% nucleotide sequence identity with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus from India (BYVMV), a monopartite begomovirus species that was reported previously as causative agent of bhendi yellow mosaic disease in association of bhendi yellow vein mosaic betasatellite. Further, the DNA-B-like sequences associated with the three virus isolates shared no more than 90% sequence identity with tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). Analyses of putative iteron-binding sequence required for trans-replication suggests that begomovirus sequences shared compatible rep-binding iterons with DNA-B of ToLCNDV. Our data suggest that the monopartite begomovirus associated with okra yellow vein disease has captured DNA-B of ToLCNDV to infect okra. Widespread distribution of the complex shows the increasing trend of the capturing of DNA-B of ToLCNDV by monopartite begomoviruses in the Indian subcontinent. The recombination analysis showed that the DNA-A might have been derived from the inter-specific recombination of begomoviruses, while DNA-B was derived from the ToLCNDV infecting different hosts. PMID:26104329

  5. Four DNA-A variants among Pakistani isolates of cotton leaf curl virus and their affinities to DNA-A of geminivirus isolates from okra.

    Zhou, X; Liu, Y; Robinson, D J; Harrison, B D

    1998-04-01

    Complete DNA-A sequences of nine Pakistani geminivirus isolates from leaf curl-affected cotton (CLCuV-PK) or from okra, and the partial sequences of several additional isolates were determined. Sequences of isolates from cotton were of four types. Isolates from leaf curl-affected okra had virtually the same sequences as those from cotton. Isolates from yellow vein mosaic-affected okra were of two types (OYVMV types 201 and 301), both distinct from but closely related to the virus isolates from cotton. Of these six types, two types of CLCuV-PK are the most closely related but another (CLCuV-PK type 72b) is the most distinct. Of the encoded proteins, coat protein (CP) is the most strongly conserved (92-100% amino acid sequence identity), and AC4 protein the most variable (41-87%). The 5' and 3' halves of the intergenic region of some isolates had different affinities and occurred in seven combinations, suggesting that recombination had occurred and that the origin of replication was a favoured recombination site. Similarly, the first 1520 nt of CLCuV-PK type 804a DNA resembled those of OYVMV type 301 DNA but the remaining 1224 nt were very different. The AC1 (Rep) gene and 5' part of the intergenic region of CLCuV-PK type 72b closely resembled those of OYVMV type 301, whereas the rest of the sequence did not. The cotton leaf curl epidemic in Pakistan is caused by several distinct variants, with recombination events involving OYVMV and other unspecified geminiviruses having probably been involved in their evolution. PMID:9568988

  6. Comparative Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (Okro and Corchorus olitorius L (Jew Mallow on Soil Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum Products

    Kelechi L. Njoku

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of Abelmoschus esculentus and Corchorus olitorius on soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum products were evaluated in this study. The pH, moisture, organic matter, microbial population and total petroleum hydrocarbon of the soils at the beginning and the end of the study were evaluated. Growth of A. esculentus led to loss of more TPH from the soil than the growth of C. olitorius. The growth of A. esculentus increased soil alkalinity and the soil moisture content more than that of C. olitorius. More bacteria and fungi were isolated from soil that had A. esculentus than from soil that had C. olitorius. Significant differences were noticed between the impacts of A. esculentus and that of C. olitorius on the soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. The findings in this study show that A. esculentus has better ability to remediate petroleum contaminated soils than C. olitorius. Since both crops are easily propagated and readily grow in most soils, they can be very useful in combating the problems associated with contamination of soil with petroleum products.

  7. USO DO QUIABO (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS COMO FLOCULANTE NA DESESTABILIZAÇÃO DE EMULSÕES ÓLEO/ÁGUA

    André Carlos Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa apresentar os resultados da utilização do quiabo (Abelmoschus Esculentos como floculante no processo de desestabilização de emulsões do tipo óleo em água, sendo estas emulsões produzidas industrialmente no setor mineiro-metalúrgico. Vários problemas ambientais podem ser gerados por emulsões óleo em água, uma vez que este tipo de emulsão reduz a oxigenação dos corpos d’água, acarretando, assim, um intenso desequilíbrio ambiental. Utilizando-se quiabos que seriam posteriormente descartados por não apresentarem mais utilidade à alimentação humana buscou-se, além do desenvolvimento da tecnologia com o uso deste reagente. A potencialidade do uso do quiabo como floculante foi confirmada através dos ensaios experimentais realizados.

  8. Begomovirus characterization, and development of phenotypic and DNA-based diagnostics for screening of okra genotype resistance against Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus

    Venkataravanappa, V.; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C. N.; Krishna Reddy, M.

    2012-01-01

    The leaf sample from okra plants showing the yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms was collected in Karnataka state, India. The genome of the virus was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome (GU112065) is 2,741 bp in length and genome is similar to that of monopartite begomoviruses originating from the Old World, with seven conserved ORFs. Further nucleotide (nts) sequence comparisons showed that the genome has the highest sequence identities of 96.1 %...

  9. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop

    L.P.S Bachega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

  10. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que

  11. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  12. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and...

  13. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and...

  14. Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo

    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the most popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de injúria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10

  15. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource is...... prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus......, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following...

  16. Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra

    Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo foram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido, tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC por oito dias. Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1% durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento.This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilization of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid, time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in

  17. Modeling the Time Elapsing from Seed Sowing to Emergence in Some Vegetable Crops

    Sezgin Uzun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple regression model based on mean temperature was developed to be used for predicting the time elapsing from seed sowing to seedling emergence for some vegetable crops, namely tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., pepper (Capsicum annum, L., aubergine (Solanum melongena, L., pea (Pisum sativum, L., carrot (Daucus carota, L., sweat corn (Zea mays, cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.var. capitata (L Alef, cauliflower Brassica oleraceae L.var. botrytis L, onion (Allium cepa, L., celery (Apium graviolens, L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L., parsley (Petroselinum hortense , garden beet (Beta vulgaris, L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L., melon (Cucumis melo, L., runner bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Thunb., okra (Hibiscus esculentus, L., asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L., spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L., radish (Rhaphanus sativus, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The prediction performance of the model with respect to the data used was highly acceptable. R2 values of regression co-efficients for each crop varied from 0.94 to 0.99 depending on the species. Plotting the actual days from seed sowing to emergence for all the crops against the predicted ones showed that the prediction performance of the model was good explaining 98% of the variation for combined data from all the crops. The present model also predicted optimum temperatures (To for tried vegetables in the limits of acceptability.

  18. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Gilson Soares da Silva; Aurenice Lucena Pereira

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. ...

  19. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria...

  20. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  1. Using termite nests as a source of organic matter in agrosilvicultural production systems in Amazonia Uso de ninhos de cupin como fonte de matéria orgânica em sistemas de produção agrosilviculturais na Amazônia

    L. S. Batalha; D. F. da Silva Filho; C. Martius

    1995-01-01

    The growth of two annual crops, okra (Abelmoschus escutentus) and egg-plant (Solatium melongena) and one perennial crop, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, a native forest tree of Amazonia) under different treatments with organic manure derived from termite nest material of wood-feeding Nasutitermes species was tested (randomized block design). The use of 25-100 g of nest material gave no significant increase in okra productivity, and 25-200 g gave no significant response in andiroba. The combined ...

  2. Water relations in seed biology

    Villela F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

  3. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza; Manuela O. de Souza; Ronaldo S. Oliveira; Claudineia R. Pelacani

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Every 4 months, the seeds were r...

  4. Efeito de alguns herbicidas na cultura do quiabeiro, em testes efetuados em casa de vegetação Effect of some herbicides on okra crop in trials performed in the greenhouse

    Aldo Alves

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas variedades de quiabeiro foram testadas, em condições de casa de vegetação, com solo de textura areno-barrenta, na sua tolerância para 16 herbicidas, cada qual aplicado em uma única dose. Dentre os herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado o triflu-ralin destacou-se no combate às ervas daninhas gramíneas e não causou nenhum dano para a planta do quiabeiro. Os herbicidas cloroxuron, linuron, norea e propachlor mostraram ótimos resultados no cambate às ervas más e quanto à tolerância dessa malvácea. Do grupo das triazinas, todos os herbicidas usados nas condições do teste provocaram danos para o quiabeiro.Two okra (Hibiscus esculentus L. varieties were tested for their tolerance to sixteen herbicides at one rate each, as a pre-planting and as a pre-emergence applications in greenhouse trials. The results with the incorporated herbicides showed that only tri-fluralin at 0,75 kg/ha active ingredient was promising to this crop. Different results were obtained with the pre-emergence applications of the group of urea and anilide herbicides. While no symptoms of injury were observed with chloroxuron, norea, linuron, and propachlor, injury symptoms were evident with diuron, fluometuron, metobromuron and siduron. The four triazine herbicides were very damaging to the okra plants. Under the conditions of these tests, only the herbicides trifluralin, chloroxuron, norea, and linuron were promising to the okra crop.

  5. Seed thioredoxin h

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki;

    2016-01-01

    example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses on...

  6. Priorities in seed pathology research

    Nameth S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of...

  7. Occurrence and control of cotton leaf roller (Sylepta derogate) on okra%棉大卷叶螟在黄秋葵上的发生与防治

    范德友

    2012-01-01

    分析棉大卷叶螟在建阳市城郊黄秋葵上的为害特点、形态特征及其发生规律,并提出农业防治、物理防治、化学防治等综合防治措施。%The damage status, morphological characteristics and occurrence regulation of cotton leaf roller ( Sylepta derogate) on the okra in suburbs of Jianyang were analyzed in this paper. Integrate control measures, such as agricultural control, physical control and chemical control were put forward in the paper.

  8. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. UTILIZATION OF VERMIWASH POTENTIAL ON CERTAIN SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS

    GORAKH NATH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of vermiwash on the growth, flowering and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus, lobia (Vigna unguiculata and radish (Raphnus sativus. Vermiwash was extracted from different vermicompost which was composted from different animal agro and kitchen wastes through earthworm Eisenia foetida. It was observed that treatment of vermiwash shows significantly increased in growth and productivity and decreased flowering period. The maximum significant growth was observed in 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with rice bran 38.0±1.3 cm. in case of okra, 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with gram bran (seed of Cicer arientinum 215.5±5.2 cm., in lobia crops and 30 mg/m2 concentration of buffalo dung with gram bran 20.4±1.4 cm. The significant early starting of flowering and increased in productivity was found in all treated groups with respect to control.

  10. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  11. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  12. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  13. Seed recovery and regeneration

    Magnetohydrodynamic's (MHD) electric power generation capability depends on Faraday's law of induction. An ionized gas, called plasma, passes through a fixed magnetic field. The plasma is produced by seeding flue gases at a temperature of around 2500 deg C with potassium carbonate or formate. In a coal-fired open cycle MHD power plant the potassium seed material is in direct contact with the polluted flue gas from coal combustion. The molten slag droplets will capture a certain amount of potassium. The sulphur dioxide in the flue gases will react with potassium to potassium sulphate. The spent seed material has to be recovered and reprocessed so that the potassium can be reused as seed material. We can distinguish a preprocessing and a regeneration step. Seed preprocessing removes the minerals and volatile coal constituents from the potassium salts. Seed regeneration transforms the purified potassium sulphate into potassium carbonate or formate. Eight regeneration processes have been evaluated. The processes that convert the sulphur of the coal into saleable sulphur or sulphuric acid are still at an early stage of development. Considering all pros and cons, the Formate/Econoseed process appears most suited for seed regeneration purposes in coal-fired MHD systems. For an advanced MHD power plant the mass flow rates of the flue gas and of the potassium containing off-product streams will be calculated. It will be shown that the sulphur content of coal will influence the economical efficiency of the power plant

  14. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  15. Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits

    Wagner Ferreira da Mota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless.This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

  16. Prescribed seed plantings

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains memos, notes, and tables related to tallgrass prairie seed harvesting on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1995.

  17. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  18. What Are Chia Seeds?

    ... magnesium and zinc. Emerging research suggests that including chia seeds as part of a healthy diet may help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not many ...

  19. Seed collection notes

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  20. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species

  1. Ethylene and lettuce seed germination

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene can stimulate seed germination and overcome dormancy in many species. For instance, the inhibitory effect of high temperature on lettuce seed germination can be overcome by exogenous ethylene. Involvement of ethylene in seed germination is a widely accepted fact, but the mechanistic details are poorly understood. A critical factor in ethylene studies is the response of seed germination properties to various ethylene inhibitors. Lettuce seed has been used as a model to study the role ...

  2. Seed systems support in Kenya

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, de, M.J.I.

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector Development (ISSD) approach. The ISSD approach has evolved as a response to the almost exclusive focus on formal seed systems in seed sector development programs. Instead, ISSD aims to recognize and sup...

  3. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. PMID:27507473

  4. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85). Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8%) patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4%) treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%): 88.7/82, D90(Gy): 149.2/140.3, D90(%): 104.2/93.8, V150 (%): 53.8/47, respectively). No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33), PSA (p = 0.391), prostate volume (p 0.397), activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109), number of seeds (p 0.338), V100 (p = 0.332), although significant differences were measured in the values of D90 (% and Gy) (p = 0.022 and 0.011) and V150 (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry. (author)

  7. Lectin from Abelmoschus esculentus reduces zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception in rats via heme oxygenase-1 pathway integrity and tnf-α and il-1β suppression.

    Freitas, Raul Sousa; do Val, Danielle Rocha; Fernandes, Maria Ester Frota; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; de Lacerda, José Thalles Jocelino Gomes; SantiGadelha, Tatiane; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; de Paulo Teixeira Pinto, Vicente; Cristino-Filho, Gerardo; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos

    2016-09-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders show inflammatory components, heavily impacting on quality of life. Abelmoschus esculentus is largely cultivated in Northeastern Brazil for medicinal purposes, having it shown anti-inflammatory activity. We evaluated A. esculentus lectin (AEL) efficacy in reducing zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception in rats along with the mechanism of action through which it exerts anti-inflammatory activity. Animals were pre-treated with AEL (0.01, 0.1 or 1mg/kg) before zymosan (Zy) injection in the TMJ to determine anti-inflammatory activity. To analyse the possible effect of the hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the nitric oxide (NO) pathways on AEL efficacy, animals were pre-treated with ZnPP-IX (3mg/kg), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, or aminoguanidine (30mg/kg), a selective iNOS inhibitor, before AEL administration. Von Frey test evaluated inflammatory hypernociception, synovial fluid collection was performed to determine leukocyte counting and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity 6h after Zy injection, and Evans Blue extravasation determined vascular permeability. TMJ tissue was collected for histopathological analysis (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (TNF-α, IL-1β, HO-1). In addition, TMJ tissue and trigeminal ganglion collection was performed for TNF-α and IL-1β dosage (ELISA). AEL increased inflammatory nociceptive threshold, reduced leukocyte influx along with MPO activity, leukocyte influx into the synovial membrane, and Evans Blue extravasation. It promoted HO-1 overexpression whilst decreased TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the TMJ tissue. AEL reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels in TMJ tissue and trigeminal ganglion. AEL effects, however, were not observed in the presence of ZnPP-IX. These findings suggest that AEL efficacy depends on TNF-α/IL-1β inhibition and HO-1 pathway integrity. PMID:27344040

  8. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differ...

  9. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Adam Ismail Ahmed; Awad Mohammed Babeker; Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed Elamin; Elshiekh Awadelkarim Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea), Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi) seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were...

  10. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  11. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  12. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  13. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  14. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    ... trends -- salvia References Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Aztec Diet Secret: What Are Chia Seeds? 2013. http:// ... February 10, 2014.Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Aztec Diet Secret: What Are Chia Seeds? 2013. http:// ...

  15. The SEED Initiative

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  17. Study on Anti-fatigue Effect of The Polysaccharide from Okra in Mice%黄秋葵多糖抗小鼠运动性疲劳及其作用机理的研究

    朱一闻; 方树远; 徐天姿; 单雪峰; 胡斐媛; 陈蕾蕾; 李南奇; 王慧铭; 方道会

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the anti-fatigue effect of the polysaccharide from Okra in mice. [Methods] 40 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups including low-, high-dose groups (treated with the polysaccharide from Okra at dose of 150, 300 mg/kg·d), positive control group(treated with water extract of Dried Fresh Ginseng, at dose of 200 mg/kg·d ) and control group(treated with distil ed water). Al the 4 groups were treated by gavage for continuous 21 days and tested for their weight-loaded swimming times as wel as blood urea nitrogen, blood lactic acid and hepatic glycogen levels. [Results]The groups treated with the polysaccharide from Okra significantly prolonged the exhaustive swimming time of mice, decreased the contents of both blood urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid and increased the content of hepatic glycogen, and their effects were as effective as Dried Fresh Ginseng. [Conclusion]The polysaccharide from Okra could resist fatigue in mice in a dose-dependent manner.%  [目的]研究黄秋葵多糖抗小鼠运动性疲劳的作用及其机理。[方法]清洁级ICR小鼠随机分为四组:黄秋葵多糖低、高剂量组(分别用黄秋葵多糖150、300mg/(kg·d))、阳性对照组(生晒参水提物200mg/(kg·d))和空白对照组(等量蒸馏水),连续灌胃21d后,测定小鼠的游泳时间、体重变化、血乳酸、血尿素氮、肝糖元指标。[结果]低、高2个剂量黄秋葵多糖均可显著延长小鼠的游泳时间(P<0.05),降低小鼠血乳酸、血尿素氮水平(P<0.05),并增加肝糖原含量(P<0.05);其作用均与阳性对照生晒参水提物相当(P>0.05)。[结论]黄秋葵多糖具有明显的抗小鼠运动性疲劳作用,其作用机理可能通过提高肝糖原含量增加能源物质储备、增加葡萄糖的有氧分解、减少葡萄糖的无氧酵解、减少蛋白质的分解、提高产能效率而发挥作用。

  18. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  19. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  20. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  1. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  2. First direct seeding at FLASH

    Direct seeding with a high-harmonic generation source can improve the spectral, temporal, and coherence properties of a free-electron-laser (FEL) and reduces intensity- and arrival-time fluctuations. In the seeding experiment at the XUV-FEL in Hamburg, FLASH, which is normally operated in the self-amplified spontaneous emission mode, the 21st harmonic of an 800 nm laser is focused into a dedicated seeding undulator. The interaction with the relativistic electrons acts as an amplifier for the seed radiation. We present the setup of the seeding section of FLASH and first experimental results.

  3. First direct seeding at FLASH

    Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Azima, Armin; Boedewadt, Joern; Curbis, Francesca; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Drescher, Markus; Hass, Eugen; Hipp, Ulrich; Lechner, Christoph; Miltchev, Velizar; Mittenzwey, Manuel; Rehders, Marie; Roensch-Schulenburg, Juliane; Rossbach, Joerg; Schulz, Michael; Tarkeshian, Roxana; Wieland, Marek [University of Hamburg and CFEL (Germany); Ackermann, Sven; Bajt, Sasa; Duesterer, Stefan; Faatz, Bart; Felber, Matthias; Feldhaus, Josef; Honkavaara, Katja; Laarmann, Tim; Schlarb, Holger; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroedter, Lasse; Tischer, Markus [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Ischebeck, Rasmus [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Khan, Shaukat [DELTA, Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Direct seeding with a high-harmonic generation source can improve the spectral, temporal, and coherence properties of a free-electron-laser (FEL) and reduces intensity- and arrival-time fluctuations. In the seeding experiment at the XUV-FEL in Hamburg, FLASH, which is normally operated in the self-amplified spontaneous emission mode, the 21st harmonic of an 800 nm laser is focused into a dedicated seeding undulator. The interaction with the relativistic electrons acts as an amplifier for the seed radiation. We present the setup of the seeding section of FLASH and first experimental results.

  4. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  5. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  6. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  7. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by...... agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  8. IMPACT OF IMPROVED SEEDS ON SMALL FARMERS' PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF BARA LOCALITY IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of

  9. Seed thioredoxin h.

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki; Shahpiri, Azar; Buchanan, Bob B; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2016-08-01

    Thioredoxins are nearly ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of biochemical pathways in various biological systems, and also implicated in numerous biotechnological applications. Plants uniquely synthesize an array of thioredoxins targeted to different cell compartments, for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses on occurrence, reaction mechanisms, specificity, target protein identification, three-dimensional structure and various applications. The aim is to provide a general background as well as an update covering the most recent findings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics - a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26876537

  10. SEDA (SEed DAtabase)

    Šerá, Božena

    Praha : Botanická zahrada hl. m. Prahy, 2005 - (Sekerka, P.), s. 64-65 ISBN 80-903697-0-7. [Introdukce a genetické zdroje rostlin. Botanické zahrady v novém ticíciletí. Praha (CZ), 05.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : database, seed, diaspore, fruit, Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Seeds of the Future

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  12. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  13. Seed and Embryo Germination in Ardisia crenata

    Masayuki Oda; Shuji Shiozaki; Hideyuki Tanaka; Hisa Yokoyama; Takahiro Tezuka

    2012-01-01

    Ardisia crenata is an evergreen shrub with attractive bright red berries. Although this species is usually propagated by seed, the seeds take a long time to germinate with conventional sowing methods. We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months and the effects of seed storage conditions, germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the endosperm on seed germination. Seeds and embryos collected in late September or later show...

  14. Potassium leakage and maize seed physiological potential

    Miguel Mariane Victorio de Carvalho; Marcos Filho Julio

    2002-01-01

    Seed production usually requires fast decisions to improve the efficacy of seed handling during harvesting, processing and storage. Seed technologists have focused on the development or improvement of procedures which allow rapid and consistent identification of higher quality seed lots. This research verified the effectiveness of the potassium leachate test on the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds in comparison to recommended seed vigor tests. Five seed lots of the hyb...

  15. Effect of Intercropping Okra (Hibiscus esclentus with Pumpkin (Curcubita maxima Dutch ex Lam on Some Growth Parameters and Economic Yield of Maize (Zea mays and Maximization of Land Use in a Fadama Soil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to harness fadama lands in Niger-delta as a result of dearth of fertile arable land due to soil infertility from little or no fallow period. This study was carried out, to determine the compatibility of okra, pumpkin and maize in a fadama soil. Oba super2 variety of maize, NHae 47-4 variety of okra and locally sourced pumpkin were sown in October, 2003 and repeated in October 2004, in a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates. Maize and okra were monitored weekly for 8 and 10 weeks respectively for plant height and number of leaves while pumpkin were accessed for % vine coverage. Observation were carried for weed biomass, economic yield, aggregate yield and land equivalent ratio were calculated from the economic yield. The result of the 2 year study showed, that growth parameters did not all follow a consistend trend, although sole crops performed better than in their crop associations. The presence of pumpkin significantly reduced weeds growth in the crop associations. The economic or relative economic yield was significantly higher (p<0.05 in sole crops than in the individual crops of the association, but the aggregate yield was higher in the crop association than in their sole crops plot. The land equivalent ratio was highest in 3 crop association (1.97 than 2 crop association and least in sole crops of 1.00.

  16. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat but low levels of chlorophyll were also detected in the embryo, mainly in the radicle tip. Seed chlorophyll fluorescence appeared to be a sensitive indicator of physiological maturity of tomato see...

  17. Seed treatment technology of carrot seeds with plant volatile substances

    Ličková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed treatment using essential oil vapour phase, especially focused on finding appropriate combination of concentration, temperature and application time to decrease number of native fungi and evaluating the effect of essential oil on seed germination. Seed samples were contaminated with natural microorganisms. Essential oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and ci...

  18. Simulation Of Seed Distribution Uniformity In Row On Seeding Machines

    TAŞER, Ö. Faruk

    1996-01-01

    : In this research, it was determined the uniformity of seed distribution in row on the machines by using a simulation programme which made for this purpose. It was tested the truth of simulation programme by the applications of seeding in row. It was conducted the applications of controling in a closed area and it was made seeding machine constant and stick band system active. In the control applications, lentil seeds were used and application paramétrés were accepted on two different types...

  19. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  20. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  1. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  2. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  3. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets...

  4. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  5. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat

  6. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  7. Impact of Seed Applications (Priming) of Fatty Acid Composition of Seed and Seed Quality and Its Relations

    Kaya, Gamze

    2008-01-01

    The most important factors affecting seed quality are the nutritional status of main plant before harvest, harvest period and the pathogenic effects and mechanical damage during harvest, and post-harvest storage conditions (storage temperature, seed moisture, oxygen). In addition, the seed quality depends on seed purity, vitality, strength, moisture content and genetic characteristics. The seed quality is significantly changed by oil content and fatty acid distribution of seeds. Various pre-s...

  8. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  9. A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani

    Gilmar P. Henz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH. The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em

  10. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  11. Genebanking seeds from natural populations

    Conventional storage protocols have been developed to preserve genetic diversity of seeds of crops in genebanks. These same principles have been applied to preserve seeds from wild populations. While most principles for conventional storage protocols are applicable to a broad range of wild species...

  12. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  13. Characterization of volatile production during seed storage

    Mira Pérez, Sara; González Benito, Elena; Walters, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of factors that regulate seed longevity and mechanisms that cause seed deterioration during storage. The over-all goal is to characterize the types of chemical reactions that occur in dry seeds and to relate these to the properties of the seed glassy matrix and the inevitable decline in seed quality and viability. Oxidation and peroxidation reactions occur in stored seeds and are implicated in chemical degradation. Oxidation of macromolecules gives ...

  14. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  15. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  16. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Ombir Singh; Altaf Hussain Sofi

    2011-01-01

    A clonal seed orchard (CSO) of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand) was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlate...

  17. 黄蜀葵花提取物金丝桃苷的急性毒性和遗传毒性评价%Acute toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic

    艾国; 黄正明; 王德文; 张海艇

    2012-01-01

    研究黄蜀葵花提取物金丝桃苷的急性毒性和遗传毒性,对其安全性进行评价.急性毒性试验中,选用健康BALB/c小鼠40只,雌雄各半,灌胃给药(5000 mg/kg),连续观察14天,记录中毒和死亡情况,测定小鼠的半数致死量(LD50).用目前新药遗传毒性评价中推荐使用的3种试验方法,营养缺陷型鼠伤寒沙门氏菌回复突变试验(Ames试验),中国仓鼠肺成纤维细胞(CHL)染色体畸变试验和小鼠骨髓微核试验研究金丝桃苷的遗传毒性.在急性毒性试验中,所有实验动物都存活,且行为活泼,未见明显异常.Ames试验中,金丝桃苷在加或不加肝微粒体酶(S9)时均未见引起TA97、TA98、TA100和TA102试验菌株基因突变(P>0.05).体外CHL细胞染色体畸变试验中,金丝桃苷在加或不加S9时均未引起CHL细胞的染色体畸变(P>0.05).小鼠微核试验中,金丝桃苷各剂量组小鼠骨髓多染红细胞微核率与阴性对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).在本实验条件下,金丝桃苷对于BALB/c小鼠的LD50大于5000 mg/kg,金丝桃苷没有遗传毒性.%To further assess hyperoside as a potential new anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug,the safety of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic was evaluated by testing its acute toxicity and mutagenic risk.To test the acute toxicity of hyperoside,we determined the median lethal dose (LD50) in mice.Forty healthy BALB/c mice (20 per sex) were administered a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg hyperoside via the intragastrical route.The number of animals poisoned and died was noted daily for 14 consecutive days.All animals survived and appeared active and normal,indicating that the LD50 of hyperoside was more than 5000 mg/kg.Potential genotoxicity of hyperoside was investigated using a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test),a chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblasts,and an in vivo micronucleus test in rat bone marrow cells

  18. Seed germination photobiology. Physiological and agronomic aspects

    Seed germination photobiology is an important aspect of seed biology research for both physiological and agronomic aspects. Such knowledge is of extreme importance for the optimization of seed crop germination and for the prediction of weed seed bank emergence dynamics in field. Several aspects of photobiology research are reported and discussed in order to evidencing some of the relative agronomic involvements

  19. Materials used for Seed Storage Containers: Response

    Efficient seed storage is a shared concern among the growing number of seed banks established for crop improvement or ex situ conservation. Container properties greatly affect seed interactions with the environment and the overall cost and success of seed banking operations. Several material proper...

  20. Embryo growth in mature celery seeds.

    Toorn, van der P.

    1989-01-01

    Germination of celery seeds is slow, due to the need for embryo growth before radicle protrusion can occur. Germination rate was correlated with embryo growth rate. Celery seeds with different embryo growth rates were obtained with fluid density separation of a seed lot. Low density seeds germinated

  1. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size a

  2. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill).

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production conditions, and

  3. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  4. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more of...... the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral...... musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva to...

  5. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    Lee, Conrad; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms that are designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes increasingly important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  6. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    Lee, Conrad; Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-06-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms specifically designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes more important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  7. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-01-01

    The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one genera...

  8. Imaging genetics of seed performance

    Joosen, R.V.L.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands has a long history of plant breeding which has resulted in a leading position in the world with respect to the sales of vegetable seeds. Nowadays high-tech methods are used for crop-production which demands high standards for the quality of the starting materials. While breeding has mainly focused on crop yield and disease resistance in the past, it now becomes equally important to create seeds that rapidly and uniformly germinate under a wide range of production environments....

  9. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  10. Moringa Seed Oils

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  11. Seed Coat Permeability of Active Ingredients

    Niemann, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The seed coat is the barrier controlling exchange of solutes between the plant embryo and its environment. This exchange is of importance for example in the uptake of germination inhibitors or in the uptake of agrochemicals applied as seed treatment. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying solute permeation across the seed coat would help to improve the effectiveness of seed treatment formulations. In seed treatment formulations, additives can be used to enhance or decreas...

  12. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds

    Su, Jimmy L.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Hazle, John D.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy seed therapy is an increasingly common way to treat prostate cancer through localized radiation. The current standard of care relies on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for imaging guidance during the seed placement procedure. As visualization of individual metallic seeds tends to be difficult or inaccurate under TRUS guidance, guide needles are generally tracked to infer seed placement. In an effort to improve seed visualization and placement accuracy, the use of photoacoustic (PA...

  13. Effect of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth,Yield and Quality of Okra Grown on Seashore Saline Soil%氮磷配施对沿海滩涂黄秋葵生长发育、产量及品质的影响

    王永慧; 陈建平; 张培通; 张萼; 蔡立旺; 高进

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on saline soil to evaluate the effects of the application of phosphorus fertilizers,in combination with nitrogen,on the growth,yield and quality of okra.Significant effects were found, especially when nitrogen was applied.With the application of N 300 kg·hm-2 and P 160 kg·hm-2 ,the greatest yield,as well as the pod weight,contents of peel pigment,free amino acids and soluble protein,and viscosity of mucilage of the okra pods was obtained.The results suggested that the tested fertilization was appropriate for okra cultivation in the coastal regions in Jiangsu province.%通过田间小区试验的方法,研究氮磷配施对沿海滩涂黄秋葵生长发育、产量及品质的影响。结果表明:氮(N)肥、磷(P)肥对黄秋葵生长发育、产量及品质均具有显著效应,以 N 肥影响最大;当氮肥为300 kg· hm-2、磷肥为160 kg·hm-2时,黄秋葵产量最高,且荚果单果重、果皮光合色素含量、游离氨基酸、可溶性蛋白含量和荚果黏度达到最高值,即黄秋葵产量与整体品质较高,表明在本试验条件下,该施肥量为江苏沿海滩涂黄秋葵大田种植最佳施肥模式。

  14. A record production from an integrated farming system utilising sewage enriched water

    Rai, S.P.; A. K. Roy; Datta, A K; Das, C R; Ghosh, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experiments conducted on a pond dyke (655m²) in the Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, during 1992-93 for maximising production through optimum utilisation of resources are communicated. Round the year intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus and A. viridus), water-bind weed (Ipomea aquatica), Indian spinach (Basella rubra), radish (Raphanus sativum), amaranth (Amaranthus vi...

  15. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed.

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui; Mu, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  16. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  17. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food security. There is, however, considerable debate about the most appropriate type and strategic level of intervention to enhance smallholders’ seed security in conflict and post-conflict areas. Give...

  18. Challenges and problems of organic seed production in the EU – the EU Organic Seed Regulation

    Wilbois , Klaus-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Content: - Organic Seed regime in the EU - Overview EU Organic Seed data base - Data Base Exeample: OrganicXseeds - Problems of the Organic Seed Regulation - Problems with MS's Data Base - How to overcome these problems - Recommendations for new MS

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts

    Basiri, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different so...

  20. Pre-dispersal predation effect on seed packaging strategies and seed viability.

    DeSoto, Lucía; Tutor, David; Torices, Rubén; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An increased understanding of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different environments may improve current knowledge of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. In particular, pre-dispersal seed predation may influence seed packaging strategies, triggering a reduction of the resources allocated to undamaged seeds within the preyed fruits. Assessing plant reactions to pre-dispersal seed predation is crucial to a better understanding of predation effects, but the response of plants to arthropod attacks remains unexplored. We have assessed the effect of cone predation on the size and viability of undamaged seeds in populations of Juniperus thurifera with contrasting seed packaging strategies, namely, North African populations with single-large-seeded cones and South European populations with multi-small-seeded cones. Our results show that the incidence of predation was lower on the single-large-seeded African cones than on the multi-small-seeded European ones. Seeds from non-preyed cones were also larger and had a higher germination success than uneaten seeds from preyed cones, but only in populations with multi-seeded cones and in cones attacked by Trisetacus sp., suggesting a differential plastic response to predation. It is possible that pre-dispersal seed predation has been a strong selective pressure in European populations with high cone predation rates, being a process which maintains multi-small-seeded cones and empty seeds as a strategy to save some seeds from predation. Conversely, pre-dispersal predation might not have a strong effect in the African populations with single-large-seeded cones characterized by seed germination and filling rates higher than those in the European populations. Our results indicate that differences in pre-dispersal seed predators and predation levels may affect both selection on and intraspecific variation in seed packaging. PMID:26400794

  1. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  2. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees

    Xiao, ZS; Jansen, PA; Zhang, ZB

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques - thread-marking and wire tin-tagging - affected seed fate by placing

  3. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees.

    Xiao, Z.; Jansen, P.A.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques – thread-marking and wire tin-tagging – affected seed fate by placing

  4. Seed Development and Quality in Maize Cultivars

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate seed development and quality of maize (Zea mays cultivars (DC-370, SC-500, OSSK-602 and SC-604, a split plot experiment (using R.C.B. design with three replicates was conducted in 2009 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Subsequently, the quality of seed samples was determined in the laboratory. Germination percentage and seedling dry weight were enhanced, but electrical conductivity of seed leachates was reduced with increasing seed weight on mother plant. Maximum seed quality of maize cultivars was attained at the end of seed filling phase. Seed quality at earlier harvests was low, because of immaturity. Differences in maximum seedling dry weight of maize cultivars were attributed to variation in genetic constitution. It was concluded that in maize cultivars, maximum seed quality could be achieved at physiological maturity.

  5. 高效液相色谱法测定黄蜀葵花总黄酮固体分散体中金丝桃苷含量%Determination of Hyperin in Solid Dispersion of Abelmoschus Manihot Total Flavones by HPLC

    钱芳; 刘志辉; 陆超

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立测定黄蜀葵花总黄酮固体分散体中金丝桃苷含量的高效液相色谱法。方法色谱柱为Hedera C18柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),以乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液为流动相梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL/min,检测波长为360 nm,柱温为30℃。结果金丝桃苷的质量浓度在1.1406~72.998μg/mL范围内与峰面积积分值线性关系良好( r=1.0000),平均加样回收率为99.01%,RSD为1.94%( n=9)。结论该方法简便易行,结果准确,重复性好,可用于测定黄蜀葵花总黄酮固体分散体中金丝桃苷的含量。%Objective To establish a method for the determination of hyperin in solid dispersion of Abelmoschus Manihot total flavones by HPLC. Methods The Hedera C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm)was used,the mobile phase was acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid solution with gradient elution. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL/min,the detection wavelength was 360 nm,and column temperature was 30 ℃. Results The linear range of hyperin was 1. 140 6-72. 998 μg/mL( r=1. 000 0),the average recovery rate was 99. 01%, and RSD was 1. 94%( n=9). Conclusion The method is simple,rapid,accurate and reliable. It can be used for the content determina-tion of hyperin in solid dispersion of Abelmoschus Manihot total flavones.

  6. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. 黄秋葵果实粉对衰老模型小鼠抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Okra Fruit Powder on Antioxidant Abilities in Aged Mice Induced by D-galactose

    陈艳珍; 宋新华

    2014-01-01

    探讨黄秋葵果实粉(OFP)对D-半乳糖致衰老模型小鼠抗氧化能力的影响。以昆明种小鼠为研究对象,颈背部皮下注射D-半乳糖造模。正常对照组、模型对照组饲喂基础饲料,实验组小鼠饲喂含受试物低、中、高剂量(32.00、64.00、128.00 g/kg)饲料,实验期56 d,测定血清和肝组织匀浆中超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、谷胱苷肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性及丙二醛(MDA)的含量。D-半乳糖致衰小鼠SOD活性、GSH-Px活性和CAT活性均明显下降,MDA含量明显上升,与正常小鼠比较差异显著;饲喂不同剂量的黄秋葵果实粉后均能提高小鼠血清、肝脏组织中的SOD、GSH-Px和CAT活性,同时降低血清、肝脏组织中MDA含量。适量摄入黄秋葵果实粉能显著提高衰老小鼠的抗氧化能力,具有一定延缓衰老的作用。%To investigate the effects of Okra fruit powder (OFP) on antioxidant abilities in aged mice induced by D-galactose. The subacute aged model mice were made by neck back subcutaneous injection of D-galactose continually. The mice were given different doses of Okra fruit powder 32.00,64.00 g/kg and 128.00 g/kg fed by diet for 56 d respectively.The content of malondialdehyde (MDA)and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and catalase (CAT) in the serum and liver of the mice were tested. The SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in aged model group were significantly decreased and MDA significantly increased compared with normal mice;OFP in different doses evidently increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities and reduced the MDA level in serum and liver in mice. OFP can obviously increase the antioxidant ability of mice.

  8. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  9. EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA

    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

  10. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  11. EFFICIENCY OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL

    Sukru Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper pomegranate kinds that reach to harvest maturity which are produced in commercial scales in Adana, Antalya, Finike and Kilis regions in Turkey and also Hicaz and Eksilik kinds are chosen randomly to be investigated. Seed efficiencies, grain ratios, oil efficiency of these chosen pomegranate kinds were studied. According to this study, pomegranate kind taken from Kilis region is found to have the highest grain efficieny with a ratio of 71% and pomegranate kind taken from Hicaz region is found to have the highest seed oil with a ratio of 18%. Also various solvent efficiencies including Hexan, Diethylether and petroleum ether on pomegranate seed oil is examined and most efficient one is obtained with Diethylether.

  12. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Yu Tian; Bo Guan; Daowei Zhou; Junbao Yu; Guangdi Li; Yujie Lou

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended pri...

  13. SEEDS: A Celebration of Science

    Melton, Bob

    1991-01-01

    The major goal of the project of Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) was to stimulate interest in science through the active involvement of all participants. Youthful investigators utilized the basic and integrated science process skills as they conducted the research necessary to complete the data reports used in the compilation of this document. Participants described many unique activities designed to promote critical thinking and problem solving. Seeds made a significant impact toward enhancing the teaching, learning, and enjoyment of science for students worldwide.

  14. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. PMID:15220396

  15. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  16. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  17. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  18. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  19. Storage of Annona squamosa L. seeds

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva; Verônica Barbosa Santos; Rosa Honorato de Oliveira; Sirleine Lima de Oliveira; Otoniel Magalhães Morais

    2009-01-01

    The sugar apple is a species of great economic importance. The propagation is through seeds, but experimental studies focused on ascertaining the ideal conditions of seed storage, especially packing and environments, are mostly lacking. The current work thus aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of packing, environments and storage times over the germination and vigor of sugar apple seeds. The work was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, B...

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  1. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seed quality is important for subsequent establishment of baby leaf and other spinach products. The indeterminate flowering pattern in spinach produces seeds of different sizes, and consequently a non-uniform seed lot. Sorting seeds based on novel sorting methods mi...

  2. Identification of thickspike wheatgrass accessions with superior rhizome spread, seed production, and seed quality

    Thickspike wheatgrass is widely used for rangeland seeding and revegetation projects in western areas of North America. However, thickspike wheatgrass does not produce high seed yields, and seed is often of poor quality, which often results in high seed prices and poor establishment following seedi...

  3. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  4. SEED BIOLOGY OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    The seed of Medicago truncatula have morphological features typical of dicotyledons, and are borne in a spine-covered spiral pod. The cotyledons are rich in protein (35-45%), the major storage molecule. They accumulate approximately 10% lipids and only traces of starch. The most abundant proteins a...

  5. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  6. Seed microRNA Research

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulatory molecules that play critical roles in gene expression. The biological functions of miRNAs are important for developmental processes in plants and animals. Little is known about the functions of miRNAs in seeds. To gain a better understand-ing of the regulation o...

  7. Imagining a Genetic Seed Bank

    Cassarino, Stacie

    2012-01-01

    If “magical thinking,” to use her words, is essential to Suzanne Anker’s practice of integrating science and visual art, it is also indispensable to the viewer entering her recent exhibition, Genetic Seed Bank, at the Art | Sci Gallery in the California Nanosystems Institute at UCLA.

  8. Staying Alive: Molecular Aspects of Seed Longevity.

    Sano, Naoto; Rajjou, Loïc; North, Helen M; Debeaujon, Isabelle; Marion-Poll, Annie; Seo, Mitsunori

    2016-04-01

    Mature seeds are an ultimate physiological status that enables plants to endure extreme conditions such as high and low temperature, freezing and desiccation. Seed longevity, the period over which seed remains viable, is an important trait not only for plant adaptation to changing environments, but also, for example, for agriculture and conservation of biodiversity. Reduction of seed longevity is often associated with oxidation of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Seeds possess two main strategies to combat these stressful conditions: protection and repair. The protective mechanism includes the formation of glassy cytoplasm to reduce cellular metabolic activities and the production of antioxidants that prevent accumulation of oxidized macromolecules during seed storage. The repair system removes damage accumulated in DNA, RNA and proteins upon seed imbibition through enzymes such as DNA glycosylase and methionine sulfoxide reductase. In addition to longevity, dormancy is also an important adaptive trait that contributes to seed lifespan. Studies in Arabidopsis have shown that the seed-specific transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) plays a central role in ABA-mediated seed dormancy and longevity. Seed longevity largely relies on the viability of embryos. Nevertheless, characterization of mutants with altered seed coat structure and constituents has demonstrated that although the maternally derived cell layers surrounding the embryos are dead, they have a significant impact on longevity. PMID:26637538

  9. Dormancy cycling in seeds: mechanisms and regulation

    Claessens, S.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most plants starts, and ends, at the seed stage. In most species mature seeds are shed and dispersed on the ground. At this stage of its life cycle the seed may be dormant and will, by definition, not germinate under favourable conditions (Bewley, 1997). Seasonal dormancy cycling

  10. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  11. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  12. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  13. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    Arturo González-Zamora; Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez; Federico Escobar; Matthias Rös; Ken Oyama; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Colin A Chapman

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rai...

  14. Seed Systems Support in Kenya: Consideration for an Integrated Seed Sector Development Approach

    Peter Munyi; Bram De Jonge

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector Development (ISSD) approach. The ISSD approach has evolved as a response to the almost exclusive focus on formal seed systems in seed sector development programs. Instead, ISSD aims to recognize and sup...

  15. Seed disperser effectiveness: the quantity component and patterns of seed rain for Prunus mahaleb

    Jordano, Pedro; Schupp, Eugene W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the seed dispersal stage of the Prunus mahaleb–frugivorous bird inter- action from fruit removal through seed deliver y within the context of disperser effectiveness. The effectiveness of a frugivorous species as a seed disperser is the contribution it makes to plant fitness. Effectiveness depends on the quantity of seed dispersed (‘‘quantity component’’) and the quality of dispersal provided each seed (‘‘quality component’’). For the main frug...

  16. Self-seeding ring optical parametric oscillator

    Smith, Arlee V.; Armstrong, Darrell J.

    2005-12-27

    An optical parametric oscillator apparatus utilizing self-seeding with an external nanosecond-duration pump source to generate a seed pulse resulting in increased conversion efficiency. An optical parametric oscillator with a ring configuration are combined with a pump that injection seeds the optical parametric oscillator with a nanosecond duration, mJ pulse in the reverse direction as the main pulse. A retroreflecting means outside the cavity injects the seed pulse back into the cavity in the direction of the main pulse to seed the main pulse, resulting in higher conversion efficiency.

  17. Seed germination, Dispersal and Seed Bank in Heracleum mantegazzianum

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Krinke, L.; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Thompson, K.

    Wallingford: CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 74-91 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Germination * Dormancy * Seed Bank Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  18. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants.

    Bower, Andrew D; St Clair, J Bradley; Erickson, Vicky

    2014-07-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum temperature and aridity (as measured by annual heat : moisture index), each classified into discrete bands. This results in the delineation of 64 provisional seed zones for the continental United States. These zones represent areas of relative climatic similarity, and movement of seed within these zones should help to minimize maladaptation. Superimposing Omernik's level III ecoregions over these seed zones distinguishes areas that are similar climatically yet different ecologically. A quantitative comparison of provisional seed zones with level III ecoregions and provisional seed zones within ecoregions for three species showed that provisional seed zone within ecoregion often explained the greatest proportion of variation in a suite of traits potentially related to plant fitness. These provisional seed zones can be considered a starting point for guidelines for seed transfer, and should be utilized in conjunction with appropriate species-specific information as well as local knowledge of microsite differences. PMID:25154085

  19. Variability in seed traits and genetic divergence in a clonal seed orchard of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    Ombir singh; Altaf Hussain Soft

    2012-01-01

    The variations in seed and pod traits,genetic superiority and genetic divergence were evaluated for a Clonal Seed Orchard (CSO) of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.at Bithmera,India consisting of 20 clones from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh,Uttarakhand,Haryana and Rajasthan).The seeds and pods of various clones in the orchard exhibited significant variability in size,weight and other characters.Significant positive correlations were observed between seed length and seed width (p<0.05),seed length and seed thickness (p<0.01),seed length and seed weight (p<0.0l),seed thickness and seed weight (p<0.01),seed length and germination value (p<0.05).The genetic parameters for seed and pod traits also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard.Heritability values were found to be over 50 vpereent for most of the seed and pod traits.Seed weight,seed length and seed thickness showed high heritability values coupled with maximum genetic gain for these characters.Ward's minimum variance dendrogram of clones of D.sissoo showed three distinct clusters; cluster 1 was the largest with 12 better clones whereas cluster 2 and 3 consisting of seven moderate clones and one poor clone,respectively.Mean cluster values showed sufficient variation among the clusters for seed weight,germination value and seed length.The possible hybridization between best clones of cluster 1 to the disease resistant clone of cluster 2 (resistant against deadly Gandoderma lucidum root rot disease of D.sissoo) is also suggested for further breeding programmes of the species.The deployment of clone 194 (better performed and disease resistant) is also recommended in future plantation programmes of D.sissoo in northern India.

  20. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  1. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. Am. J. Primatol. 78:185-191, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26469699

  2. Water binding in legume seeds

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

  3. Proteomics of rice seed germination

    He, Dongli; Yang, Pingfang

    2013-01-01

    Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles, and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the de...

  4. EFFICIENCY OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL

    Sukru Karatas; Nihan Ozdogan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper pomegranate kinds that reach to harvest maturity which are produced in commercial scales in Adana, Antalya, Finike and Kilis regions in Turkey and also Hicaz and Eksilik kinds are chosen randomly to be investigated. Seed efficiencies, grain ratios, oil efficiency of these chosen pomegranate kinds were studied. According to this study, pomegranate kind taken from Kilis region is found to have the highest grain efficieny with a ratio of 71% and pomegranate kind taken from...

  5. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenien...

  6. Jatropha seed oils for energy

    Banerji, R.; Chowdhury, A.R.; Misra, G.; Sudarsanam, G.; Verma, S.C.; Srivastava, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Oil contents, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and energy values of seed samples of four species of Jatropha (J. curcas, J. glandulifera, J. gossypifolia and J. multifida) were determined. The energy value of J. multifida oil was found to be the highest (13.647 kcal/g). All the oil samples were rich in oleic and linoleic acids (72.2-84.0%). However, no correlation between the energy values and fatty acid composition could be obtained.

  7. Cultivating knowledge on seed systems and seed strategies: Case of the rice crop

    Amadou Moustapha Bèye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives key information about seed systems with the objective of helping countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA to design appropriate strategies based on their own local realities. It starts with an in-depth assessment of the rice seed sector and emphasizes the factors that can influence its development. These factors may be associated with the biological characteristics of the rice crop, the complexity of farming systems, the policy environment, and the markets. The historical background of the seed sector in SSA is described in order to give a clear picture of the different attempts to find solutions in different countries and sub-regions. Five major strategic models and several alternative seed strategies are identified. However, local traditional seed systems will remain the primary source of seed supply for the majority of farmers for many years to come. These systems are based on farmer-saved seed and farmer-to-farmer seed exchanges, which are efficient tools in seed dissemination and food security. It is time to recognize local traditional systems and their contribution to the maintenance of seed quality and crop diversity and to develop tools for their better utilization. The community-based seed system (CBSS is proposed as such a tool. CBSS encourages technicians to recognize local traditional seed systems and to build integrated seed approaches that take into consideration local realities and the socio-cultural dimension of seed within African communities. This will likely require a transition period of 5 to 10 years to build the fundamentals of sustainable seed systems through the structuring of the seed sector and the creation of appropriate conditions to ensure food security, enriched biodiversity and sustainable production. With climate change, local traditional seed systems, as well as integrated seed approaches, will likely play a more important role to improve the performance of agricultural systems while ensuring farmer

  8. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  9. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    Milovanović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude protein content was so high as the 21.8% of the seeds. Standard procedures were applied to determine the fatty acids composition of the seed oil. The fatty acid profiles of the seed oil showed an unsaturated fatty acid content of 77.4% and the high content of 63.2% of PUFA. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic (18:2 acid in 62.2%. The presence of other fatty acids ranged in 10-14% for oleic (18:1 stearic (18:0 and palmitic (16:0 acids, respectively. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the seed oil was also determined as iodine, acid, saponification, peroxide values and specific gravity.

  10. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Messing, E. [University of Rochester, Departments of Urology and Surgery, Rochester, NY (United States); Rubens, D. [University of Rochester, Departments of Imaging Science and Surgery, Rochester, NY (United States); Sarkar, N. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Ng, W. [Nangyang Technical University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-06-15

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  11. Potassium leakage and maize seed physiological potential

    Miguel Mariane Victorio de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed production usually requires fast decisions to improve the efficacy of seed handling during harvesting, processing and storage. Seed technologists have focused on the development or improvement of procedures which allow rapid and consistent identification of higher quality seed lots. This research verified the effectiveness of the potassium leachate test on the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds in comparison to recommended seed vigor tests. Five seed lots of the hybrid Avant were submitted to the potassium leachate, standard germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, field emergence and cold tests. The amount of potassium leachate was determined after seed imbibition for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes, at 25°C; a flame photometer adjusted to 50 mug K+ mL-1 pattern and reading 50 was used to determine the amount of leached potassium. The potassium leachate test consistently ranked the seed lots according to their physiological quality in comparison to other tests, and is a new alternative test for maize seed quality control programs.

  12. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds. PMID:26926652

  13. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  14. Chlorophyll fluorescence of the testa of Brassica oleracea seeds as an indicator of seed maturity and seed quality

    Jalink H.; Frandas A.; Schoor R. van der; Bino J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence of the testa of seeds is proposed as a non-invasive method for the determination of maturity and quality of seeds. In this study cabbage seeds (Brassica oleracea) were sorted individually based on the chlorophyll fluorescence signals into four subsamples labeled with respect to their chlorophyll fluorescence signal (low, medium, high and very high). The results show that the magnitude of the chlorophyll fluorescence signal was inversely related to the quality of the s...

  15. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  16. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. PMID:24920763

  17. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  18. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Seyed Ata SIADAT; Seyed Amir MOOSAVI; Mehran SHARAFIZADEH

    2015-01-01

    Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing) and the response to seed priming when using dif...

  19. Produtividade e estado nutricional do quiabeiro em função da densidade populacional e do biofertilizante suíno Effects of plant population and swine biofertilizer application on yield and nutrient content of okra

    Maria Aparecida Nogueira Sediyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e o estado nutricional do quiabeiro 'Santa Cruz', cultivado em sistema orgânico, em função de populações de plantas e doses de biofertilizante suíno. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Oratórios (MG, no período de 16/10/2007 a 22/2/2008. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo duas populações de plantas e cinco doses de biofertilizante, obtido pela fermentação anaeróbica de dejeto líquido de suíno. As populações foram 23.809 e 35.714 plantas ha-1, obtidas no espaçamento de 1,4 x 0,30 m com uma planta por cova e 1,4 x 0,40 m com duas plantas por cova. As doses de biofertilizante foram: 0; 6; 12; 24 e 48 m³ ha-1, sendo 80% aplicado no sulco de plantio, 15 dias antes do transplante, e 20% em cobertura, aos 30 dias após o transplante das mudas. Avaliaram-se teor foliar de nutrientes, índice SPAD, altura de plantas, número de hastes e produção de frutos comerciais e não comerciais. A aplicação do biofertilizante suíno proporcionou plantas com bom estado nutricional. O índice SPAD correlacionou positivamente com teores foliares de N, sendo as maiores concentrações obtidas nas maiores doses de biofertilizante, especialmente na menor população de plantas. O número e a produção de frutos comerciais por planta foram maiores quando se utilizou menor população de plantas. A maior produtividade obtida na população de 35.714 plantas ha-1 foi 31,23 t ha-1 e na população de 23.809 plantas ha-1 foi 21,90 t ha-1, ambas alcançadas com a maior dose de biofertilizante aplicada. A maior produtividade comercial de frutos de quiabo foi obtida na maior população de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and nutritional status of organically cultivated Santa Cruz okra as a function of planting densities and doses of swine biofertilizer. The experiment was carried

  20. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests. PMID:16532195

  1. Water uptake curve in physic nut seeds

    Alex Caetano Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is a useful species in oil production for energy purposes, however its agricultural crop counts on little scientific knowledge. This work aimed to determine the water uptake curve in physic nut seeds, with the purpose to help future researches depending on this information. Two batches of seeds were used, represented by two sub-samples (intact seeds and dead seeds of each batch. The water uptake curve was determined weighing samples at specified intervals of time. A fully randomized experimental delineation was applied, with two treatments and four repetitions of 10 seeds each. Data were submitted to Bartlett, Anova and Turkey tests; regression equations were adjusted for the uptake curves. It was concluded that Jatropha curcas seeds follow the three-phases water uptake pattern , being phase I between 0 and 15h, phase II between 15h and 60h and phase three starting after 60h.

  2. Seed Cryopreservation of Some Medicinal Legumes

    Alla B. Kholina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed survival after storage in liquid nitrogen (–196°C was examined in 12 wild medicinal legume species occurred Far East of Russia. Dry seeds of all species survived cryostorage without loss of viability. Initial germinability varied from 3 to 85%. The stimulatory effect of cryogenic temperature on germination, with or without subsequent chemical scarification, was observed in all species studied with deep physical dormancy or heterogeneous levels of hardseededness. Frozen seeds demonstrated higher germination percentages (the percentage of germinated seeds and germination rates (time for first seed to germinate (T0 and time required (in days to reach 50% of the final germination percentage (T50 than the control ones. The anomalous seedlings were not observed after storage of seeds in liquid nitrogen. This study shows that cryostorage may be successfully applied for conservation of native species without detrimental effects on germination and growth.

  3. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte; Rolston, M P;

    2013-01-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed...... species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like...... seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature...

  4. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  5. A study of autorotating plant seeds.

    Sunada, S; Ide, A; Hoshino, Y; Okamoto, M

    2015-12-01

    A leading edge vortex exists on the upper surface of an autorotating plant seed. The vortex enhances the vertical aerodynamic force acting on the seed and decreases the rate of descent. We analyzed the flight data of rotary seeds and revealed that the lift-drag ratio affects the descent factor more strongly than the vertical force coefficient. This has also been confirmed by falling tests of model rotors, which have various aspect ratios, airfoil shapes and total masses. PMID:26382230

  6. Balancing of sulfur storage in maize seed

    Wu Yongrui; Wang Wenqin; Messing Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A balanced composition of amino acids in seed flour is critical because of the demand on essential amino acids for nutrition. However, seed proteins in cereals like maize, the crop with the highest yield, are low in lysine, tryptophan, and methionine. Although supplementation with legumes like soybean can compensate lysine deficiency, both crops are also relatively low in methionine. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of methionine accumulation in the seed could be a b...

  7. Seed Cryopreservation of Some Medicinal Legumes

    Alla B. Kholina; Nina M. Voronkova

    2012-01-01

    Seed survival after storage in liquid nitrogen (–196°C) was examined in 12 wild medicinal legume species occurred Far East of Russia. Dry seeds of all species survived cryostorage without loss of viability. Initial germinability varied from 3 to 85%. The stimulatory effect of cryogenic temperature on germination, with or without subsequent chemical scarification, was observed in all species studied with deep physical dormancy or heterogeneous levels of hardseededness. Frozen seeds demonstrate...

  8. A Hedonic Model of Corn Seed Prices

    Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge; Valle, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A notable feature of the adoption of genetically engineered (GE) corn is the rapid growth in seed prices accompanied by rapid increases in GE corn with multiple (stacked) traits, which have often seen to offer several advantages to farmers, particularly increased yields. This paper presents preliminary empirical results on the estimation of the pricing of seed traits for corn using 2010 data. The hedonic approach used entails expressing the price of seed as a function of their “quality charac...

  9. Seed Development and Quality in Maize Cultivars

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI; Zahra TAJBAKHSH; Yaeghoob RAEY

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate seed development and quality of maize (Zea mays) cultivars (DC-370, SC-500, OSSK-602 and SC-604), a split plot experiment (using R.C.B. design) with three replicates was conducted in 2009 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Subsequently, the quality of seed samples was determined in the laboratory. Germination percentage and seedling dry weight were enhanced, but...

  10. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of mai...

  11. 黄蜀葵花总黄酮对人脐静脉血管内皮细胞凋亡及fas蛋白表达的影响%Effects of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot on apoptosis and fas expression in human umbilical endothelial cells

    潘武; 骆晓梅; 徐正元; 刘振锋; 蒋萌

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察黄蜀葵花总黄酮(TFA)对人脐静脉血管内皮细胞(HUVEC)凋亡及凋亡相关蛋白fas表达的影响.方法:体外培养HUVEC,加入TFA,按加入药物浓度的不同分为4组:TFA 0 μg· ml-1组(对照组)、TEA 5μg·ml-1组、TFA 10 μg·ml-1组、TFA 20 μg· ml -1组,培育72 h后应用流式细胞术检测各组HUVEC凋亡率及fas蛋白的表达.结果:HUVEC凋亡率对照组为10.1%、TFA 5 μg· ml -1组为7.2%、TFA 10 μg·ml-1组为3.9%、TFA 20 μg·ml-1组为8.5%.与对照组比较:各浓度TFA组HUVEC凋亡率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),各浓度TFA组HUVEC fas表达率均下降,差异有统计学意义(分别P=0.000,P=0.000,P =0.028).结论:TFA浓度在5~20 μg·ml -1范围可抑制HUVEC凋亡,其机制与下调凋亡相关蛋白fas的表达有关.%Objective; To observe the effects of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot (TFA)on apoptosis and apoptosis-related protein fas expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods; Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured in vitro with adding TFA, and according to the concentration of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot, HUVEC were divided into four groups; TFA 0 μg·ml-1 group (the control group) , TFA 5 μg·ml-1 group, TFA 10 μg·ml-1 group, TFA 20 μg·ml-1 group. After 72 hours, the rate of apoptosis and fas expression of HUVEC were determined by flow cytometry. Results; HUVEC apoptosis rates was 10. 1% in control group, 7. 2% in TFA 5 μg·ml-1 group, 3. 9% in TFA 10μg·ml-1 group, 8.5% in TFA 20 μg·ml-1 group. Compared with the control group, difference of apoptosis rate was significant (P <0.01). The fas expression of HUVEC in different TFA conceutralion groups was decreased compared with control group (P =0.000, P=0.000,P =0.028). Conclusions; Concentration of 5-20 μg·ml-1 TFA can inhibit apoptosis of HUVEC, and the mechanism is related with reducing fas expression.

  12. 7 CFR 201.57a - Dormant seeds.

    2010-01-01

    ..., or application of germination promoting chemicals. (b) The percentage of dormant seed, if present..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57a Dormant seeds. Dormant seeds...

  13. 7 CFR 201.64 - Pure live seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined...

  14. 7 CFR 201.7a - Treated seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treated seed. 201.7a Section 201.7a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7a Treated seed. The complete record for...

  15. 7 CFR 201.47a - Seed unit.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed unit. 201.47a Section 201.47a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.47a Seed unit. The seed unit is...

  16. 7 CFR 201.49 - Other crop seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other crop seed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.49 Other crop seed. (a) Seeds of...

  17. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  18. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    Sharma, Anjali K.; Geetha K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is...

  19. The seed factor in forest establishment

    Oboho E. G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large scale deforestation all over the world necessitates planting of more trees to augment the forest estate. Tree planting and forest production require the use of lots of seeds to raise seedlings. Factors of importance are those directly relating to the seed as well as those indirect factors affecting the germination of seeds, early growth and survival of seedlings. The main factors include physiological and physical attributes of seeds, factors controlling availability in time and quantity, seed extraction/handling, viability, storage, germination and early growth characteristics; nursery site condition, management know-how and dedicated staff are also vital to the success of forest production by affecting the sustenance of growth, development and survival of seedlings raised. Nursery staff, seed vendors and seedling producers should be properly trained in seed technology and nursery practices in order to enhance the quality and quantity of seedlings produced from available seeds. This is because seed is an invaluable regenerative propagule without which there would be neither seedlings nor forest establishment.

  20. Storage crambe seed treated with insecticides

    Geraldo Cabral e Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of low quality seeds with a lower physiological reflects one of the major causes of low productivity. Thus the storage conditions of seed must be taken into consideration. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of natural and synthetic insecticides on emergence and seed storage of crambe, as these substances are essential to prevent infestation of seeds of other species by harmful organisms. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 3 x 8 ( 8 substances and 3 storage times with 4 replications. We assessed the following natural insecticides: saffron, lime, ash, neem, diatomaceous earth, and synthetic: chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin; besides the control consisting of seeds without any treatment. We evaluated the percentage of emergence, speed of emergence index and time to reach 50 % of emergency. In all characteristics, it was found that no influence of neem on seed vigor. There are disadvantages in the application of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diatomaceous earth, which interfered with the emergence rate of seeds of crambe. The seeds treated with other insecticides had different behavior of untreated seeds after 120 days of storage to assess the time that they take to reach 50 % germination.

  1. Weed Seed Labelling with Rare Earth Elements

    The dormancy period of weed seed under field conditions so far could not be determined with reliability because of the lack of a suitable method for labelling seed. Rademacher and co-workers labelled weed seed with 35S for studying germination in relation to different methods of soil cultivation. Since 35S has a half-period of 87.1 d only, labelling is practically ineffective after one year. The authors of this paper therefore tried to label weed seed with lanthanum, europium and dysprosium. Since these elements (1) do not occur in the standard soils in interfering quantities, and (2) can easily be determined by neutron activation analysis, they are useful for non-radioactive labelling. In pot experiments they were added like fertilizers before the soil was seeded with Sinapsis alba or Vicia villosa. After harvesting, samples of the plants' roots, stems, leaves, and seed were irradiated in the reactor and the rare earth elements determined by neutron-activation analysis. Evaluation of the results disclosed that traceable quantities of lanthanum, europium, and dysprosium were present in roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the grains of seed. It is the intention, in further experiments, to increase the concentration of the applied elements up to the limit of compatibility, and to find out whether a more concentrated supply will increase the incorporation in seeds. If one of these elements is present in a reasonable concentration, experiments with labelled weed seed will be possible for periods of several years. (author)

  2. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SEED SELECTION NOWADAYS

    Efremova V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s insight into the theoretical foundations of plant breeding for self-pollinators and cross-pollinators. From the author’s point of view, plant breeding techniques depend on a type of pollination, population propagation and isolation from other variety pollen. Adaptive properties of crops are described as ones depending on a genetic type (genetically pure lines, populations, hybrids, pure varieties and clones. The key role of seeds in preserving a plant variety, or a cultivar, is emphasized. In the article, cultivar and yield qualities of seeds are characterized. The reasons for seed deterioration and yield decrease have been looked into. Improvement of main crops such as wheat, barley, rye, rice, soybeans, maize, triticale, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets is characterized in detail. The author shares the traditional point of view on the seed breeding program. It includes following steps: development phase (breeder’s seed, maintenance phase (in which a quantity of seed is maintained under high standards and the distribution phase (production of commercial seed for distribution to the public. The difference between primary and secondary seed selection is explained. The best periods for crop rotation and crop renovation are also described. The legally enforceable standards of quality and genetic purity for different crops are presented in the article. It is pointed out that it is vital to maintain high cultivar qualities after multiplication and distribution of the new variety. Only large-scale pedigree system for seed production promotes it

  3. Do Primed Seeds After Drought Stress Have Higher Germination Recovery Efficiency Compared To Unprimed Seeds?

    Akbarpour Bahreh M.; Sharif Zadeh F.; Archin Sh.

    2014-01-01

    From the ecological and economic point of view Agropyron elongatum, among perennial grasses, has a special place. This study was conducted to determine the most appropriate seed priming treatment and whether after a temporary stress removal, primed seeds have a higher recovery efficiency compared with unprimed seeds? In this research, seed was treated with different osmo and hydro priming and evaluated their effect by conducting germination test under drought stress (-1.2 and -1.4 MPa PEG) an...

  4. QTLs for Seed Vigor-Related Traits Identified in Maize Seeds Germinated under Artificial Aging Conditions

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed g...

  5. KARRIKIN: A SEED GERMINATION STIMULANT

    SANJEEV KUMAR MAURYA, ALOK SRIVASTAVA AND SANJAY KUMAR GARG*

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Karrikins are a chemically defined group of plant growth regulators of the butenolide class found in smoke of burning plant material. Karrikins are effective in breaking the dormancy of seeds and also control the seedling growth of the plant.  F-box gene MAX2 and an α/β hydrolase fold protein KAI2 or DAD2 play important role in the signaling pathway for signal transduction of karrikins.  The discovery of karrikins set up an interesting new nexus among fire ecology, plant evolutio...

  6. Cold tolerance, seed production and seed germination of a forage bermudagrass core collection

    Forage bermudagrass can be an important perennial warm-season forage for transitional zones of warm and cool season pastures. Cold-tolerant seeded varieties will be especially desirable. A forage bermudagrass core collection was assessed for seed production and seed germination. Also, a replicate...

  7. Genetic analysis of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with the genetic aspects of seed development in Arabidopsisthaliana. Mutants affected in several aspects of seed development and, more specifically, in seed maturation have been isolated by various selection procedures. The mutants have been analyzed genetically, physiologically,

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL from 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.07 mg/kg for the proposed use on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. An adequate analytical enforcement method is available to control the residues of bixafen in oilseeds. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bixafen on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk. This risk assessment has to be regarded as provisional since the residue definition for enforcement and risk assessment in oilseeds are provisional and pending the need for MRLs in rotational crops and the definitive MRLs in animal origin commodities.

  9. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  10. Field appraisal of seed priming to improve the growth, yield, and quality of direct seeded rice

    REHMAN, Hafeez Ur; BASRA, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed; Farooq, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Poor crop stand and high weed infestation are the major constraints of direct seeded rice. Seed priming has the potential to improve the seedling emergence and crop stand. This study was conducted to evaluate the on-farm assessment of direct seeded rice by employing different priming techniques such as on-farm priming, hydropriming, hardening, and osmohardening with CaCl2 and KCl. Untreated seeds were taken as control. Among all the seed priming techniques, osmohardening with CaCl2 improved t...

  11. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  12. Convective Drying of Rapeseed Hybrids’ Seeds

    Željko Jukić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water release from seeds of three rape hybrids, (‘Artus’, ‘Baldur’ and ‘Titan’, during the convection drying of the seeds at three different drying temperature (40, 60 and 80 °C. The drying was conducted in laboratory scale drier which can simulate the conditions of large drier. The air velocity in the drier was maintained at 1.0 m/s. Activation energy needed for starting the process of water release during the convective drying of oil seed rape seeds was also studied. According to the obtained values, the mathematical models (equations and curves of kinematic drying were determined. By comparing the exponential equations and the constants of water release from seeds it was observed that drying of hybrid Artus was the slowest and the one of hybrid Titan the fastest. Results showed that there was a significant difference between all investigated hybrids in water release rate and that within the same drying conditions, hybrids showed different behaviour. Moreover, air temperature increase caused significant increase in water release from the seeds. The highest activation energy needed for starting the process of water release from the seeds had the hybrid Artus and the lowest one hybrid Titan. Due to this, it can be concluded that the activation energy was reversely proportional to the water release rate from the seeds.

  13. Formative Assessment Probes: Seeds in a Bag

    Keeley, Page

    2014-01-01

    Many young children come to school with prior experiences planting seeds in a garden or in a pot, watering them, and seeing them grow. These early scientific investigations are designed to help children understand that seeds need water, something to grow in (such as soil), and the right temperature to sprout--if these conditions are met, a seed…

  14. Flavor compounds of popped amaranth seeds

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Amaranth caudatus seeds were popped and studied for optimal popping conditions and flavor compounds. The optimum popping temperature for the seeds was 180C. At this temperature, the expansion volume, flake size and unpopped kernel proportion were 9.4¿11.3 cm3/g, 0.010¿0.012 cm/g and 10¿2%, respectiv

  15. Puncturevine seed response to postemergence herbicides

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) continues to plague growers, vegetation managers, and home gardeners. Puncturevine is a summer annual weed with spiny fruits that split into five segments, each containing one to four seeds. The seed nearest the pointed end of the bur is the largest and usually ge...

  16. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  17. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  18. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  19. Radiosensitivity of quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

    The investigation with quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) radiosensitivity and the mineral composition of the plants obtained for mutation breeding are related. The concentration of some macro and micronutrients in quince seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds are studied. (M.A.C.)

  20. SUPERMASSIVE SEEDS FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z ∼> 7 constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we elucidate the implications of the radiative feedback from early generations of stars and from BH accretion for popular models for the formation and growth of seed BHs. We show that by properly accounting for (1) the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from cosmological simulations of early star formation and radiative feedback, (2) the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and (3) the large radiative efficiencies ε of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift (ε ∼> 0.1), we are led to the conclusion that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as ∼> 105 M☉. This presents a strong challenge to the Population III seed model, which calls for seed masses of ∼100 M☉ and, even with constant Eddington-limited accretion, requires ε ∼4-106 M☉ seed BH. These results corroborate recent cosmological simulations and observational campaigns which suggest that these massive BHs were the seeds of a large fraction of the SMBHs residing in the centers of galaxies today.

  1. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  2. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these protei

  3. Storage of Annona squamosa L. seeds

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugar apple is a species of great economic importance. The propagation is through seeds, but experimental studies focused on ascertaining the ideal conditions of seed storage, especially packing and environments, are mostly lacking. The current work thus aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of packing, environments and storage times over the germination and vigor of sugar apple seeds. The work was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, BA. Seeds were conditioned in paper and plastic and were maintained in the atmosphere and refrigerator. The evaluation times were 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the beginning of the experiment. The following were evaluated: seed water content, germination, and vigor. Among the main results it was proved that the maximum storage time of sugar apple seeds was six months. Paper bags were best for the conservation of seed viability, regardless of the environment. The highest percentages of germination were obtained using paper bags in environmental conditions.

  4. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  5. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  6. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    Macey A. Mahawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. On the otherhand, the taste of the biscuits prepared with 0% Avocado seed flour was moderate like, in 25% proportion of Avocado seed flour were slight like and in 50% proportion was neither liked nor disliked. The overall acceptability results for 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. Furthermore, the computed p values for the comparison of the level of acceptability in terms of color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of biscuits using 0%, 25%, and 50% avocado seed flour were lower than 0.05. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

  7. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  8. Treatments to break the dormancy of Cassia fistula L. seeds

    Paulo Alexandre Fernandes Rodrigues de Melo; Edilson Guedes da Costa; Sueli da Silva Santos-Moura; Edna Ursulino Alves; Roberta Sales Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae – Caesalpinioidea) is a forest species that is propagated by seeds. To promote the production of seedlings of C. fistula it is necessary to break the natural dormancy of its seeds, which is caused by the seed tegument that is impermeable to water. The goal of this study was to establish a pre-germination treatment for germinating C. fistula seeds. The seeds were subjected to the following treatments: control – intact seeds (T1); mechanical scarification with sandpa...

  9. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. PMID:24176051

  10. Use of molecular marker techniques in seed testing by Brazilian seed companies

    Della Vecchia P.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed market is becoming global and globalization is growing very fast. To compete favourably in this new global seed world, quality and cost are and will be certanly the key issues. High seed quality can only be obtained by a thorough control of the entire seed production process, step by step from planning to final delivery. That requires science, technology, expertise, experience, good management and certanly, the most important, an absolute and unconditional commitment with quality. Seed testing for quality assurance is one important step in the process of production of high quality seed. In the late years a considerable amount of research has been published, particularly on the use of some Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA based new technologies (RAPD, microsatelites, AFLP for genetic purity determinations in seed testing. As far as we know, no Brazilian seed company is using, on regular basis, RAPD or other molecular marker techniques in the determination of genetic purity in seed testing. Most of these are using morphological or physiological traits expressed by seed, seedling or mature plant and/or electrophoresis of seed or seedling proteins/isoenzymes for that purpose. Main reasons for that are: DNA molecular marker techniques are relatively new; lack of specialized personnel to run DNA molecular marker assays on routine basis; higher cost/sample when compared to proteins/isoenzymes electrophoresis.

  11. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  12. Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature

    Wagner F da Mota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless, e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet.The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual

  13. Design of Millet Seed-metering Device under Hole-seeding Conditions

    Xiaoshun Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that traditional millet drilling method needs labor-intensive artificial thinning-out, a hole-seeding method is proposed to replace it. Under hole-seeding conditions, an air-suction millet seed-metering device was designed. The design of air-cutting valve can assure that suction-holes are not clogged and reliably falling seeds. Suction-hole structure of the seed-metering device takes chamfer type. The dimension parameter of the chamfer hole is as follows: diameter of 4 mm, chamfer depth of 2.5 mm, fissuriform bottom of suction-hole is 1 mm width, number of holes is 32. The passing rate of hill spacing, repeat-sowing rate, leak-sowing rate and hill formation were analyzed by seed-metering test platform, which meets the precision of millet seed and agronomic requirements.

  14. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    Anjali K Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is concluded that seed characters can be used for the characterization of accessions in T. cordifolia germplasm and these characters can be used in   DUS descriptors of the species.

  15. Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.

    Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-11-01

    Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies. PMID:22776090

  16. Seed-less iodine-125 ophthalmic applicator

    A method of preparation a seed-less active insert of iodine-125 ophthalmic applicator is described. Internal electrolysis was applied for fixing iodine-125 on the concave surface of the silver shell which is afterwards hermetically sealed inside a spherically shaped acrylic insert. The current-voltage characteristics of the galvanic cell used for deposition of silver iodide were determined. The results of the measurements of the energy spectra of the radiation emitted by a seed-less and seed-containing applicator are presented. The iodine-125 surface distribution uniformity on a silver shell was measured. The depth dose rate measurements indicate that the total activity incorporated in a seed-less applicator can be lower than that in seed-containing, while simultaneously assuring the desired dose rate

  17. Seed maturation regulators are related to the control of seed dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Kazuhide Rikiishi

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, the regulation network of the seed maturation program controls the induction of seed dormancy. Wheat EST sequences showing homology with the master regulators of seed maturation, leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1, LEC2 and FUSCA3 (FUS3, were searched from databases and designated respectively as TaL1L (LEC1-LIKE, TaL2L (LEC2-LIKE, and TaFUS3. TaL1LA, TaL2LA and TaFUS3 mainly expressed in seeds or embryos, with the expression limited to the early stages of seed development. Results show that tissue-specific and developmental-stage-dependent expressions are similar to those of seed maturation regulators in Arabidopsis. In wheat cultivars, the expression level of TaL1LA is correlated significantly with the germination index (GI of whole seeds at 40 days after pollination (DAP (r =  -0.83**. Expression levels of TaFUS3 and TaL2LA are significantly correlated respectively with GIs at 40 DAP and 50 DAP, except for dormant cultivars. No correlation was found between the expression level of TaVP1, orthologue of ABA insensitive3 (ABI3, and seed dormancy. Delay of germination1 (DOG1 was identified as a quantitative trait locus (QTL for the regulation of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Its promoter has RY motif, which is a target sequence of LEC2. Significant correlation was found between the expression of TaDOG1 and seed dormancy except for dormant cultivars. These results indicate that TaL1LA, TaL2LA, and TaFUS3 are wheat orthologues of seed maturation regulators. The expressions of these genes affect the level of seed dormancy. Furthermore, the pathways, which involve seed maturation regulators and TaDOG1, are important for regulating seed dormancy in wheat.

  18. Seed maturation regulators are related to the control of seed dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Rikiishi, Kazuhide; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the regulation network of the seed maturation program controls the induction of seed dormancy. Wheat EST sequences showing homology with the master regulators of seed maturation, leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1), LEC2 and FUSCA3 (FUS3), were searched from databases and designated respectively as TaL1L (LEC1-LIKE), TaL2L (LEC2-LIKE), and TaFUS3. TaL1LA, TaL2LA and TaFUS3 mainly expressed in seeds or embryos, with the expression limited to the early stages of seed development. Results show that tissue-specific and developmental-stage-dependent expressions are similar to those of seed maturation regulators in Arabidopsis. In wheat cultivars, the expression level of TaL1LA is correlated significantly with the germination index (GI) of whole seeds at 40 days after pollination (DAP) (r =  -0.83**). Expression levels of TaFUS3 and TaL2LA are significantly correlated respectively with GIs at 40 DAP and 50 DAP, except for dormant cultivars. No correlation was found between the expression level of TaVP1, orthologue of ABA insensitive3 (ABI3), and seed dormancy. Delay of germination1 (DOG1) was identified as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the regulation of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Its promoter has RY motif, which is a target sequence of LEC2. Significant correlation was found between the expression of TaDOG1 and seed dormancy except for dormant cultivars. These results indicate that TaL1LA, TaL2LA, and TaFUS3 are wheat orthologues of seed maturation regulators. The expressions of these genes affect the level of seed dormancy. Furthermore, the pathways, which involve seed maturation regulators and TaDOG1, are important for regulating seed dormancy in wheat. PMID:25211528

  19. The Effects of the Different Seeding Rate and Forward Speed on Longitudinal Distribution Seed in a Combine Grain eed Drill

    yardımcısı, Baş editör ve; Mustafa ÇETİN; TAŞER, Ö. Faruk

    1999-01-01

    In Turkey, grain production has the first place in the agricultural production. Grain sowing is generally being done by combined grain seed drills. In this study, the effects of different seeding rate and forward speed of the combined seed drill on the seed distribution on row were tried to be determined. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions and sticky band system was used to determine seeding uniformity on row. The experiments were conducted on three seeding rates and four...

  20. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  1. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  2. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Du, X.; Guo, Q.; Gao, X.; Ma, K.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms. We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan, southwestern China. The results showed that: (1) there were marked differences in (mature) seed production between mast (733,700 seeds in 2001) and regular (51,200 and 195,600 seeds in 2002 and 2003, respectively) years for C. fargesii. (2) Most seeds were dispersed in leaf litter, humus and 0-2 cm depth soil in seed bank. (3) Frequency distributions of both DBH and height indicated that C. fargesii had a relatively stable population. (4) Seed rain, seed ground density, seed loss, and leaf fall were highly dynamic and certain quantity of seeds were preserved on the ground for a prolonged time due to predator satiation in both the mast and regular years so that the continuous presence of seed bank and seedling recruitments in situ became possible. Both longer time observations and manipulative experiments should be carried out to better understand the roles of seed dispersal and regeneration process in the ecosystem performance. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism.

    Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

    2008-08-22

    Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

  4. Timing of seed dispersal generates a bimodal seed bank depth distribution.

    Espinar, José L; Thompson, Ken; García, Luis V

    2005-10-01

    The density of soil seed banks is normally highest at the soil surface and declines monotonically with depth. Sometimes, for a variety of reasons, peak density occurs below the surface but, except in severely disturbed soils, it is generally true that deeper seeds are older. In seasonally dry habitats that develop deep soil cracks during the dry season, it is possible that some seeds fall down cracks and rapidly become deeply buried. We investigated this possibility for three dominant clonal perennials (Scirpus maritimus, S. litoralis, and Juncus subulatus) in the Doñana salt marsh, a nontidal marsh with a Mediterranean climate located in southwest Spain. Two species, which shed most of their seed during the dry season and have seeds with low buoyancy, had bimodal viable seed depth distributions, with peak densities at the surface and at 16-20 cm. A third species, which shed most seeds after soil cracks had closed and had seeds with high buoyancy, had viable seeds only in surface soil. Bimodal seed bank depth distributions may be relatively common in seasonally dry habitats with fine-textured soils, but their ecological significance has not been investigated. PMID:21646093

  5. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  6. Determination Testing of Seed Hardness of Staple Breeding Wheat Seed in Gansu Province of China

    Fei Dai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed hardness is one of the important indexes of grain classification. It has close relationship with grain powder, flour quality, seed storage and processing, resist insect pest and so on. In this study, which applied based on the grain hardness indentation loading curve method and chose 3 kind of staple breeding wheat seed to determine the seed hardness in Gansu province. The experimental results showed that the average hardness value of staple breeding wheat seed was 22.42 MPa~57.85 MPa and the dispersion of the hardness value was small, which also between 3~12%. The seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.1 was maximum (52.36~61.36MPa and the seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.3 between two parties of the other breeding wheat, which was 42.12~50.20MPa. The seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.2 was minimum, which were 58.10~62.91% and 47.91~54.66% lower than the rest of the two breeding wheat seed hardness respectively. The findings will provide theoretical basis for seed production and processing and the stimulation analysis by EDEM.

  7. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Lens culinaris Medikus seeds

    Kripi Vohra; Vivek Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the Lens culinaris Medikus (Fabaceae) seeds, a food grain used as Dhal in India. Methods: The macroscopy, microscopy, fluorescence analysis of powdered drug, physicochemical analysis, preliminary testing and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results: Seeds are greyish brown in colour. Treatment of powdered drug with various chemical reagents showed the presence of proteins, cellulose, lignins and fixed oils. Microscopy of seeds revealed the presence of starch grains in seed. The colour of seed coat changed from brown to greenish grey in day light and brown to black at 254nm when treated with acetic acid. Total ash value of the seeds was found to be 1.86% w/w whereas foreign organic matter was found to be nil. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins and flavonoids in acetone extract. Conclusions: The present study on pharmacognostic profile of Lens culinaris Medikus seeds provides an important tool in identification and authentication of this plant to researchers in future.

  8. Seed ecology of Bromus sterilis L.

    Žďárková, Veronika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus sterilis L. (barren brome has become a troublesome weed of winter cereals in reduced tillage systems, mainly in South and North America, middle and Western Europe. In the Czech Republic, its importance has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Barren brome is reported as a problem weed in other winter crops such as oil seed rape, in vineyards and in other cultivated places. In this study, the dormancy and germination under different temperatures, water and light regimes were investigated. Emergence from different depths and persistence in the soil profile were investigated under field conditions. The seeds of Bromus sterilis showed broad ecological valence to hydrothermal factors germinating in the wide range of 5 to 35 °C. Similarly, no strong effect on the germination in an environment with low water potential was observed. The response to light at various temperatures showed that seeds germinated better in darkness. The emergence declined significantly with burial depth (under 40 mm. The loss of primary dormancy was rapid in time and only 50% of the seeds germinated within 8 weeks after collecting from maternal plants. The seeds were not able to survive in the soil seed bank for a longer time and fall seeds lost viability 1 year after burial in a soil profile.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  10. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira, E-mail: camilo.urucum@hotmail.com [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Bicombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B., E-mail: jorgecazefilho@yahoo.com.br [Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Paraiba (EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  11. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  12. Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds

    Berghout, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds The growth in the world population requires an increase in the production of protein-rich foods from plant-based materials. Lupin seeds have potential to become a novel plant protein source for food products because they are rich in protein (about 37 wt%) and they can be grown in moderate temperature climates as in north-western Europe. Besides a high protein content, lupin seeds are rich in dietary fibres (soluble and insoluble), contain abou...

  13. Nutrient Value of Leaf vs. Seed.

    Edelman, Marvin; Colt, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin, and mineral concentrations and omega 6/omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea) are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed). An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables, and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons. The perspective ends with a discussion on "So why do we eat mainly seeds?" PMID:27493937

  14. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    Morales, J. R.; Dinator, M. I.; Cerda, P.

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce 11C and 13N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm 2. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center.

  15. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, M.I. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Fisica); Cerda, P. (Bio-Bio Univ., Chillan (Chile))

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce /sup 11/C and /sup 13/N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm/sup 2/. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center. (orig.).

  16. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of maize seed as well as the means to improve the conditions of storage and preservation of semen quality. Investigation and checking if insecticide treated seed adverse phytotoxic effect on plant growth and development in field conditions. The results indicate a significant effect of insecticide seed treatments on germination energy and non standard germination. A very significant influence of treated seed storage was also found on quality seeds. Looking at the impact of the treated hybrid on germination vigor and standard germination, a very significant hybrid impact was found out. The highest quality of the seed semen during the study was noticed with the seed of hybrid “H2”, followed by hybrid “H1”, while the hybrids “H3” and “H4” possessed less. The research shows that hybrids “H2” and “H1” are more suitable for seed treatment with insecticides than “H3” and “H4” hybrids. The field observations and research results obtained indicate a very significant impact of the treated seed on the above ground parts of plants, above ground mass, stem thickness and a very significant impact on plant spacing. The positive effect of treatment with “T1” and “T3” insecticides is visible in all conducted field researches. Plants treated with common fungicides and insecticides “T1” and “T3” had a greater height of the above ground plant parts, a larger mass of the above ground stems, greater stem thickness and better plant density treatments, compared to

  17. A reusable iodine-125 seed ophthalmic applicator

    A reusable iodine-125 seed ophthalmic applicator has been manufactured to treat intraocular tumours. It is made up of a stainless steel cap which houses a perspex insert; the perspex insert is used to contain four I-125 seeds. This applicator will treat a tumour with a surface diameter of 10mm and when loaded with four seeds each of activity 150MBq a dose of 60Gy may be delivered to a depth of 5mm in the eye in 5 to 6 days. The resultant dose to the sclera is of the order of 220Gy

  18. Gender inequality in predispersal seed predation contributes to female seed set advantage in a gynodioecious species.

    Clarke, Gretel L; Brody, Alison K

    2015-05-01

    Most flowering plants are hermaphrodites. However, in gynodioecious species, some members of the population are male-sterile and reproduce only by setting seed, while others gain fitness through both male and female function. How females compensate for the loss of male function remains unresolved for most gynodioecious species. Here, as with many plants, fitness differences may be influenced by interactions with multiple species. However, whether multiple species interactions result in gender-specific fitness differences remains unknown. Using observational data from 2009-2010, we quantified seed set of the two sex morphs of Polemonium foliosissimu and asked how it is affected by pollination, and seed predation from a dipteran predispersal seed predator (Anthomyiidae: Hylemya sp.). We assessed seed production and losses to predation in 27 populations for one year and in six populations for a second year. Females set significantly more seed than did hermaphrodites in both years. Of the fitness components we assessed, including the number of flowers per plant, fruit set, seeds/fruit, and proportion of fruits destroyed by Hylemya, only fruit destruction differed significantly between the sexes. In one year, seeds/fruit and predation had a stronger effect on seed set for hermaphrodites than for females. Because predispersal seed predators do not pollinate flowers, their effects may depend on successful pollination of flowers on which they oviposit. To examine if genders differed in pollen limitation and seed predation and/or their interactive effects, in 2011 we hand-pollinated flowers and removed seed predator eggs in a fully factorial design. Both sexes were pollen limited, but their degree of pollen limitation did not differ. However, predation reduced.seed set more for hermaphrodites than for females. We found no significant interaction between hand pollen and seed predation, and no interaction between hand pollination and gender. Our results suggest that while

  19. Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

  20. Seed germination and seedling fitness in Mesua ferrea L. in relation to fruit size and seed number per fruit

    Khan, M. Latif; Bhuyan, Putul; Shankar, Uma; Todaria, Nagendra P.

    1999-11-01

    Effect of fruit size and seediness (seed number per fruit) was examined on germination and early growth of seedlings in Mesua ferrea L. Fruiting incidence (number of fruited trees in a population) and fruit loading (number of fruits per tree) vary from one year to the other, and were greater in 1997 than in 1998. Seeds from large fruits (> 40 g) are preferred for forestry plantations and those from small fruits (germination percentage of seeds increased from 1-seeded through 4-seeded fruits both in laboratory and greenhouse conditions, and both in case of large and small fruits. Conversely, the mean seed weight and germination time decreased along this gradient, i.e. seeds from 1-seeded fruits were the heaviest and required maximum time for germination, and the seeds from 4-seeded fruits were the lightest and required minimum time for germination. The seeds from small fruits were lighter in weight, achieved lower germination percentages and required greater germination time than the seeds from large fruits in all four seeded categories. Seedlings from seeds from 1-seeded fruits survived better and with stronger vigour after 1 year of growth than seedlings from 2-, 3- and 4-seeded fruits. Further, seedling survival and vigour were greater for seeds from large rather than small fruits.

  1. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  2. 7 CFR 201.31a - Labeling treated seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling treated seed. 201.31a Section 201.31a..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.31a Labeling treated seed. (a) Contents of label. Any agricultural...

  3. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  4. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  6. Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

    2006-07-01

    Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

  7. Studies on germination and vigour of cabbage seeds.

    Liou, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of commercial storage of cabbage seeds on the germination of seeds and the emergence and growth of seedlings have been studied. Progressive ageing of seeds caused loss of seed vigour which resulted in poor emergence and growth of seedlings and the formation of abnormal seedlings. Loss of

  8. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  9. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  10. 7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall be tested for germination; except that in mixtures, 200 seeds of each of...

  11. Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.

    Tatár, S

    2010-01-01

    Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar. PMID:21565777

  12. Seed morphology and anatomy of Hypericum elegans Steph. ex Willd.

    Szkudlarz Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Hypericum elegans is a rare perennial distributed primarily in Central and Eastern Europe. Seed morphology and anatomy in H. elegans was studied on the basis of a seed sample from its only locality in Poland. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the seed coat of mature seeds is composed basically of 3 cell layers: epidermal, subepidermal and sclerenchymatic. They are documented graphically here.

  13. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  14. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  15. Timing of seed dispersal generates a bimodal seed bank depth distribution

    Espinar, José L.; Thompson, Ken; García, Luis V.

    2005-01-01

    The density of soil seed banks is normally highest at the soil surface and declines monotonically with depth. Sometimes, for a variety of reasons, peak density occurs below the surface but, except in severely disturbed soils, it is generally true that deeper seeds are older. In seasonally dry habitats that develop deep soil cracks during the dry season, it is possible that some seeds fall down cracks and rapidly become deeply buried. We investigated this possibility for three dominant clon...

  16. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Se...

  17. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: Where do all the seeds go?

    DeFalco, L.A.; Esque, T.C.; Nicklas, M.B.; Kane, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert-sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  18. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (BAKUCHI) SEED AND CHEMICAL PROFILE CRUDE METHANOL SEED EXTRACT

    A. BORATE; M. UDGIRE; A. KHAMBHAPATI

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Present study aims to evaluate antifungal efficacy of Bakuchi (Psoralea corylifolia) seed extracts prepared in methanol solvents and the bakuchi oil. Bakuchi seed used in the formulations against skin related diseases and disorders in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Method: Antifungal assay was performed by agar well diffusion method against common fungal skin pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Malassezia furfur. Results: Bakuchi seeds extract in methanol was obs...

  19. Novel development of heat treatment techniques for seed surface sterilisation

    Borgen, Anders; Krebs, Niels; Langkjær, carsten

    2005-01-01

    Heat treatment to prevent seed borne diseases, e.g. in the form of hot water or warm humid air, will normally heat up the entire seed. Heat treatment of the seed embryo will always have a negative side-effect on seed vigour and the duration of several minutes are difficult to implement in seed plans treating huge volumes of seed. However, in the case of common bunt in wheat and similar diseases, where the inoculum is transmitted as fungal spores on the surface of the seed, an uniform and effi...

  20. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney , M

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant density had lower than expected oil contents. It is proposed that the low oil content observed in the lowest density seed is a function of air gaps or pockets within the seed coat with sufficient vol...

  1. The Flying Sunflower: A Seed Dispersal Project.

    Buege, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an open-ended activity in which students build a "plant" that launches its seeds as far as possible to study the dispersal strategies of various plants. Recommends extension activities for elementary- and secondary-level students. (WRM)

  2. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  3. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  4. Regulation of the globulins of lupin seed

    Seeds of Lupinus angustifolius contain three globulins, conglutins α, β, γ with methionine contents of 0.2, 0.0 and 1.3%, which can be resolved and estimated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. It is suggested that a significant improvement in sulphur-amino acid content of lupin seed could be achieved by selecting varieties rich in conglutins α and γ. This lupin, grown in the virtual absence of sulphate and visibly sulphur deficients, produces viable seeds with about the normal protein content but with most of the usual conglutins α and γ replaced by conglutin β. As would be expected, these seeds are very low in methionine because they contain mostly conglutin β. This appears to be the first report of a dramatic change in the proportions of individual legume globulins following manipulation of plant nutrition. (author)

  5. Analysis of soybean seed proteins using proteomics

    This editorial elaborates on investigations consisting of different proteomics technologies and their application to biological sciences. In addition, different classes of soybean seed proteins are discussed. This information will be useful to scientists in obtaining a greater understanding of the...

  6. Prairie remnant seed collection data, 1992

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a record of prairie seed collections on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge from 1992.

  7. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  8. Seeding Coherent Radiation Sources with Sawtooth Modulation

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Seed radiation sources have the ability to increase longitudinal coherence, decrease saturation lengths, and improve performance of tapering, polarization control and other FEL features. Typically, seeding schemes start with a simple sinusoidal modulation, which is manipulated to provide bunching at a high harmonic of the original wavelength. In this paper, we consider seeding from sawtooth modulations. The sawtooth creates a clean phase space structure, providing a maximal bunching factor without the need for an FEL interaction. While a pure sawtooth modulation is a theoretical construct, it is possible to approach the waveform by combining two or more of the composite wavelengths. We give examples of sawtooth seeding for HGHG, EEHG and other schemes, and note that the sawtooth modulation may aid in suppression of the microbunching instability.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  10. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  11. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato.

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  12. Seed dispersers, seed predators, and browsers act synergistically as biotic filters in a mosaic landscape.

    Regino Zamora

    Full Text Available In this study, we analize the functional influence of animals on the plants they interact with in a mediterranean mountain. We hypothesise that seed dispersers, seed predators, and browsers can act as biotic filters for plant communities. We analyse the combined effects of mutualistic (seed dispersal and antagonistic (seed predation, herbivory animal interactions in a mosaic landscape of Mediterranean mountains, basing our results on observational and experimental field. Most of the dispersed seeds came from tree species, whereas the population of saplings was composed predominantly of zoochorous shrub species. Seed predators preferentially consumed seeds from tree species, whereas seeds from the dominant fleshy-fruited shrubs had a higher probability of escaping these predators. The same pattern was repeated among the different landscape units by browsers, since they browsed selectively and far more intensely on tree-species saplings than on the surrounding shrubs. In synthesis, our work identifies the major biotic processes that appear to be favoring a community dominated by shrubs versus trees because seed dispersers, predators, and herbivores together favored shrub dispersal and establishment versus trees.

  13. Effect of Different Pollinator Attractant Crops for Seed Setting and Maximizing Seed Yield of Onion

    Md. Kalim Uddin; Kamal, M.M.; M. M. Akand; Hasan, M. M.; M. N. A. Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at the Spices Research Centre, Shibgonj, Bogra during rabi season, 2010-11and 2011-12 to identify the suitable pollinator attractant crops for increasing the vigilance of pollinators and higher seed settings and thereby increasing seed yield of onion. In 2010-11, the highest seed setting was recorded in onion + fennel (69.88%) which was statistically identical to Onion + coriander (67.45 %) and Onion + black cumin (64.15 %) while the highest seed setting was recor...

  14. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Paul Virginia; Ruchi; Paul Ajit

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10) served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organole...

  15. Mathematical model of seed germination process

    An analytical model of seed germination process was described. The model based on proposed working hypothesis leads - by analogy - to a law corresponding with Verhulst-Pearl's law, known from the theory of population kinetics. The model was applied to describe the germination kinetics of tomato seeds, Promyk field cultivar, biostimulated by laser treatment. Close agreement of experimental and model data was obtained

  16. The conservation physiology of seed dispersal

    Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when plant species are experiencing increasing challenges from climate change, land-use change, harvesting and invasive species, dispersal has become a very important aspect of plant conservation. Seed dispersal by animals is particularly important because some animals disperse seeds to suitable sites in a directed fashion. Our review has two aims: (i) to highlight the various ways plant dispersal by animals can be affected by current anthropogenic change and (ii) to show the import...

  17. Mycoflora of Calendula officinalis L. seeds

    Danuta Pięta

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Calendula offlcinalis harvested in the years 1985-1987 were investigated. Agar medium with nitrients was used to isolate the fungi. As a result of the mycological analysis, 3642 isolates belonglng to 23 species and dark unsporulating mycelium were obtained. Alternaria alternata dominated among the isolated fungi. Moreover, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum and Sclerotinia sc1erotiorum were obtained from the seeds.

  18. Radiostimulation of protein synthesis in barley seeds

    Barley seeds were irradiated with 10 gy of gamma-radiation and protein synthesis was measured in terms of incorporation of (3H) leucine at varying periods after the onset of germination. It is found that the process of translation of long-life mRNA is accentuated by about 20 percent in the irradiated barley seeds during the first hour of germination as compared to the corresponding appropriate control. (author)

  19. Seed protein improvement by nuclear techniques

    The proceedings contain papers presented at two different meetings: 1) on seed protein improvement and 2) on aneuploids in wheat protein improvement. The former meeting discusses the seed protein content in cereals and grain legumes and the relation between protein content and yield; the procedures for analysis of protein and lysine content is also discussed. The latter meeting reports the results of co-operative experiments concerned with the chromosomal location of genes affecting protein and lysine content in wheat

  20. Improved seed handling techniques for Juniperus polycarpos

    Daneshvar, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Juniperus polycarpos (K. Koch) is one of six native juniper forest tree species in Iran whose population size is declining continuously. The ultimate aim of the research presented in this thesis was to increase the regeneration potential of J. polycarpos by identifying factors influencing seed quality and develop methods that increase germination capacity and vigor. The research focused on impact of infection by dwarf mistletoe on reproductive output, methods for sorting unproductive seeds fr...

  1. Laser Heater and seeded Free Electron Laser

    Dattoli, G.; Petrillo, V.; E. Sabia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the effect of laser heater on a seeded Free Electron Laser. We develop a model embedding the effect of the energy modulation induced by the heater with those due to the seeding. The present analysis is compatible with the experimental results obtained at FERMI displaying secondary maxima with increasing heater intensity. The treatment developed in the paper confirms and extends previous analyses and put in evidence further effects which can be tested in future experi...

  2. Have Biotech Seeds Increased Maize Yields?

    Xu, Zheng; David A. Hennessy; Moschini, GianCarlo

    2010-01-01

    Corn yield is determined by soils, weather, seed used and other technology choices. Global population and per capita income growth trends as well as demand from the energy sector have placed great stress on cropland use. Global cropland acres and/or yield per acre will need to increase. Whether new seed technologies have enhanced corn yield is a controversial issue. We study U.S. county corn yields 1964-2008, controlling for location effects, fertilization technologies and weather. We find ev...

  3. Quality assessment of Achyranthas aspera Linn. seed

    Neerja Rani; Surendra Kumar Sharma; Neeru Vasudeva

    2012-01-01

    Achyranthas aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) seeds were studied to determine the various parameters for pharmacognostical standards. The whole plant of A. aspera is reported to have good medicinal values in traditional systems of medicine. The present paper deals with pharmacognostical examination of morphological and microscopical characters and physic-chemical investigations of seeds including determination of loss on drying, ash values, extractives values, foreign organic matter, crude fiber c...

  4. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing occurrence of major pestsON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protectedagainst pests and seed corn should be treated withappropriately insecticides. Choosing better technologicalsolutions and choosing and appropriate insecticideseed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pestattack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aimof this research was to obtain based upon result informationon the impact of treatment on quality of maizeseed as well as the means to i...

  5. Safe for saplings; safe for seeds ?

    Smit, Christian; Gusberti, Michele; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    In wood pastures spatial associations of tree saplings with nurse structures such as unpalatable plants are generally explained as associational resistance; i.e. reduced herbivory by association with a defended neighbour. However, these associations may result from other underlying processes that occur at the seed stage. Here we tested whether the observed associations between Picea abies tree saplings and nurse structures could also be explained by higher soil seed densities under versus out...

  6. Microstructure of Lentil Seeds (Lens Culinaris)

    Hughes, Joe S.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1986-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the microstructure of five cultivars of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris). Lentil cot yledons contain sphericai starch granules surrounded by protein bodies similar to starch granules and protein bodies observed in cotyledons of other food legumes. Examination of the lentil seed coat in cross - section revealed outer palisade and inner parenchyma layers characteris tic of legumes. The subepidermal layer, however, is comprised of hourglass...

  7. Factors influencig seeds development and maturation

    Werschallová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Perennial common wheat is one of the three most grown cereals in the world, along with corn and rice. In the Czech Republic, the common wheat covers approximately 32 % of seeded areas of cereals. Countless numbers of species suitable for different locations were made by their cultivation. This bachelor´s thesis „Factors influencing seeds development and maturation“ is made by compilation of knowledge gained by several authors, writing about effects of outer space and its influence on a mother...

  8. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF RUBBER SEED (Hevea brasiliensis

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of rubber seeds (Hevea brasiliensis available in Bangladesh. Hevea brasiliensis seeds were collected directly from 200 rubber trees of the rubber garden in the Bandarban area under standard random sampling technique. Seeds were decorticated, ground and dried in hot air oven. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for moisture, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE, ether extract (EE and ash in the animal nutrition laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was calculated mathematically by using standard mathematical formula. Results indicated that, decorticated Hevea brasiliensis seeds contained 85.7% DM, 26.1% CP, 43.0% CF, 13.8% NFE, 11.0% EE and 1.8% ash. ME contents in in the seeds was 2101.1 kcal/kg DM. Since, decorticated rubber seeds contained substantial amount of metabolizable energy and proximate components, therefore it could be assumed that, like other unconventional feeds, it might be a promising feed resource for livestock.

  9. Maximizing seed germination in two Acacia species

    Akram Kiani Abari; Mohammad Hoseini Nasr; Mohammad Hodjati; Dariush Bayat; Morteza Radmehr

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of disturbed land,particularly in arid environment,is often hindered by low seedling establishment.Information on seed biology and germination cues of valuable species is lacking.We investigated seed germination of two Acacia species (Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne and Acacia oerfota (Forssk) schweinf),required for nitrogen fixation and rehabilitation of arid and semi-arid areas.(four pre-germination seed treatments were applied in order to find the best treatment in germinating acacia species.The medium was L2 and three replicates were used.Seeds pre-treated with sand paper and also with H2SO4 and then H2O2 had the highest germination percentage in both species.The lowest germination percentage resulted from soaking seeds in water for 48 h followed by soaking in H2SO4 for A.oerfota and from soaking in water for 24 h for A.tortilis.Because the use of sand paper is difficult and time consuming,we recommend pre-treatment of A.tortilis and A.oerfota seeds with H2SO4 and H2O2 before planting.Our study results are significant for conservation agencies with an interest in optimizing germination in arid zones for rehabilitation and reforestation.

  10. Ragweed (Ambrosia sp. seeds in bird feed

    Frick, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Swiss official feed inspection of Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station (ALP was mandated to check bird feed and raw materials for the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds. Indeed, such seeds were found in varying amounts when analyzed in the feed microscopy laboratory. The producers were informed, and a limit of intervention (50 mg.kg-1 ≈ 9 to 10 seeds.kg-1 was finally set for this undesirable component. The results of five years of controls show, at first, around 50% of contaminated samples. With appropriate measures, the level of contamination could be lowered in the following years. In parallel, the size of Ambrosia sp. seeds and the sieves to be used for routine analyses were checked. Ambrosia sp. seeds found in feed checked in Switzerland were seldom larger ("wider" than 3.5 mm and never smaller than 1.5 mm. Several EU Member States started their own control and monitoring programs. The results of studies from Germany, Slovenia and Denmark, presented by their feed microscopists at the IAG meetings, indicate the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds in 21 to 75% of the products put on the market.

  11. Methods for overcoming dormancy of Parkinsonia aculeata L. seeds

    Pollyanna Freire Montenegro Agra; Roberta Sales Guedes; Maria Lúcia Maurício da Silva; Vênia Camelo de Souza; Leonaldo Alves de Andrade; Edna Ursulino Alves

    2015-01-01

    The Parkinsonia aculeata L seeds have tegumentary dormancy, which makes them last for a long period in the seed bank of the earth so that their germination occurs in favorable conditions. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of pregermination treatments for overcoming the dormancy of P. aculeata seeds. The seeds were submitted to the following treatments: sample – intact seeds (T1); mechanical scarification with water sandpaper no. 80, followed by room temperature water soaking for 12 and 24...

  12. Hydropriming Treatment of Rice Seeds With Microbubble Water

    Hiromi Ikeura; Fumiyuki Kobayashi; Masahiko Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    In rice cultivation, seed emergence and seedling establishment tend to be unstable, and rice plants are likely to lodge during the ripening period in direct seeding, leading to an unsteady yield. Although the possibility of direct seeding in dry paddy fields is being re-examined from the viewpoint of reducing labor, unstable seed emergence and seedling establishment remain as challenges to be dealt with. Therefore, in order to improve unstable seed emergence and seedling establishment, we inv...

  13. Breeding and Production of Organic seeds, The Rijk Zwaan view

    Driessen, Ir. Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    Rijk Zwaan Seed Company offers organic vegetable seeds to the market. Breeding of varieties especially for the organic market has started, but only on a basic level. More knowledge and a more important market are needed to justify a higher input. In organic seed production many problems are encountered, espe-cially in seed production of biennial crops. Therefore much effort is put on improving the organic seed production of these crops, in cooperation with other companies, universities and in...

  14. The HPLC Fingerprint and Isovanillin Content of Benincasa hispida Seeds

    Jing Liu; Pinglin Li; Qi Wang; Bin Li,; Guoqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    The Benincasa hispida seed is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, there is still a lack of medicinal quality control of B. hispida seeds. The seeds may contain isovanillin, but this finding remains to be confirmed and quantified. The current study aimed to confirm the existence of isovanillin and then preliminarily establish medicinal quality standards for B. hispida seeds. Fourteen batches of unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds were purchased from 7 different producers...

  15. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    Adams, A.; Gore, J; Musser, F.; Cook, D; Catchot, A.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities ...

  16. Morphophysiological profile of Jatropha curcas L. fruits and seeds maturation

    Cristiane Dantas de Brito; Marta Bruno Loureiro; Aliomar Pacheco de Souza Junior; Luzimar Gonzaga Fernandez; Renato Delmondez de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), known as physic nut, is an oil seed species suitable as feedstock for biodiesel production, among other possible industrial applications. It is also considered tolerant to water restriction and is thus suitable for cultivation in semi-arid regions. However, the lack of uniformity in fructification and seed maturation hinders the harvest and processing of fruits and seeds and the yields from both oil and seed, as well as obtaining seed lots with good physiol...

  17. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    Xiai Chen; Ling Wang; Wenquan Chen; Yanfeng Gao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid...

  18. Polyphenol oxidase as a biochemical seed defense mechanism

    Fuerst, E. Patrick; Okubara, Patricia A.; Anderson, James V.; Morris, Craig F.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), when wild oat (Avena fatua L.) caryopses and seeds...

  19. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  20. Influence of corn (Zea mays L) seed processing with a locally produced sheller on seed quality and their damage

    Pratima Pandey; Jwala Bajrachrya; S. Pokharel

    2013-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays dis.L.) is one of the most important staple crops in the world. Sindhupalchok, Kavre and Nuwakot were the three districts selected for the maize CBSP groups under the respective Agriculture Development Offices identified by CDD for the present study. Altogether 2x6x3 samples for the study were collected. Seed damage as broken seeds, damages on embryo, seed quality assessments like seed moisture content, pure seed percentage, seed vigor measured by root and shoot length, seed g...