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Sample records for okra seed abelmoschus

  1. Nutritional evaluation of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proximate, functional properties, in-vitro multi enzyme protein digestibility and amino acid compositions of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds were evaluated. the ash, moisture, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate of the okra seeds were: 4.8%, 13.5%, 39.9%, 8.82%, 26.4% and 6.62%, respectively. the water and oil absorption capacities were: 220% and 200% which makes okra seeds exhibit a high water retention capacity. the least gelation concentration was 8% while, emulsion capacity was 45.5% and foaming capacity and stability were: 12% and 2%, respectively. the in vitro protein digestibility was 69.3%. glutamic acid was the most concentrated amino acid (121.1 mg/g crude protein) while, cystine (10.0 mg/g crude protein) was the least concentrated amino acid. the total amino acid was 706 mg/g crude protein. (author)

  2. Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geo?rgia; Gomes, Vinicius Morais; Dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; Souza, Anto?nio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto Almeida; Costa, Maria Jose? Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

    2012-01-01

    With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant ...

  3. Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antônio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

    2012-01-01

    With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2°C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption. PMID:22645459

  4. First identification of ?-glucosidase inhibitors from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakosai, Wannisa; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

    2013-08-01

    Infusion of roasted okra seeds has long been consumed in Turkey for diabetes mellitus therapy. Previous reports of a hypoglycemic effect observed in rats administrated with okra seed extract indicated a possible connection with inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase. An attempt to identify active components was first herein conducted using alpha-glucosidase-inhibition-guided isolation, yielding two major flavonol glucosides named isoquercetin (2) and quercetin-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1"' --> 6")-glucoside (3). They selectively inhibited rat intestinal maltase and sucrase, in which isoquercetin (2) was 6-10 times more potent than its related diglucoside 3. This result suggested that an increase in hydrophilicity by the additional glucose residue in 3 led to a significant decline in the inhibitory effect and raised the possible involvement of the free 3-OH in exerting the inhibition. Our postulation was evaluated by examining alpha-glucosidase inhibition of quercetin (1), and the aglycone of 2 and 3, whose 3-OH is free from any glucose moiety. Interestingly, 1 displayed a broad inhibitory effect toward rat intestinal and baker's yeast alpha-glucosidases, with improved potency. A kinetic study of 1 indicated that it inhibited maltase by two distinct mechanisms, in competitive (K(i) 462 microM) and noncompetitive (K(i) 2153 microM) manners, whereas the mechanism underlying the inhibition of sucrase was verified as being of a competitive behavior (K(i) 218 microM). PMID:24079173

  5. Effect of Fertilizer and Drying Methods on Seed Germination of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cultivars at Different Harvesting Times

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadir Mohammadi; Khah, Ebrahim M.; Petropoulos, Spyridon A.; Garip Yarsi; Apostolos Vlasakoudis

    2013-01-01

    Okra hardseedness results in slow and uneven germination. This study determined the effects of fertilizer application and drying methods on hardseedness breakdown of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars (cv. Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylias’). Three fertilizer level (150, 300 and 450 mg L-1 N) and two different drying methods (seeds and pods) were applied. The results showed that by increasing N application from 150 to 450 mg L-1 N increased seed germination re...

  6. Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

    2011-04-27

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (?23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ?30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus. PMID:21413797

  7. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus) FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn) FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Tesleem Ibrahim; Lola Ajala; Foluso Adetuyi

    2012-01-01

    In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains ...

  8. Germination and Seedling Emergence of Primed Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seeds under Salt Stress and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besma Ben Dkhil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of priming on the germination, emergence and seedling growth of Abelmoschus esculentus (cultivar Marsaouia under low temperature and salinity conditions. Seeds were primed for 24 h at 20°C in three priming media (KCl 4%, mannitol 0.75M, CaCl2 10 mM and control (non-primed seeds and were examined at different salinity levels (0, 40 and 100 mM NaCl. Results indicated that KCl priming increased final germination percentage, radicle length and seedlings dry weight 100%, 40.94 mm and 0.03 g, respectively, as compared with non-primed seeds. Mannitol and CaCl2 have been found to be better treatments for improving final emergence percentage. Overall increased NaCl level, led to the reductions in final germination and emergence percentage but these reductions were higher for non-primed compared to primed seeds. The increase in NaCl concentrations didn’t show any significantly effect on cotyledons fresh weight of primed or non-primed seeds. Besides, our results proved that priming alleviated the adverse effects of salinity for seedlings biomass as compared to non-primed seeds.

  9. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P?0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P?0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P?0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P?0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  10. Germination and Seedling Emergence of Primed Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seeds under Salt Stress and Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Besma Ben Dkhil; Amani Issa; Mounir Denden

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of priming on the germination, emergence and seedling growth of Abelmoschus esculentus (cultivar Marsaouia) under low temperature and salinity conditions. Seeds were primed for 24 h at 20°C in three priming media (KCl 4%, mannitol 0.75M, CaCl2 10 mM) and control (non-primed seeds) and were examined at different salinity levels (0, 40 and 100 mM NaCl). Results indicated that KCl priming increased final germination percentage, radicle lengt...

  11. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Anthocyanins, Membrane Permeability and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Denden; Besma Ben Dkhil

    2012-01-01

    To study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Marsaouia) to salinity, the effect on seedling growth, water content, anthocyanins content and chlorophyll fluorescence was investigated. Okra seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and sown in peat culture under controlled conditions and submitted during 2 weeks to saline stress ranging from 0 (distilled water) to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmol of NaCl. Results showed that salt has no significant effect on aerial part dry weight and it sh...

  12. Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Pendre, N. K.; Nema, Prabhat K.; Sharma, Harsh P.; Rathore, S. S.; Kushwah, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, asco...

  13. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Messing, Jutta; Thoele, Christian; Niehues, Michael; Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Boren, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology: A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori...

  14. Comparative study of quality changes in okra abelmoschus esculentus (L) moench stored at different relative humidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) pods were stored at the relative humidity of 90% and 100% for up to 10 days. The moisture content, crude fibre, and protein, fat, viscosity, hydrolysable and condensed tannin, total phenol, vitamin C and reducing power of the okra were determined on alternate days. Okra pods stored at 100% RH experienced the least percentage loss in all the determined parameters though the loss of antinutrient was lower at this relative humidity. (author)

  15. FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR DNA BETWEEN OKRA LANDRACES (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Salameh, Naser M.

    2014-01-01

    Okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench), is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical as well as Mediterranean countries. The genome size of the Abelmoschus genus species is still rare. Ploidy determinations have traditionally been done by counting chromosomes of stained root tips, but this method is laborious and often difficult with species which have small chromosomes and high ploidy levels and can lead to misclassified. Flow cytometry has been widely used...

  16. Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Adewole, M. B.; Ilesanmi, A. O.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised compl...

  17. Effects of morphactin and gamma irradiation on the growth and yield in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out to examine the individual and combined influence of a morphactin (chlorflurenol) (10-100 ppm) and gamma-irradiation(40-60 KR) on growth and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Cv-Pusa Sawani. Morphactin caused inhibition of vegetative growth and weakened apical dominance. Gamma-irradiation of seeds reduced the growth and stimulated the branching. The combinations of gamma radiation and morphactin were found to inhibit the growth more vigorously. Morphactin application promoted fruit-set and yield at all the used concentrations. Gamma-irradiation enhanced the fruit-set and yield at 40 and 50 KR and reduced drastically at 60 KR. Combination of gamma radiation (40 KR) with morphactin (10-50 ppm) increased the yield while other combinations reduced this factor in okra. (author)

  18. Inheritance of resistance to Okra yellow vein mosaic disease in interspecific crosses of Abelmoschus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambhale, N D; Nerkar, Y S

    1981-09-01

    Two Abelmoschus species, viz., A. manihot (L.) Medik and A. manihot (L.) Medik ssp. manihot, resistant to Okra yellow vein mosaic (YVM) were crossed to A. esculentus cv. 'Pusa Sawani', a susceptible culture. The hybrids were resistant and partially fertile. Segregation pattern for disease reaction in F2, BC1 and subsequent generations of the two crosses revealed that resistance to YVM is controlled by a single dominant gene in each species. PMID:24276872

  19. Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. B, Adewole; A. O, Ilesanmi.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from [...] the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p

  20. Physicochemical properties of pectins from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Sengkhamparn, N.; Sagis, L. M. C.; Vries, R. J.; Schols, H. A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A. G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Okra pectin obtained by hot buffer extraction (HBSS) consists of an unusual pectic rhamnogalacturonan I structure in which acetyl groups and alpha galactose residues are substituted on rhamnose residues within the backbone. The okra Chelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) pectin consists of slightly different structures since relatively more homogalacturonan is present within the macromolecule and the rhamnogalacturonan I segments carry slightly longer side chains. The rheological properties of...

  1. Synergistic Effect of Fungicides on the Incidence of Seed Mycoflora of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh, S.; Mashooda Begum

    2008-01-01

    Seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) variety Arka anamika were treated with 5 fungicides including Anucop, Bavistin, Captan, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax with different doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) and the combination Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Captan, Anucop + Vitavax, Bavistin + Vitavax, Anucop + Dithane, Bavistin + Dithane, Bavistin + Captan, Captan + Vitavax, Anucop + Bavistin + Captan, Anucop + Bavistin + Dithane, Anucop + Captan + Vitavax, Bavistin + Captan + Vitavax were ...

  2. Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B Adewole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR, NPK (IO, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY or no soil amendment as the control (CT] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05 higher nutrient uptake [N (0.0034 mg kg-1, K (0.0160 mg kg-1, Na (0.9753 mg kg-1, Ca (0.0130 mg kg-1 and Cu (0.01136 mg kg-1] in the okra roots than in the other treatments, yet the significantly (p < 0.05 highest uptake of P (0.0012 mg kg-1 was obtained with the MY treatment. Lower values of these nutrient contents were obtained in the shoots. The control treatment gave the significantly highest values of crude fibre (27.33% and total ash (14.05%, as compared to the other treatments, whereas the other nutritional properties obtained showed no significant difference among any of the treatments. The results indicated that high-quality okra pods could be effectively produced with no soil amendment when planted in soils with a high fertility, such as those treated with sewage sludge.

  3. Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

    2014-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

  4. The okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) transcriptome as a source for gene sequence information and molecular markers for diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafleitner, Roland; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Chen-Yu; Hegde, Satish Gajanana; Ebert, Andreas

    2013-03-15

    A combined leaf and pod transcriptome of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) has been produced by RNA sequencing and short read assembly. More than 150,000 unigenes were obtained, comprising some 46 million base pairs of sequence information. More than 55% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The okra transcriptome sequences were mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 935 non-redundant SSR motifs identified in the unigene set, 199 were chosen for testing in a germplasm set, resulting in 161 polymorphic SSR markers. From this set, 19 markers were selected for a diversity analysis on 65 okra accessions comprising three different species, revealing 58 different genotypes and resulted in clustering of the accessions according to species and geographic origin. The okra gene sequence information and the marker resource are made available to the research community for functional genomics and breeding research. PMID:23299025

  5. Effect of Postharvest Storage Techniques on the Nutritional Properties of Benin Indigenous Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench

    OpenAIRE

    Adetuyi, F. O.; Osagie, A. U.; Adekunle, A. T.

    2008-01-01

    In Nigeria, okra Abelmoschus esculentus are packed and stored in polypropylene bag when moved from outlying villages to the city market. The study aims at assessing other storage method for Benin indigenous okra other than polypropylene bag with respect to nutrients, antinutrients and antioxidants. In this study fresh harvested Benin okra were harvested and divided into three parts. One part was stored in 100% RH at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C, another at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C...

  6. Lectin of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Leonardo G; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Reis, Larissa B; Braganhol, Elizandra; Prietsch, Rafael F; Dellagostin, Odir A; E Lacerda, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Gadelha, Carlos A A; Conceição, Fabricio R; Pinto, Luciano S

    2014-03-01

    The anti-tumor effects of a newly-discovered lectin, isolated from okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (AEL), were investigated in human breast cancer (MCF7) and skin fibroblast (CCD-1059 sk) cells. AEL induced significant cell growth inhibition (63 %) in MCF7 cells. The expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3, caspase-9, and p21 genes was increased in MCF7 cells treated with AEL, compared to those treated with controls. In addition, AEL treatment increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in MCF7 cells. Flow cytometry also indicated that cell death (72 %) predominantly occurred through apoptosis. Thus, AEL in its native form promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells and may represent a potential therapeutic to combat human breast cancer. PMID:24129958

  7. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and Abelmoschus moschatus Medik: seeds production and analysis of the volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfetta, Ilaria; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Nine accessions of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and three of Abelmoschus moschatus Medik were both grown in Central Italy for the evaluation of the production of seeds. Furthermore, the volatiles emitted by the mature seeds were sampled by mean of SPME. Seventy compounds were detected in the headspace of the seeds of A. esculentus. The principal constituents common to all the nine accessions were isopentyl 2-methyl butanoate (24.5-59.1%) and heptanoic acid 2-methylbutyl ester (6.6-13.5%). In the headspace around the seeds of A. moschatus 93 components were detected. Among the main volatiles shared by the three accessions, n-tridecane (1.5-26.9%), isopentyl 2-methyl butanoate (0.2-14.3%) and decanal (1.6-5.7%) should be mentioned. Many differences were present in the volatiles emitted by the various accessions and between the two Abelmoschus species. PMID:23768323

  8. Evaluating partial root-zone irrigation and mulching in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) under a sub-humid tropical climate

    OpenAIRE

    Sanatan Pradhan; Narendra Nath Sahu; Pravukalyan Panigrahi

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted to compare the alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI) with and without black plastic mulch (BPM) with full root-zone irrigation (FRI) in furrow-irrigated okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) at Bhubaneswar, India. APRI means that one of the two neighbouring furrows was alternately irrigated during consecutive watering. FRI was the conventional method where every furrow was irrigated during each watering. The used irrigation levels were 25% availa...

  9. Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Ten Cultivars of Okra-Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench

    OpenAIRE

    Osekita, O. S.; Akinyele, B. O.

    2008-01-01

    Ten quantitative traits of 10 genotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were investigated with a view to identifying the high yielding potential of the cultivars and to determining the extent of association among their contributing traits. The plant materials used are labeled according to their genotypes as follows: NH47-4, MHae 474, FEae 98, FEak, Agk98, Agkae, Aklc, Ilae, Ijae2000 and Alae- B. Using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications, the ten genotyp...

  10. Characterisation of twenty-nine (29) accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of investigations were carried out to determine the genetic variability within 29 accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) through characterisation using morphological, biochemical, nutritional and molecular markers. The goal was to obtain information on key traits of okra germplasm relevant to breeders and other researchers towards improvement of the crop. Twenty six (26) indigenous (landraces) and three (3) exotic accessions of okra were collected from eight regions of Ghana and their morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated under field conditions at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research fields using the International Plant Genetic Research Institute (IPGRI) descriptor list for okra. The 29 exhibited significant variation in all but two quantitative traits studied. Block coefficients of variation were extremely low, implying that results obtained are reliable and repeatable over replications. The 29 accessions were grouped into two major clusters and subsequently into five sub-clusters based on both quantitative and qualitative characters studied. The association between pairs of quantitative yield traits in the okra landraces revealed that flowering and fruiting parameters had significant (P < 0.01) positive associations. Factor scores of 12 characters contributed substantially to total genetic variation among the 29 okra accessions studied. The pattern of clustering did not show distinct association between mod not show distinct association between morpho-agronomic characters and geographic origin of the collections. The output of the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that different characters contributed differently to total genetic variation. The means of maximum viscosity values for mucilage extracted from the fruits ranged from 53.0 - 366.8bu, with three accessions; DKA (366.8bu), Yeji-Local (329bu) and Amanfrom (316.8bu) recording very high values whilst Cape (53.0bu) had the least maximum viscosity value. There was low level of polymorphism detected among all accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The accessions, Atomic and Akrave were detected to have originated from a common ancestry. While there was high variability among Okra accessions for the amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and total antioxidant activity in the fresh fruits and the quantities were generally high making okra a good source of natural antioxidants. Ethanol extraction yielded better antioxidant activity than aqueous (water) solvent. The accession, Agric short fruit recorded the highest total flavonoid content (TFC) of 5159.21±12.90?g/g/QE while Cs-Legon had the lowest TFC of 2003.69±2.55?g/g/QE in the ethanol extract. On the other hand, Kortebortor-ASR registered the highest total phenolic content of 63.22 ±3.95?/g/GAE) while Volta had the lowest TPC of 6.82±0.09?/g/GAE in the aquous extract. Debo and Kortebortor-ASR recorded the highest (25.83±5.30?/g/GAE) and lowest (8.0±0.37?/g/GAE) Total Phenolics Content in the ethanol extract respectively. Nine essential mineral elements (sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, bromine, chlorine, copper, aluminium and manganese) were detected among all accessions using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). There was significant variation in concentrations of these elements found in fresh fruits of the accessions. There were strong positive associations between five pairs of elements contained in the fruits of the accessions of okra.(au)

  11. Composition analysis and immuno-modulatory effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shyang-Chwen; Lai, Mei-Huei

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract and investigate the effect of A. esculentus L. polysaccharides (AE-PS) on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs) in vitro. BMHC-derived immature DCs (BMHC-imDCs) were extracted from rats and treated with AE-PS. The hydrolysed okra extract contained 0.6% ?-1, 3-D-glucan. AE-PS induced the presence of polymorphic nuclei and elongated protrusion in the BHMC-imDCs, indicating DC activation. Treatment with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS increased the MHC class II and CD80/86 expression levels by 41% and 42%, respectively. Treated cells had reduced endocytosis activity. The secretion of IL-12 and IFN-? increased significantly by 120% and 75%, respectively, when treated with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS. Moreover, IL-10 production was reduced by 66%. In conclusion, AE-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat dendritic cells and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines. PMID:23442637

  12. Effect of Drip Irrigation Levels and Emitters Depth on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Al-harbi, A. R.; Al-omran, A. M.; El-adgham, F. I.

    2008-01-01

    Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (Climson Spineless CV.) growth, rooting, yield and water use efficiency were evaluated in a field trial, where four irrigation rates at 60 (T1), 80 (T2), 100 (T3) and 120% (T4) of the estimated evapotranspiration (ETo) and four drip irrigation emitters depth: surface 0.0 m depth (D0), sub-surface at 0.15 m depth (D1), at 0.25 m depth (D2) and at 0.35 m depth (D3) were imposed following a split-plot in a randomized complete block experimental design with thre...

  13. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (Pash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra. PMID:17336057

  14. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddivenkatagari Subbarama Krishna Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during kharif, 2008. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively, for thirteen quantitative characters, namely plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, internodal length(cm, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node, first fruiting node, fruit length (cm, fruit width (cm, fruit weight (g, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield per plant (g and marketable yield per plant (g for the identification of appropriate selection indices. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant and total yield per plant had significant positive correlation, while number of branches per plant, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node and first fruiting node had significant negative correlation with marketable yield per plant.Genotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant not only had positively significant association with marketable pod yield per plant, but also had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant and are regarded as the main determinants of marketable pod yield per plant. The improvement in marketable pod yield per plant will be efficient, if the selection is based on fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant.

  15. Producción y tecnología de la Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) en el noreste de México / Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and technology in northeastern Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo, Díaz Franco; Jesús, Loera Gallardo; Enrique, Rosales Robles; Manuel, Alvarado Carrillo; Sergio, Ayvar Serna.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México la okra es una hortaliza no tradicional cuya producción oscila de 4 000 a 7 000 ha anuales y rendimiento medio de 10 t ha-1, se destina para el mercado de exportación hacia Estados Unidos de América. Los principales estados productores son Morelos, Michoacán, Guerrero y Tamaulipas; éste úl [...] timo cuenta con la mayor área productora de 5 000 ha. Además de ser un cultivo generador de divisas y rentable, la okra representa una fuente de empleo. La investigación sobre el cultivo de la okra se inició afínales de ladécadade los ochenta. La calidad de fruto es determinante para su comercialización; se prefiere fruto de textura suave, de verdor intenso y de forma regular. El rendimiento de okra es mayor en suelos de textura franco arcillosos. Un problema para el establecimiento es el bajo nivel de emergencia de la okra que es atribuido a las bajas temperaturas del suelo en siembras tempranas (febrero). La fertilización foliar no tiene efecto en el rendimiento de fruto. La poda resulta atractiva ya que optimiza la producción de una sola siembra, al continuar con la cosecha después del término del ciclo normal. Algunos híbridos probados en la región muestran ventajas productivas con relación a la var. testigo 'Clempson Spineless'. La enfermedad de mayor impacto es el moteado amarillo de la okra transmitida por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Esta virosis ha sido la causa del abandono del cultivo en los estados de Guerrero y Morelos. El inadecuado control de la maleza en okra tiene efectos directos en el rendimiento, dificulta la cosecha e incrementa los costos de producción. Abstract in english In Mexico, the okra is a non-traditional vegetable cultivated in 4000 to 7000 ha annually with an average yield of 10 t ha-1; most of the production is exported to the United States of America. Main okra producer states include: Morelos, Michoacan, Guerrero and Tamaulipas. In this last state okra is [...] produced in up to 5 000 ha. Okra is a rentable vegetable crop that also promotes hand labor. Research on okra started in Mexico twenty years ago. Fruit quality is a key factor for okra marketing; soft texture fruits with intense green color and of regular shape are preferred. Higher okra yield are obtained in clay loam soils. A problem for crop establishment are the low soil temperatures that causes low okra emergence in early plantings. Foliar fertilization has not being effective to increase yields. Pruning is a promising practice because its optimizes crop yields by extending the crop season. Some okra hybrids tested in the region show productive advantages in relation to the traditional cultivar 'Clemson Spineless'. The most important disease is yellow mottled virus, transmitted by whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). This virus has caused the abandonment of the okra crop in the states of Guerrero and Morelos. Ineffective weed control in okra has deleterious effects on yield, increases production cost and difficults harvest.

  16. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Rokayya Sami; Jiang Lianzhou; Li Yang; Ying Ma; Jing Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ...

  17. Decontamination of sliced and powdered okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and some aspects of nutrient quality before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food security in Africa is crucial for survival of the increasing population. However, agricultural produce in the field are drastically reduced along the food pipeline (from farm gate to the consumer's table) by bioderioagents including microorganisms. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is one such farm produce of economic importance in Ghana with a great potential of providing essential nutrients and vitamins in our diet. The high moisture content of the fresh fruit makes it susceptible to microbial deterioration in a short time. Dehydration methods (sun-drying and solar drying) are practiced worldwide but in Africa, this is attended by contamination by aeromycoflora and other agents such as insect eggs and larvae. In addition are physical and chemical contaminants. In this thesis, the mycoflora and Total Aerobic Bacteria load of market samples and solar-dried okra (Clemson spineless and Legon Finger) chips and powder were ascertained with the view to documenting toxin-producing fungal species and update the resident mycoflora and bacteria load. Insects resident in the samples were detected by the hidden infestation technique; mycoflora was determined by the decimal serial dilution method on different media and Total Aerobic Bacteria population was determined on Plate Count Agar at 320C for 48hr. In order to establish storage stability of the okra, the chips and powdered samples were placed in glass desiccators with glycerol: water mixtures providing Environmeycerol: water mixtures providing Environmental Relative Humidities of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95% representative of the Ghanaian Tropic Conditions to undergo sorption at the same temperature. Gamma irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 20kGy) were used as a preservation process to decontaminate resident mycoflora and total aerobic bacteria. This was supplemented by an in vitro study in the radio-resistance of six selected resident fungi (Aspergillus; Penicllium spp). The veracity of the dry okra supporting growth of selected Aspergillus and Penicillium species was carried out in liquid cultures (okra meal broth and okra meal broth amended with glucose) using the conventional oven dry weight method at 300C for 5 days. The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in an artificially inoculated 'black' and 'white' market samples of okra powder was studied using the current Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) to quantify aflatoxins with post column derivatisation (PCD) involving bromination. Elemental composition (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Na, K, Ca, Fe) was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Flame Photometer methods. A Bench Nuclear Magnetic Resonance equipment determined percentage moisture and fat concurrently; crude protein was ascertained by the Kjeldahl method, total ash was determined by the dry ashing method using Carblolite Eurotherm CW Furnace. Vitamin C was determined by the AOAC (2000) Iodometric Titration method and pH was estimated by AOAC (2000) method, while Brabender Viscograph measured viscosity of powdered samples of okra and Brookfield Viscometer was employed for the okra chips. Colour change was determined on L*a*b* system using a Minolta CR-30 Chromameter. The chips of Clemson spineless and Legon finger as well as the 'black' and 'white' okra powder were hygroscopic and equilibrated at 20-95% ERH with 6-8 days. Samples were visibly mouldy after 6-10 days and harboured a miscellany of fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pullularia, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Rhodotorula sp). Potential toxin-producing fungi (A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. sulphureus, P. digitatum, P. citrinum, P. brevicompactum, F. verticillioides, P. expansum) variably contaminated the samples. The Cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricone was recorded for the first time in 'white' okra powder but not the remaining samples. The insect showed mycophagy, ingesting spores of the Mucorales. The okra fruit was a good medium for vegetative growth of the resident fungi. A dose of 10kGy significantly (p?0.05)

  18. 'Anjitha'- A new okra variety through induced mutation in inter specific hybrids of Abelmoschus SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on inter specific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional combination breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistant genes and wild character of A. manihot. The present study envisaged the breaking of undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (10, 20, 30 and 40 kRad) of F1 seeds obtained by inter specific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluation and selection of high yielding YVM resistant types from the segregating generations till F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of gamma rays. The mutated hybrids and the wild parent showed complete resistance to YVM disease incidence which was confirmed through grafting trials. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more number of leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 20 kR while fruit yield was maximum in 40 kR due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 30kR which suggested that 30 kR could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Thirteen superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to three Comparativeistance were advanced to three Comparative Yield Trials (CYT). Culture AE18 out yielded the others in CYTs and Farm trials and was released as 'Anjitha' by the XXIII State Seed Sub Committee during 2006 for cultivation in Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

  19. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  20. The effects of color plastic mulches and row covers on the growth and yield of okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench'Clemson Spineless'] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in shorter, AL. Okra was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (3...

  1. Anjitha - A New Okra Variety through Induced Mutation in Interspecific Hybrids of Abelmoschus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on interspecific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistance genes and the wild character of A. manihot. This study was aimed at breaking this undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (100 200, 300 and 400 Gray) of F1 seeds obtained by interspecific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluating and selecting high yielding YVM resistant types from the generations segregating until F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of Gamma-rays. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 200Gy, while fruit yield was maximum in 400Gy due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease-resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 300Gy which suggested that 300Gy could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to CYTs and farm trials. Cultivar AE18 outyielded the others and was released as 'Anjitha' during 2006, for cultivation in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality ofhaving the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM-resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity in okra (abelmoschus esculentus l.) using rapd markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty nine okra genotypes were assessed for genetic variability using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Twenty polymorphic RAPD primers amplified 111 DNA fragments, with an average of 5.5 fragments per primer. Among 39 okra genotypes, 107 fragments (96%) were found to be polymorphic. The UPGMA cluster analysis placed okra genotypes into seven main clusters. Sabzpari 2001 and Acc. No. 019221 had shown maximum similarity (83%) while the minimum similarity (44.14%) was observed between the genotypes Punjab Selection and Acc. No. 019217. Thus, by using RAPD primers a considerable polymorphism appeared to exist, which showed genetic variability in the okra genotypes. (author)

  3. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200?mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000?mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable. PMID:25401145

  4. Residue, dissipation, and safety evaluation of pyridalyl nanoformulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L] Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Priya; Gopal, Madhuban; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study on residues and rate of dissipation of a new nanoformulation of pyridalyl and commercial pyridalyl was carried out on okra under net house and field conditions. Okra crop was sprayed with commercial and nanoformulation of pyridalyl at recommended (75 g a. i./ha) and double the recommended dose (150 g a. i./ha) at the time of fruiting. Quantitation of residues of pyridalyl in okra was done by ultra high performance liquid chromatography over a period of 15 days, and recovery of the method ranged from 79 to 87 %. The half life calculated from the dissipation pattern of pyridalyl on okra for commercial and developed nanoformulation proved that residues of nanopyridalyl did not persist much longer than that of conventional formulation in net house as well as in field trials. The risk quotient value of pyridalyl in okra was significantly lower than 1, implying its negligible risk to the humans. PMID:25694033

  5. Quality Attributes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Pods as Affected by Cultivar and Fruit Size

    OpenAIRE

    Olivera, Daniela F.; Alicia Mugridge; Chaves, Alicia R.; Mascheroni, Rodolfo H.; Vin?a, Sonia Z.

    2012-01-01

    Okra is a vegetable widely grown in the tropics, sub-tropics and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Fruit quality plays an important role in marketability and it is mainly related to the characteristic pod length. This work was intended to classify okra fruits belonging to different genotypes (a local variety - LV - and the cultivars Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Annie Oakley II) according to their length and to compare certain quality attributes. LV fruits were considerably firm although ...

  6. Dissipation of flubendiamide in/on okra [Abelmoschus esculenta (L.) Moench] fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shaon Kumar; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Suvo Kumar

    2012-03-01

    A field experiment was undertaken at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif (rainy season) in the year 2010 to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits following foliar application of Belt 39.35% SC formulation at 24 (standard dose) and 48 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1). After HPLC analysis study revealed that residues of flubendiamide in/on okra persisted till 5th and 7th day after the last spray at standard and double dose, respectively. The residues of flubendiamide were reported as parent compound, and des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite (photo product) of flubendiamide, was not detected in/on okra at any time during the study period. The initial deposits of 0.28 and 0.53 ?g g(-1) in/on okra fruits reached below determination level of 0.01 ?g g(-1) on the 7th and 10th day at standard and double dose, respectively. The half life of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits ranged from 4.7 to 5.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Soil sample collected from the treated field on the 15th day after the last spray revealed residues of flubendiamide or its metabolite below determination level (0.01 ?g g(-1)) at single and double dose. PMID:22147083

  7. Genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra (abelmoschus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of salt tolerant plants through selection and breeding depends on the presence of the genetic variability within the crop species in response to salt stress, which must have significant genetic component. Such information is not extensively available in vegetable crops. The present study was carried out to gain some information on the genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra. North Carolina Mating Design II (NCM II) was used for the estimation of genetic components of variation in the traits affecting salinity tolerance. The inheritance of the traits affecting salinity tolerance at the seedling stage appeared to be controlled by both additive and non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis). The narrow sense heritability estimates ranged from 40 to 65% and 7 to 70% and the estimates of broad sense heritability ranged from 65 to 99% and 20 to 99% for absolute and relative values. The additive effects were relatively more prominent and narrow sense heritability was moderate. The high additive component for absolute Na/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio at 60 and 80 mM NaCl, relative Na+ at 80 mM NaCl suggested that improvement for salinity tolerance in okra would be possible on the basis of these characteristics through selection and breeding. The genetic variation for tolerance to NaCl salinity existed among the okra genotypes, which had considerable heritable component and, therefore, genetic improvement of okra genotypes for salinic improvement of okra genotypes for salinity tolerance through recurrent selection method is possible. (author)

  8. Study of Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlation for Some Agro-Economic Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculents (L.) Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Rashwan, A. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the genotypic and phenotypic correlation in okra (Abelmoschus esculents) for eight traits, using 36 genotypes (6 parents, 15F1 and 15F2). The genotypic and phenotypic correlations values for most pairs of characters were more or less similar. Days to flowering showed negative and significant association with plant height, number of branches/plant, number of fruits/plant and total green fruit yield (ton/feddan) for parents, F1 and F2 populations. Positive cor...

  9. Effect of Spacing and NPK Fertilizer on the Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Futuless, K. N.; Sajo, A. A.; Philip, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons with the aim of assessing the effect of spacing and NPK fertilizer on the yield and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Treatments consisted of four spacing (60x30 cm, 90x30 cm, 60x60 cm and 75x45 cm) and four NPK rates (0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) in a split plot design with plant spacing allocated to main pl...

  10. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

  11. Quality Attributes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench Pods as Affected by Cultivar and Fruit Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F. Olivera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Okra is a vegetable widely grown in the tropics, sub-tropics and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Fruit quality plays an important role in marketability and it is mainly related to the characteristic pod length. This work was intended to classify okra fruits belonging to different genotypes (a local variety - LV - and the cultivars Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Annie Oakley II according to their length and to compare certain quality attributes. LV fruits were considerably firm although they were smaller, thus they should be more suitable for canning or pickling. The hybrid material (Annie Oakley II yielded high quality fruits. These fruits may be destined for fresh consumption, given that they showed lower fibrousness. At the same time, they had high dry matter content, being suitable for dehydration. Okra fruits highlighted for their contribution of phenolic compounds.Total phenols levels significantly increased with fruit size in LV fruits, meanwhile no significant difference was observed for Annie Oakley II samples. Total flavonoids content showed a similar tendency although values did not differ significantly. Total flavonoids represented between 18-22% of the total phenols contents for the analyzed samples.

  12. Effect of Seed Treatment on the Incidence of Seed-borne Diseases of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Anam, M. K.; Fakir, G. A.; Khalequzzaman, K. M.; Hoque, M. M.; Abdur Rahim

    2002-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to know the effect of seed treatment on the incidence of seed-borne fungal diseases and on production of seed yield of okra. The lowest germination (95.0%) was recorded in unclean farmer`s seeds; while highest germination (99.0%) was recorded in Vitavax-200 treated seeds followed by clean apparently healthy seeds (98.5%). Seed-borne fungal diseases of okra in the field, five diseases viz. Foot and root rot, Anthracnose and die-back, Cercospora leaf spot, Corynespo...

  13. Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Akbar Anjum; Muhammad Amjad

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest dose of fertilizers.

  14. Irrigational impact of distillery effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Okra with special reference to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sachin; Chopra, A K

    2014-07-01

    The present study was performed under natural environment to assess levels of different heavy metals in soil and Abelmoschus esculentus plants along with soil microbial population irrigated with five rates of distillery effluent (DE) viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % concentration in comparison with control (Bore well water). Results revealed that among various concentrations of DE, irrigation with 100 % DE significantly (P Cr > Cd > Zn > Cu, and for A. esculentus plants, it was in the order Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Zn after irrigation with distillery effluent. The enrichment factor value was found maximum for Ni in comparison to other metals at 100 % DE concentration as compared with BWW. However, the values of these metals were below the recommended permissible limit. PMID:24638936

  15. Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2013-11-15

    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus. PMID:24511684

  16. Comparative Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction Techniques in West African Okra, (Abelmoschus caillei, A. Chev Stevels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O Alake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available West African okra occurs in wild and unselected variants in Nigeria but farmers desire stable and high-yielding cultivars. Twenty-five West African okra genotypes from diverse geographical backgrounds were evaluated in five different environments for stability of performance. Performance was measured by number of days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plants, number of seeds per pod, plant height at maturity and seed yield per plant. A regression method, Additive main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI and Genotype main effect and genotype x environment Interaction (GGE were employed in the evaluation. Joint regression and AMMI analyses showed significant (P< 0.01 G x E interaction with respect to seed yield, and both identified NGAE-96-0060 and NGAE-96-0063 as stable genotypes. The AMMI and GGE biplot analyses are more efficient than the Eberhart and Russell analysis. The GGE biplot explains higher proportions of the sum of squares of the GxE interaction and is more informative with regards to environments and cultivar performance than the AMMI analysis. GGE-biplot models showed that the five environments used for the study belonged to three mega-environments with environment 2 (Upland, 2007 being the most representative and most desirable of all. The GGE results also confirmed NGAE-96-0063 as being stable with NGAE-96-04 as the most stable. NGAE-96-04 was identified as most superior genotype in terms of yield and stability of performance and could be recommended for cultivation.

  17. Gene action and combining ability of yield and its components for late kharif season in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Medagam, Thirupathi Reddy; Kadiyala, Hari Babu; Mutyala, Ganesh; Hameedunnisa, Begum; Jampala, Dilipbabu; Reddivenkatagari Subbarama, Krishna Reddy.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic system controlling the quantitative traits is important for devising an efficient selection program through the use of a suitable mating design. Forty five Fis were generated by crossing 10 germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) namely P1(IC282248), P2( [...] IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443) during summer 2009. Forty five F1s along with their 10 parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates during late kharif (August-November) 2009 at Vegetable Research Station, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, for studying gene action and combining ability of yield and its components. Significant general combining ability and specific combining ability variances were obtained in majority of the traits except fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots; implying that both the additive and non-additive gene effects operated in the genetic expression of the traits. The relative magnitude of general and specific combining ability variances indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for majority of the characters studied except number of branches per plant and fruit width. Combining ability analysis of parents revealed that the parental lines P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819) and P7(IC89976) were superior general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and other traits. The crosses C23(IC29119-B x IC99716), Cn(IC27826-A x IC111443), C42(IC89976 x IC111443) and C43(IC90107 x IC111443) were superior specific combiners for total as well as marketable yield per plant with the potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The crosses C17 (IC27826-A x IC111443) and C42(IC89976 x IC111443) involving one or both of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects for marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding.

  18. Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny*

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

    2012-01-01

    The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective ...

  19. Effect of Diazotrophs and Chemical Fertilizers on Production and Economics of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus, L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Barnali Mal; Premananda Mahapatra; Santanu Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    The effect of diazotrophs and chemical fertilizers on yield attributing characters and economics of okra cultivation was evaluated. Application of highest dose of NPK @100% in combination with vermicompost (5 t ha-1) and biofertilizers with FYM increased the fruit yield of okra (cultivar Mahyco-10) considerably with yield varying between 80.00 q ha-1 to 227.13 q ha-1 and 80.49 q ha-1 to 229.62 q ha-1 during 2010 and 2011 respectively. In okra cv. Utkal Gaurav ...

  20. Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seed and Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Nzikou, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet) and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1) (Blye and Dyer).The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet) to 21....

  1. Essential Mineral Elements Profile of 22 Accessions of Okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.)) From Eight Regions of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ahiakpa, J. K.; Quartey, E. K.; Amenorpe, G.; Klu, G. Y. P.; Agbemavor, W. S. K.; Amoatey, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Five (5) essential macro, three (3) micro and two (2) trace mineral elements were determined in fresh fruits of twenty-two (22) accessions of okra using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). These were correlated to assess the level of associations existing between these elements. Concentrations of these elements were juxtaposed with their recommended daily dietary intake (RDI) in the individual accessions of okra and their variability with other traits examined for future improvem...

  2. PRE-SOWING SEED BIO-PRIMING IN OKRA: RESPONSE FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, A. K.; Basu, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Seeds of eight varieties of okra: Lalu, Arka Anamika, Ramya, Satsira, Lady Luck, Debpusa Jhar, Japani Jhar and Barsha Laxmi were bio-primed with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens, and sown in the field in Split-plot Design with three replications along with the unprimed control in two consecutive summer seasons of 2011 and 2012 to assess the variation in response of individual varieties for seed yield and its attributes. Trichoderma viride was improved plant length as...

  3. Effect of Storage Conditons on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Fresh Okra (Abelmoschus esculenta) Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Gernah, D. I.; Daagema, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of storage conditions on some physico-chemical and microbiological qualities of fresh okra were determined and compared. Fresh okra fruits were stored in open plates and sealed polyethylene bags in the refrigerator (F1, F2), on the shelf in the laboratory (S1, S2) and in the open sun (O1, O2) respectively for a period of nine (9) days. The moisture content, viscosity, microbiological composition and sensory properties of the stored fruits were determined on a daily basis during th...

  4. Effect of different levels of nitrogen alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cv. T-13 under the agro-climatic conditions of Mingora, Swat

    OpenAIRE

    Humayun Khan; Mazullah Khan; Asmatulla; Khalid Rasul; Abdul Majeed; Fayaz Ahmad Safi

    2000-01-01

    Investigation were undertaken to study the effect of different level of nitrogen (0,100,120,140 kg ha-1) alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorous (90 kg ha-1) on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cv.T-13 at Agriculture Research Station (North) Mingora, Swat during 1997. Maximum plant height (185 cm), number of pods per plant (24.59) pod length (12.63 cm), and the highest yield per hectare (16950.79 kg) was recorded on the plots fertilized with 120:90:60 k...

  5. Influence of Wastewater Application and Fertilizer use on Growth, Photosynthesis, Nutrient Homeostatis, Yield and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl¯, Ca++, Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater (GW. The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120 proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for the cultivation of okra.

  6. Ferti-irrigational Effect of Paper Mill Effluent on Agronomical Characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra)

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, A. K.; Vinod Kumar,

    2013-01-01

    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation of A. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus ...

  7. Generation Mean Analysis of Some Economic Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    El-gendy, Soher E. A.; Abd El-aziz, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the mode of gene action involved in some okra economic traits, three different crosses as started genetic materials were used for this purpose applying generation mean analysis. Significant differences for all studied traits for six populations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 within each cross were found indicating the existence of genetic variation and possibility of selection for these traits. Insignificant negative or positive heterosis and inbreeding depression were regi...

  8. Diferenciação de lotes de sementes de quiabo pelo teste de envelhecimento acelerado / Differentiation of seeds lots of okra by accelerated aging test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salvador Barros, Torres; Francisca Gleiciane da, Silva; Maryjane Diniz de Araújo, Gomes; Clarisse Pereira, Benedito; Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra, Pereira; Edvan Costa da, Silva.

    2103-21-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os testes de germinação e de vigor são componentes essenciais do processo de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes, e o teste de envelhecimento acelerado é um dos mais utilizados para avaliação do vigor de sementes. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar a metodolog [...] ia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, visando à identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Para isso, quatro lotes de sementes da cultivar 'Colhe Bem' e cinco lotes da cultivar 'Santa Cruz 47' foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: germinação, emergência de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e em solução saturada com NaCl (38 e 41ºC durante 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas) e grau de umidade no início dos testes e após a incubação para o teste de envelhecimento acelerado. Os testes de envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e em solução saturada com cloreto de sódio, a 41ºC durante 96 horas, constituem em opções promissoras para detectar diferenças de vigor entre lotes de sementes de quiabo. Abstract in english The vigor and germination tests are essential components of seed quality control for the seed industry. Accelerated aging is one for the most useful tests used for the evaluation of seed vigor. In this sense, this paper aimed to study the methodology of the accelerated aging test, in order to identi [...] fy different levels of vigor seed lots of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Four seed lots of the 'Colhe Bem' cultivar and five seed lots of the 'Santa Cruz 47' were submitted to the following assessments: germination, seedling emergence, accelerated aging by traditional procedures and saturated NaCl (38 and 41°C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) and moisture content at the beginning of the tests and, after incubation to accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test at 41°C/96 hours (traditional procedure and saturated NaCl) consisted efficient to detect vigor differences among seed lots of okra.

  9. Development of Seed Treatments Bio fertilizer and Nutrient Uptake Study Using Tracer Technique for Okra Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of bio fertilizer seed treatments for okra seeds were carried out by mixing phosphate solubilising bacteria (AP 3) and plant growth promoter (AP 2) with adhesives. The seeds were coated with inoculum and four types of adhesives namely, Gum Arabic; Polyethylene Glycol (PEG); Sodium Alginate and Methylcellulose respectively. From eight seed treatments, all seed treatments significantly increased seed germinations except treatment T4 (Gum Arabic and AP3). In general, maximum germination rates and log of viable cells were observed when treated with polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) mixed with AP2 (T7) and AP3 (T8). These results show that using PEG as adhesive enhanced the germination rates and log of viable cells of AP2 and AP3. Thus, PEG could be a good adhesive for seed treatment. In greenhouse experiment, okra seeds treatment with AP2 and PEG (T1) showed the highest dry weight compared to other treatments. Seeds treatment with AP3 and PEG (T2) showed higher contribution of N compare to seeds treatment (T1). There were no significant different within seed treatments and urea treatment in okra yield. All treatments significantly increased yields compared with control. (author)

  10. Purification and biological activities of Abelmoschus esculentus seed lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; de Morais Gomes, Vinicius; Delatorre, Plinio; da Conceição Simões, Rafael; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Leite, Joana Filomena; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Pinto, Nilson Vieira; de Luna Freire Pessoa, Hilzeth; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane

    2012-12-01

    The Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae) plant originated in Africa and has spread across a number of tropic countries, including northeastern Brazil. The plant has been used to treat various disorders, such as cancer, microbial infections, hypoglycemia, constipation, urine retention and inflammation. The lectin of A. esculentus (AEL) was isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a saturation level of 30/60 and purified by ion exchange chromatography (Sephacel-DEAE). The electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profile of the AEL showed two protein bands of apparent molecular mass of approximately 15.0 and 21.0 kDa. The homogenity of the protein was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which revealed the presence of a 10.29-kDa monomer and a 20.58-kDa dimer. The AEL exhibits agglutinating activity against rabbit (74.41 UH/mP) and human type ABO erythrocytes (21.00 UH/mP). This activity does not require the presence of divalent cations and is specifically inhibited by lactose, fructose and mannose. The intravenous treatment with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg of AEL inhibited the paw edema elicited by carrageenan by approximately 15, 22 and 44 %, respectively, but not that induced by dextran. In addition, treatment with 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg of AEL also inhibited the abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid by approximately 52, 57 and 69 %, respectively. In conclusion, AEL is a new lectin with a molecular mass of 20.0 kDa, which is -composed of a 10.291-Da monomer and a 20.582-kDa dimer, that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and hemagglutinating activities. In addition, the lectin hemagglutinating property is both metallo-independent and associated with the lectin domain. PMID:22965555

  11. Effect of gamma rays on fruit weight and number of seeds in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and Momordica charantia L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 5,15,30,60,90 and 120 kR doses of gamma rays, lower doses showed stimulatory effects on fresh and dry weight of fruit, while higher doses proved inhibitory in Abelmoschus esculentus and Momordica charantia. Abortion of mature seeds was also higher at 30 kR and above doses. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Harvesting Time on the Seed Quality of Four Okra Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadir Mohammadi; Khah, Ebrahim M.; Spyridon Alexandros Petropoulos; Chachalis, Dimosthenis B.; Fariba Akbari; Garip Yarsi

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment at the University of Thessaly during the summer season of 2011, the effect of foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3) to okra at an early stage of plant growth (3-4 leaves) on plant growth, pod and seed characteristics was studied in relation to harvest time. GA3 was applied at concentrations of 0 (Control), 50, and 100 mg L-1 to four okra cultivars (‘Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylaias’) and pods were harvested 30, 35, 40 and 50 days after anth...

  13. PRE-SOWING SEED BIO-PRIMING IN OKRA: RESPONSE FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K RAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of eight varieties of okra: Lalu, Arka Anamika, Ramya, Satsira, Lady Luck, Debpusa Jhar, Japani Jhar and Barsha Laxmi were bio-primed with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens, and sown in the field in Split-plot Design with three replications along with the unprimed control in two consecutive summer seasons of 2011 and 2012 to assess the variation in response of individual varieties for seed yield and its attributes. Trichoderma viride was improved plant length as 108.21cm and 112.25 cm for variety Arka Anamika, maximum pod length i.e. 19.01 and 19.21 as well as in pod diameter as 16.64 mm and 16.85 mm for Lalu variety in first and second year respectively. Overall seed yield per plant was as maximum as 49.14g and 51.58g in 2011 and 2012 respectively for Lalu, while it was lowest for Lady Luck (24.13g and 25.69g in both the years. Expression for response towards individual bio-inoculants for individual varieties varied, which indicate the existence of genotypic response in enhancing the seed yield of individual varieties after pre-sowing bio-primed of seeds.From these findings it can be concluded that the bio-priming with compatible bio-agents will enhance the plant growth and yield attributes.

  14. Germination and hardseedness of seeds in okra elite lines Germinação e dureza de sementes em linhas elite de quiabo

    OpenAIRE

    Purquerio, Luis Felipe V.; Do Lago, Antonio A.; Francisco Antonio Passos

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of hardseedness and the low percentage of seed germination are major challenges when growing okra. For this reason, five elite lines of okra developed at the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC), three with angular pods (lines 8.1, 20.1.2 and 47.1) and two with cylindrical pods (lines 13.1.2 and 20.1.R), were evaluated for seed quality and compared to two commercial seed samples (Horticeres Sementes and Sakata Seed Sudamerica) of cultivar Santa Cruz 47. Seeds were field produced ...

  15. Variability and Association of Quantitative Characters among Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Collection in South Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mihretu Yonas; Weyessa Garedew; Adugna Debela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate genetic variability among Okra accessions based on quantitative morphological traits. Twenty five Okra accessions were planted in 2011/2012 at Gambella in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on 20 quantitative traits were collected and subjected to various statistical analyses. The analysis of variance showed significant differences (p

  16. Growth, yield and seed production of okra as influenced by different growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) affect various aspects of plant physiology, mainly vegetative and reproductive traits including yield and seed production. Therefore, different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of gibberellic acid (GA3) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), alone or in different combinations were sprayed on okra plants at 2-true leaf stage, to ascertain their impact on plant growth, pod production, seed yield and seed quality. All variables regarding vegetative and reproductive growth were significantly influenced by different concentrations of the growth regulators except number of days taken to flowering. Growth regulators were less effective when applied individually as compared to their combined use; however, performance of plants treated with individual PGR was better than the untreated plants. The number of leaves plant/sup -1/ and plant height was higher in plants when sprayed with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+100 ppm as well as with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. The number of pods plant/sup -1/, pod length, pod fresh and dry weight, seed yield and seed quality (in terms of germination percentage and 1000-seed weight) was maximum in plants receiving foliar spray of both GA3 and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. These results signify the role of GA/sub 3/ and NAA in okra pod production for fresh consumption as well as for seed yield. (author)

  17. Effects of Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and Mixture Groundnut (Archis hypogaea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeawuchi, I. I.; Obiefuna, J. C.; Ofoh, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of various row spacing on the yield and yield components of okra with groundnut were conducted at the training and research farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Yield and yield components of the crops in the various row spacing, monetary value of fresh okra fruits and dry groundnut pods were determined. The efficacy of the inter-cropping on weed suppression was evaluated. Okra plant height showed that R30 (30x50 cm) was highly significant than the other treatments...

  18. Effects of Green Manures on Growth, Yield and Quality of Green Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Chutichudet Benjawan; Chutichudet, P.; Kaewsit, S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The e...

  19. Response of Maize (Zea mays) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Akande, M. O.; Oluwatoyinbo, F. I.; Kayode, C. O.; Olowokere, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage l...

  20. Isolation and Purification of Trypsin Inhibitors from the Seeds of Abelmoschus moschatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, Muni Kumar; Seva, Lavanya; Davuluri, Siva Prasad

    2015-04-01

    Four trypsin inhibitors, AMTI-I, AMTI-II, AMTI-III, and AMTI-IV, have been isolated and purified to homogeneity from the seeds of Abelmoschus moschatus following ammonium sulphate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and gel permeation on Sephadex G-100, and their molecular weights were determined to be 22.4, 21.2, 20.8 and 20.2 kDa respectively by SDS-PAGE. While all the four inhibitors were very active against bovine trypsin, two of them (AMTI-III and AMTI-IV) showed moderate activity towards bovine chymotrypsin. AMTI-I and AMTI-II were found to be glycoproteins with neutral sugar content of 2.8 and 4 %, respectively, and all the four inhibitors were devoid of free sulphhydryl groups. The inhibitors were quite stable up to 80 °C for 10 min and were not affected at alkaline as well as acidic conditions tested. Treating them with 8 M urea and 1 % SDS for 24 h at room temperature did not result in any loss of their antitryptic activities. However, they lost considerable antitryptic activity when treated with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Activities of the inhibitors were unaffected even after their reduction with DTT suggesting that disulphide bonds are not needed for their inhibitory activities. PMID:25701144

  1. Influence of Some Soil Amendments on Insect Pest Infestation and Damage to Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench in Umudike, Abia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment to determine the effect of three soil amendments (Poultry manure, goat manure and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on insect pest infestation and damage to Okra (Oboro dwarf variety was conducted in 2006 at Umudike, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three treatments and control replicated five times. During the experiment, application of poultry manure and goat manure at 50g/plant and 20g/plant of NPK 15:15:15 were applied two weeks after planting in a ring form. Results obtained showed that the application of goat manure and poultry manure generally, significantly reduced the prevalence of Podagrica spps with regards to plant height and leaf area of Okra. The application of NPK 15:15:15 may have promoted vegetative growth of Okra, making it more succulent and thereby enhancing high pest attack, survival and damage of the Okra. Hence, increasing the application rates of the different soil amendments may have significant increase on the yield as well as reduce pest invasion.

  2. Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Tariq; Altaf Sabri, M.; Javed Sultan, M.

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticides), Cascade (insect growth regulator) and Pressurized water spray (M. Y. strategy) was evaluated against insect pests of okra. Cascade was found to be the best efficient against Helicoverpa armigera and Earias spp. Pirate showed maximum efficacy against Amrasca biguttula biguttula, whereas, against Bemisia tabaci, the most effective treatment was Azodrin followed by M.Y. strategy.

  3. Comparison of Effectiveness of Raw Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L and Raw Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Wastes as Bioadsorbent of Heavy Metal in Aqueous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabanji I. O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption process had been effective in condensing and concentrating metal ions from aqueous phase to the surface of adsorbent, it is a well established technology that employed the use of synthetic adsorbent which are usually scarce and expensive in waste water treatment. Hence, there is a need to develop new adsorbent which are readily available at low cost to remove metal contaminants in aqueous system. In this work, raw sugarcane waste and raw okra waste which are agricultural by-products were used as adsorbent in the adsorption of Fe(III Cd (II, Pb (II, Zn (II, Ni (II from various aqueous solutions. Infrared spectrum of the okra and sugar cane waste were recorded to detect the functional groups that has the binding capability for the metal ion adsorption. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the adsorption process and its was found that the okra waste was able to adsorb 5.05% of Fe(III,, 44.95% of Cd (II,, 65.10% of Pb (II, 38.78% of Zn (II, 57.80% of Ni(II, while the sugarcane waste was able to adsorb 3.61% of Fe (III, 35.06% of Cd (II, 43.50% of Pb (II,, 24.45% of Zn (II, 35.31% of Ni(II. This work proved that raw okra waste was more effective adsorbent material than raw sugarcane waste for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous systems. The Freundlich adsorption model described well the sorption equilibrium of the metal ions however research study have shown that modified form of okra waste was an excellent adsorbent, there is possibility of modifying the raw sugar cane waste for better performance since it has potential of removing heavy metals in waste water. 

  4. Influence of Wastewater Application and Fertilizer use on Growth, Photosynthesis, Nutrient Homeostatis, Yield and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Neelima Akhtar; Saima Kausar; Shahla Faizan

    2014-01-01

    The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW) and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical cha...

  5. Combining Ability and Genetic Components for Length and Width of Pods in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev) Stevels)

    OpenAIRE

    Adeniji, O. T.; Kehinde, O. B.

    2007-01-01

    In the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, okra pods are consumed fresh. The introduction of pure lines and hybrids with improved length and width into the cropping system, necessitate studies on the combining ability and genetic components for the length and width of pods. Seven parents and 21 F1 generations were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications. The results indicated that the means squares due to GCA and SCA for length and width o...

  6. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oppong Danso, E.; Abenney-Mickson, S.

    2015-01-01

    Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

  7. Effect of Chemical Paclobutrazol on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar in Northeast Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chutichudet Benjawan; Chutichudet, P.; Chanaboon, T.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand in the late rainy season of the 2003 to 2004 with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The experiment aims to search for more information on the effect of different rates of chemical Paclobutrazol (PBZ) application on growth, yield and quality of edible okra pods. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCDB) with four replications was used for the experi...

  8. The Effect of Combined Application of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on the Growth and Yield of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

    2013-01-01

    The effect of combined application of poultry manure and sawdust on soil properties, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) were investigated at the main campus of Tai solarin University of Education Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria during 2010/2011 dry season. This size of the plot was 45 m by 5m; the seed was planted with three seed per hole at a spacing of 0.5 m. The total numbers of plots were 27 plots, for the avoidance of doubt; it comprises three treatments...

  9. Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataravanappa V; Cn, Lakshminarayana Reddy; Swaranalatha P; Jalali Salil; Briddon Rob W; Krishna, Reddy M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae) is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, sympt...

  10. Evaluation of Different Cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq Ali Khan; Jalal-ud-din; Abdul Ghaffoor; Kashif Waseem Khan

    2002-01-01

    Five different cultivars of okra viz. (penta green, pusa sawani, local cultivar, pusa green and clemson) were evaluated for their performance under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan. Minimum number of days to flowering (36.33), maximum pods per plant (43.42), highest pods weight per plant (446.23 gm) and in return the maximum yield of the pods (17.85 t ha -1) were obtained from the pusa green cultivar. Different parameters like days taken to germination, pod size...

  11. Response of different cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. to three diferent sowing dates in the mid hill of swat valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Khan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to evaluate 4 okra varieties, T-13 (check, Super Green, Pusa Green and Green Tech sown on 3 different dates, 10th May, 25th May and 10th June, and June 1998. It was found that variety, T-13, sown on May 25, 1998 gave significantly highest plant population percentage of (99.66. Variety, Green tech, sown on June 10, 1998 took more day’s (48.33 from sowing to 1st flowering and remained the tallest variety at first and last picking with 58 and 167 cm plant height when sown on May 25, 1998. Variety, T-13 (check, gave long edible fruits of 10 cm. While significantly highest yield of 15.68 ha-1 was obtained from variety, T-13 (check, sown on May 25, 1998.

  12. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Chlormequat Chloride (CCC Application and Terminal Apex Excision to Restrict Plant Height in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench. and Optimize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Thanopoulos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for restricting plant height (CCC application and excision of the main shoot apex were applied to okra cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ with the aim of assisting crop management and optimizing yield. Apex excision 26 or 40 days after transplantation (DAT effectively restricted plant height, but either had no effect (40 DAT or reduced the number of side shoots per plant (26 DAT. Moreover, although the length of side shoots increased after apex excision, the number of nodes per side shoot was not affected. Hence pod number and weight was less than in the control (untreated. CCC application (500 and 2000 ppm reduced plant height due to a reduction in internode length; however, when applied at the time of transplantation (0 DAT (both concentrations or 26 DAT (2000 ppm it also caused a reduction in node number on the main stem. CCC did not affect the number of side shoots or the number of nodes per shoot, and side shoot length decreased due to shorter internode lengths. The number and weight of pods per plant was reduced by 2000 ppm CCC irrespective of the time of application, but was not affected by 500 ppm CCC at 0 DAT (pod number or 40 DAT (pod weight and number. We conclude that the application of 500 ppm CCC at 40 DAT may aid okra cultivation since it reduces overall plant size (height and diameter without adversely affecting yield, and may thus assist crop management (e.g. easier hand-harvesting and permit an increase in plant density.

  13. IN VITRO BINDING OF BILE ACIDS BY OKRA, BEETS, ASPARAGUS, EGGPLANT, TURNIPS, GREEN BEANS, CARROTS, AND CAULIFLOWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in vitro binding of bile acids by okra (abelmoschus esculentus), beets (beta vulgaris), asparagus (asparagus officinalis), eggplant (solanum malongena), turnips (brassica rapa rapifera), green beans (phaseolus vulgaris), carrots (daucus carota), and cauliflower (brassica oleracea botrytis) was d...

  14. PRODUCTIVITY OF OKRA VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY SEASONAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Katung, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, two distinct season are noticeable and these are the wet (April to October) and the dry (November to March) seasons. Due to little or no documented work conducted to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), this study is therefore undertaken to compare the performance of okra during the wet and the dry seasons of northern Nigeria. Two okra varieties ('White velvet' and 'Ex-Borno') were evaluated during ...

  15. Antioxidant activity of extract and its major constituents from okra seed on rat hepatocytes injured by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lianmei; Yu, Wenlan; Li, Ying; Prasad, Nagendra; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 ? 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including ?, ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities. PMID:24719856

  16. Genotypic performance, character correlations and path analysis of pod yield in Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-vaughan, Moninuola A.; Ariyo, Omolayo J.; Alake, Christopher O.

    2012-01-01

    Direct selection based on pod yield is often a problem in West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels) breeding programs. Information on inter-relationships among traits to implement indirect selection for pod yield is needed. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of West African okra varieties in two cropping seasons prevailing in Nigeria, and to determine the associations among main agronomic characters and their influence on pod yield. Twenty-five genotype...

  17. The Effect of Combined Application of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on the Growth and Yield of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of combined application of poultry manure and sawdust on soil properties, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were investigated at the main campus of Tai solarin University of Education Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria during 2010/2011 dry season. This size of the plot was 45 m by 5m; the seed was planted with three seed per hole at a spacing of 0.5 m. The total numbers of plots were 27 plots, for the avoidance of doubt; it comprises three treatments and each treatment was replicate three times. The treatments consisted of 0, 5, 10 ton/ha Broiler litter (Poultry manure and 0, 2, 5 ton/ha (sawdust. The results indicated a significant increase in growth parameters in those plants planted in 0, 2, 5 ton/ha poultry manure plot than sawdust plot. However, treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters (plant height, stem girth and number of leaves were increased significantly (p<0.05 as manure rates increased. Poultry manure at 10 ton/ha has significant increase in fruit yield of okra increase. The combined application of poultry manure and sawdust does not have effect on yield and fruit number of okra but there is a slight effect on plant height. Based on the findings of the experiments it could be deduced that poultry manure seems to promote higher growth and yield of okra. Thus, it should be recommended for farmers growing okra in region.

  18. Formulation and Evaluation of Okra Fruit Mucilage as a Binder in Paracetamol and Ibuprofen Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Shah A; Shankul kumar; Malay Jani; Patel, Hitesh A.; Patel, Vasim I.; Patel, Jatin A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to search for cheap and effective natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage form. The mucilage from the OkraFruit (Abelmoschus esculentus) was subjected to Preformulation study for evaluation of its safety and suitability for use as binding agent. The mucilage extracted is devoid of toxicity. Tablets of Lactosewere prepared as a control and with 1-5% w/v concentrations of Abelmoschus esculentus muc...

  19. Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug

    OpenAIRE

    Ogaji Ikoni; Nnoli Obiageli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time were evaluated. Aqueous coating suspensions of okra gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.6%w/v) were prepared and used to coat the tablets in Hi-co...

  20. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E O; Abenney-Mickson, S

    2015-01-01

    Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

  1. Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adewole Moses B.; Ilesanmi Abiola O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO), compost organic ...

  2. INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L.) MEDIK

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka; Animesh, Datta K.

    2012-01-01

    Dry seeds (cultivar I – tall, branched, moisture content 3.5%; cultivar II – dwarf, unbranched, moisture content 1.5%) of Abelmoschus moschatus (L.) Medik (Family: Malvaceae; Common name: Ambrette; English name: Musk mallow) were treated (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00% for 3h and 6h durations) with chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to raise desirable ‘plant type’ mutants. Mutagenic sensitivity (from M1 biological damages like lethality, injury and steri...

  3. First report of an alphasatellite associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, S A; Packialakshmi, R M; Subhalakshmi, K; Prakash, C; Poovannan, K; Nixon Prabu, A; Gopal, P; Usha, R

    2013-06-01

    An alphasatellite DNA associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV) which causes enation and leaf curling in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants was characterized. The full-length DNA comprises 1,350 nucleotides and shows typical genome organization of an alphasatellite. It shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity (79.7 %) to Hollyhock yellow vein virus-associated symptomless alphasatellite (HoYVSLA). This is the first report of the association of an alphasatellite with OELCuV from India. PMID:23475199

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Okra Fruit Mucilage as a Binder in Paracetamol and Ibuprofen Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to search for cheap and effective natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage form. The mucilage from the OkraFruit (Abelmoschus esculentus was subjected to Preformulation study for evaluation of its safety and suitability for use as binding agent. The mucilage extracted is devoid of toxicity. Tablets of Lactosewere prepared as a control and with 1-5% w/v concentrations of Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage and compared paracetamol, Ibuprofen tablet. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness,friability and disintegration time according to the USP. Studies indicate that the mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus may be used as a pharmaceutical adjuvant and as a binding agent at 4 to 5%w/v, depending on its binding ability and the stability of the resulting tablets.

  5. STUDY OF CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE IN SEEDS OF CORN,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Rebessi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an agrochemical from the group of phosphonates, which is widely used as a herbicide. Although it kills almost any plant, it can be used to eliminate weeds during the growth of crops that are resistant to glyphosate. This research aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of the herbicide in a study using as test organism seeds of maize (Zea mays, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench and arugula (Eruca sativa. The toxicological testing was to use a paper towel dampened with a sample of glyphosate and twenty seeds evenly distributed in containers with lids, left in a dry and airy place, and watered once a day for 5 days. It was possible to check the toxic effect of glyphosate for corn seeds at concentrations above 90 mg.L-1, for okra seeds at concentrations above 75 mg L-1 and arugula seeds in concentrations above 2 mg L - 1. Thus it was concluded that the seeds studied showed a high sensitivity with the possibility to be applied in toxicity testing, representing a simple and low cost.

  6. Optimization of microwave-assisted hot air drying conditions of okra using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, Suresh; Murthy, Ganti S

    2014-02-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was dried to a moisture level of 0.1 g water/g dry matter using a microwave-assisted hot air dryer. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the drying conditions based on specific energy consumption and quality of dried okra. The drying experiments were performed using a central composite rotatable design for three variables: air temperature (40-70 °C), air velocity (1-2 m/s) and microwave power level (0.5-2.5 W/g). The quality of dried okra was determined in terms of color change, rehydration ratio and hardness of texture. A second-order polynomial model was well fitted to all responses and high R(2) values (>0.8) were observed in all cases. The color change of dried okra was found higher at high microwave power and air temperatures. Rehydration properties were better for okra samples dried at higher microwave power levels. Specific energy consumption decreased with increase in microwave power due to decrease in drying time. The drying conditions of 1.51 m/s air velocity, 52.09 °C air temperature and 2.41 W/g microwave power were found optimum for product quality and minimum energy consumption for microwave-convective drying of okra. PMID:24493879

  7. Desempenho do quiabeiro consorciado com adubos verdes eretos de porte baixo em dois sistemas de cultivo / Okra performance intercropped with small size and erect green manure in two production systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebastião Wilson, Tivelli; Cristiaini, Kano; Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Elaine B, Wutke; Issáo, Ishimura.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o cultivo intercalar de adubos verdes eretos e de porte baixo na cultura do quiabeiro, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em cultivo convencional em Monte Alegre do Sul e outro em cultivo orgânico em São Roque-SP, de fevereiro a julho de 2008 e de dezembro de 2008 [...] a junho de 2009, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos, constando de quiabeiro em cultivo "solteiro" e consorciado com uma ou duas linhas de mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana) e de crotalária-espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis) nas entrelinhas. No cultivo orgânico, dois novos tratamentos foram adicionados ao experimento para avaliar os adubos verdes em cultivo solteiro. No quiabeiro avaliou-se a produção (g planta-1) e número de frutos por planta, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e altura média do dossel em diferentes épocas após a semeadura. Nos adubos verdes avaliaram-se altura média das plantas e produtividade de massa fresca. A eficiência do consórcio foi mensurada por meio da relação de área equivalente (RAE). A produção média do quiabeiro por planta foi de 190,9 e 582,0 g planta-1, respectivamente, no sistema convencional e orgânico. A RAE foi de 1,5 e 1,6 no consórcio do quiabeiro com duas linhas de mucuna-anã e crotalária-espectábilis, respecticamente. Verificou-se viabilidade agronômica da adoção do cultivo intercalar pelo agricultor familiar de quiabeiro, especificamente com duas linhas dos adubos verdes de porte ereto e baixo. Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic viability of the intercropping okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) with small size and erect green manuring species Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, two experiments were carried out, one in conventional system at Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo state, Brazil, fr [...] om February to July 2008 and one in an organic system at São Roque, São Paulo state, Brazil, from December 2008 to June 2009. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were constituted by okra monoculture and okra intercropped with one or two lines of M. deeringiana and one or two lines of C.spectabilis in the seeded at the same time of the okra crop. In organic farming two new treatments were added to the experiment to evaluate the green manures in single cropping. Production, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and diameter and plant height were evaluated in okra plants and plant height and fresh matter weight were determined in the green manuring plants at different periods after seeding.. The evaluation of the efficiency of the consortium was measured by the ratio of area equivalent (RAE). Average yield per okra plant was 190.9 and 582.0 g plant-1, respectively, under conventional and organic cropping. The RAE was 1.5 and 1.6 in the consortium of okra with two rows of M. deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, respectively. Intercropping erect short green manuring species with okra is agronomically viable and can be used by family farmers without interference with the yield of okra crop.

  8. Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogaji Ikoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time were evaluated. Aqueous coating suspensions of okra gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.6%w/v were prepared and used to coat the tablets in Hi-coater. The coated tablets were evaluated for weight uniformity, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and moisture uptake at controlled humidity. The coating remained intact, durable, and resistant to chipping when challenged to catastrophic fall or rubbed on a white paper. The coated tablets had lower friability, increased disintegration time (24 min compared to the core (3 min and improved hardness, but there was no difference in the dissolution profile of the samples from the batches containing okra and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as film formers. Changes were observed in some of the physicochemical properties of the formulations containing okra gum as with the known film former and it was convenient to conclude that these changes were due to the effect of the mechanical properties of the film formers. It was our conclusion that okra gum is a promising natural, biodegradable, cheap and eco-friendly film former in aqueous tablet film coating operation, particularly when masking of taste or objectionable odor in a solid dosage formulation is desired.

  9. Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium (Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd. PMID:16083107

  10. Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

    2013-09-01

    A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae. PMID:24426275

  11. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS AND INOCULUM LEVELS OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON OKRA

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    Sultan A. Maitlo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among two methods of Macrophomina phaseolina inoculation used for pathogenicity test, soil infestation method comparatively checked more plant growth of okra plants than seed infestation method. Minimum plant length and weight, as well as seed germination were observed by soil infestation method. Significantly maximum plant mortality and root infection was also occurred in soil infestation method. Seed germination, plant growth, plant mortality and root infection of okra plants were adversely affected with the increasing inoculum levels of M. phaseolina. Seed germination and plant growth were negatively correlated with inoculated pathogen population; whereas, plant mortality and root infection were positively correlated with the inoculum level of M. phaseolina.

  12. INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK

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    Dubey Kumari Priyanka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dry seeds (cultivar I – tall, branched, moisture content 3.5%; cultivar II – dwarf, unbranched, moisture content 1.5% of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae; Common name: Ambrette; English name: Musk mallow were treated (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00% for 3h and 6h durations with chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS and hydroxylamine (NH2OH to raise desirable ‘plant type’ mutants. Mutagenic sensitivity (from M1 biological damages like lethality, injury and sterility; LD50 was ascertained, M2 mutation frequency and types (cv.I: pigmented stem, lax branching, long petiole, large flower and early flowering, 1089 plants scored; cv.II: funnel, thick stem and late flowering, 1945 plants screened, mutagenic effectiveness (EMS more effective than NH2OH and efficiency (variable response but threshold dose seems to be efficient and meiotic chromosome behaviour of the plant types were assessed. Macromutants evolved were viable and may be important genetic resources in the plant species.

  13. Patogenicidade de Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae em quiabeiro Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae in okra

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    Mário M. Inomoto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do parasitismo de Pratylenchus brachyurus e de dois isolados de P. coffeae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus em experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação. Algumas mudanças anatômicas induzidas no hospedeiro por P. brachyurus foram observadas e registradas em laboratório. O quiabeiro reagiu como bom hospedeiro para P. brachyurus e para um dos isolados de P. coffeae (K5. Entretanto, apenas a primeira espécie reduziu o crescimento da planta. Outro isolado de P. coffeae (M2 não se multiplicou em quiabeiro nem afetou o crescimento. Esse fato indicou a possibilidade do quiabeiro ser utilizado no futuro para diferenciação de isolados. Diferentemente das relações parasito-hospedeiro envolvendo Pratylenchus spp., P. brachyurus não causou lesões radiculares delimitadas, mas grandes áreas necrosadas. Sintomas iniciais foram observados em quiabeiro dez e 15 dias após a inoculação com P. brachyurus, não se verificando a presença do parasito no estelo de raízes infetadas.The effect of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The anatomical changes caused by P. brachyurus were studied under laboratory conditions. Okra was a good host for P. brachyurus and one isolate of P. coffeae (K5, but only the former decreased its growth. The other isolate of P. coffeae used (M2 did not multiply on nor damage okra, so this plant can be used to differentiate both isolates. In contrast to typical Pratylenchus spp. host plant relationships, P. brachyurus did not cause well-delimited root lesions, but large extensions of decayed tissues. Necrosis in okra roots was observed ten days after inoculation, but P. brachyurus was not found in the stele of infected roots 15 days after inoculation.

  14. Genotoxic effect of cadmium in okra seedlings: comparative investigation with population parameters and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Semra Soydam; Basaran, Esin; Cansaran-Duman, Demet; Aras, Sümer

    2013-11-01

    Plants are considered as good bioindicators because of their significant role in food chain transfer. They are also easy to grow, adaptable to environmental stresses and can be used for assaying a range of environmental conditions in different habitats. Thus, many plant species have been used as bioindicators. In order to evaluate the genotoxic effect of cadmium, okra (Abelmoschus esculontus L.) seedlings were treated with different concentrations (30, 60, 120 mg I(-1)) of cadmium and investigated for their population parameters such as inhibition of root growth; total soluble protein content, dry weight and also the impact of metal on the genetic material by RAPD analysis. Root growth and total soluble protein content in okra seedlings were reduced with increased Cd concentrations. RAPD analysis indicated formation of new bands mostly at 60 and 120 mg I(-1) Cd treatments. Altered DNA band patterns and population parameters after Cd treatments suggest that okra could be used as an indicator to reveal the effects of genotoxic agents. PMID:24555326

  15. Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria

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    Adewole Moses B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO, compost organic fertilizer (OR, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05 higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

  16. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  17. 78 FR 63158 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Okra by removing the ``Unclassified'' category...revised United States Standards for Grades of Okra are available on the Specialty Crops...

  18. 78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Okra by removing the ``Unclassified'' section...The United States Standards for Grades of Okra are available through the Specialty...

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L.) MEDIK (MALVACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka; Animesh, Datta K.; Mandal Aninda; Saha Aditi; Sengupta Sonali

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03) of Abelmoschus moschatus (L.) Medik (Family: Malvaceae) were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76...

  20. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in okra germplasm

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    Frederick Mendes Aguiar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available – Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’. Inoculation (in all assays was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates (‘Fus-194’ and ‘Fus-201’. Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-194’ during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-201’. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to ‘Fus-194’, and 32% were resistant to ‘Fus-201’. The accessions ‘Santa Cruz-47’, ‘BR-2399’ and ‘BR-1449’ were the most promising resistance sources.

  1. Okra-leaf accessions of the upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): genetic variability in agronomic and fibre traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez-ur-Rahman; Bibi, Amir; Latif, Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Okra-leaf types of the upland cotton have the potential to be competitive to the normal-leaf types in yield and fibre quality, in addition to its potential resistance to insect pests and drought. Okra-leaf cotton accessions, collected at Cotton Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan, were evaluated in respect of genetic variance and relative performance in half- and full-sib crosses (combining ability) for 2 years. Variation due to parents x years interaction was significant for lint percentage, seed weight and earliness index, resulting in moderately low but significant genetic variance across environments (years) for these traits. Interaction of environment with general combining ability was significant for seed yield, seed weight, and earliness index. General combining ability variation, contributed by females and males together, accounted for 71% of the total variation available for seed cotton yield, 60% of that for seed weight and height to node ratio each, and 75% of that for earliness index. Specific combining ability variation accounted for 85% and 51% of the total variation available for lint percentage and staple length, respectively. The contribution of female parents to general combining ability variation was higher than that of male parents for seed cotton yield, seed weight, height to node ratio, and earliness index. Okra-leaf accessions HR-VO-MS and HR107-NH were predicted to produce progenies having high yield, HR109-RT high lint percentage, while HR100-Okra, Gambo-Okra and HR-VO-1 were predicted to impart early crop maturity to their progenies by reason of their good general combining ability for these traits. The results also provided evidence that genes controlling high yield in HR-VO-MS and HR107-NH were different from those controlling high yield in HR109-RT. The set of genes controlling the high earliness index in HR100-Okra and that in HR-VO-MS also appeared to differ in expression. PMID:15977325

  2. Analgesic Activity of Abelmoschus manihot Extracts

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    J. Surana Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural products served as important sources of medicines now a day increasing, as they possess the therapeutic activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae leaves using hot plate and tail immersion model. The air-dried, powdered leaves (1000 g were extracted over Soxhlet with petroleum ether and methanol. The crude dried petroleum ether (10 g and methanol (25 g extracts was prepared at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 and evaluated for analgesic activity using the hot plate and tail immersion test. The results obtained indicate that the extracts possessed significant (p-1 dose as compared with the standard drug. This study showed that the petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Abelmoschus manihot leaves possess potential pharmacological active constituents responsible for inhibition of the analgesic effect.

  3. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Obiadalla Ali, Hazim Abd El-rahman; Moharam, Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74%) was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82%) and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%). Neem seed oil...

  4. Agro-potentiality of distillery effluent on soil and agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin; Kumar, Vinod; Pathak, Chakresh

    2013-08-01

    The present study showed that irrigation of soil with different effluent concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) of distillery effluent (DE) for 60 days resulted in significant (P?exchangeable sodium (Na(+)), available potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), iron (Fe(2+)), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), available phosphorus (P), and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) of soil. The non-significant (P?>?0.05) changes were observed for water-holding capacity and bulk density of the soil. Among various concentrations of DE irrigation, irrigation with 100 % effluent concentration increased moisture content, (24.85 %), EC (77.88 %), Cl(-) (285.95 %), TOC (3,171.42 %), exchangeable Na(+) (241.04 %), available K(+) (52.49 %), Ca(2+) (990.37 %), Mg(2+) (1,751.72 %), TKN (1,417.00 %), available P (305.00 %), and SO4 (2-) (75.32 %) in the soil and decreased pH (-20.22 %). The more stimulation in agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and crop yield of A. esculentus were observed to be inversely proportional to the concentration of effluent water, with the best results being obtained at a dilution of 25 % of DE concentration. PMID:23264061

  5. Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a polysaccharide from flowers of Abelmoschus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Zou, Ye; Zheng, Daheng; Takase, Mohammed; Li, Qian; Wu, Huiyu; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-06-15

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (OFPS11) was obtained from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) flowers using aqueous extraction and purification with DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl™ S-500 column. Its preliminary characterization and immunomodulating activity were investigated. Results showed that OFPS11 is mainly composed of galactose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 2.23:1 with molecular mass of 1,700 kDa. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with OFPS11 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG-2 cells. Additionally, OFPS11 enhanced the phagocytic ability and induced the elevation of NO production, TNF-? and IL-1? secretion of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, OFPS11 promoted both the expression of iNOS protein and of iNOS and TNF-? mRNA. OFPS11 can strongly increase NF-?B levels in nucleuses, which is an important transcription factor that can modulate expressions of iNOS, NO and TNF-?. These outcomes support that OFPS11 exerts its antitumor activity by probably stimulating macrophage activities through nuclear NF-?B pathway. PMID:24721087

  6. Effect of Light Stress on Germination and Growth Parameters of Corchorus olitorius, Celosia argentea,Amaranthus cruentus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Delonix regia

    OpenAIRE

    Ologundudu, Akinbode Foluso; Adelusi, Adekunle Ajayi; Adekoya, Kehinde Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus, Amaranthus cruentus, Celosia argentea, Corchorus olitorius and Delonix regia were germinated under light and dark conditions. The germination parameters revealed that germination was higher in seeds of A. cruentus and C. olitorus under light while the seeds of D. regia germinated more in the dark. However, no major difference was observed in the germination of C. argentea and A. esculentus in light and darkness. The above findings point out that germination is...

  7. Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasababu; Murali Mohan Rao, K.; Suresh Kumar, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2) okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

  8. A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Rewatkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Abelmoschus manihot (L. commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm count on sexually normal male mice. Two doses i.e. 100and 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract administered to Swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency.The result of the present study signatured for sexual enhancing capacity of the drug Abelmoschus manihot is an individual and also holds good aphrodisiac property when compared with standard drug. It was noticed that a 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect. Therefore, the conclusion suggestive that the Abelmoschus manihot will be a drug of choice or alternative therapy for a marketed product. Which may help the population to lead their sexual life perfectly with full of pleasure to interact body, mind and sole.

    Keywords: Abelmoschus manihot, Aphrodisiac, Mounting frequency, Intromission frequency, Penile erection index.

  9. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TABLETS BASED ON POLYELECTROLYTE COMPLEX BETWEEN OKRA MUCILAGE AND CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rajendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years there has been greater utilization of natural polymers in the development of delivery systems. The present work is an effort towards development of matrix tablets using polyelectrolyte complex formed between the oppositely charged natural polymers like okra mucilage obtained from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus and chitosan. The effect of pH and polymer volume ratio on yield of polyelectrolyte complex was studied. It was observed that the yield was maximum (96.45% at pH 5 and at polymer volume ratio of 9:1 between okra mucilage and chitosan. The prepared polyelectrolyte complex was also characterised by conductimetry, FTIR, DSC. The results confirmed the formation of polyelectrolyte complex between the natural polymers. The matrix tablets were formulated for model drug diclofenac sodium using the best polyelectrolyte complex at different drug to polymer ratios and compared with formulations containing individual polymers as well as marketed formulation. The prepared formulations showed satisfactory physical parameters. Formulations F2 and F3 extended the drug release for more than 8 h with (83.87± 0.8321% and (77.125± 0.125% drug release respectively in 8 h. The formulations F2 and F3 followed zero order kinetics with anomalous diffusion mechanism. The mean dissolution times were 3.6042 and 3.5935 hrs and the % dissolution efficiency were 54.9467 and 55.7203 % for formulations F2 and F3 respectively. The similarity factor f2 for formulation F2 was 61.6751 and for formulation F3, it was found to be 60.5025.The formulations were found to be stable.

  10. Studies on Heterosis in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and A. callei (A. Chev) Stevels Cultivars During Shorter Day Photoperiods in South Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obi Sergius Udengwu

    2009-01-01

    Better parent heterosis was studied in direct and reciprocal crosses using 9 early and late okra cultivars which belonged to the Early-early, Early-late, Late- early and Late-late okra flowering types. The ANOVA for length of pod, circumference of pod, number of locules per pod, number of seeds per pod, Number of pods per plant, weight of 1000 seeds, density of seeds, weight of pods per plant, days to flower opening, plant height and circumference of stem at 10 cm above soil level, showed alm...

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK (MALVACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03 of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76%, soil pH 6.85 during the rainfed seasons of 2009 and 2010 (July to December and morphological (taxonomical details, anatomical (transverse sections of ovary, stem and root, stomatal, cytological (meiotic chromosome behavior and pollen attributes (fertility, viability and acetolysis studies were assessed. Results indicated marked differences between the cultivars and based on observations cultivar I is recommended as tall, branched whereas cultivar II as dwarf, unbranched types and the cultivars may further be explored for pharmacological research.

  12. Selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease of okra by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmochus esculentus) production for both export and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were gamma-irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and planted at Huaysai King's Project in Petchaburi Province. M3 plants were screened for OYVMD (Okra YVMD) resistance under field conditions at Huaysai King's Project and Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) in Phichit Province. In addition, M4 plants were screened for OYVMD resistance under greenhouse conditions at Crop Protection Research and Development Office using whitefly transmission. None of Annie was found resistant but one plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400 Gy was found to be highly resistant. Ten resistant lines obtained through rescreening of B-21 descendants up to M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at PHRC and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS). The mutants had good stature and fruit shape but the fruits have spines on the ridges. Selections for OYVMD resistance and spineless fruits were performed at PHRC in three generations and seven of the lines were chosen for yield trial at PHRC. Three of the mutant lines were also screened for OYVMD resistance at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi Province, okra growing area, where OYVMD was seriously widespread. All mutant liMD was seriously widespread. All mutant lines showed resistance against the local OYVMV isolates up to a month before they started showing signs of the disease. Seeds were collected from resistant individuals and planted in farmers's fields for further selection. The farmers were very satisfied with the stature and fruit shape of the mutants when tested against a commercial variety. (author)

  13. Study on the degumming process of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic has drawn much attention recently due to its potential beneficial health effects. The roots, flowers and seeds of A.manihot play an important role as medical materials. In this paper, the result of the chemical composition testing shows that the main constituent of A.manihot bast of the stems is cellulose (41.80 %. A.manihot fibers are extracted from A.manihot bast by the treatment of degumming. In the degumming process, the key parameters have been optimized. The results of FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other impurities can be effectively removed by this degumming process, and the main components of A.manihot fiber was cellulose much the same as cotton, the crystallinity of A.manihot bast and fiber were 50.45% and 63.73% respectively.

  14. Characterization of Okra Convective Drying, Influence of Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Ouoba Kondia Honoré; Zougmoré François; Sam Raguilignaba; Toguyeni Aboubacar; Desmorieux Hélène

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study for the drying kinetics of whole okra was carried out. In the study, different ages were considered by taking into account influence of okra maturity on its convective drying. The 2D moisture evolution inside the product and its maturity were evaluated by fitting experimental data versus drying time. The water effective diffusion coefficient of okra at different maturity states was gotten by the experimental model using Fick’s second law. A pa...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli, N.; Ghassemi Dehkordi, N.; Teimouri, R.; Hamishehkar, H.

    2008-01-01

    The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum) in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitat...

  16. Okra Leaf Cotton, its Commercial Utilization in Sindh

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, A. R.; Soomro, A. W.; Mallah, G. H.; Memon, A. M.; Soomro, A. H.; Kalhoro, A. D.

    2000-01-01

    Studies were under taken to assess the yield, earliness and insect pest resistance of some newly developed okra leaf strains compared with normal leaf commercial varieties CRIS-9 and NIAB-78. Accordingly, almost all the okra leaf mutants yielded better than NIAB-78. Out of nine okra leaf strains, three were better yields, two equally good and four gave low yield than CRIS-9 the second check variety. Highest yielding okra leaf strain produced 27 and 35 percent higher yield than CRIS-9 and NIAB...

  17. Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae

    OpenAIRE

    El Naggar, Salah M. I.

    2001-01-01

    Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.). Seed shap...

  18. Genetic variability and heritability in cultivated okra [Abel moschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwangburuka, C. C.; Denton, O. A.; Khinde, O. B.; Ojo, D. K.; Popoola, A. R.

    2012-11-01

    Twenty-nine okra accessions from different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria were grown during the rainy and dry seasons, between 2006 and 2007 at Abeokuta (derived savanah) and Ilishan (rainforest) and assessed to determine their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance from eight yield related characters. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. There was high genotypic coefficient of variability, % broad-sense heritability and genetic advance in traits such as plant height (26.2, 90.7, 51.5), fresh pod length (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), fresh pod width (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), mature pod length (28.6, 98.5, 52.3), branching per plant (29.3, 82.3, 54.8) and pod weight per plant (33.9, 90.0, 63.3), suggesting the effect of additive genes and reliability of selection based on phenotype of these traits for crop improvement. The positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation between plant height at maturity, fresh pod width, seeds per pod and pods per plant, branches per plant with seed weight per plant and pod weight per plant, suggests that selection on the basis of the phenotype of these characters will lead to high seed and pod yield in okra. (Author) 26 refs.

  19. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  20. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Abelmoschus manihot Extracts

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    S.B. Bari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae woody stems using paw edema model. The air-dried, powdered woody stems (900 g were extracted over Soxhlet with petroleum ether and methanol. The crude dried petroleum ether (12 g and methanol (18 g extracts was prepared at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 and evaluated for anti-inflammatory using the carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema test. The results obtained indicate that the extracts possessed significant (pAbelmoschus manihot woody stems possess potential pharmacological active constituents responsible for inhibition of the inflammation effect.

  1. Proximate Composition of Selected Congo Oil Seeds and Physicochemical Properties of the Oil Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Nzikou, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Proximate composition, energy content and mineral concentrations of oil seeds which can be usedin the preparation of Congolese diets were investigated. The paper also reports the physicochemicalcharacteristics of the oil extracts from the seeds. Moisture content (on dry weight basis) was highest(9.45 ± 0.8%) in gumbo (Abelmoschus esclentus) seeds (AES), followed by amarenthus hybridus seeds (AHS)(9.07 ± 0.84%) but was lowest (4.13 ± 0.24%) in terminalia catappa seeds (TCS). Ash was highest...

  2. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm / Busca por fontes de resistência à murcha de fusário (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) em germoplasma de quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederick Mendes, Aguiar; Sami Jorge, Michereff; Leonardo Silva, Boiteux; Ailton, Reis.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) é um dos patógenos mais destrutivos do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil. Cinquenta e quatro acessos de quiabeiro foram avaliados quanto à resistência a FOV em casa de vegetação. Inicialmente foi conduzida uma seleção com o isolado 'Fus-194'. Tr [...] inta e três acessos, que foram resistentes na seleção inicial, foram reavaliadas em dois ensaios adicionais (sob duas condições de ambiente), utilizando dois isolados de FOV. Destes, onze acessos foram classificadas como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-194' em agosto (estação seca e com temperatura moderada), enquanto que 28% dos acessos foram classificados como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-201'. No ensaio conduzido na estação úmida e quente, 72% dos acessos apresentaram reação de alta a média resistência a 'Fus-194', enquanto que 32% foram resistentes a 'Fus-201'. A cultivar 'Santa Cruz-47' e os acessos 'BR-2399' e 'BR-1449' foram as fontes de resistência mais promissoras. Abstract in english Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate ('Fus-194'). Inoculation (in all assays) was [...] carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates ('Fus-194' and 'Fus-201'). Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-194' during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-201'. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to 'Fus-194', and 32% were resistant to 'Fus-201'. The accessions 'Santa Cruz-47', 'BR-2399' and 'BR-1449' were the most promising resistance sources.

  3. Pectin from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization of extraction and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Han-Ju; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of pectin extraction from okra pods. The extracted okra pectin was then investigated by steady-shear and oscillatory rheological measurements. Statistical analysis showed that the linear term of the liquid-solid ratio, the quadratic term of the pH, and the linear term of the extraction time showed highly significant effects on pectin yield. The optimal extraction conditions that maximized the pectin yield within the experimental range of the variables researched were a pH of 3.9, an extraction time of 64 min, an extraction temperature of 60°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 42:1. Under these conditions, the pectin yield was predicted to be 2.71%. At a liquid-solid ratio less than 2.5% w/w in aqueous solution, the pectin extracted from okra presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior and could be well described by the Cross model. The okra pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G'

  4. Effect of x-irradiation on physiological and morphological variability in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variations induced by x-irradiation of seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus in x1, generation have been studied. Percentage of germination showed a slight increase in treatments at 1 to 2kR, while at the higher doses there was a gradual decrease in germination. Seedling growth measured at regular intervals of 6 hr up to 96 hr, showed that growth rate was reduced and germination delayed at doses of 8 to 10 kR. Lateral root number and length were not significantly effected by the dosage rate. Total chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced by 50% at 8 kR treatment, while an increased chlorophyll metabolism was observed at doses of 4 and 7 kR. Increasing dose rate caused a gradual decrease in plant height. Early flowering was induced in 8,9 and 10 kR treatments, while flowering was delayed in the 5 and 6 kR treat samples. Average pod length did not show significant variations between the different dose rates as was also the stomatal index. Increased seed weight was observed in samples treated above 8 kR. (author)

  5. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  6. [Absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot extract by in situ intestinal perfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cai-fu; Guo, Jian-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shu, Yan

    2011-04-01

    To explore the mechanism of the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, in situ intestinal recirculation was performed to study the effect of the absorption at different concentrations and different intestinal regions. To evaluate the conditions of the absorption of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, the concentrations of Abelmoschus manihot in the perfusion solution were determined by HPLC at predesigned time. And we have investigated the inhibitory effect of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. The results demonstrated that the absorption rates of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers are not significantly different (P > 0.05) at various drug concentrations, the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers is a first-order process with the passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption rates of each of flavonoids are significantly different. The absorption rate of flavonoid glycoside was lower than that of aglycone; the flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers could be absorbed in all of the intestinal segments. The best parts of intestine to absorb hyperoside and myricetin are jejunum and duodenum, separately. Verapamil could enhance the absorption of isoquercitrin, hyperoside, myricetin and quercetin-3'-O-glucoside by inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. PMID:21751500

  7. Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity

    OpenAIRE

    Alqasoumi, S. I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehy...

  8. Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5, three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

  9. Studies on the control of insect pests in vegetables (Okra, Tomato, and Onion) in Sudan with special reference to Neem-preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mohamed Mudathir Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Field trials were conducted for three years (1997-1999) to study the effectiveness of different neem formulations against the major insect pests complex and on yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus), tomato (Lycopersicon escculentum), and onion (Allium cepa). Neem kernel powder was applied into the soil (NKPS), sprayed as water extract on the target plants (ANKE) or applied as water extract into the soil (ANKES). The registered German formulated neem seed extract ( NeemAzal), includes...

  10. FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindustan Abdul Ahad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone were prepared. The prepared tablets were found to have better pharmacopoeial parameters with low standard deviation values. The swelling behavior and release rate characteristics were studied. The in-vitro dissolution study proved that the dried Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone in combination can be used as a matrix forming polymers for making controlled release matrix tablets.

  11. [Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

    2013-11-01

    Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles. PMID:24558867

  12. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  13. Induced mutation breeding for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus in okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were irradiated by gamma rays to induce mutations for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD). In experiment I, seeds were irradiated at 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then planted at Huaysai King's Project, Petchaburi Province. Plants with a good plant type and green pods were selected for M2 generation. M3 plants were grown at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) where YVMD was seriously widespread. 33 plants without disease symptoms were selected for further screening. By using white fly transmission under greenhouse conditions, only four lines showed no disease symptoms. They were transplanted to the field at PHRC. Only Okura irradiated at 400 Gy, designated Rd53-3 showed disease resistance. Subsequent selections were conducted under greenhouse and field conditions up to M7 generation. Twelve resistant lines showing uniformity of plant type were selected for yield trial observation. All bore reasonable yield but their fruit shape was not suitable for the export market. They will be used as parental lines in further breeding programs. In experiment II, seeds of Annie and Okura were irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and then planted at Huaysai. M2 seeds were collected by two methods, the pedigree method by collecting seeds from selected healthy plants, and then planted them at Huaysai. The other method was bulk selection and then seeds were planted at Huaysai and Pd then seeds were planted at Huaysai and PHRC. The M3 generation was screened for disease resistance under greenhouse and field conditions. The plants from bulk selection were all infected. By pedigree selection, 34 and 35 lines of Annie and Okura, respectively were obtained. Screening for okra YVMD resistance under greenhouse and field conditions in M4 generation, it was found that only one plant of Okura irradiated at 400 Gy designated B-21, showed no disease symptoms. Disease resistance screenings under greenhouse and field conditions were performed during M5 to M7 generation. Ten lines selected from B-21 showed a good plant type coupled with a desirable fruit shape. They will be used for further yield trials. (author)

  14. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tavakoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w and P.V.P (22 %w/w were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

  16. Comparative study between microwave and conventional dehydration of okra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams El Din, M. H. A.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on the quality of okra. No significant differences were found among pretreatments and dehydration methods for the chemical composition of dehydrated okra samples. Dipping in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at room temperature and immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C improved the retention of ascorbic acid of okra samples after dehydration by either conventional or microwave oven. Also, the reduced dehydration time required for microwave dehydration produced far less destruction of ascorbic acid. The highest rehydration ratio was found in unwashed okra sample and dehydrated by microwave after immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C. Dehydrated okra samples by sun drying and conventional oven had lower retention percentages of total chlorophyll and carotenoids than those of dehydrated okra samples by microwave oven. The general appearance and colour scores of dehydrated okra samples by microwave were significantly different from those of conventionally dehydrated or sun dried okra samples.

    Este estudio se ha realizado para evaluar los diferentes pretratamientos y métodos de deshidratación en la calidad del kimbombó. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ellos respecto a la composición química de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas. La inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a temperatura ambiente y la inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a 92-95 °C mejoraron la retención de ácido ascórbico de las muestras de kimbombó después de la deshidratación tanto utilizando el homo convencional como el horno microondas. Además el menor tiempo necesario para la deshidratación usando el horno microondas produjo menos destrucción de ácido ascórbico. La mayor relación de rehidratación fue encontrada en muestras de kimbombó no tratadas o deshidratadas usando horno microondas tras inmersión en metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % y 92-95 °C. Las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas por secado al sol y homo convencional tuvieron menores porcentajes de retención de clorofilas totales y carotenoides que las de muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas usando homo microondas. La apariencia general y la calidad del color de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas mediante horno microondas fueron significativamente diferentes de aquéllas deshidratadas mediante homo convencional o secadas al sol.

  17. Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    ?BRAH?M DOYMAZ

    2011-01-01

    In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b.) to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b.) were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate per...

  18. Preventive effect of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. on bone loss in the ovariectomised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, C; Mathey, J; Kati-Coulibaly, S; Davicco, M J; Lebecque, P; Chanteranne, B; Horcajada, M N; Coxam, V

    2005-05-13

    Because the biggest culprit in pathogenesis of osteoporosis is oestrogen deficiency, hormone replacement therapy remained the mainstay for prevention. However most of postmenopausal women are more inclined to use natural alternative. We thus investigated the ability of Abelmoschus manihot, a herbal medicine to prevent bone loss in ovariectomised rats. Female Wistar rats were sham operated (SH: 8) or ovariectomised (OVX: 24). On day 0, OVX rats were randomly assigned to groups as follows: eight received 10% Abelmoschus manihot leaves in their diet, eight were given 15% Abelmoschus manihot leaves and eight were untreated (OVX). Compounds were mixed with a soy protein-free diet and given orally for 3 months. At necropsy, bone mineral density (BMD) in the femur and in its metaphyseal zone was lower in OVX than SH (pAbelmoschus manihot leaves. Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total femur and its metaphyseal and diaphyseal subregions was improved, as well (pAbelmoschus manihot consumption, at the dose of 15% in the diet, provided bone-sparing effects by improving both BMD and BMC. PMID:15848020

  19. DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO QUIABEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DAS DATAS DE PLANTIO GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A influência de quatro épocas de plantio (15 de maio, 15 de junho, 15 de julho e 15 de agosto de 1998 no desenvolvimento e na produção do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi investigada em Goiânia, GO. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, cultivado há muitos anos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (Tukey 5% entre épocas de plantio, para as seguintes características: número de frutos produzidos durante as trinta primeiras colheitas, altura das plantas no início da colheita, número de ramos laterais e número de dias da semeadura ao início do florescimento, ao início da colheita e ao início da colheita em 75% das covas. A temperatura média dos meses seguintes às datas de plantio aumentou de maio para agosto. Observou-se uma redução do período da semeadura até o início do florescimento, até o início da colheita e até o início da colheita em 75% das covas. O número de ramos laterais também foi reduzido no mesmo período. Entretanto verificou-se aumento na altura das plantas e no rendimento das primeiras trinta colheitas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abelmoschus esculentus; data de plantio; épocas de plantio.

    The influence of four sowing dates (May 15th, June 15th, July 15th and August 15th, 1998 on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 was studied in Goiânia-GO. The experiment was conducted at the 'Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Goiás', on an oxisol which had been cropped for several years. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Significant differences (Tukey 5% were found among sowing dates for the following traits: number of pods yielded during the first thirty harvests (105 days, plant height at the beginning of harvest, number of lateral branches, number of days from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, number of days from the sowing to the harvest of the first pod and number of days from the sowing to the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills. The average temperature of the months following the sowing dates increased from May to August. The period from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, the beginning of harvest and the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills was shortened and the number of lateral branches decreased from May to August. At the same time, the plant height and the yield of the first thirty harvests increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Abelmoschus esculentus; planting date; development yield.

  20. Determination of molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions in Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Yingying; Wu, Mimi; Zhang, Xiuzhen

    2012-09-01

    Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharide, AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3, and AMP-4, were purified from four kinds of Abelmoschus manihot gum (AMG). The molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions of AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3 and AMP-4 were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Results indicated that the molecular weights of AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3, and AMP-4 were approximately 3.91 × 103, 5.36 × 105, 3.87 × 103, and 5.12 × 105 Da, respectively. The Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharide was mainly composed of galactose, glucose and mannose with the molar ratios at 0.29: 1.00: 0.41 (AMP-1), 0.56: 0.13: 1.00 (AMP-2), 0.10: 1.00: 0.11 (AMP-3) and 0.55: 0.17: 1.00 (AMP-4), respectively.

  1. Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV) and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Ali; Muhammad Aslam Khan; Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Ehetisham-ul-haq; Muhammad Talha Javed; Muhammad Sajid

    2012-01-01

    Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Correlation of environ...

  2. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated potential antiproliferative activity against two human cell lines - Colorectal adenocarcinoma (COLO-205 and retinoblastoma (Y79. Conclusion The seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus possess significant antioxidant activity and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger, or substitute, probably as primary antioxidants. The plant possesses moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains used in this study. Hydroalcoholic seed and leaf extracts also exhibited antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines. A. moschatus may therefore, be a good candidate for functional foods as well as pharmaceutics.

  3. Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Correlation of environmental factors (maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall with percent plant infection of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV was also determined. There was a significant correlation between environment and disease severity.

  4. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE. Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade, bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI, período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI, considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura.An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after emergence (DAE. Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI, Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

  5. Polysaccharide extraction from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavati, Vahid

    2013-06-01

    Crude polysaccharide extraction from the Iranian Abelmoschus esculentus was performed using water decoction. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a five level, four variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was employed to obtain the best possible combination of extraction time (X1: 0.5-6.5 h), extraction temperature (X2: 80-100 °C), number of extraction (X3: 1-5), and water to the raw material ratio (X4: 4-28) for maximum polysaccharide extraction. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time of 4.94 h, extraction temperature of 94.97 °C, number of extraction of 4, and the ratio of water to raw material of 21.74. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 16.895±0.29%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 16.916%. PMID:23618310

  6. Hypolipidemic activity of okra is mediated through inhibition of lipogenesis and upregulation of cholesterol degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Chen, Gu; Ren, Dandan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the hypolipidemic activity of okra; therefore, we investigated the hypolipidemic activity of okra and its interaction with gene expression of several key components involved in lipid homeostasis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed with hyperlipidemic diet or two hyperlipidemic diets supplemented with 1% or 2% okra powder for eight weeks. Results demonstrated that okra dose-dependently decreased serum and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride, and enhanced fecal excretion of bile acids. Gene expression analysis revealed that okra upregulated cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression, downregulated expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), with no effect on sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A). It was suggested that hypolipidemic activity of okra was mediated most likely by upregulation of cholesterol degradation through CYP7A1 and by inhibition of lipogenesis through SREBP1c and FAS. Okra raw and fractionated polysaccharide showed strong bile acid binding capacity in vitro, which may contribute to the hypolipidemic activity observed. In conclusion, okra has potential application in the management of hyperlipidemia and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:23606408

  7. Okra-gum fortified bread: formulation and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Mohammed S

    2014-10-01

    Freeze-dried okra extract was added to Hard Red Spring (HRS) wheat flour intended for high soluble-fiber bread. Seedless okra pods were blended in 0.05 M NaOH solution and the extract (OE) was freeze-dried at pH?7. SE-HPLC of OE showed the presence of covalently bound peptides. Okra extract powder (OE) 4, 7, 10, and 13 % was used to replace wheat flour in preparing four bread formulations. Although Farinograph water absorption was increased up to 4.4 % due to OE addition, the dough mixing Tolerance (MIT) was also increased. In the presence of OE, bread loaf volume was lower and freezable water was higher. Overall, bread firmness was lower at lower storage temperature, but higher OE increased firmness, due to water migration from crumb to crust. Color was darker for both crust and crumb. The bread melting temperature shifted to lower values at higher OE content as shown by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The test indicated that the properties of the blends were similar around the glass transition region. Dynamic rheology of the blends revealed weaker visco-elastic behavior compared to the control. The magnitude of the complex moduli for the 4 % OE was independent of frequency, while the remaining blends were frequency dependent. PMID:25328176

  8. Response of okra to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of variety Pusa A-4 were treated with gamma-rays at three different doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 KGy. In M1 generation there was reduction in seed germination and pollen fertility. An interesting feature observed was the peculiar Y shaped branching in treated plants at 0.4 and 0.6 KGy doses. In M2 generation few morphological mutants were isolated. Seventy five percent of the observed mutants were isolated from the 0.6 KGy dose. (author)

  9. Some Studies on the Comparative Efficacy of Different Traditional and Non-traditional Insecticides Against Okra Jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida) on Okra, Variety "Pusa Green"

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

    2001-01-01

    Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasaca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf) was observed in the test area treated with monocroto...

  10. Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam; Rohaida Che Man; Abdul Bari, Hayder A.

    2011-01-01

    A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeline. In this study, the effect of the presence of a Drag Reducing Agent (DRA) on the pressure drop in horizontal pipes carrying water is investigated. An experimental rig is set-up. The test section...

  11. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vayssade, M.; Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R. P.; Delaigue, C.; Goundiam, O.; Vigneron, P.; Voragen, A. G. J.; Schols, H. A.; Nagel, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation and apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells are often abnormal. We have evaluated the action of a pectic rhamnogalacturonan obtained by hot buffer extraction of okra pods (okra RG-I) on melanoma cell growth and survival in vitro. We added okra RG-I containing an almost pure RG-I carrying very short galactan side chains to 2D (on tissue culture polystyrene, tPS) and 3D (on poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate), polyHEMA) cultures of highly metastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. We...

  12. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) GENOTYPES FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS REVEALED BY AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Salameh, Naser M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity in 48 genotypes and accessions using eight Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer-pairs. The eight selected AFLP primer-pairs generated a total of 150 polymorphic loci. Using the generated AFLP data, the Un-Weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) ordered the genotypes into six groups based on Dice similarity coefficient. The range in taxonomic distance was from 0.23 to 1.0. Each cluster was found to ha...

  13. Effect of Mulching on Growth and Productivity of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench under Saline Irrigation Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Hitendra Singh Bhadauria; Vijay Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In present study the treatments comprises four levels of EC (0.87 EC, 4EC, 8EC and 12ECdS m-1) for Saline water irrigation, three levels Mulches (without Mulch, sugar cane trash at the rate of 10 tons ha-1 and 50 ? black plastic mulch) and two varieties. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replication.Among the various saline irrigation water treatments under 4EC dS m-1 treatment higher value of transpiration rate, photosynthesis, pod length, pod girth an...

  14. Utilization of Degraded Chitosan for Growth Promoter and Blossom Blight Disease Controls in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment focus on the comparison of the effect of gamma radiation and chemical reagent on degradation of chitosan and preliminary test of degraded chitosan with different molecular weight as plant growth promoter of okra in potting experiment. (author)

  15. The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Dhania Zaharuddin; Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin; Ali Kadivar

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was...

  16. First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Farrag, Eman S. H.

    2011-01-01

    During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS) at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Samples of di...

  17. Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

    2001-01-01

    Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf) was observed in the test area treated with (monocroto...

  18. Infestation of Earias spp. on Cotton and Okra Grown as Mono and Mix Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, G. H.; Memon, A. J.; Syed, T. S.; Shaikh, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of growing of cotton and okra as mono and mix crops or polycultures on percent infestation of Earias spp. on cotton and okra under field conditions. The results revealed that Earias spp. infestation on okra appeared about 45 days after sowing of the crop; whereas, on cotton the pest appeared atleast one month later than it appeared on okra. Two years data indicated a highly significant (F=14.36; DF = 6, 3, P<0.01) difference in percent inf...

  19. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 ?m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m3 kg-1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m3 kg-1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m3 kg-1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m3 kg-1. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Weed interference in okra crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.B., Santos; T.P., Silveira; P.S., Coelho; O.G., Costa; P.M., Matta; M.B., Silva; A.P., Drumond Neto.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz [...] -47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade), bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI), período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI) e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI), considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after em [...] ergence (DAE). Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI), Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI) and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP) were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

  1. Comparative Effect of Insecticide and Blue Polythene Hanging on the Incidence and Severity of Okra Mosaic in the Growth of Okra Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Fazlul Haque; Asraful Islam, S. M.; Moktar Alam, M.; Faruque Hossain, A. F. M. G.; Anam, M. K.

    2002-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the efficacy of blue polythene hanging over the plant and spraying insecticide in reducing incidence and severity of okra mosaic under natural inoculated condition. Size of blue polythene strip was 0.04x3.5 m2 and six polythene strips were used per plot and the recommended dose of insecticide was 454 ml per acre. Blue polythene strips and insecticide reduced the infection of okra mosaic virus. The number of disease infected plants per plot and mos...

  2. Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto.Twenty-seven morphological characteristics (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 39 Abelmoschus accessions by hierarchic method of single linkage and principal component analysis for the grouping of the genotypes. Standardized average Euclidean distance was used as dissimilarity measure. Plants were grown in field conditions at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, using randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The accessions groups formation based on the hierarchic method of single linkage showed similar results to those obtained by principal components analysis since both methods grouped A. esculentus and A. caillei accessions. The hierarchic method has grouped the genotypes in the same way as for the 27 descriptors (quantitative and qualitative as for the 13 quantitative descriptors, demonstrating that qualitative descriptors had a little influence on the genotypic discrimination. Qualitative descriptors were able to correctly classify species, although they masked the genetic variability at the germplasm, not allowing a comprehensive survey of the genomes. The characters that less contributed for the genotypes discriminations were the epicalyx length, 100 seeds weight, number of stigma segments, plant height, leaf width, first flowering node and fruit length.

  3. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

  4. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

    2013-06-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa. PMID:23535770

  5. [Clinical observation on diabetic nephropathy treated with alcohol of Abelmoschus manihot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J Y; Xiong, N N; Guo, H F

    1995-05-01

    Sixty-eight cases of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) complicated with nephropathy were randomly divided into two groups: treated group, 35 cases treated with alcohol extraction of Abelmoschus manihot, Gliclazide and Captopril tablets; control group, 33 cases treated with Gliclazide and Captopril tablets, over a period of 8 weeks. The total effective rate in treated and control group were 83.87% and 31.03%(P manihot alcohol extraction could eliminate oxygen free radicals, alleviate renal tubular-interstitial diseases, improve renal function and reduce proteinuria. PMID:7640495

  6. Comparison between the DNA Fingerprints Obtained from the Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Tolerant Okra Mutants and Their Parental Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is a widespread disease that is found among export orchards of okra. In this report, we studied gamma radiation-induced YVMD tolerant okra mutants and other commercial okra varieties at DNA level. We found that DNA extraction method that utilized sodium dodecyl sulfate and potassium acetate to precipitate other biomolecules was a suitable method to use for DNA finger printing of okra. The MFLP finger printing technique was superior to the AFLP technique in finding polymorphisms among different okra varieties. Also polymorphisms between the YVMD-tolerant mutant lines and their parental variety could be detected, indicating that gamma radiation could induce some changes at DNA level in these plants

  7. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-08-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod?=?500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes. PMID:25114358

  8. Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeline. In this study, the effect of the presence of a Drag Reducing Agent (DRA on the pressure drop in horizontal pipes carrying water is investigated. An experimental rig is set-up. The test section of the experimental set-up is consisted of: a smooth PVC pipe with length of 50 time pipe diameter connected to rough galvanized iron with 5 testing section 0.5 meter each The employing DRA is a new natural additive which is okra mucilage as polymeric DRA. The percent drag reduction (%DR is calculated using the obtained experimental data, in presence of the DRA. The results show that addition of DRA could be effective with several doses of DRA after average reading for 5 min. Highest %DR for about 60% is obtained for some experimental conditions. The result shows that okra mucilage is a potential DRA to be use in water transportation.

  9. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extract in psychiatric and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haja Sherief Sheik

    2014-10-01

    Results: In the open field test, AEAM (200 and 400 mg/kg increased the numbers of rearing. However, the number of central motor and ambulation were reduced. The number of entries and the time spent in the open arm were increased, whereas the number of locomotion was decreased (pA. moschatus is an alternative source for CNS drug development. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 845-853

  10. RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R ALABI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi t from intercrop is 10% higher than monocrops. This is because of the attendant reduction in variable costs of labour and fertilizer that are associated with intercrops. The economic implication of this study is that any strategy that reduces cost of production in maize/ okra intercrops will increase its profi tability and attractiveness to farmers.

  11. Growth and Yield of Okra with Rock-Phosphate – Amended Organic Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Makinde, Eyitayo A.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorous supply from organic manures for okra production can be insufficient for optimal fruit yield. The growth and yield of okra (Variety: NHAe 47-4) were assessed in field experiments with an organic fertilizer made from cowdung (CD), fortified with Ogun Rock Phosphate (ORP). The ORP was applied sole at 100 kg ha-1 and also with each of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 t ha-1 cowdung. There was a standard check of NPK 20-10-10 applied 2 weeks after planting at 400 kg ha-1 and an unfertilized cont...

  12. Screening of Okra Germplasm for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, M. H.; Yasmin, L.; Kibria, M. G.; Mollik, A. K. M. S. R.; Monowar Hossain, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve okra germplasms were screened for resistance to okra yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) under field conditions. Lines OK-292 and OK-285 showed resistant to YVMV in both season and OK 315, OK 316 and OK 317 were found tolerant. The highest yield per hectare found in the line OK-292 (18.00 t ha-1) followed by OK-285 (16 t ha-1) and line OK-310 produced the lowest yield (9.85 t ha-1) followed by pusa (9.95 t ha-1).

  13. The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

  14. Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran A. Siddiqui

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mungbean. Apart from suppressing root knot nematode, T. harzianum also elevated plant height and fresh shoot weight of both okra and munhbean.

  15. Comparative Studies on the Effect of Sowing Dates and Spacing on the Growth and Yield of Okra in Different Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, A. B. M. Sharif Hossain A.; Onguso, Justus M.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of sowing time and spacing on the growth and fruit yield of okra in 1999 and 2000 in the farmer = s field, Lakshmipur, Bangladesh. The highest plant height was recorded 87.5 cm when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm and the lowest height was 73.3 cm when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm. The maximum number of leaves per plant was observed when it was sown on 5 March 2000 and the min...

  16. First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. Farrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L. in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Samples of diseased leaves were collected to isolate the causal organisms. Isolated fungi were purified using single spore culture technique. Developed fungus was identified as Cercospora sp. Fresen based on cultural and morphological characteristics after light microscope examination. Also, Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus niger were isolated as associated fungi. Pathoginicity test confirmed efficiency of Cercospora sp. to induce typical symptoms on okra plants compared with other fungi. Foliar application using different concentrations of Topsin M-70WP and lemongrass oil was significantly reduced disease incidence compared with control. According to the available literature, this is the first record of CLS on okra in Egypt under natural infection in the field.

  17. Gamma ray induced okra leaf mutant in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An orka leaf mutant characterised by narrow leaves was induced in M2 generation following 20 kr gamma ray irradiation in 320-F variety of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The mutant bred true for okra leaves in M3 generation. The mutant is earlier in maturity than 320-F and has more number of bolls, bigger boll size, higher yield and better staple than the latter. Okra leaf mutant by virtue of its having narrow leaves and consequently lesser transpiring surface withstands moisture stress better than the mother line. In an experiment under 'barani' (with only pre-sowing irrigation), okra leaf mutant recorded cotton yield of 1042 kg/ha as against 469 kg/ha in 320-F and 766 kg/ha in G.27, a 'Desi' variety which grows under moisture stress better than the hirsutums. Orka leaf character is a monogenic recessive, with F1 a medium-lobed heterozygote, as is seen from hybridisation between okra leaf mutant and broad leaved 320-F. (author)

  18. [Mechanisms and effects of Abelmoschus manihot preparations in treating chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Wan, Yigang; Wang, Chaojun; Zhao, Qing; Wei, Qingxue; Tu, Yue; Yin, Xuejiao

    2012-08-01

    Abelmoschus manihot (AM) is a medicinal plant rich in twenty kinds of separated active bio-components including flavones, polysaccharides, trannic acid, and long chain hydrocarbons. Among these, total flavones of A. manihot (TFA) are the major active component. In this review, the mechanisms of Huangkui capsule will be discussed as a preparation of AM to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) by improving immunological reaction, inflammation, renal fibrosis, and renal tubular epithelial injury. Additionally, it has been reported that Huangkui capsule can ameliorate some clinical symptoms, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal function in patients with common CKD, such as nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis, IgA nephropathy, and membranous nephropathy. PMID:23189729

  19. Natural mucoadhesive microspheres of Abelmoschus esculentus polysaccharide as a new carrier for nasal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitin; Kulkarni, Giriraj T; Sharma, Anjana; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Kumar, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres, using Abelmoschus esculentus polysaccharide as a novel carrier for safe and effective delivery of rizatriptan benzoate into nasal cavity. The polysaccharide was extracted from the fruit of A. esculentus and mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by emulsification, followed by crosslinking using epichlorohydrin. Prepared microspheres were evaluated for size, morphology, swelling properties, mucoadhesive strength, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. Microspheres were found to release 50% of drug within 15 min and rest of the drug was released within 60 min. The drug release was found to decrease with increasing concentration of polysaccharide. To determine the retention time of the microspheres in the nasal cavity of rabbits, the microspheres were radiolabelled with (99m)Tc and subjected to gamma scintigraphy. The results showed a significant improvement in the nasal retention of the microspheres as compared to the aqueous solution of radiolabelled free-drug. PMID:23379506

  20. New Matrix Tablet from Okra Gum: Effects of Method of Preparation and Gum Concentration on Tablet Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bakre Lateef Gbenga; Abimbola Zulikha

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of methods of preparation and concentration of gum on the compressional and mechanical properties of Okra gum matrix. The compressional behavior of Okra gum matrices prepared by direct compression and wet granulations is analyzed using density measurements, Heckel and Kawakita analysis while the mechanical properties of the formulations were assessed using crushing strength (CS) and friability (FR) as well as CSFR ratio. Formulations ...

  1. Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Farinde, A. J.; Owolarafe, O. K.; Ogungbemi, O. I.

    2006-01-01

    Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the...

  2. Microbial, Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Traditional Sundried Okra (Orunla) in Selected Markets in South-Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Aworh, O. C.; Idowu, O. A.; Akintola, A. A.; Arise, R. O.; Arise, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial load and evaluate the nutritional content and sensory property of traditional sun dried okra (“orunla” - Yoruba, Nigeria). Samples were purchased from four different markets at different time in South-western Nigeria. Microorganisms present in the samples were analyzed on nutrient agar, potato dextrose agar and malt extract. Proximate evaluation of the sun dried okra was also carried out to determine the protein, ascorbic acid, ash an...

  3. Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataravanappa, V.; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C. N.; Devaraju, A.; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M.

    2013-01-01

    A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1–86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clu...

  4. Anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like activity of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract and its potential active components in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Xue, Caifu; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; You, Yi

    2011-11-15

    Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Searching for antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and antidepressant-like medicines from natural products is very important for the treatment of this disease. The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been reported to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury. In order to further explore the activity of Abelmoschus manihot on the central nervous system, the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like effects of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract (AMEE) as well as its potential active components in vivo was investigated in the present study. It was found that AMEE could protect mice against PTZ-induced clonic convulsions and mortality. AMEE could also decrease immobility time in the FST in mice. Furthermore, the potential active components of AMEE in rat brain were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS). Five parent components including isoquercitrin, hyperoside, hibifolin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin and three metabolites were detected in rat brain after administration of AMEE. In conclusion, eight flavonoids were identified in rat brain after administration of AMEE; meanwhile, these flavonoids might represent the potential bioactive components of AMEE and contribute to its anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activity in vivo. PMID:21784623

  5. Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Thant; Maw, Myat; Pai, Dinker Ramananda; Paijan, Rosaini Binti; Kyi, Myo

    2012-05-16

    A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable) was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature. PMID:22624073

  6. Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jurial Baloch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 ?m. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 ?m pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

  7. Further evidence reveals that okra mottle virus arose from a double recombination event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Leonardo C; Aranha, Silvia A; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

    2013-01-01

    As a result of surveys of okra begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) conducted over the last five years in Central Brazil, we report the complete genome sequence of an isolate of okra mottle virus (OMoV). The DNA-A and DNA-B components were 2660 and 2653 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and they were most closely related to the DNA-A (~99 % nt identity) and DNA-B (~98 % nt identity) components of an OMoV isolate from a soybean plant. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on these sequences, and it was shown that both of the OMoV DNA components were grouped in a branch with Brazilian begomoviruses known to infect weeds. By recombination analysis, strong evidence was observed that the OMoV genome may have been the product of a double inter-species recombination event. PMID:22941555

  8. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, J. B.; Silveira, T. P.; Coelho, P. S.; Costa, O. G.; Matta, P. M.; Silva, M. B.; Drumond Neto, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Fora...

  9. Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Zaki

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05 reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lilacinus alone.

  10. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 ?g/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 ?g/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 ?g/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers. PMID:23404549

  11. Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, M. J.; Maqbool, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05) reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lil...

  12. Effects of tillage methods and depth on fuel consumption and profitability of late season okra productions

    OpenAIRE

    Asoegwu S.N.

    1999-01-01

    The disc plough and disc harrow were used singly and in combination to produce seedbeds of depths 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm for late season okra (Abelmuscus esculentus) production. During the seedbed preparation, the time used for tilling and the fuel consumed were used to calculate the tillage energy as well as the specific power requirement. Using the different tillage methods, the cost of seedbed preparation was estimated for the various tillage depths. Yield from the plots and the benefits ac...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Dry Season Okra under Sawdust and Trash Mulch Cover Treatments in Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oladipo Isaac Olaposi; Adewumi Johnson Kayode; Dairo Olawale Usman; Adejuyigbe Samuel Babatope; Ajayi Ebenezer Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental investigation of the agronomic performance of okra under various quantities of both sawdust and trash mulches. The location of the field was the research farmland of the Federal Polytechnic Ado Ekiti Nigeria; Lat 6?N and Long 16?E. The experimental design used was complete randomized design with 6 treatments on both specimens. The experiments were repeated the following year on the same plot but with transposed plot allocation. Soil moisture loss from ...

  14. GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY LIVE MULCH IN SAMARU, ZARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hamma, I. L.; Ibrahim, U.; Yusuf, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of theInstitute for Agricultural Research; Ahmadu Bello University Zaria located on latitude11011’N, longitude 7038’E and 686m above sea level in the Northern Guinea SavannahEcological Zone of Nigeria in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons. The objective of thestudy was to compare the yield of okra grown under different weed managementstrategies. The experiment consisted of four treatments namely: control, cucumber,watermel...

  15. Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.; Mcsorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments ...

  16. Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle O.K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resulted in reduced nematode population, reduced galling, reduced nematode reproduction rate and enhanced fruit weight. Chemical analysis revealed that G. sepium leaves contained phenolic compound and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of aromatic amide, phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. L. leucocephala leaves showed the presence of phenolic compound, aromatic amide and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. The results of this study suggest that leaf and root extracts of L. leucocephala and G. sepium at the rate of 40,000 mg / kg could be useful in root knot nematode management in vegetable beds.

  17. Genetics of the Radiation-Induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 populations revealed a DNA fragment that is potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

  18. Genetics of the radiation-induced yellow vein mosaic disease resistance mutation in okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. AFLP and MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 population revealed DNA fragments that are potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

  19. Functional effects of dried okra powder on reconstituted dried yam flake and sensory properties of ojojo-a fried yam (Dioscorea alata L.) snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi; Olaitan, Ololade Funke

    2014-02-01

    Processing of raw yam (D. alata) tuber (RY) to more stable and instant form could ease the tedium in preparation, increase popularity and commercial potential of ojojo-a fried yam snack. In this study, the potential of dried okra powder (1%-5%) to reduce the sensory quality impairment in ojojo made from instant yam (D. alata) flake (YF) was tested. Inclusion of okra powder significantly increased the viscosity and increased dispersibility of reconstituted yam flour. Addition of okra powder significantly (p?okra consistently improved the sensory acceptability of ojojo by increasing the product's moistness and fluffiness with reduced crispiness and roughness. In conclusion, addition of 0%-2% of okra powder to reconstituted YF produced ojojo samples which compared favourably with those made from RY in terms of colour, flavour and taste. PMID:24493896

  20. Novel extraction and application of okra gum as a film coating agent using theophylline as a model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaji, Ikoni J; Hoag, Stephen W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction and application of okra gum as an aqueous film coating agent. Powdered okra pods dispersed in demineralized water was heated at 80 ± 2(o)C for 30 minutes in the presence of sodium chloride. The filtrate was successively centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30, 60, or 120 minutes and freeze dried. The samples were used as film former at different concentrations in aqueous film coating operations. Near infrared (nIR) absorption spectra, photomicrographs, and some physicochemical properties of the coated tablets were evaluated. The okra gum samples had different nIR spectra and possessed good processing and application quality due to relatively low viscosity. A six-fold concentration of this gum from the novel extraction yielded glossy theophylline tablets within a short time. A t (18) = 2.895, P okra samples at a flow rate of 3 ml/min for 100 minutes showed that F = 3.798, DF = 29, P okra gum by delivering more solids on the substrate at a shorter time with improved operation efficiency. PMID:24959415

  1. Simultaneous determination of seven active flavonols in the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xianyin; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin

    2009-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method is developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven flavonols, namely quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, and quercetin, in the flower of Abelmoschus manihot. These seven flavonols are selected as chemical markers because they are the major pharmacologically active constituents in the flower. The method involves the use of a Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL reversed-phase column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) at 25 degrees C with a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous H(3)PO(4) as the mobile phase and detection at 370 nm. The recovery of the method is 94.31-107.08% with an RSD 0.9996) is obtained for all the flavonoids. The current assay method can be readily utilized for the determination of the flavonols present in the flower and is considered to be suitable for the quality control of A. manihot samples. The comparison of flowers collected from nine locations shows that flavonoid glucoside is more stable than aglycon in the flower. This is the first study that analyzes the stability of flavonoids in the flower of A. manihot. This research also provides important evidence that the flower is a potentially abundant resource for obtaining hibifolin. PMID:19298707

  2. Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

  3. Okra polysaccharide improves metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yang, Baican; Huang, Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Okra is a tropical vegetable that is rich in polysaccharides. Here, we investigated the effects of okra polysaccharide (OP) on metabolic disorders in mice. We found that OP lowered body weight and glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased serum total cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. OP regulated the gene expression of liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in the liver and the adipose tissue of the mice. These results suggest that OP may have therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases via the inhibition of LXR and PPAR signaling. PMID:23894043

  4. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed. PMID:24956765

  5. Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil) Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara; Bruno Rafael Spera; Danielle Roberta Versuti; Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes; Terezinha Monteiro Santos-Cividanes; Nelson Wanderley Perioto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil). Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Petri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10%) until the emergence of lepidopterans ...

  6. Influence of Sowing Time, Plant Spacing and Picking Interval on the Growth and Yield of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Talukder, M. A. H.; Mannaf, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Salam, M. A.; Amin, M. M. U.

    2003-01-01

    A study was under taken to find out the effect of sowing time; spacing and picking interval on yield and yield components of okra (BARI Dherosh-1). Green pod yield was significantly higher when crop was sown on April (18.92 t ha 1) than March sown crop (16.24 t ha 1). Significantly highest yield (20.99 t ha 1) was recorded at closer spacing (60 x 30 cm2) than wider spacings. Yield was gradually decreased with increasing picking interval. Higher yield was obtained at 2 days picking interval (2...

  7. An Evaluation of Four Soybean Varieties Intercropped with Okra in Owerri Ultisol South Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeawuchi, I. I.; Obiefuna, J. C.; Ofoh, M. C.; Ihejirika, G. O.; Tom, C. T.; Onweremadu, E. U.; Opara, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation of four soybean varieties namely TGX 1440-IE, TGX 1485-1D, TGX 1805-17F and Samsoy I, intercropped with Okra NHAE 47-4 was conducted in the ultisol of Owerri south eastern, Nigeria in 2001 and 2002 cropping seasons. Samsoy I, was significantly different (p<0.05) in height, number of branches and economic yield from other soybean varieties studied. Again Samsoy I and TGX 1485-ID were significantly different (p<0.05) from TGX 1440-IE and TGX 1805-17F in terms of total dry ma...

  8. Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah M. I. El Naggar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.. Seed shape, size and colour as well as outer epidermal cell patterns as seen by SEM, anticlinal cell boundaries and periclinal cell walls sculpture allow the recognition of two distinct groups among studied taxa. Seed coat features indicated both intra-group and inter-group relationships. Recognized groupings do not correspond well with the classical treatments of the Malvaceae, rather they suggest restructuring of tribal and generic taxonomy in the family. One important conclusion of this study is the inclusion of Lavatera cretica L. in the genus Malva as M. linnaei, M. F. Ray.

  9. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  10. Estimation of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in okra fruits and soil by chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Chahil, G S; Mandal, Kousik; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-01-01

    Dissipation of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in okra was studied following three applications of a combination formulation of Solomon 300 OD (?-cyfluthrin 9 % + imidacloprid 21 %) @ 60 and 120 g a.i. ha(-1) at 7 days interval. Residues of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in okra were estimated by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Residues of ?-cyfluthrin were confirmed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and that of imidacloprid by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Half-life periods for ?-cyfluthrin were found to be 0.91 and 0.68 days whereas for imidacloprid these values were observed to be 0.85 and 0.96 days at single and double the application rates, respectively. Residues of ?-cyfluthrin dissipated below its limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 3 and 5 days at single and double the application dosage, respectively. Similarly, residues of imidacloprid took 5 and 7 days to reach LOQ of 0.01 mg kg(-1), at single and double dosages respectively. Soil samples collected after 15 days of the last application did not show the presence of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid at their detection limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1). PMID:22022787

  11. Inheritance of Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance, a Mutant Phenotype from Gamma Radiation Mutagenesis in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting export-grade okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. This study aimed at determining the inheritance of YVMD resistance from B4610 through genetic analysis. Segregation analysis of the F2 and BC1F1 progeny from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a susceptible variety, indicated that YVMD resistance phenotype resulted from a single locus mutation (p > 0.05). In addition, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to aid in the assignment of YVMD resistance phenotype. Combinations of primers AV1F1 or AV1F2 with AV1R1 successfully amplified a DNA fragment from infected susceptible individuals but not from resistant individuals. DNA sequencing of the PCR product confirmed the identity of AV1 gene belonging to the yellow vein mosaic virus

  12. Bioadhesive okra polymer based buccal patches as platform for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Deepinder; Brar, Vivekjot

    2014-09-01

    In the present investigation, polysaccharide from the Okra fruits (Hibiscus esculentus) was extracted, characterized and explored for its mucoadhesive potential. Mucoadhesive films of okra polymer (OP) were prepared by solvent casting method based on 3(2) factorial design. For these studies, OP (2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, w/v) and glycerol (plasticizer) (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, v/v) were taken as independent variables while tensile strength, mucoadhesive strength, contact angle, swelling index and residence time as dependent variables. The developed films were evaluated for their physicochemical, mechanical and electrical properties. The formulated films were found to be smooth, flexible, and displayed adequate mucoadhesive and tensile strength. Their near neutral pH and negative hemolytic studies indicated their non-irritability and biocompatible nature with biological tissues. The formulation comprising of 3% OP and 0.5% glycerol (F8) was found to exhibit optimum mechanical properties. Further, optimized film was loaded with zolmitriptan (model drug) to determine its drug release profiles. In vitro and ex vivo drug release studies demonstrated a controlled release of zolmitriptan over a period of 8h in simulated salivary fluid (SSF) pH 6.8, with the correlation coefficient values indicating its non-Fickian kinetics. Thus, OP can be used as a promising biomaterial for controlled drug delivery. PMID:25036601

  13. Pomegranate seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter N/A (None; )

    2005-01-01

    This pomegranate has many seeds inside. These seeds are surrounded individually by red fruit. Some fruits also have many seeds, but all of the seeds are surrounded by the fruit instead of individually, like in an apple.

  14. Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L) in a Sub-tropical Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Masarirambi, Michael T.; Nkululeko Sibandze; Wahome, Paul K.; Oseni, Tajudeen O.

    2012-01-01

    Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L) is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) where...

  15. Protective effect of total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic against poststroke depression injury in mice and its action mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Jiang, Qiu-Hong; Hao, Ji-Li; Zhou, Lan-Lan

    2009-03-01

    Total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic (TFA) is the major active component isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic. We investigated the protective effect of TFA against poststroke depression (PSD) injury in mice and its action mechanism. A mouse model of PSD was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO) 30 min/reperfusion, followed by isolation feeding and chronic unpredictable mild stress for 2 weeks. Treatment groups received TFA at three different doses (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (Flu, 2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 24 days. Change in behavior, brain tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mRNA expression of BDNF and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment with TFA (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated mice escape-directed behavioral impairment induced by PSD, markedly reduced MDA levels, and increased the activity of SOD, GSH-Px close to normal levels. TFA administration also attenuated PSD-induced neuronal death/losses, upregulated expression of BDNF both at mRNA and protein levels, as well as CREB mRNA levels. TFA had a protective effect against PSD injury in mice. Cardioprotection involves the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and upregulation of BDNF-CREB levels in the hippocampus, which may also be important mechanism of its antidepressants. This potential protection makes TFA a promising therapeutic agent for the PSD. PMID:19248161

  16. Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD / Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar E., Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T. do, Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de a [...] grupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado. Abstract in english RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods [...] to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

  17. Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente / Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marlei Rosa dos, Santos; Maria Aparecida Nogueira, Sediyama; Izabel Cristina dos, Santos; Luís Tarcísio, Salgado; Sanzio Mollica, Vidigal.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo [...] , sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líquido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas. Abstract in english Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was so [...] wn in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hybrid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

  18. Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlei Rosa dos Santos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo, sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líquido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas.Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was sown in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hybrid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

  19. Emulsifying properties of three African food hydrocolloids: okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis), and khan (Belschmiedia sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjouenkeu, R; Akingbala, J O; Oguntimein, G B

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the emulsifying properties of okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) and khan (Belschmiedia sp.), three African food hydrocolloids used to thicken and flavor soups. Results showed that khan has an emulsion potential approximately 20 and 100 times higher than the second and the first, respectively. A kinetic study indicated that the mechanism involved formation of thick and strong interfacial gum films around the oil globules, in addition to a high Water Absorption Capacity and weak gelling behavior of khan gum in solution. These results indicated that, when used in soups, which are typical oil/water emulsions, khan contribute both to thickening and stabilizing of the emulsion, whereas okra and dika nut functioned more as thickeners than as emulsion stabilizers. PMID:9629864

  20. Residue analysis of fipronil and difenoconazole in okra by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their food safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Utture, Sagar C; Ahammed Shabeer, T P; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2015-06-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based method is reported for simultaneous analysis of fipronil (plus its metabolites) and difenoconazole residues in okra. The sample preparation method involving extraction with ethyl acetate provided 80-107% recoveries for both the pesticides with precision RSD within 4-17% estimated at the limits of quantification (LOQ, fipronil=1ngg(-1), difenoconazole=5ngg(-1)) and higher fortification levels. In field, both the pesticides dissipated with half-life of 2.5days. The estimated pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for fipronil and difenoconazole were 15 and 19.5days, and 4 and 6.5days at single and double dose of field applications, respectively. Decontamination of incurred residues by washing and different cooking treatments was quite efficient in minimizing the residue load of both the chemicals. Okra samples harvested after the estimated PHIs were found safe for human consumption. PMID:25624217

  1. Identification of DNA Fragments that Showed Linkage to the Radiation-induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease resistant mutant of okra was crossed to Pichit 03, a susceptible variety. Their progeny showed prolonged resistance when compared with Pichit 03. DNA fingerprints of F2 and BC1F1 individuals from the cross indicated that most DNA bands did not segregate with either the resistance or the susceptible characteristics. Nonetheless, polymorphic DNA bands could be identified between the mutant and Okura, the parental variety

  2. Identification of a disease complex involving a novel monopartite begomovirus with beta- and alphasatellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Akhtar J; Singh, Achuit S; Briddon, Rob W

    2014-05-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is an important viral disease of okra in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is caused by begomovirus-satellite complexes. A begomovirus and associated betasatellite and alphasatellite were identified in symptomatic okra plants from Barka, in the Al-Batinah region of Oman. Analysis of the begomovirus sequences showed them to represent a new begomovirus most closely related to cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV), a begomovirus of African origin. The sequences showed less than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to CLCuGeV isolates. The name okra leaf curl Oman virus (OLCOMV) is proposed for the new virus. Further analysis revealed that the OLCOMV is a recombinant begomovirus that evolved by the recombination of CLCuGeV isolates with tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Oman (TYLCV-OM). An alpha- and a betasatellite were also identified from the same plant sample, which were also unique when compared to sequences available in the databases. However, although the betasatellite appeared to be of African origin, the alphasatellite was most closely related to alphasatellites originating from South Asia. This is the first report of a begomovirus-satellite complex infecting okra in Oman. PMID:24287711

  3. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yating; Zhang, Yi; Li, Chunmei; Qian, Qian; He, Wei; Wang, Tao

    2011-06-01

    The 95% EtOH extract from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic showed inhibitory activity on TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Chemical studies on the active fraction led to the isolation of 14 flavonoids (1-14). To clarify the multi-mechanism of the isolates on preadipocyte differentiation, the levels of TG and FFA and the related role transcription factors (PPAR?, CEBP/?, and ap2) expression were evaluated. At the concentration of 30 ?M, compounds 1-6 and 10-14 showed inhibitory activity on TG accumulation significantly in mature 3T3-L1 cells. 1, 2, 4-7, 9, 10, 13, and 14 reduced the level of FFA. At the molecular level, the mRNA expressions of PPAR?, CEBP/?, and ap2 were down-regulated by compounds 1, 5, 9, 12, 13; 1-8, 10-14; and 1-4, 6, 8-12, 14, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of the 14 flavonoids were also discussed. PMID:21281705

  4. Inhibitory effect of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic on NMDA receptor-mediated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin-Ping; Qin, Song; Dong, Liu-Yi; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2006-06-01

    The modulatory effect of Total Flavone of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic (TFA) on NMDA-activated current (I(NMDA)) was investigated in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. TFA rapidly and reversibly inhibited the I(NMDA) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, TFA non-competitively inhibited the I(NMDA) by enhancement of the NMDA receptor desensitization. In addition, intracellular application of TFA did not alter the TFA inhibition of I(NMDA). These results suggest that the inhibition of the NMDA receptor response by TFA could be one of the mechanisms for TFA-mediated neuroprotective actions. PMID:16616791

  5. Sensory evaluation ratings and melting characteristics show that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; Costantino, Amanda C; Gunn, Laura H

    2006-04-01

    Reducing dietary fat intake may lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. This study examined the feasibility of substituting okra gum for 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% milk fat in frozen chocolate dairy dessert. Fifty-six consumers evaluated the frozen dairy desserts using a hedonic scale. Consumers rated color, smell, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability characteristics of all products as acceptable. All ratings were similar among the products except for the aftertaste rating, which was significantly lower for chocolate frozen dairy dessert containing 100% milk-fat replacement with okra gum compared with the control (0% milk-fat replacement) (Pfrozen dairy desserts (Pfrozen dairy dessert. PMID:16567157

  6. Fast and automated characterization of major constituents in rat biofluid after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MetaboLynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan

    2010-02-01

    In drug metabolism research, the setting up of a complex series of mass spectrometry experiments and the subsequent analysis of the large amounts of data produced are often time-consuming. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOFMS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Rat plasma and urine samples collected 1 h and 0-12 h after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot were analyzed by UPLC/QTOFMS within 15 min. The post-acquisition data were processed using MetaboLynx. With key parameters carefully set, MetaboLynx is able to show the presence of a wide range of metabolites with only a limited requirement for manual intervention and data interpretation time. A total of 16 and 38 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine compared with blank samples. The results indicated that methylation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot which will be helpful for fully understanding the mechanism of action of this herb. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC/QTOFMS approach using MetaboLynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites from Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:20069688

  7. Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of okra pod hydrocolloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavati, Vahid

    2013-10-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed to extract the hydrocolloid from okra pods (OPH). The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction of OPH were determined by response surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (microwave power (X1: 100-500 W), extraction time (X2: 30-90 min), and extraction temperature (X3: 40-90 °C)) on the extraction yield of OPH. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the microwave extraction of OPH. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest recovery of OPH (14.911±0.27%) were as follows: microwave power, 395.56 W; extraction time, 67.11 min and extraction temperature, 73.33 °C. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed with the predicted ones by analysis of variance. It indicated high fitness of the model used and the success of response surface methodology for optimizing OPH extraction. After method development, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the OPH was evaluated. MAE showed obvious advantages in terms of high extraction efficiency and radical scavenging activity of extract within the shorter extraction time. PMID:23817104

  8. Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

  9. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. PMID:25040189

  10. Seed Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners collect, arrange, and draw various seeds from smallest to biggest. They also estimate how many of the smallest would fit into the biggest. In addition, learners predict how many seeds they would find inside an apple or lemon, and cut open these fruits to check their prediction against the real seed count. The Did You Know section describes the biggest and smallest seeds on Earth.

  11. Seed Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    In this outdoor activity and bingo-like game, learners explore why and how seeds spread far from the plants that produce them. To understand natural adaptions that let seeds and fruit be dispersed, learners make modifications to dried beans and peas so they could be dispersed by natural forces like water, air, or an animal moving from one place to another. In the "Seed-Go" Game, learners match ways that seeds are dispersed, to fill rows on the game board.

  12. Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo foram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido, tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC por oito dias. Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1% durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento.This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilization of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid, time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC during eight days. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1% used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

  13. Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo

    OpenAIRE

    Edilson Costa; Souza, Taynara G.; Benteo, Gleciane L.; Ss, Katiane Benett; Gs, Cleiton Benett

    2013-01-01

    The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tested substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite a...

  14. Traveling Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2014-09-19

    In this activity, learners make three different "seed" types and determine which design flies the farthest. Learners wad a piece of paper, wad a piece of tape, and make a paper helicopter to represent plant seeds. Learners measure and record the distance each seed travels. Use this activity to help learners practice measuring and recording data. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  15. Organic cultivation of okra with ground cover of perennial herbaceous legumes / Cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Mathias N da, Silva; Fábio Luiz, Oliveira; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Claudenir, Fávero; Mateus Augusto L, Quaresma.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O manejo da adubação verde com leguminosas herbáceas perenes tem se apresentado como prática interessante à produção de hortaliças, proporcionando melhorias no ambiente de cultivo e aumentando a produtividade das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro [...] em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo cultivo do quiabeiro em solo descoberto (controle) ou coberto com cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides), soja perene (Glycine wightii), calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides), amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi) e estilosantes campo grande (Stylosanthes capitata e Stylosanthes macrocephala). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A roçada das leguminosas, realizada na véspera da semeadura do quiabeiro, possibilitou a adição de quantidades de massa seca às áreas de cultivo, destacando-se o potencial do cudzu tropical (3,74 t ha-1), soja perene (1,55 t ha-1) e amendoim forrageiro (1,30 t ha-1). Nos cultivos de quiabeiro em solo coberto com cudzu tropical e com soja perene foram observados os menores acúmulos de massa seca de plantas espontâneas, até os 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro. Aos 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro, somente as áreas cobertas com amendoim forrageiro e com calopogônio apresentaram maiores volumes de água no solo em relação ao controle. Do início ao fim da colheita, as plantas de quiabeiro cultivadas em solo coberto com soja perene e com cudzu tropical apresentaram as maiores alturas. A produtividade máxima alcançada de frutos de quiabeiro (16,23 t ha-1), foi obtida no cultivo de quiabeiro em solo coberto com soja perene. Abstract in english The management of green manure with perennial herbaceous legumes has emerged as an interesting practice for vegetable production, improving the cultivation environment and increasing crop yields. In the present study we evaluated the organic okra cultivation in soil covered with perennial herbaceous [...] legumes. The treatments consisted of okra grown in bare soil (control) or covered with tropical kudzo (Pueraria phaseoloides), perennial soybean (Glycine wightii), calopogonium (Calopogonium muconoides), Pinto peanut (Arachis pintoi) and Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The weeding of legumes was realized before the okra was sown and this allowed the addition of quantities of dry matter, highlighting the potential of tropical kudzo (3.74 t ha-1), perennial soybean (1.55 t ha-1) and peanut (1.30 t ha-1). Okra cropped in soil covered with tropical kudzo and perennial soybean had the weed lowest dry matter accumulation until 150 days after sowing the okra. At 150 days after sowing the okra, only the areas covered with peanut and calopogonium had higher volumes of water in the soil compared to the control. Throughout the harvest, the okra plants grown in soil covered with perennial soybean and tropical kudzo showed the greatest heights. The maximum okra fruit yield (16.23 t ha-1) was obtained by growing okra in soil covered with perennial soybean.

  16. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que apresentou reduções em torno de 76,42%, Carbono Orgânico Total (COT 67,88%, fenóis totais 77,13% e nitrogênio amoniacal 34,63%. A metodologia de tratamento empregando Filtração Lenta e Fotocatálise demonstrou ser uma excelente opção de remediação de chorume.

  17. Effect of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Germination and Growth Performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench—A Widely Cultivated Vegetable Crop in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oyedeji, A. A.; Adebiyi, A. O.; Omotoyinbo, M. A.; Ogunkunle, C. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of crude oil-contaminated soil on the germination and growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus, a widely cultivated vegetable crop in Nigeria. The experiment was conducted in the Screen House, under controlled environmental conditions. The seedling emergence percentage, heights and girths were studied to determine the growth performance of the crop in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the investigation revealed that the crude ...

  18. 7 CFR 301.52 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...following are regulated articles: (1) Cotton and wild cotton, including all parts of these plants. (2...frozen okra; or (ii) Okra seed; and (iii) Fresh, edible fruits of okra: (A) During December 1 through May 15...

  19. Comparative sorptive removal of direct red-28 dye from water using acid, base and 2-propanol treated okra stem powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Use of agro-waste material for adsorption is studied now-a-days extensively. But the main problem is their low adsorption capacity as compared to synthetic adsorbents. So, in the following study, adsorption capacity of Okra stem powder had been investigated after chemical modification by acid, base and 2-propanol for adsorption of Direct Red-28 dye from water in batch mode. The results indicated that as compared to untreated biosorbent , acid treated and 2-propanol treated biosorbents had more adsorption capacity, i.e. 1.86, 2.74 and 6.61 mg.g/sub -1/ correspondingly, whereas base treated biosorbent had lower adsorption capacity for this anionic dye, i.e.1.02 mg.g/sub -1/. (author)

  20. Nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization Nitrogênio aplicado à cultura do quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Marinice O.; Berni, Rodrigo F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the Amazonian rainy season, the effect of nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization. The trial was carried out in the Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, in Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil, between October/2010 and February/2011, in dystrophic Yellow Argisoil, medium texture, using pits with residual fertility. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four repetitions (two lines with four plants, spacing of 1....

  1. Begomovirus characterization, and development of phenotypic and DNA-based diagnostics for screening of okra genotype resistance against Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataravanappa, V.; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C. N.; Krishna Reddy, M.

    2012-01-01

    The leaf sample from okra plants showing the yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms was collected in Karnataka state, India. The genome of the virus was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome (GU112065) is 2,741 bp in length and genome is similar to that of monopartite begomoviruses originating from the Old World, with seven conserved ORFs. Further nucleotide (nts) sequence comparisons showed that the genome has the highest sequence identities of 96.1?...

  2. Efeito de alguns herbicidas na cultura do quiabeiro, em testes efetuados em casa de vegetação / Effect of some herbicides on okra crop in trials performed in the greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aldo, Alves; Reinaldo, Forster.

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Duas variedades de quiabeiro foram testadas, em condições de casa de vegetação, com solo de textura areno-barrenta, na sua tolerância para 16 herbicidas, cada qual aplicado em uma única dose. Dentre os herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado o triflu-ralin destacou-se no combate às ervas dan [...] inhas gramíneas e não causou nenhum dano para a planta do quiabeiro. Os herbicidas cloroxuron, linuron, norea e propachlor mostraram ótimos resultados no cambate às ervas más e quanto à tolerância dessa malvácea. Do grupo das triazinas, todos os herbicidas usados nas condições do teste provocaram danos para o quiabeiro. Abstract in english Two okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) varieties were tested for their tolerance to sixteen herbicides at one rate each, as a pre-planting and as a pre-emergence applications in greenhouse trials. The results with the incorporated herbicides showed that only tri-fluralin at 0,75 kg/ha active ingredient w [...] as promising to this crop. Different results were obtained with the pre-emergence applications of the group of urea and anilide herbicides. While no symptoms of injury were observed with chloroxuron, norea, linuron, and propachlor, injury symptoms were evident with diuron, fluometuron, metobromuron and siduron. The four triazine herbicides were very damaging to the okra plants. Under the conditions of these tests, only the herbicides trifluralin, chloroxuron, norea, and linuron were promising to the okra crop.

  3. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPAR?, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

  4. International Seed Saving Institute: Basic Seed Saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    This straightforward site from the International Seed Saving Institute on Basic Seed Saving will be of use to any growers interested in learning how to save seeds from season to season. The site provides links "to specific seed saving instructions for 27 common vegetables" including many favorites like corn, carrots, broccoli, and lettuce. The site also links to a glossary of seed saving terms and a six-step Seed Saving Tutorial.

  5. Seed Catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smithsonian Institutions Libraries Web site currently features a unique collection of seed and nursery catalogs dating from 1830 to the present. Online visitors may view a portion of the exhibit, which offers a look at "the history of the seed and agricultural implement business in the United States, as well as provides a history of botany and plant research such as the introduction of plant varieties into the US." Although this site does include much material, gardeners and anyone else with a horticultural bent should enjoy a casual browse through the online exhibit.

  6. Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats / Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pritam S., Jain; Sanjay B., Bari.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi [...] realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle. Abstract in english In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was [...] undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.

  7. Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam S. Jain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle.

  8. Big Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    This free iOS app helps develop spatial reasoning and strategic thinking. Users reflect seed squares (horizontally, vertically and diagonally) to grow larger pieces that eventually cover the given design space without spilling over. A graduated set of difficulty levels makes the game accessible to a wide range of ages.

  9. Mighty Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSI

    2009-01-01

    In this biology experiment, learners plant soybean seeds in plaster of Paris, witnessing firsthand the mighty power and ability of plants to grow in adverse conditions. This is also an excellent activity to touch upon exothermic reactions, as warmth is created when the plaster is mixed.

  10. Screening for in vitro metabolites of Abelmoschus manihot extract in intestinal bacteria by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Caifu; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shang, Erxin

    2011-12-15

    Abelmoschus manihot has drawn much attention recently due to its potential beneficial health effects after oral administration. However, the metabolic fate of A. manihot in intestinal flora is not well understood. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx™) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids from A. manihot in intestinal flora. The human and rat incubated samples collected 72 h in the anaerobic incubator were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF MS within 10 min. A total of 14 metabolites were identified in human and rat incubated solution compared with blank samples. The results indicated that hydrolysis, hydroxylation and acetylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoids in A. manihot extract in vitro. MS(E) was used for simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion information and fragment ion data at high and low collision energy in one analytical run, which facilitated the fast structural characterization of metabolites. This work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC-Q-TOF MS approach using Metabolynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites of natural product in intestinal flora. PMID:22119023

  11. Pretreatment with the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot and hyperoside prevents glomerular podocyte apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; An, Xiao-Fei; Teng, Shi-Chao; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shang, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Yuan, Yang-Gang; Yu, Jiang-Yi

    2012-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important diabetic complication, and podocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in the development of DN. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot (TFA) on urinary microalbumin and glomerular podocyte apoptosis in experimental DN rats. The preliminary oral administration of TFA (200 mg/kg/day) for 24 weeks significantly decreased the urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio and 24-h urinary total protein in streptozotocin-induced DN rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay indicated glomerular cell apoptosis in DN rats was significantly improved by pretreatment with TFA. Furthermore, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and Hoechst 33342 staining suggested preincubation with hyperoside (50 and 200 ?g/mL), the major active constituent of TFA, could significantly mitigate cultured podocyte apoptosis induced by the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Western blot analysis showed that increased caspase-3 and caspase-8 expressions induced by AGEs were also inhibited by pretreatment with hyperoside at both doses. Our results demonstrate that TFA pretreatment can decrease urinary albumin excretion in early-stage DN, which might be accomplished by preventing renal damage and podocyte apoptosis. PMID:22439874

  12. Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ferreira da Mota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless.This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

  13. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. PMID:25069743

  14. Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce > soybean > watermelon > corn> okra?millet >sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

  15. Seed Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed is an online (and print) magazine dedicated to increasing the scientific awareness and knowledge of the general public. The site is updated six days a week and features news articles, original-content articles on a variety of science topics, columns, and reviews. "Cribsheets," a downloadable feature, provide brief tutorials on scientific issues and innovations that may occur in everyday conversation. The magazine also features a collection of multimedia materials, such as podcasts, slide shows, and video content. The web site's main page features articles from the latest issue; back issues may be browsed by category, author, or date. Information about subscribing to the print version is also provided.

  16. Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

  17. Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro / Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner Ferreira da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Derly José Henriques da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia Pittol, Firme; Rosilene Antônio, Ribeiro.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David [...] e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David an [...] d Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

  18. Isolating, screening and applying chromium reducing bacteria to promote growth and yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in chromium contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Asghar, Hafiz Naeem; Shahzad, Tanvir; Hussain, Sabir; Riaz, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Maqsood, Marium

    2015-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)], extensively used in different industries, is one of the most toxic heavy metals. The Cr (VI) reducing bacteria could be helpful in decreasing its toxic effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Cr (VI) reducing bacteria to improve growth and yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Cr-contaminated soils. Most of the selected bacterial isolates significantly increased the growth and yield of okra. Maximum response was observed in the plants inoculated with the isolate K12 where plant height, root length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant increased up to 77.5 percent, 72.6 percent, 1.4 fold and 2.9 fold, respectively. Moreover, inoculation with bacteria caused significant decrease in Cr (VI) concentration in soil and plant parts across all treatments. The maximum decrease of 69.6, 56.1 and 40.0 percent in Cr (VI) concentrations in soil, plant vegetative parts and plant reproductive parts, respectively, was observed in the treatment inoculated with the strain K12. Based on amplification, sequencing and analysis of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain K12 was found belonging to genus Brucella and was designated as Brucella sp. K12. These findings suggest that the strain K12 may serve as a potential bioresource to improve crop production in Cr-contaminated soils. PMID:25066609

  19. SPE-HPLC method for the determination of four flavonols in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xianyin; Zhao, Yuying; Liang, Hong; Bai, Yanjing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Dean

    2007-06-01

    A SPE-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of flavonols, isoquercitrin (1), hibifolin (2), myricetin (3), quercetin-3'-O-d-glucoside (4) and quercetin (5) in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of the total flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot (TFA). The astragalin (6) and kaempferol (7) were used as internal standards (IS). Plasma and urine samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction using Winchem C(18) reversed-phase cartridges. Analysis of the plasma and urinary extract was performed on YMC-Pack ODS-A C(18) and Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL C(18) reversed-phase column, respectively and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid was employed. HPLC analysis was conducted with different elution gradients. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 370 nm. Calibration ranges in plasma for flavonols 2-5 were at 0.011-2.220, 0.014-2.856, 0.022-4.320, and 0.028-5.600 microg/mL, respectively. In urine calibration ranges for flavonols 1, 2, 4 and 5 were at 2.00-16.00, 8.56-102.72, 2.70-21.60, and 3.00-24.00 microg/mL, respectively. The RSD of intra- and inter-day was less than 5.40% and 4.89% in plasma, and less than 3.96% and 6.85% in urine for all the analyses. A preliminary experiment to investigate the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of the flavonols after oral administration of TFA to rats demonstrated that the present method was suitable for determining the flavonols in rat plasma and urine. PMID:17258944

  20. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais / The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosângela D' Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Marcelo Barreto da, Silva; Naylor Daniel da Costa, Aguiar; Fábio LK, Bérgamo; Alexandre Sylvio Vieira da, Costa; Lusinério, Prezotti.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG) e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorre [...] ntes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.). As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s) espécie(s) e, ou da(s) raça(s) de Meloidogyne presente(s) nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2), seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3) e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2). A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp. Abstract in english Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG), and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematode [...] s (Meloidogyne spp.). The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2) prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3) and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2). The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2), malate dehydrogenase (N3), superoxide dismutase (N2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3). This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

  1. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality

  2. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality.

  3. Red peach and seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Dykinga (USDA; ARS)

    1997-08-01

    This peach has only one large seed, as compared to the pomegranate that has many seeds. The peach is like an apple in the way that its seed is surrounded by the entire fruit. The fruit can be eaten by humans, but it is actually there as nourishment and food for the peach seed to grow.

  4. Vegetable Seed Saving Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Vegetable Seed Saving Handbook online is a great resource for anyone wanting to harvest viable Fast Plants seeds to plant right away (as in selection experiments) or save for future use. Follow the instructions for cabbage family seeds (Brassica raps, in particular). If you're planning on saving your seeds, treat Fast Plants seeds as "desiccation-tolerant" as described here: http://howtosaveseeds.com/store.php

  5. Seed bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassel, George W; Holdsworth, Michael J; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression data sets is a potent tool for gene function prediction, cis-element discovery, and hypothesis generation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and more recently for other agriculturally relevant species. In the case of Arabidopsis thaliana, experiments conducted by individual researchers to document its transcriptome have led to large numbers of data sets being made publicly available for data mining by the so-called "electronic northerns," co-expression analysis and other methods. Given that approximately 50% of the genes in Arabidopsis have no function ascribed to them by "conventional" homology searches, and that only around 10% of the genes have had their function experimentally determined in the laboratory, these analyses can accelerate the identification of potential gene function at the click of a mouse. This chapter covers the use of bioinformatic data mining tools available at the Bio-Array Resource ( http://www.bar.utoronto.ca ) and elsewhere for hypothesis generation in the context of seed biology. PMID:21898268

  6. The Seed Biology Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, Gerhard

    2012-02-10

    This remarkable site was created by Professor Gerhard Leubner and his colleagues at the University of Freiburg in Germany. Here, visitors can take advantage of a veritable cornucopia of reference materials related to seed biology, such as diagrams and illustrations of seed germination, plant hormones, endosperm weakening, and seed dormancy. Neophytes may wish to start by looking at the Seed Structure and Anatomy area, which features a concise and well-written overview of the structure, anatomy, and morphology of mature seeds. The same section contains information on the seed structure of the castor bean and other legumes. Another fascinating section on the site is dedicated to Seed Evolution. Visitors can discover a wealth of information here, including such topics as the evolutionary trends of angiosperm seeds and the seed ferns of the Late Permian period. All told, the site is a wonderful resource, and visitors will want to share it with friends.

  7. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following treatments: 1. sprinkler irrigation with spread manure; 2. sprinkler irrigation with placed manure; 3. drip irrigation with placed manure and 4. drip irrigation with fertigation. Fertigation was done only two times (two weeks after emergence and immediately after flowering) during the first experiment while weekly fertigation (8 times from two weeks after emergence) was done during the second experiment. The treatment effects on growth, yield, biomass, water use efficiency of the economical fresh pod yield (WUEy), and on the total above ground biomass (WUEtbm) were studied. The results showed that the okra crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice; however, the second experiment in the major dry season, the 2012 season, showed a marked improvement in the fertigated treatment compared to the others when fertigation was done weekly. In the second experiment despite the application of the same amount of nitrogen (89 kg N/ha), there were significant differences (P?0.05) between yield obtained with sprinkler spread manure (11.2 t ha-1), sprinkler placed manure (13.7 t ha-1), and drip fertigated (17.5 t ha-1); however, the yield difference between sprinkler placed manure (13.7 t ha-1) and drip placed manure (13.9 t ha-1) was insignificant (P?0.05) and WUEy and WUEtbm in the drip fertigated treatment was significantly (P?0.05) higher than in other treatments. Seasonal crop water use (ETc) for drip irrigation was 236 mm compared to 339 mm for sprinkler in the 2011 season. In the 2012 season, ETc for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted in significant water savings and yield increase compared with sprinkler irrigation.

  8. Seed Dispersal: Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulse of the Planet

    2007-08-02

    The guest scientist in this two-minute radio program discusses seed dispersal in plants. He first explains why it is important for seeds to be distributed away from the mother plant. Then he contrasts wind-dispersed seeds with animal-dispersed seeds, pointing out that animals can disperse larger seeds that contain more nutrients for an emerging seedling. The program, which is available here in audio and text, is part of a Pulse of the Planet series on seed dispersal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  9. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Adesemoye, A. O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E. O.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spin...

  10. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables Comparação da promoção de crescimento de plantas por Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Bacillus subtilis em três vegetais

    OpenAIRE

    Adesemoye, A. O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E. O.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spin...

  11. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittich, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria...

  12. SEED DORMANCY, GENETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Seed dormancy is defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artifical conditions. Seed dor...

  13. Radon seed implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon seeds, formerly used for vascular and neoplastic tumors, acne, and other dermatological disorders, are rarely, if ever, used today. Because the half-life of radon is 3.83 days, these hollow gold seeds filled with radon gas are usually left in situ permanently. A case is reported of a woman who had seeds implanted 33 years ago for a vascular lesion. The seeds were removed and found to have minute amounts of residual radiation but not sufficient to cause radiation damage. Since seeds are foreign bodies, removal is recommended if they are easily accessible. (U.S.)

  14. Kenaf: Production, potential, and promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is a warm season annual fiber crop closely related to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvaceae) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, Malvaceae) that can be successfully produced in a large portion of the United States, particularly in the southern sta...

  15. Determinação da demanda hídrica do quiabeiro em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ / Determination of water requirement of okra in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Herval Martinho Ferreira, Paes; Barbara dos Santos, Esteves; Elias Fernandes de, Sousa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as necessidades hídricas do quiabeiro em cada estádio do seu desenvolvimento, por meio da determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura e dos coeficientes de cultivo (Kc). O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Evapotranspirométrica da Universidade Estadual do No [...] rte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A cultivar utilizada foi a Santa Cruz 47, plantada no espaçamento 0,25 m x 1,00 m, em uma área de 1024 m², irrigada por aspersão convencional. Na área foram feitas as determinações da evapotranspiração da cultura e do coeficiente cultural, utilizando-se um lisímetro de 6 m² com balança eletrônica com variação de peso de 0,58 kg. Os resultados obtidos permitiram quantificar a evapotranspiração da cultura no período em 314 mm. O Kc do quiabeiro no primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento variou entre os valores de 0,8 e 0,5, obtendo o valor médio de 0,68; no segundo estádio variou de 0,5 a 1,0, sendo a média de 0,79; e no terceiro estádio o Kc variou de 1,0 a 0,3, sendo a média de 0,54. Abstract in english This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc) providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Esta [...] dual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m², irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m² with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, with a mean of 0,79,and the third stage Kc ranged from 1.0 to 0.3, the average being 0.54.

  16. Determinação da demanda hídrica do quiabeiro em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Determination of water requirement of okra in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herval Martinho Ferreira Paes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as necessidades hídricas do quiabeiro em cada estádio do seu desenvolvimento, por meio da determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura e dos coeficientes de cultivo (Kc. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Evapotranspirométrica da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A cultivar utilizada foi a Santa Cruz 47, plantada no espaçamento 0,25 m x 1,00 m, em uma área de 1024 m², irrigada por aspersão convencional. Na área foram feitas as determinações da evapotranspiração da cultura e do coeficiente cultural, utilizando-se um lisímetro de 6 m² com balança eletrônica com variação de peso de 0,58 kg. Os resultados obtidos permitiram quantificar a evapotranspiração da cultura no período em 314 mm. O Kc do quiabeiro no primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento variou entre os valores de 0,8 e 0,5, obtendo o valor médio de 0,68; no segundo estádio variou de 0,5 a 1,0, sendo a média de 0,79; e no terceiro estádio o Kc variou de 1,0 a 0,3, sendo a média de 0,54.This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m², irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m² with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, with a mean of 0,79,and the third stage Kc ranged from 1.0 to 0.3, the average being 0.54.

  17. Subset seed automaton

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noe?, Laurent; Roytberg, Mihkail

    2007-01-01

    We study the pattern matching automaton introduced in (A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds) for the purpose of seed-based similarity search. We show that our definition provides a compact automaton, much smaller than the one obtained by applying the Aho-Corasick construction. We study properties of this automaton and present an efficient implementation of the automaton construction. We also present some experimental results and show ...

  18. True potato seed quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallais, N

    1987-04-01

    Environmental influence on physiological factors that determine seed quality is discussed in relation to true potato seed (TPS). This review has been motivated by the need for high quality seed for the proper evaluation of TPS technology. The objectives of tuber production may not be in harmony with those required for the production of high quality TPS. The production of high quality TPS may be influenced by the stronger sink strength ability of fast developing tubers for assimilation of available nutrients. Earliness of tuber formation, which is needed in TPS progenitors, may tend to result in incomplete TPS development. Limiting conditions during seed development decrease the potential of the seed for field establishment. Seed vigor is the most important attribute of seed quality since it is essential for seedling performance under the adverse conditions commonly encountered during field development. The attractiveness of TPS technology for tropical areas, where potato production is limited by low-quality seed tuber availability, is decreased by the lack of seedling vigor and uniformity of seedlings derived from TPS. Current research indicates that considerable genetic improvement of TPS vigor and uniformity is possible. It is suggested that significant immediate improvement of TPS quality would result from agronomic techniques that reflect understanding of the physiological factors that influence the production and maintenance of high quality seed. Research areas needed to develop methodologies for TPS production with optimum expression of genotype are identified. PMID:24241285

  19. MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

  20. Aplicação da técnica de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS) na análise de pesticidas em quiabo por CG-EM Application of the matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique in the analysis of pesticides in okra by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Haroldo Silveira Dórea; Waneide Gomes Lopes

    2004-01-01

    A matrix solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass selective detection method for the simultaneous determination of monocrotophos, methyl parathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in okra is described. Analyses of 2 g of fortified okra (0.05-0.75 mg kg-1) showed an average recovery of 96.2% (71.4-128.4%) and average relative standard deviation of 11.7% (1.4-37.1%). The cypermethrin recovery at the lower level was above 130%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 mg kg-1. The...

  1. Estimating seed mass and volume from linear dimensions of seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Casco, H.; Dias, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Seeds from eight species common in soil banks and covering two orders of magnitude of seed size were individually weighted and measured. Adopting simple but sound assumptions on seeds geometry, seed length and width together or not with thickness were found to be highly accurate estimators of seed mass and volume at intra- and inter-specific levels. Thereby, by abstracting the vast amount of published data of seed length and width, seed volume rather than seed mass only can be used to investi...

  2. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P. C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T. J.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; Struik, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality of seeds acquired from the informal SS, and compared this with the quality of seeds obtained from the formal SS. Cowpea seed production in northern Nigeria was used as a case study to evaluate the ...

  3. When Seed Dispersal Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    HENRY F. HOWE and MARIA N. MIRITI (; )

    2004-07-01

    This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience journal is about the varying importance of seed dispersal within plant communities. A profusion of fruit forms implies that seed dispersal plays a central role in plant ecology, yet the chance that an individual seed will ultimately produce a reproductive adult is low to infinitesimal. Extremely high variance in survival implies that variations in fruit production or transitions from seed to seedling will contribute little to population growth. The key issue is that variance in survival of plant life-history stages, and therefore the importance of dispersal, differs greatly among and within plant communities. In stable communities of a few species of long-lived plants, variances in seed and seedling survival are immense, so seed-to-seedling transitions have little influence on overall population dynamics. However, when seedlings in different circumstances have very different chances of survival--in ecological succession, for example, or when dispersed seeds escape density-dependent mortality near parent trees--the biased survival of dispersed seeds or seedlings in some places rather than others results in pervasive demographic impacts.

  4. SEED DORMANCY, AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Seed dormancy has been defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artificial conditions. S...

  5. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. Salvia hispanica seed is often sold under its common name "chia" as well as several trademarked names. Its origin is believed to be in ... plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native ...

  6. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  7. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  8. Identification of the potential active components of Abelmoschus manihot in rat blood and kidney tissue by microdialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Caifu; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shang, Erxin; Shu, Yan; Lu, Yuwei

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, microdialysis combining with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify components in blood and kidney dialysis after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract. Microdialysis probe was implanted in the jugular vein and the kidney medulla, respectively; microdialysis samples were collected continuously, transferred to microtubes and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The components in microdialysis samples were separated by an UPLC HSS T3 column and eluted with acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The results showed that unbound constituents in blood circulation of the rat include hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin, myricetin, and hibifolin while unbound constituents in kidney are hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, which might be the potential active components in vivo. The developed method was simple and reliable, and could be adopted to rapidly screen and identify potential active components contributing to pharmacological effects of TCM and to better clarify its action mechanism. PMID:21247814

  9. Seed Dispersal: Lemurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulse of the Planet

    2007-09-20

    Trees in Madagascar's forests have evolved traits that promote the dispersal of their seeds by lemurs. This two-minute radio program focuses on the interaction between forest plants and lemurs--the main seed dispersers in the forests. A guest scientist explains why lemurs ingest seeds that are large relative to their body size. He also notes that the fruits of Madagascar's trees have evolved to be strong smelling but drably colored in accordance with lemurs' keen sense of smell and poor vision. The program is available in text and audio formats. The latter includes audio of ring-tailed lemurs. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  10. Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Shad K.; Mexal, John G.; Murray, Leigh W.

    2001-01-01

    Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L) Mell.,) in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agri...

  11. Seed output and the seed bank in Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokker, C; Lovett-Doust, L; Lovett-Doust, J

    1997-10-01

    Seed banks and sexual reproduction are known to be significant in colonization and re-establishment of some aquatic macrophyte communities. For highly clonal aquatic macrophytes, however, there is a lack of information on seed production and seed fate as compared with annual sexual species. The seed bank for three populations of Vallisneria americana in the Huron-Erie corridor of the Great Lakes was sampled and quantified in the spring of 1994, and related to seed production in the previous season at these sites. Seed deposition rates during 1994 were also assessed. Sites varied in the proportion of plants flowering and in their tertiary sex ratios, but did not differ in seed numbers produced per unit area. The size of the seed bank was not significantly related to the previous season's seed output, and estimates of seed deposition in the following year tended to be approximately tenfold greater than seed densities found in the seed bank. The stages between seed production and subsequent seed germination are generally very dynamic, with dispersal, mortality, and predation as likely regulating factors. The potential for seedling establishment in V. americana needs to be assessed more fully before the role of seeds in population processes can be determined. PMID:21708549

  12. Easy PEAsy Seed Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    In this activity, learners determine the necessary conditions for pea seed germination. This activity encourages learners to make predictions and think about how they might investigate the effects of variables like light, temperature, and moisture.

  13. Seeds in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  14. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

  15. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Luiza, Wain-Tassi; Juliana Faria dos, Santos; Rita de Cássia, Panizzi; Roberval Daiton, Vieira.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dem [...] atium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa) and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity), and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm) and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum) were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds) and six (6.5 mm large seeds) replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  16. Temperature and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E H

    1988-01-01

    Temperature can affect the percentage and rate of germination through at least three separate physiological processes. 1. Seeds continuously deteriorate and, unless in the meanwhile they are germinated, they will ultimately die. The rate of deterioration depends mainly on moisture content and temperature. The Q10 for rate of loss of viability in orthodox seeds consistently increases from about 2 at -10 degrees C to about 10 at 70 degrees C. 2. Most seeds are initially dormant. Relatively dry seeds continuously lose dormancy at a rate which is temperature-dependent. Unlike enzyme reactions, the Q10 remains constant over a wide range of temperature at least up to 55 degrees C, and typically has a value in the region of 2.5-3.8. Hydrated seeds respond quite differently: high temperatures generally reinforce dormancy or may even induce it. Low temperatures may also induce dormancy in some circumstances, but in many species they are stimulatory (stratification response), especially within the range -1 degree C to 15 degrees C. Small, dormant, hydrated seeds are usually also stimulated to germinate by alternating temperatures which typically interact strongly and positively with light (and often also with other factors including nitrate ions). The most important attributes of alternating temperatures are amplitude, mean temperature, the relative periods spent above and below the median temperature of the cycle (thermoperiod) and the number of cycles. 3. Once seeds have lost dormancy their rate of germination (reciprocal of the time taken to germinate) shows a positive linear relation between the base temperature (at and below which the rate is zero) and the optimum temperature (at which the rate is maximal); and a negative linear relation between the optimal temperature and the ceiling temperature (at and above which the rate is again zero). The optimum temperature for germination rate is typically higher than that required to achieve maximum percentage germination in partially dormant or partially deteriorated seed populations. None of the sub-cellular mechanisms which underlie any of these temperature relations are understood. Nevertheless, the temperature responses can all be quantified and are fundamental to designing seed stores (especially long term for genetic conservation), prescribing germination test conditions, and understanding seed ecology (especially that required for the control of weeds). PMID:3077854

  17. Seeds in space experiment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  18. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Seeding experiments at SPARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannessi, L. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: giannessi@frascati.enea.it; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.; Boscolo, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Carre, B. [Service des Photons Atomes et Molecules, CEA Saclay, DSM/DRECAM (France); Castellano, M.; Cianchi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ciocci, F. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Chiadroni, E.; Clozza, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Couprie, M.E. [SOLEIL, Sant-Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cultrera, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Dattoli, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); De Silvestri, S. [National Laboratory for Ultrafast and Ultraintense Optical Science, CNR-INFM, Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Di Pace, A. [ENEA C.R. Portici, Napoli (Italy); Di Pirro, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Doria, A. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Drago, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via E. Fermi 44, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-08-01

    In the framework of the DS4 EUROFEL collaboration, a research work plan at the SPARC free-electron laser (FEL) test facility aiming at the investigation of seeded and cascaded FEL configurations is under implementation. The main goal of the collaboration is to study and test the amplification and the FEL harmonic generation process of an input seed signal obtained as higher-order harmonics generated both in crystals (400 and 266 nm) and in gases (266, 160, 114 nm). The SPARC FEL can be configured to test several cascaded FEL configurations. In this paper we introduce SPARC and its main parameters and we analyze the superradiant cascade and the harmonic cascade seeded with a signal with the typical time structure of the harmonics generated in gas.

  1. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  3. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    OpenAIRE

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after c...

  4. Genomic dissection of the seed

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Michael G.; Hsu, Ssu-wei; Harada, John J.; Belmonte, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Seeds play an integral role in the global food supply and account for more than 70% of the calories that we consume on a daily basis. To meet the demands of an increasing population, scientists are turning to seed genomics research to find new and innovative ways to increase food production. Seed genomics is evolving rapidly, and the information produced from seed genomics research has exploded over the past two decades. Advances in modern sequencing strategies that profile every molecule in ...

  5. SEED DORMANCY IN LEAFY SPURGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge reproduces asexually via crown and root buds and sexually by seeds. Our unit has largely focused on dormancy in buds and vegetative reproduction. However, dormant seeds in the soil play a key role in the persistence of weeds. For example, leafy spurge seeds can remain dormant and viable...

  6. Conservação e qualidade pós-colheita de quiabo sob diferentes temperaturas e formas de armazenamento Postharvest conservation and quality of okra submitted to different temperatures and storage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F da Mota

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do filme plástico de PVC e da temperatura de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de frutos de cultivares de quiabo. O experimento foi organizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo nas parcelas as duas temperaturas (5 e 10 ºC, nas subparcelas um fatorial 2 (sem e com PVC x 4 (cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless e nas subsubparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem, com quatro blocos. A temperatura de 10ºC e o uso do filme de PVC foram mais eficientes no controle da perda de massa da matéria fresca. O filme foi mais eficiente na manutenção de maior teor relativo de água no pericarpo dos frutos armazenados a 5 e 10ºC. A cv. Amarelinho perdeu menos massa da matéria fresca e manteve maior teor relativo de água. Os frutos armazenados a 5ºC apresentaram maiores teores de vitamina C, com menor perda de vitamina C nas cvs. Mammoth Spinless e Star of David. Observou-se maior incidência de injúria por frio e escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC e a 5ºC. A cv. Amarelinho apresentou melhor conservação pós-colheita com temperatura de 10ºC e o uso da embalagem de PVC.This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of PVC film and temperature on the postharvest storage life in four cultivars of okra. The treatments were displayed in randomized complete blocks, in split-split-plot design, where the parcels were the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC, and in the sub parcels a 2 (control and PVC wrapped fruits x 4 (cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless factorial, and in the sub-sub parcels six sampling moments, containing four blocks. Storage at 10ºC and wrapping the fruits with PVC film improved the control of fresh mass loss. The film was more efficient in maintaining higher water content in the fruit pericarp at 5 or 10ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho lost less fresh mass and maintained higher water content. Fruits stored at 5ºC had higher vitamin C content. The cultivars Mammoth Spinless and Star of David showed lower losses of vitamin C. Cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of chlorophyll and Amarelinho the lowest. In general the development of chilling and browning was higher in fruits without PVC film at 5ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho had better postharvest conservation at 10ºC and using PVC film.

  7. Grass and grain seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-03

    Many types of grasses grow back after they have been cut back or mowed. Some weeds also do this, but other kinds of weeds stop growing once cut. Grains are seeds, but they are also valuable sources of food for humans and animals.

  8. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  9. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  10. Improving soybean seed quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the meal and oil fractions of soybeans may be genetically improved, either by mutagenesis or by genetic engineering. There are a number of mutant lines of soybeans containing a low raffinosaccharide meal, which can be used for animal feed, with an improved total metabolizable energy content. Mutant lines with an improved fatty acid profile of the oil include high oleic and high stearic soybeans. Cloning of the mutant genes facilitates the integration of these traits into high yielding elite lines by providing molecular markers. Cloned genes may also be reintroduced into soybeans to create transgenic lines with improved meal and oil traits, such as seeds with an increased lysine content and stable soybean oils with a very low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The design of transgene constructs has been assisted by using soybean somatic embryos in suspension culture as a model system for soybean seed transformation. This system has allowed selection of those genes and promoters that are the most effective way of achieving the desired phenotypes in soybeans. Experiments with constructs containing fatty acid biosynthesis genes in somatic embryos have also led to the conclusion that, in soybeans, gene-transgene sense suppression is a more effective way of silencing endogenous genes than antisense. Sense suppression of genes encoding microsomal, fatty acid omega-6 desaturates has resulted in soybean lines with over 80% oleic acid in their seed oil, and this traiteic acid in their seed oil, and this trait is stable over at least three generations. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  11. OPTIMIZING SEED BANKING PROCEDURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper outlines factors important for genebanking. Optimizing genebanking procedures is often interpreted as storing seeds under environmental conditions that give them maximum longevity. This paper argues that even this narrow view of optimized genebanking is difficult to define or predict and ...

  12. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  13. COFFEE SEED PHYSIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are more than 70 species of Coffea (Rubiaceae), but only C. arabica and C. canephora are used commercially. Better understanding of seed physiology within Coffea will facilitate the incorporation of genetic traits for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses from wild relatives into commerci...

  14. First direct seeding at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Azima, Armin; Boedewadt, Joern; Curbis, Francesca; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Drescher, Markus; Hass, Eugen; Hipp, Ulrich; Lechner, Christoph; Miltchev, Velizar; Mittenzwey, Manuel; Rehders, Marie; Roensch-Schulenburg, Juliane; Rossbach, Joerg; Schulz, Michael; Tarkeshian, Roxana; Wieland, Marek [University of Hamburg and CFEL (Germany); Ackermann, Sven; Bajt, Sasa; Duesterer, Stefan; Faatz, Bart; Felber, Matthias; Feldhaus, Josef; Honkavaara, Katja; Laarmann, Tim; Schlarb, Holger; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroedter, Lasse; Tischer, Markus [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Ischebeck, Rasmus [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Khan, Shaukat [DELTA, Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Direct seeding with a high-harmonic generation source can improve the spectral, temporal, and coherence properties of a free-electron-laser (FEL) and reduces intensity- and arrival-time fluctuations. In the seeding experiment at the XUV-FEL in Hamburg, FLASH, which is normally operated in the self-amplified spontaneous emission mode, the 21st harmonic of an 800 nm laser is focused into a dedicated seeding undulator. The interaction with the relativistic electrons acts as an amplifier for the seed radiation. We present the setup of the seeding section of FLASH and first experimental results.

  15. First direct seeding at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct seeding with a high-harmonic generation source can improve the spectral, temporal, and coherence properties of a free-electron-laser (FEL) and reduces intensity- and arrival-time fluctuations. In the seeding experiment at the XUV-FEL in Hamburg, FLASH, which is normally operated in the self-amplified spontaneous emission mode, the 21st harmonic of an 800 nm laser is focused into a dedicated seeding undulator. The interaction with the relativistic electrons acts as an amplifier for the seed radiation. We present the setup of the seeding section of FLASH and first experimental results.

  16. Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks

    OpenAIRE

    Mourik, T. A.; Stomph, T. J.; Murdoch, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate levels of pathogens and influence seed mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of fungi and seed density within buried mesh bags on the mortality of seeds. Striga hermonthica ...

  17. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  18. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

  19. Nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization / Nitrogênio aplicado à cultura do quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marinice O, Cardoso; Rodrigo F, Berni.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar, no período chuvoso amazônico, o efeito do nitrogênio aplicado ao quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual. O ensaio foi conduzido na Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, em Iranduba-AM, entre outubro/2010 e fevereiro//2011, em Argissolo Amarelo distrófico, textura média, u [...] tilizando-se covas com níveis residuais de fertilidade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições (duas linhas com quatro plantas, espaçadas de 1,5x1,0 m) e quatro tratamentos principais (ureia, em cobertura: 0,0; 20,0; 40,0 e 60 g planta-1 correspondendo a 0,0; 60,0; 120,0 e 180,0 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, em duas parcelas), com a cv Dardo. Além de dois tratamentos adicionais, representados pelo esterco de galinha (1,0 L por cova, com a cv Dardo) e pela cv Santa Cruz-47 (com 40 g planta-1 de ureia). As covas receberam micronutrientes e irrigação por gotejamento. As características avaliadas mostraram incrementos quadráticos com as doses de ureia. Os maiores valores da altura de planta (39,7 cm), do diâmetro de copa (86,2 cm), do número de frutos (36 unidades planta-1), da massa média de fruto (17,3 g), do número de colheitas no ciclo produtivo (26,4 unidades ciclo-1) e da produtividade (4051 kg ha-1) ocorreram com (g planta-1 de ureia): 48,3; 43,5; 38,5 g; 49,7; 32,7; e 40,5, respectivamente. As características originais concorreram com razoável equilíbrio para o desempenho geral da planta (CP1), evidenciando-se, secundariamente, antagonismo entre colheitas por ciclo e frutos por planta contra a massa média de fruto e o diâmetro de copa (CP2). O esterco de galinha proporcionou desempenho idêntico ao da ureia e sobressaiu ao tratamento sem ureia, para todas as características. A cv Santa Cruz-47 superou a cv Dardo somente para o diâmetro de copa e número de colheitas. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi 40,2 g de ureia planta-1 (120,6 kg ha-1 de N), com renda líquida por hectare de 2,09 toneladas de quiabo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the Amazonian rainy season, the effect of nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization. The trial was carried out in the Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, in Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil, between October/2010 and February/2011, [...] in dystrophic Yellow Argisoil, medium texture, using pits with residual fertility. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four repetitions (two lines with four plants, spacing of 1.5x1.0 m) and four main treatments (urea: 0.0; 20.0; 40.0 and 60.0 g plant-1 corresponding to 0.0; 60.0; 120.0 and 180.0 kg ha-1 of N, respectively, in two portions) using cv Dardo. Besides two additional treatments: chicken manure (1.0 L pit-1, with the cv Dardo) and cv Santa Cruz-47 (with urea rate of 40.0 g plant-1). Micronutrients in pits and dripping system irrigation were applied. All the studied traits had significant quadratic response with the increase of the urea rates. The highest estimated value for the plant height (39.7 cm), canopy diameter (86.2 cm), fruit number (36.0 un plant-1), fruit average mass (17.3 g), harvest number within production cycle (26.4 un cycle-1) and of the yield (4051 kg ha-1) were observed with (g plant-1 of urea): 48.3; 43.5; 38.5; 49.7; 32.7; and 40.5, respectively. Those original traits contributed reasonably poised for plant overall performance (PC1), but subordinate there was antagonism between harvest number and fruit number versus fruit average mass and canopy diameter (PC2). The chicken manure showed positive response compared to the control treatment, but didn't differ from urea rates for all these characteristics. When compared to cv Dardo, the cv Santa Cruz-47 only presented higher values to canopy diameter and number of harvests. The economical efficiency maximum dose was 40.2 g plant-1 of urea (120.6 kg ha-1 of N), with net income per hectare equal to 2.09 tons of okra fruits.

  20. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of arabidopsis in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. PMID:25317938

  1. Construct Arguments: Pumpkin Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGHB Boston

    2013-01-01

    This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the Common Core Practice Standard #3—Construct viable arguments for conclusions reached and critique the reasoning of others. In this lesson, learners work in groups to discuss and revise their estimates of how many seeds are in a small pumpkin. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

  2. Seed Dormancy and Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M.; Karssen, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are complex adaptive traits of higher plants that are influenced by a large number of genes and environmental factors. Studies of genetics and physiology have shown the important roles of the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in the regulation of dormancy and germination. More recently, the use of quantitative genetics and mutant approaches has allowed the further genetic dissection of these traits and the identification of previously unknown component...

  3. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartanto, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat but low levels of chlorophyll were also detected in the embryo, mainly in the radicle tip. Seed chlorophyll fluorescence appeared to be a sensitive indicator of physiological maturity of tomato see...

  4. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed fate, and may be helpful in developing models to predict seed shadows and recruitment patterns of large-seeded trees.

  5. Seed storage behavior of forest tree species seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of five forest species were classified according to their physiological storage behavior. Seeds of Casearia sylvestris Swart (Salicaceae, Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae, Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. (Meliaceae, Eremanthus incanus Less. (Asteraceae, Protium heptaphyllum March. (Burseraceae were collected and taken to the laboratory, where they were processed and submitted to both rapid and slow drying, storage and assayed for viability. After physiological classification regarding storage behavior, it was observed that seeds of C. sylvestris and E. incanus presented orthodox behavior. Seeds of G. kunthiana and P. heptaphyllum were classified as recalcitrant and Q. grandiflora as an intermediate, which did not tolerate low moisture content.

  6. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. 201.33 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling...

  7. Effect of Intercropping Okra (Hibiscus esclentus with Pumpkin (Curcubita maxima Dutch ex Lam on Some Growth Parameters and Economic Yield of Maize (Zea mays and Maximization of Land Use in a Fadama Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to harness fadama lands in Niger-delta as a result of dearth of fertile arable land due to soil infertility from little or no fallow period. This study was carried out, to determine the compatibility of okra, pumpkin and maize in a fadama soil. Oba super2 variety of maize, NHae 47-4 variety of okra and locally sourced pumpkin were sown in October, 2003 and repeated in October 2004, in a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates. Maize and okra were monitored weekly for 8 and 10 weeks respectively for plant height and number of leaves while pumpkin were accessed for % vine coverage. Observation were carried for weed biomass, economic yield, aggregate yield and land equivalent ratio were calculated from the economic yield. The result of the 2 year study showed, that growth parameters did not all follow a consistend trend, although sole crops performed better than in their crop associations. The presence of pumpkin significantly reduced weeds growth in the crop associations. The economic or relative economic yield was significantly higher (p<0.05 in sole crops than in the individual crops of the association, but the aggregate yield was higher in the crop association than in their sole crops plot. The land equivalent ratio was highest in 3 crop association (1.97 than 2 crop association and least in sole crops of 1.00.

  8. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, P. A.; Bongers, F. J. J. M.; Hemerik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size and seed abundance simultaneously influenced seed dispersal and predation by scatter-hoarding rodents in the large-seeded rain forest tree Carapa procera (Meliaceae) in French Guiana. We individuall...

  9. Seed-cotton Cleaning Effects on Seed Coat Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing problems in textile mills have been linked to seed coat fragments (SCF), so cotton ginning facilities should take steps to prevent them from forming. The objective of this experiment was to determine if the use of seed-cotton cleaners prior to the extractor-feeder/gin stand caused increa...

  10. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: farmers' varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A. J. G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides (93%), seed treatment (90%) or insecticides (41%). In contrast barley growers had low awareness (36%) and use (0.5%) of modern varieties, herbicides (4%), insecticides (3%) and fertilizers (56%). Gra...

  11. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A. J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the functioning of the wheat seed system in four major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. A total of 304 wheat growers were interviewed in Arsi, West Shoa, North Shoa, and East Gojam zones. Most wheat growers w...

  12. Seed production and quality of pinus durangensis mart., from seed areas and a seed stand in durango, mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development. (author)

  13. Commercial Seed Lots Exhibit Reduced Seed Dormancy in Comparison to Wild Seed Lots of Echinacea purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Luping; Wang, Xiping; Chen, Ying; Scalzo, Richard; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Davis, Jeanine M.; Hancock, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Seed germination patterns were studied in E. purpurea (L.) Moench grouped by seed source, one group of seven lots from commercially cultivated populations and a second group of nine lots regenerated from ex situ conserved wild populations. Germination tests were conducted in a growth chamber in light (40 ?mol·m?2·s?1) or darkness at 25 °C for 20 days after soaking the seeds in water for 10 minutes. Except for two seed lots from wild populations, better germination was observed for com...

  14. Brassinosteroid functions in Arabidopsis seed development

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wen-bo; Lin, Wen-hui

    2013-01-01

    Seed development of flowering plant is a complicated process controlled by a signal network. Double fertilization generates 2 zygotic products (embryo and endosperm). Embryo gives rise to a daughter plant while endosperm provides nutrients for embryo during embryogenesis and germination. Seed coat differentiates from maternally derived integument and encloses embryo and endosperm. Seed size/mass and number comprise final seed yield, and seed shape also contributes to seed development and weig...

  15. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  16. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  17. Seed dormancy in alpine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-10-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

  18. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  19. Differential predation of forage seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

  20. Seed coat thickness data clarifies seed size-seed persistence tradeoffs in Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoretical models predict that seed size and seedbank persistence evolve interdependently such that strong selection for one trait corresponds with weak selection for the other. This framework is supported by empirical data but conclusive evidence is lacking. In this study, we expand the seed size-...

  1. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mcguire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social relationships influence access to off-farm seed for a major crop. Seed shortfalls are common, and farmer¿farmer exchange is important for providing locally-adapted seed to fill this gap, but access varies...

  2. Effect of seed maturity on sensitiviy of seed towards physical sanitation treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, S. P. C.; Birnbaum, Y. E.; Rop, N.; Jalink, H.; Forsberg, G.; Kromphardt, C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2006-01-01

    Physical sanitation methods are used by the seed industry to prevent transmission of seed-borne diseases, but sensitivity varies between seed lots. The effect of seed maturity on the sensitivity to hot water, aerated steam and electron treatments was studied. Two Brassica oleracea L. and two Daucus carota L. seed lots from commercial production were selected for containing relatively large amounts of less mature seeds. Each seed lot was sorted into three maturity fractions based on the levels...

  3. Influence of Seed Size and Seed Rate on Phenology, Yield and Quality of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Ullah Chaudhry; Imtiaz Hussain

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size and seed rate on wheat performance. It was concluded that yield components like number of fertile tillers, spike length, 1000-grain weight were significantly affected by seed size and seed rate. Similarly photobiomass producing contributers like plant density and plant height were also found responsive to seed sizes. Seed sizes and seed rates also showed significant results regarding phenology. Protein content, however was ...

  4. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Ombir Singh; Altaf Hussain Sofi

    2011-01-01

    A clonal seed orchard (CSO) of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand) was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correla...

  5. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill).

    OpenAIRE

    Illipronti, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production conditions, and into the importance of the seed lot quality for crop performance including quality of seeds produced. Cv. IAS-5 (determinate growth habit) was used in all studies. Differences in characteristics w...

  6. EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE BLACK PLASTIC MULCH ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS UNDER SEMI-ARID REGION CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadeen, Atif Y.

    2014-01-01

    Water use efficiency in agriculture can be enhanced by several strategies mainly by reducing evaporation from the soil surface. The mulching techniques were being used widely in irrigated crop production worldwide. The mulching techniques can be also implemented in summer vegetables production under rain-fed conditions. The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of polyethylene black plastic mulch on growth and yield of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus and summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. u...

  7. Evaluation of the Uptake and Accumulation of Metals by Some Commonly Irrigated Vegetables in Soils Treated with Different Concentrations of these Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Haliru, M.; Ajibola, V. O.; Agbaji, E. B.

    2009-01-01

    The uptake of some trace elements namely, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead by some vegetables commonly irrigated were studied under glasshouse conditions. Experiments were conducted in plastic pots using some selected vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and pepper (Capsicum annum) grown on sandy loam soils treated with different concentrations of these metals. The treatments investigated include zero application (control), 10, 50 and 100 ?g dm-3 metal...

  8. Nutrição mineral de hortaliças: XIX - absorção de macro e micronutrientes pela cultura do quiabeiro (Hibiscus esculentum L.) / Mineral nutrition of vegetable crops: XIX. absorption of macro and micronutrientes by okra plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. C. B., Costa; H. P., Haag; J. R., Sarruge.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar aspectos da nutrição mineral do quiabeiro (Hibiscus esculentus L.), no que concerne a: quantidades de macro e micronutrientes extraídos nas diversas fases do desenvolvimento, em duas variedades (Campinas 1 e Green Velvet). Sementes de ambas variedades f [...] oram postas a germinar em vasos contendo silica e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa. Plantas foram coletadas em períodos de 10 dias até aos 70 dias de idade, separadas em caule, folhas, flores e frutos. No material coletado foi determinado o peso da matéria seca e analizado quantitativamente para macro e micronutrientes, com excessão do cloro. Observou-se que o desenvolvimento em altura é idêntico em ambas as variedades; variedade Campinas 1 apresenta maior peso de matéria seca no final do ciclo; a extração dos nutrientes é lenta até aos 20 dias, acentuando-se após este período até o final do ciclo, em ambas as variedades; a extração de potássio pela var. Green Velvet é aproximadamente o dobro da var. Campinas 1; a var. Campinas 1 extrai maiores quantidades de micronutrientes. Abstract in english Plants of the varieties. - Campinas 1 and Green Velvet, were cultivated under nutrition solution conditions (SARRUGE, 1970). Periodically, every 10 days, from the 10th day up plants were harvested, divided into stalks, leaves, flowers, fruits and analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn an [...] d Mb. Conclusions: Okra plants of the variety Campinas 1 showed a higher dry matter production in confront with the variety Green Velvet at the final stage of growth; The extraction of nutrients by plants of both varieties was rather small until the age of 20 days; The extraction on K by the variety Green Velvet was superior in 100% when compared to the variety Campinas 1. The variety Green Velvet has a greater demand in macronutrients than the variety Campinas ¹; In contrast the variety Campinas 1 extracted superior quantities of the micronutrientes than the variety Green Velvet. On ha of okra plants (20,000) removed the following quantities in nutrients:

  9. Seed dispersal of desert annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D Lawrence; Flores-Martinez, Arturo; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Becerra, Judith X

    2008-08-01

    We quantified seed dispersal in a guild of Sonoran Desert winter desert annuals at a protected natural field site in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Seed production was suppressed under shrub canopies, in the open areas between shrubs, or both by applying an herbicide prior to seed set in large, randomly assigned removal plots (10-30 m diameter). Seedlings were censused along transects crossing the reproductive suppression borders shortly after germination. Dispersal kernels were estimated for Pectocarya recurvata and Schismus barbatus from the change in seedling densities with distance from these borders via inverse modeling. Estimated dispersal distances were short, with most seeds traveling less than a meter. The adhesive seeds of P. recurvata went farther than the small S. barbatus seeds, which have no obvious dispersal adaptation. Seeds dispersed farther downslope than upslope and farther when dispersing into open areas than when dispersing into shrubs. Dispersal distances were short relative to the pattern of spatial heterogeneity created by the shrub and open space mosaic. This suggests that dispersal could contribute to local population buildup, possibly facilitating species coexistence. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that escape in time via delayed germination is likely to be more important for desert annuals than escape in space. PMID:18724732

  10. [Metabolic control of seed germination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusse, Julie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Job, Claudette; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Job, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    We have used proteomics to better characterize germination and early seedling vigor in sugarbeet. Our strategy includes (1) construction of proteome reference maps for dry and germinating seeds of a high-vigor reference seed lot; (2) investigation of the specific tissue accumulation of proteins (root, cotyledon, perisperm); (3) investigation of changes in protein expression profiles detected in the reference seed lot subjected to different vigor-modifying treatments, e.g. aging and/or priming. More than 1 000 sugarbeet seed proteins have been identified by LC/MS-MS mass spectrometry (albumins, globulins and glutelins have been analyzed separately). Due to the conservation of protein sequences and the quality of MS sequencing (more than 10 000 peptide sequences have been obtained), the success rate of protein identification was on the average of 80%. This is to our knowledge the best detailed proteome analysis ever carried out in seeds. The data allowed us to build a detailed metabolic chart of the sugarbeet seed, generating new insights into the molecular mechanisms determining the development of a new seedling. Also, the proteome of a seed-storage tissue as the perisperm is described for the first time. PMID:18980744

  11. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Z.; Jansen, P. A.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques – thread-marking and wire tin-tagging – affected seed fate by placing tagged and untagged seeds in simulated seed sources and caches and comparing removal rates and fates, and by comparing seedling establishment between tagged and untagged seeds. Tagging had litt...

  12. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimi?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g, intergrowth energy (18-37 % and seed germination (39-52 %. In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g, intergrowth energy (84-85 % and seed germination (87-89 % were after application of the method of seed processing T-4 and aft er the fungicides application TF-4. The results showed that unfavorable weather conditions over the production year result with low quality seeds. However, by applying the target methods of seed processing and optimal combination of fungicide doses we can produce the sunflower seeds with regular legislation quality for the market.

  13. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

  14. Seed dormancy and consequences for direct tree seeding

    OpenAIRE

    Frochot, H.; Balandier, P.; Sourisseau, A.

    2009-01-01

    Direct tree seeding was used in the past in afforestation and has nowadays a renewed interest due to its potential low cost, better tree seedling establishment and easiness to use in comparison with tree plantation. However many problems must still be solved before its full development. Seeds of forest trees are frequently dormant when harvested or after a period of storage and their germination needs the release of dormancy, either by exposition to natural climate, or by artificial means whe...

  15. Early diversification of seeds and seed-like structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestianni Cyrille

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The seed habit is one of the most important evolutionary acquisition in plant evolution. It allowed colonisation of new ecological niches, leading to a level of diversification never observed before. The seed habit involves occurrence of a single functional megaspore within an indehiscent megasporangium (nucellus, development of an endosporic megagametophyte, enclosure of the nucellus by an integument, and capture of pollen before dispersal from the sporophyte.

  16. Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

  17. Getting Acquainted with a Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    Description: In this activity students become acquainted with the anatomy and biology of seeds. They will use lenses and scales and make drawings to scale. Students will measure and calculate magnifications and they will begin to understand relationships among these. They will organize and summarize their data and, as they do so, they will be developing the understanding and skills needed to undertake more detailed investigations on the biology and reproduction of Fast Plants.Learning ObjectivesThis activity is designed to strengthen students' observational and quantitative skills. In participating in this activity students will:- learn to use magnifying lenses, microscopes and dissecting tools for detailed observation; - measure scales with rulers; - draw to scale, with accuracy and precision to understand scale and magnification; - learn features of the external anatomy of seeds that are associated with certain features of the internal anatomy of seeds; and - estimate the amount of water required to be taken up by seeds in order to initiate germination.

  18. Alkaloids from Macoubea guianensis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L A; Bisset, N G; Phillipson, J D; Zarucchi, J L

    1985-01-01

    From the seeds of Macoubea guianensis (Apocynaceae), mixtures of the antipodes of two indole alkaloids, vincadifformine and vincadine, have been isolated; in the first the (+)- and in the second the (-)-isomer predominated. PMID:4094465

  19. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Conrad; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms that are designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes increasingly important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  20. Embryo growth in mature celery seeds.

    OpenAIRE

    Toorn, P.

    1989-01-01

    Germination of celery seeds is slow, due to the need for embryo growth before radicle protrusion can occur. Germination rate was correlated with embryo growth rate. Celery seeds with different embryo growth rates were obtained with fluid density separation of a seed lot. Low density seeds germinated faster, due to a larger embryo cell size and a higher embryo cell division rate. It was concluded that the embryo cell size was correlated with the osmotic potential of the true seed. A less negat...

  1. Seed storage proteins in coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bau? Sandra, M. T.; MAZZAFERA PAULO; Santoro Luiz, G.

    2001-01-01

    It has been reported that Coffea arabica seeds contain as the main reserve protein, a legumin-like protein, constituted of two subunits, alpha and beta, of approximately 35 and 20 kDa. In this work the seed proteins of several coffee species and varieties were investigated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. No differences were observed in the electrophoretic profiles among varieties of C. arabica, however, marked differences were observed among species, or even among individuals of some species....

  2. The Seed Challenge - `How many seeds can you get from a single seed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    A 23-page PDF file (644 KB) with a complete set of activities for elementary students (can also work with middle level) to learn about the life cycle of flowering plants. Students predict how many seeds their Fast Plant will produce and engage in planting, growing, observing doing supporting learning activities to understand the life cycle.Carolina Biological sells a kit to accompany this activity for a class of 32 students, containing the seeds and planting materials. Alternatively, the activity can be taught using seeds from a packet of Standard Wisconsin Fast Plants (or seeds from Fast Plants you grow yourself) and your own potting mix and growing system.A 24-hour fluorescent light source is needed for this activity.

  3. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  4. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombir Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  5. Relationships among the seed rain, seed bank and vegetation of a Hawaiian forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, D.R. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-02-01

    Hawaiian ecosystems are prone to invasion by alien plant species. I compared the seed rain, seed bank, and vegetation of a native Hawaiian forest to examine the potential role that seed ecology plays in allowing alien species to invade a native forest. Absolute cover of seed plants in the forest was 126 %, annual seed rain was 5713 seeds m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, and the mean density of seedlings emerging from the seed bank averaged across four seasons was 1020/m{sup 2}. The endemic tree Metrosideros polymorpha was the most abundant species in the vegetation, seed rain and winter seed bank. Overall, native seed plants comprised 95 % of the relative cover in the vegetation and 99 % of the seeds in the seed rain, but alien species comprised 67 % of the seeds in the seed bank. Alien species tended to form persistent seed banks while native species formed transient or pseudo-persistent seed banks. Dominance of the seed bank by alien species with persistent seed banks suggests that aliens are favourably placed to increase in abundance in the vegetation if the forest is disturbed 55 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  6. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Branimir Šimi?; Brankica Svitlica; Jasenka ?osi?; Luka Andri?; Vlatka Rozman; Jelena Posti?; Ivica Liovi?

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrow...

  7. CT, MR, and ultrasound image artifacts from prostate brachytherapy seed implants: The impact of seed size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of brachytherapy seed size on the quality of x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) images and seed localization through comparison of the 6711 and 9011 125I sources. Methods: For CT images, an acrylic phantom mimicking a clinical implantation plan and embedded with low contrast regions of interest (ROIs) was designed for both the 0.774 mm diameter 6711 (standard) and the 0.508 mm diameter 9011 (thin) seed models (Oncura, Inc., and GE Healthcare, Arlington Heights, IL). Image quality metrics were assessed using the standard deviation of ROIs between the seeds and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) within the low contrast ROIs. For US images, water phantoms with both single and multiseed arrangements were constructed for both seed sizes. For MR images, both seeds were implanted into a porcine gel and imaged with pelvic imaging protocols. The standard deviation of ROIs and CNR values were used as metrics of artifact quantification. Seed localization within the CT images was assessed using the automated seed finder in a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system. The number of erroneous seed placements and the average and maximum error in seed placements were recorded as metrics of the localization accuracy. Results: With the thin seeds, CT image noise was reduced from 48.5 ± 0.2 to 32.0 ± 0.2 HU and CNR improved by a median value of 74% when compared with the standard seeds. Ulhen compared with the standard seeds. Ultrasound image noise was measured at 50.3 ± 17.1 dB for the thin seed images and 50.0 ± 19.8 dB for the standard seed images, and artifacts directly behind the seeds were smaller and less prominent with the thin seed model. For MR images, CNR of the standard seeds reduced on average 17% when using the thin seeds for all different imaging sequences and seed orientations, but these differences are not appreciable. Automated seed localization required an average (±SD) of 7.0 ± 3.5 manual corrections in seed positions for the thin seed scans and 3.0 ± 1.2 manual corrections in seed positions for the standard seed scans. The average error in seed placement was 1.2 mm for both seed types and the maximum error in seed placement was 2.1 mm for the thin seed scans and 1.8 mm for the standard seed scans. Conclusions: The 9011 thin seeds yielded significantly improved image quality for CT and US images but no significant differences in MR image quality.

  8. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  9. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanovi? Mirjana; Pi?uri?-Jovanovi? Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L) of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude pro...

  10. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes. versions of linac seeding schemes.

  12. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. PMID:24920763

  13. Vigour tests as indicators of seed viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloševi? Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed marks the beginning of each plant production and therefore ensuring its quality is the priority of modern seed science and a prerequisite for obtaining high yields of all plant species. Determination of seed quality and its viability indicates what seed lots can be placed onto the market, and for that reason it is very important to have reliable methods and tests to be used for seed quality and seed vigour testing. The term vigour of viability is used to describe the physiological characteristics of seeds that control its ability to germinate rapidly in the soil and to tolerate various, mostly negative environmental factors. MCDONALD grouped vigour tests into three groups: Physical tests - determine seed characteristics such as size and mass. These tests are inexpensive, quick, can be applied to large number of samples, and are positively correlated with seed vigour. The main feature of seed development is accumulation of nutritive materials, which is also in direct correlation with vigour, i.e. with size and mass of seed; Physiological tests - using germination and growth parameters. There are two types of these tests. First type, when germination is done under favourable conditions (standard laboratory germination, and test of growth intensity. Second type, when seed is exposed to unfavourable environmental conditions (cold test, accelerated aging test, and Hiltner test; Biochemical tests - are considered as indirect methods for estimation of seed value. These are Tetrazolijum test, conductometric measurements, enzyme activity and respiration.

  14. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Tian; Bo Guan; Daowei Zhou; Junbao Yu; Guangdi Li; Yujie Lou

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended pri...

  15. Seed protein variability in safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obreht Dragana R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Total seed proteins in two safflower species (Carthamus tinctorius L. and C. lanatus L have been separated by the SDS-PAGE method. Their molecular masses ranged from 120 to 20 kDa. All C. tinctorius genotypes under study exhibited identical electrophoretic patterns which differed from the pattern exhibited by the wild species C. lanatus in the number and position of protein bands. Differences in protein profiles occurred in regions around 60 kDa, from 43 to 36 kDa and around 30 kDa. Statistically significant differences in seed protein content were found among safflower genotypes from different countries as well as among genotypes from the same country but from different sites. The highest seed protein content was found in a genotype originating from the USA.

  16. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds §...

  17. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69 Agriculture Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69...

  18. Internal damage identification of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray method to determine internal damage of seed, mainly its endosperm, was used. A roentgenogram obtained by this method was analysed manually only (at present time). Number of cracks, size and location was assessed for each kernel of sample. Kernels of wheat, barley and malt were used. An algorithm for analysis of biological damage of barley was used. In this case the surface of kernels of barley was damage. For quantification of the internal damage of seeds it is very important to obtain the clear roentgenograms for next semi-automatic processing. Current works are undertaken to computerize the analysis of the roentgenograms. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  19. Study on Sainfoin Seed Mycoflora in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Nekoei

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study fungi associated with seeds of sainfoin, several seed samples of sainfoin were collected from Isfahan, Ardabil, Zanjan and eastern Azerbaijan provinces, Iran. Seed lots, only half of which were surface sterilized, were allowed to grow on PDA, SMA, MA, sterilized wet paper and drenched sands. The dishes containing seeds were incubated at 25°C with alternate cycles of 12-hour fluorescent light. After seven days, fungi growing from the seeds were transferred to the selective media and subjected to morphological studies. Single spore or hyphal tips from these transfers were the basis for all identification procedures. The most prevalent fungi associated with sainfoin seed were Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus, although Ulocladium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Nigrospora, Stemphylium, Trichothecium and Botrytis were also isolated in low incidence from these seed lots. The isolates of Uromyces and Oidiopsis were also obtained when the seed samples were examined by washing method.

  20. Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farooq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutrient seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.

  1. Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Farooq; A, Wahid; Kadambot H. M, Siddique.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutri [...] ent seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.

  2. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  3. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture,...

  4. PRESSURIZED FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUMPKIN SEED AND PUMPKIN SEED PRESSED CAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin seed oil is one of the top three nutritional oils (hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, pumpkin seed oil) that provide the highest essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) required for healthy mind/body functioning. It is known to prevent and alleviate bladder and prostate problems. The oil th...

  5. Preliminary Studies on the Characterization of Orange Seed and Pawpaw Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Ihedioha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of seeds and oil extracted from both papaya and orange seeds. The seeds of papaya and orange are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of papaya and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. The seeds were collected from homes and the oils obtained by solvent extraction were analysed for pH, moisture content, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification value, free fatty acid, acid value, iodine value and peroxide value. The orange seed cake was analysed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, nitrogen and crude protein. Results showed that the oil content of the pawpaw seeds was 25.8% while that of the orange seeds was 34%. Crude protein of the orange seed was 43.72%, which was higher than that of established high protein seeds and nuts. The orange seeds had higher yield of oil than the pawpaw seeds and the nutritive content of the orange seeds makes it suitable as feed for animals. However, the acid value for pawpaw seed oil was 47.12 while that of orange seed oil was 51.40. With respect to the acid value, the oil from pawpaw seed might be better oil. However, both oils still need to be refined before they are utilized.

  6. LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROLS SEED-BORNE CHALCIDS WITHOUT REDUCING GERMINATION IN CORIANDER SEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds are susceptible to infestation by chalcid (Systole) wasps which often render the seeds inviable. Control of chalcids in seeds is a prerequisite for supplying coriander germplasm to requestors throughout the world. Levels of chalcid infestation in coriander seed...

  7. The functional response of a hoarding seed predator to mast seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Lane, Jeffrey E; LaMontagne, Jalene M; McAdam, Andrew G; Krebs, Charles J; Humphries, Murray M

    2010-09-01

    Mast seeding involves the episodic and synchronous production of large seed crops by perennial plants. The predator satiation hypothesis proposes that mast seeding maximizes seed escape because seed predators consume a decreasing proportion of available seeds with increasing seed production. However, the seed escape benefits of masting depend not only on whether predators are satiated at high levels of seed production, but also on the shape of their functional response (type II vs. type III), and the actual proportion of available seeds that they consume at different levels of seed production. North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) are the primary vertebrate predator of white spruce (Picea glauca) mast seed crops in many boreal regions because they hoard unopened cones in underground locations, preempting the normal sequence of cone opening, seed dispersal, and seed germination. We document the functional response of cone-hoarding by red squirrels across three non-mast years and one mast year by estimating the number of cones present in the territories of individual red squirrels and the proportion of these cones that they hoarded each autumn. Even though red squirrels are not constrained by the ingestive and on-body (fat reserves) energy reserve limitations experienced by animals that consume seeds directly, most squirrels hoarded seed escape in non-mast years may help to explain why all spruce cone production is not concentrated into fewer, larger, mast years. PMID:20957961

  8. Water uptake curve in physic nut seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Caetano Pimenta; Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas,; Bruno Galvêas Laviola

    2014-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a useful species in oil production for energy purposes, however its agricultural crop counts on little scientific knowledge. This work aimed to determine the water uptake curve in physic nut seeds, with the purpose to help future researches depending on this information. Two batches of seeds were used, represented by two sub-samples (intact seeds and dead seeds) of each batch. The water uptake curve was determined weighing samples at specified intervals of t...

  9. Seed dormancy and germination: light and nitrate.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilhorst, H. W. M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable conditions, such as the wrong season, low light irradiance, or an unfavorable soil composition. Seeds of many species may remain in the soil, either in a dry state or fully imbibed, for hundreds of years without losing thei...

  10. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M. P. M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W. J. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...

  11. Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, M.; Wahid, A.; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutrient seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improvin...

  12. Potassium Fertilization and Physiological Soybean Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Everton Vinicius Zambiazzi; Adriano Teodoro Bruzi; Maria Laene Moreira De Carvalho; Igor Oliveri Soares; Alan Mario Zuffo; Pedro Milanez de Rezende; Diego Henrique Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of increased application rates of potassium on the physiological quality of seeds from different soybean cultivars. Seeds from two locations (São Gotardo, MG and Lavras, MG, Brazil) were used. After harvest, the seeds were sent to the Central Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras. We used a randomized design in a 4 × 6 factorial arrangement of four cultivars and six doses of potassium. All tests were perform...

  13. Efficient chaining of seeds in ordered trees

    OpenAIRE

    Allali, Julien; Chauve, Ce?dric; Ferraro, Pascal; Gaillard, Anne-laure

    2010-01-01

    We consider here the problem of chaining seeds in ordered trees. Seeds are mappings between two trees Q and T and a chain is a subset of non overlapping seeds that is consistent with respect to postfix order and ancestrality. This problem is a natural extension of a similar problem for sequences, and has applications in computational biology, such as mining a database of RNA secondary structures. For the chaining problem with a set of m constant size seeds, we describe an al...

  14. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  15. Produtividade e estado nutricional do quiabeiro em função da densidade populacional e do biofertilizante suíno Effects of plant population and swine biofertilizer application on yield and nutrient content of okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Nogueira Sediyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e o estado nutricional do quiabeiro 'Santa Cruz', cultivado em sistema orgânico, em função de populações de plantas e doses de biofertilizante suíno. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Oratórios (MG, no período de 16/10/2007 a 22/2/2008. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo duas populações de plantas e cinco doses de biofertilizante, obtido pela fermentação anaeróbica de dejeto líquido de suíno. As populações foram 23.809 e 35.714 plantas ha-1, obtidas no espaçamento de 1,4 x 0,30 m com uma planta por cova e 1,4 x 0,40 m com duas plantas por cova. As doses de biofertilizante foram: 0; 6; 12; 24 e 48 m³ ha-1, sendo 80% aplicado no sulco de plantio, 15 dias antes do transplante, e 20% em cobertura, aos 30 dias após o transplante das mudas. Avaliaram-se teor foliar de nutrientes, índice SPAD, altura de plantas, número de hastes e produção de frutos comerciais e não comerciais. A aplicação do biofertilizante suíno proporcionou plantas com bom estado nutricional. O índice SPAD correlacionou positivamente com teores foliares de N, sendo as maiores concentrações obtidas nas maiores doses de biofertilizante, especialmente na menor população de plantas. O número e a produção de frutos comerciais por planta foram maiores quando se utilizou menor população de plantas. A maior produtividade obtida na população de 35.714 plantas ha-1 foi 31,23 t ha-1 e na população de 23.809 plantas ha-1 foi 21,90 t ha-1, ambas alcançadas com a maior dose de biofertilizante aplicada. A maior produtividade comercial de frutos de quiabo foi obtida na maior população de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and nutritional status of organically cultivated Santa Cruz okra as a function of planting densities and doses of swine biofertilizer. The experiment was carried out at the EPAMIG Experimental Farm, in Oratorios-MG, Brazil, from 16/10/2007 to 22/02/2008. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with four replications, in a 2 x 5 factorial, with two plant populations and five doses of biofertilizer obtained by the fermentation of liquid swine waste. The two populations were 23809 and 35714 plants.ha-1, obtained in the 1.4 x 0.30 m spacing with a plant per hole and 1.4 x 0.40 m with two plants per hole. Biofertilizer doses were: 0; 6; 12; 24 and 48 m3.ha-1, with 80% applied in furrow 15 days before transplantation and 20% top-dressing at 30 days after seedling transplantation. The characteristics evaluated included nutrient leaf content, SPAD index, plant height, number of stems and production of commercial and non-commercial fruits. The use o the swine biofertilizer gave plants with a good nutritional status. The SPAD index correlated positively with N leaf content, with the highest concentrations at the highest doses of the swine biofertilizer, mainly in the smallest plant population. The number and commercial fruit production per plant were larger when a smaller plant population was used. The highest yield achieved in the population of 35714 plants ha-1 was 31.23 ton ha-1, and in the population of 23809 plant.ha-1 was 21.9 ton ha-1, both at the highest dose of biofertilizer. The highest commercial yield of okra fruits was obtained with the largest plant population.

  16. Study on the seed laser phase error multiplication in seeded free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanglei, E-mail: wangguanglei@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Chao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Dong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Deng, Haixiao, E-mail: denghaixiao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-02-11

    Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) hold a great promise for generating high brilliant radiation with a narrow bandwidth. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser noise will be amplified in the harmonic up-conversion process, which may degrade the output radiation pulse quality of a seeded FEL. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies of seeded FEL schemes with seed laser imperfections are presented. It is found that the slippage effect in the modulator will slow down the multiplication process of the seed laser phase error, which may aid in the production of transform-limited short-wavelength pulses for seeded FELs.

  17. Study on the seed laser phase error multiplication in seeded free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) hold a great promise for generating high brilliant radiation with a narrow bandwidth. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser noise will be amplified in the harmonic up-conversion process, which may degrade the output radiation pulse quality of a seeded FEL. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies of seeded FEL schemes with seed laser imperfections are presented. It is found that the slippage effect in the modulator will slow down the multiplication process of the seed laser phase error, which may aid in the production of transform-limited short-wavelength pulses for seeded FELs

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, J. G.; Boelt, B.; Rolston, M. P.; Chastain, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour.

  19. Physicochemical Properties of Moringa stenopetala (Haleko Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Seifu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical properties of Moringa stenopetala (Haleko seeds produced in Mella district of Gamo Gofa Zone in southern Ethiopia are reported here for the first time. The average weight of the whole intact seeds (g/100 seeds, the kernel (g/100 seeds and an individual seed (g seed-1 was 73.6, 59.6 and 0.6 g, respectively. The kernel accounted for 79.7% of the seed’s dry weight and the hull accounted for 20.3%. The M. stenopetala seeds analyzed had an average length, width and bulk density of 17.6 mm, 8.2 mm and 0.9 g cm3, respectively. The mean moisture, oil, protein, ash and crude fiber contents of the M. stenopetala seeds analyzed were 6.1, 41.4, 42.6, 4.6 and 5.1 (g/100 g, respectively. The residue that remained after oil extraction of the seeds had an average crude protein content of 55.6 (g/100 g. The results showed that M. stenopetala seed contains high oil and protein contents suggesting that it could be used as important source of oil and protein.

  20. LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA) SEED DORMANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces asexually through adventitious vegetative buds and sexually by seed. Seeds can remain viable in the soil for up to 8 yr. The objectives of this research were to identify seed components which restrict germination and to determine if afterri...

  1. Predation of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be a productive and high-quality cool-season forage, but is considered a weed in some pastures. Italian ryegrass does not form a persistent seed bank and needs to produce sufficient seed annually for effective re-establishment. Before the re-seeding ...

  2. Seasonal Variation in Seed Dispersal by Tamarins Alters Seed Rain in a Secondary Rain Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Culot, Laurence; Mun?oz Lazo, Fernando; Huynen, Marie-claude; Poncin, Pascal; Heymann, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    Reduced dispersal of large seeds into degraded areas is one of the major factors limiting rain forest regeneration, as many seed dispersers capable of transporting large seeds avoid these sites with a limited forest cover. However, the small size of tamarins allows them to use small trees, and hence to disperse seeds into young secondary forests. Seasonal variations in diet and home range use might modify their contribution to forest regeneration through an impact on the seed rain. For a 2-yr...

  3. Natural variation for seed longevity and seed dormancy are negatively correlated in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, T. P.; Keizer, L. C. P.; Eeuwijk, F.; Smeekens, S. C. M.; Bentsink, L.

    2012-01-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy and seed longevity described as two traits. Seed dormancy is defined as a temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate in conditions that favor germination, whereas seed longevity is defined as se...

  4. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A. J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed samples from Ethiopia and 206 wheat and 200 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples from Syria were collected from major wheat and barley growing regions to investigate the quality of seed obtained from...

  5. Smallholder seed practices : maize seed management in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Badstue, L. B.

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to contribute to an in­creased understanding of what is commonly referred to as 'local seed systems', 'farmer seed systems' or 'informal seed systems', both in relation to seed supply for agricultural production and in relation to the conservation of important crop genetic diversity. Within a general understanding of seed as an essential input for agricultural production, as well as a fundamental source of germplasm for crop improvement, this study offers a detailed analys...

  6. Seed disperser effectiveness: the quantity component and patterns of seed rain for Prunus mahaleb

    OpenAIRE

    Jordano, Pedro; Schupp, Eugene W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the seed dispersal stage of the Prunus mahaleb–frugivorous bird inter- action from fruit removal through seed deliver y within the context of disperser effectiveness. The effectiveness of a frugivorous species as a seed disperser is the contribution it makes to plant fitness. Effectiveness depends on the quantity of seed dispersed (‘‘quantity component’’) and the quality of dispersal provided each seed (‘‘quality component’’). ...

  7. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez-zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-rodri?guez, Vi?ctor; Escobar, Federico; Ro?s, Matthias; Oyama, Ken; Ibarra-manri?quez, Guillermo; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Chapman, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rai...

  8. Gastropod Seed Dispersal: An Invasive Slug Destroys Far More Seeds in Its Gut than Native Gastropods

    OpenAIRE

    Blattmann, Tamara; Boch, Steffen; Tu?rke, Manfred; Knop, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Seed dispersal is one of the most important mechanisms shaping biodiversity, and animals are one of the key dispersal vectors. Animal seed dispersal can directly or indirectly be altered by invasive organisms through the establishment of new or the disruption of existing seed dispersal interactions. So far it is known for a few gastropod species that they ingest and defecate viable plant seeds and consequently act as seed dispersers, referred to as gastropodochory. In a multi-species experime...

  9. Climate Kids: Make Seed Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycled paper produced from the instructions provided contains an additional component - wildflower seeds. The entire paper disc can be planted; the sprouting of the flowers can be observed and analyzed. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

  10. ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SEED OILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The film-forming properties of canola (CAN), soybean (SBO), and jojoba (JO) seed oils under elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions were investigated to determine if differences in their chemical and physical properties affect their EHD properties. Polyalphaolefin (PAO), whose EHD properties have been ...

  11. Sowing the Seeds of Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Eric Chudler

    2014-04-04

    Sowing the Seeds of Neuroscience seeks to increase student interest and understanding of neuroscience through simple, safe lab investigations using plants. The site contains 8 laboratory investigations exploring properties of compounds found in plants and their effect on the behavior and growth of invertebrates. The site also provides general neuroscience and medicinal plant information.

  12. Seed microRNA Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulatory molecules that play critical roles in gene expression. The biological functions of miRNAs are important for developmental processes in plants and animals. Little is known about the functions of miRNAs in seeds. To gain a better understand-ing of the regulation o...

  13. SEED BIOLOGY OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seed of Medicago truncatula have morphological features typical of dicotyledons, and are borne in a spine-covered spiral pod. The cotyledons are rich in protein (35-45%), the major storage molecule. They accumulate approximately 10% lipids and only traces of starch. The most abundant proteins a...

  14. Noise Amplification in HGHG Seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential element of seeded FEL based on high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) or echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) is an undulator-modulator, in which interaction with a laser beam modulates the beam energy. We study how the interaction of electrons in this undulator-modulator changes the noise properties of the beam.

  15. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  16. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  17. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  18. Production of true seed shallots in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, L.; Basuki, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Shallot production in Indonesia is based on crops grown from seed bulbs. The introduction of True Seed Shallot (TSS) could be an option to improve competiveness of Indonesian shallot production. In the period 2007 till 2010 a research project was conducted to improve growing techniques of TSS. Seed emergence in the nursery was improved if the seed was sown in furrows 0.5-1.5 cm deep and by closing the furrow after sowing with soil instead of burned rice husks. Compared to traditional seed bul...

  19. Natural variation for seed longevity and seed dormancy are negatively correlated in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Keizer, Paul; van Eeuwijk, Fred; Smeekens, Sjef; Bentsink, Leónie

    2012-12-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy and seed longevity described as two traits. Seed dormancy is defined as a temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate in conditions that favor germination, whereas seed longevity is defined as seed viability after dry storage (storability). In plants, the association of seed longevity with seed dormancy has not been studied in detail. This is surprising given the ecological, agronomical, and economic importance of seed longevity. We studied seed longevity to reveal its genetic regulators and its association with seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Integrated quantitative trait locus analyses for seed longevity, in six recombinant inbred line populations, revealed five loci: Germination Ability After Storage1 (GAAS1) to GAAS5. GAAS loci colocated with seed dormancy loci, Delay Of Germination (DOG), earlier identified in the same six recombinant inbred line populations. Both GAAS loci and their colocation with DOG loci were validated by near isogenic lines. A negative correlation was observed, deep seed dormancy correlating with low seed longevity and vice versa. Detailed analysis on the collocating GAAS5 and DOG1 quantitative trait loci revealed that the DOG1-Cape Verde Islands allele both reduces seed longevity and increases seed dormancy. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a negative correlation between seed longevity and seed dormancy. PMID:23085841

  20. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method. PMID:25775790

  1. Millet seeds mixed with phosphate fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soratto Rogério Peres

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The small size of millet seeds is the main cause for lack of uniformity at sowing, especially because most farmers do not have appropriate seeders. Mixing seeds and phosphate fertilizers would improve seeding, resulting in a better crop stand. To study the effects of such mixture on the physiological quality of seeds, millet seeds were mixed with single superphosphate or triple superphosphate (1 kg of seeds: 2.5 kg of fertilizer, and stored in plastic bags for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours before sowing, under laboratory conditions. After storage, seeds were separated and their moisture and electrical conductivity were determined. Seeds were then submitted to germination test under laboratory conditions. Seeds mixed with fertilizer and non-mixed seeds, utilized as a control, were sown under greenhouse conditions and the percentage of emergence and seedling emergence speed were determined. Because of acidic residues, the single and triple superphosphates negatively affected the germination and vigor of millet seeds proportionally to the increase in time of contact with the fertilizer.

  2. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  3. Seed germination, Dispersal and Seed Bank in Heracleum mantegazzianum.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Krinke, L.; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Thompson, K.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 74-91 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Germination * Dormancy * Seed Bank Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Seed Security: Exploring the Potential for Smallholder Production of Certified Seed Crop at Household Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Munyaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa face food and nutrition security challenges arising from small land size, unavailability of, and poor access to quality seed, inter alia. A survey was conducted in the Zaka district of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe, to investigate the factors that limit smallholder farmers’ ability to produce, store or sell certified seed. The factors considered were the availability of certified seed, the appropriateness of storage facilities for seed storage at household level and stored seed pest management. A standard structured questionnaire was administered, between January and May 2013 to 301 farming households. The results showed that the majority of the farmers (66 % could not procure locally all the seed they required. The only crop which farmers were assured of local availability as certified seed was maize. Farmers reported that the main reasons for the lack of seed for the other crops were: shortage of foundation seed (39.5 %, lack of knowledge on seed production (34.8 %, seed storage problems (16.2 % and small land size (8.6 %. The majority of the farmers had their stored seed affected by pests with insects accounting for 82.7 % of the damage and loss. The storage facilities used by farmers were not appropriate for effective pest control. Farmers used bedrooms (57 %, granaries (19 %, metal drums (11.5 %, kitchens (10.4 % and other places (2.5% to store seed. Some of the facilities such as bedrooms create pest management challenges. The significant correlation between some seed storage factors indicate these factors should be monitored concurrently when dealing with smallholder farmers as they affect each other. Any seed intervention aimed at increasing availability of quality seed to farmers needs a holistic lens which considers the whole seed value chain from production, storage, pest management up to marketing, for it to have any meaningful impact. Not all other crop seeds were available, with sugar bean seed having the highest shortage. There is potential for business development if the seed crops in short supply are produced locally, especially after further verification of effective demand. Research institutions should explore mechanisms of increasing the uptake of their newer varieties by smallholder farmers through increased early interactions with the farmers. Smallholder farmers can be contracted by seed-houses to produce certified seed or to establish community seed enterprises that supply certified seed in their local communities. This would require adequate capacity building and availing desired foundation seed.

  5. Methods of estimating seed banks with reference to long-term seed burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Goto, Masaki; Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

    2004-06-01

    We compared two standard seed-bank estimation techniques using buried seed populations that had been covered to depths of >1 m by volcanic deposits for 20 years. Some seeds were germinated in a greenhouse (germination method [GM]), and other seeds were extracted by flotation using 50% K(2)CO(3) solution (flotation method [FM]). In total, FM could detect more species and seeds in the soils than GM. However, many species that were extracted by FM did not germinate by GM and smaller seeds were extracted to a lesser extent by FM. FM and GM have distinct advantages and disadvantages. We concluded that the application of a single method should be avoided in estimating seed banks, in particular for long-lived seed banks, because the seeds cannot be readily germinated and are structurally weak. PMID:15034763

  6. Seed Systems Support in Kenya: Consideration for an Integrated Seed Sector Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Munyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector Development (ISSD approach. The ISSD approach has evolved as a response to the almost exclusive focus on formal seed systems in seed sector development programs. Instead, ISSD aims to recognize and support all the diverse seed systems that exist in a particular country. An analysis of the evolution of seed policies and regulatory frameworks in Kenya since independence indeed exposes a continuous support for the formal seed sector while support given to the informal sector has merely been intended to transform it into formal. In reality, however, the formal and informal sectors appear to be made up of a plurality of seed systems, with the informal seed systems being the main source of seed for most crops. The article continues with analysing some of Kenya’s recent policy shifts in order to explore how its new seed policy and legislative framework may fit within ISSD principles, and concludes with some recommendations on how the variety of seeds systems that exists on the ground and in particular local seed systems can be supported.

  7. The relationship between seed dormancy, seed size and weediness, in Crepis tectorum (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S

    1990-06-01

    I examined the germination characteristics of weed and outcrop populations of Crepis tectorum to test the hypothesis that the presumably more ephemeral weed habitat favors the highest levels of seed dormancy. The winter annual habit characterizing most plants of this species was reflected in a rapid germination of seeds sown in late summer. A slightly higher fraction of surface-sown seeds of weed plants delayed germination. Buried seeds of weed plants also survived better than seeds produced by plants in most outcrop populations, supporting the idea that weediness favors seed dormancy and a persistent seed bank. However, the differences in seed dormancy between the two ecotypes were small and not entirely consistent. Furthermore, high levels of seed dormancy were induced during burial in the outcrop group, suggesting that there is a potential for a dormant seed population in this habitat as well. Demographic data from one of the outcrop populations verified the presence of a large between-year seed bank. Possible environmental factors favoring seed dormancy in outcrop populations are discussed. The unusually large seeds of weedy Crepis contrasts with the relatively small difference in seed dormancy between the two ecotypes. PMID:22160124

  8. Cultivating knowledge on seed systems and seed strategies: Case of the rice crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Moustapha Bèye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives key information about seed systems with the objective of helping countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA to design appropriate strategies based on their own local realities. It starts with an in-depth assessment of the rice seed sector and emphasizes the factors that can influence its development. These factors may be associated with the biological characteristics of the rice crop, the complexity of farming systems, the policy environment, and the markets. The historical background of the seed sector in SSA is described in order to give a clear picture of the different attempts to find solutions in different countries and sub-regions. Five major strategic models and several alternative seed strategies are identified. However, local traditional seed systems will remain the primary source of seed supply for the majority of farmers for many years to come. These systems are based on farmer-saved seed and farmer-to-farmer seed exchanges, which are efficient tools in seed dissemination and food security. It is time to recognize local traditional systems and their contribution to the maintenance of seed quality and crop diversity and to develop tools for their better utilization. The community-based seed system (CBSS is proposed as such a tool. CBSS encourages technicians to recognize local traditional seed systems and to build integrated seed approaches that take into consideration local realities and the socio-cultural dimension of seed within African communities. This will likely require a transition period of 5 to 10 years to build the fundamentals of sustainable seed systems through the structuring of the seed sector and the creation of appropriate conditions to ensure food security, enriched biodiversity and sustainable production. With climate change, local traditional seed systems, as well as integrated seed approaches, will likely play a more important role to improve the performance of agricultural systems while ensuring farmer autonomy.

  9. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2013-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seed quality is important for subsequent establishment of baby leaf and other spinach products. The indeterminate flowering pattern in spinach produces seeds of different sizes, and consequently a non-uniform seed lot. Sorting seeds based on novel sorting methods might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest times 6 d apart were selected for further studies of seed development and germination counts. Analysis of mean germination time (MGT) of four germination counts (3, 7, 14 and 21 d) showed that smaller seed sizes ( 3.25 mm). A larger proportion of 2.5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide a useful tool for enhancing seed quality. Here our results demonstrate that a greater number of seeds with a low CF level had germinated on day 3 compared to the seeds with high CF levels. It is of relevance to develop a technology that could identify seeds that are sufficiently developed to germinate and successfully establish in the field regardless of seed size.

  10. Comparing seed removal of 16 pine species differing in invasiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-gavila?n, Amparo; Lalagu?e, H.; Vila?, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Small seed mass is regarded as a robust trait related to invasion success, especially in pines. However, few studies have explored whether inva- siveness related to small seed mass is also associated to low levels of seed predation in the recipient commu- nity. We conducted field cafeteria seed removal experiments comparing 16 Pinus species that differ in seed mass to test if seed removal might impose biotic resistance to Pinus spp. and if there are differences between species related to seed...

  11. Suppressive mechanism of seed coat pigmentation in yellow soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Senda, Mineo; Kurauchi, Tasuku; Kasai, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Shizen

    2012-01-01

    In soybean seeds, numerous variations in colors and pigmentation patterns exist, most of which are observed in the seed coat. Patterns of seed coat pigmentation are determined by four alleles (I, ii, ik and i) of the classically defined I locus, which controls the spatial distribution of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in the seed coat. Most commercial soybean cultivars produce yellow seeds with yellow cotyledons and nonpigmented seed coats, which are important traits of high-quality seeds...

  12. Peroxidase: Purification from Soybean Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Habib

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase, extracted from soybean seeds and was partially purified by precipitating with ammonium sulfate and 85 % saturation resulted in an increase in the activity of peroxidase up to 1.21 fold. Purification was carried out by diethyl amminoethyl cellulose chromatography and purification fold obtained was 2.62. Then, the enzyme was subjected to 10 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which resulted in a marked decrease in unwanted proteins.

  13. Hormones and tomato seed germination.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of all, it was demonstrated that endogenous ABA plays an important role in induction of primary dormancy, prevention of viviparous germination and arresting cell cycle activities of the radicle-tip c...

  14. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanovi? Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude protein content was so high as the 21.8% of the seeds. Standard procedures were applied to determine the fatty acids composition of the seed oil. The fatty acid profiles of the seed oil showed an unsaturated fatty acid content of 77.4% and the high content of 63.2% of PUFA. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic (18:2 acid in 62.2%. The presence of other fatty acids ranged in 10-14% for oleic (18:1 stearic (18:0 and palmitic (16:0 acids, respectively. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the seed oil was also determined as iodine, acid, saponification, peroxide values and specific gravity.

  15. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Macquet, Audrey; Kronholm, Ilkka; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Sallé, Christine; Poulain, Damien; Granier, Fabienne; Botran, Lucy; Loudet, Olivier; de Meaux, Juliette; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

    2014-03-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 ?-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed. PMID:24625826

  16. Local Evolution of Seed Flotation in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Macquet, Audrey; Kronholm, Ilkka; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Sallé, Christine; Poulain, Damien; Granier, Fabienne; Botran, Lucy; Loudet, Olivier; de Meaux, Juliette; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 ?-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed. PMID:24625826

  17. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  18. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  19. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  20. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  1. Genetic relatedness among developing seeds and intra fruit seed abortion in Dalbergia sissoo (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, G S; Shaanker, R U; Ganeshaiah, K N; Dayanandan, S

    2001-07-01

    Dalbergia sissoo, a wind-dispersed tropical tree, exhibits high intrafruit seed abortion. Of the four to five ovules in the flower, generally one and occasionally two or three develop to maturity. It has been proposed that the seed abortion is a consequence of intense sibling competition for maternal resources and that this competition occurs as an inverse function of the genetic relatedness among the developing seeds. Accordingly, developing seeds compete intensely when they are genetically less related but tend to develop together when genetically more related. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the genetic similarity among the pairs of seeds developing within a pod with that among (a) random pairs from the pool of all seeds, (b) random pairs from single-seeded pods, and (c) random pairs from two-seeded pods, using both randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and isozymes in five trees. We found that the pairs of seeds developing within a pod are genetically more similar than any random pairs of seeds in a tree. Thus the formation of two-seeded pods appear to be associated with increased genetic relatedness among the developing seeds. We discuss the results in the context of possible fitness advantages and then discuss the possible mechanisms that promote tolerance among related seeds. PMID:11454617

  2. Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, S. B.; Esque, T.; Haines, D.; Garnett, M.; Waitman, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is a distinctive and charismatic plant of the Mojave Desert. Although floral biology and seed production of Joshua tree and other yuccas are well understood, the fate of Joshua tree seeds has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that Joshua tree seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents. We radioactively labelled Joshua tree seeds and followed their fates at five source plants in Potosi Wash, Clark County, Nevada, USA. Rodents made a mean of 30.6 caches, usually within 30 m of the base of source plants. Caches contained a mean of 5.2 seeds buried 3-30 nun deep. A variety of rodent species appears to have prepared the caches. Three of the 836 Joshua tree seeds (0.4%) cached germinated the following spring. Seed germination using rodent exclosures was nearly 15%. More than 82% of seeds in open plots were removed by granivores, and neither microsite nor supplemental water significantly affected germination. Joshua tree produces seeds in indehiscent pods or capsules, which rodents dismantle to harvest seeds. Because there is no other known means of seed dispersal, it is possible that the Joshua tree-rodent seed dispersal interaction is an obligate mutualism for the plant.

  3. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  4. Hydropriming and storage of melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The technique of controlled hydration of the seeds has been used as method of physiologic conditioning aiming at to improve the acting of these in the field. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of physiological hydropriming during storage of melon seeds. The evaluations were germination, first count germination, seedling emergence under greenhouse conditions and accelerated aging. We used two hybrids, Imperial and Gaucho, each comprising four seed lots. The priming was assessed during the periods of storage at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days, under controlled conditions of 15°C and 45% UR. Primed seeds of melons stored for 90 days showed better results for standard germination, first count germination, emergence and accelerated aging when compared with seeds that were not subjected to this treatment. Storage of melon seeds under controlled conditions (15°C and 45%UR allows for the maintenance of the beneficial effects of hydropriming for 90 days.

  5. Factors that shape seed mass evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Angela T; Ackerly, David D; Webb, Campbell O; Tweddle, John C; Dickie, John B; Pitman, Andy J; Westoby, Mark

    2005-07-26

    We used correlated divergence analysis to determine which factors have been most closely associated with changes in seed mass during seed plant evolution. We found that divergences in seed mass have been more consistently associated with divergences in growth form than with divergences in any other variable. This finding is consistent with the strong relationship between seed mass and growth form across present-day species and with the available data from the paleobotanical literature. Divergences in seed mass have also been associated with divergences in latitude, net primary productivity, temperature, precipitation, and leaf area index. However, these environmental variables had much less explanatory power than did plant traits such as seed dispersal syndrome and plant growth form. PMID:16030149

  6. Sowing seeds for the future: the need for establishing protocols for the study of seed dormancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Augusto Oliveira, Silveira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is a widely misunderstood plant trait. In several research areas, a lack of germination is wrongly assumed to result from seed dormancy. In an attempt to standardize seed dormancy research and improve communication among seed scientists, a straightforward protocol to address the occurr [...] ence and causes of seed dormancy is provided. Standardizing communication is not just a theoretical exercise but also has practical implications in agriculture and conservation. Standardization will make studies comparable and hence we will have a deeper understanding of the physiology, ecology and evolution of seed dormancy. A better understanding of the various aspects of seed dormancy will lead to greater appreciation of the biogeographical and phylogenetic distribution of seed dormancy among our flora.

  7. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However, seed vigour can be reduced by high-temperature stress both before and after PM. High temperatures induce or increase the physiological deterioration of seeds. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality, particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The seed industry will need to consider management changes to minimize the risk of this occurring.

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, J G; Boelt, B; Rolston, M P; Chastain, T G

    2013-04-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However, seed vigour can be reduced by high-temperature stress both before and after PM. High temperatures induce or increase the physiological deterioration of seeds. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality, particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The seed industry will need to consider management changes to minimize the risk of this occurring. PMID:23495259

  9. Microwave background anisotropies from scaling seed perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Durrer, Ruth; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    1997-01-01

    We study microwave background anisotropies induced by scaling seed perturbations in a universe dominated by cold dark matter. Using a gauge invariant linear perturbation analysis, we solve the perturbation equations on super-horizon scales, for CMB anisotropies triggered by generic gravitational seeds. We find that perturbations induced by seeds --- under very mild restrictions --- are nearly isocurvature. Thus, compensation, which is mainly the consequence of physically sen...

  10. Balancing of sulfur storage in maize seed

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yongrui; Wang Wenqin; Messing Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A balanced composition of amino acids in seed flour is critical because of the demand on essential amino acids for nutrition. However, seed proteins in cereals like maize, the crop with the highest yield, are low in lysine, tryptophan, and methionine. Although supplementation with legumes like soybean can compensate lysine deficiency, both crops are also relatively low in methionine. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of methionine accumulation in the seed could be a b...

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S. M. T.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (Phemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (Phemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  12. Genetic variation in pea seed globulin composition

    OpenAIRE

    Tzitzikas, E.; Vincken, J. P.; Groot, J.; Gruppen, H.; Visser, R. G. F.

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of seeds from 59 pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines and relative taxa with various external characteristics and wide geographical origin was performed to explore the genetic variation of pea concerning its starch and protein contents and globulin composition. Pea lines, which produce round, wrinkled, flat, and round-dimpled seeds, have starch as the major reserve, with an average content of 46%. Protein content varied from 13.7 to 30.7% of the seed dry matter, with a...

  13. Saponaria officinalis Seeds Germination Morphology and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Yu. Ishmuratova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Saponaria officinalis seed quality, stored in different containers (paper, plastic, fabric and glass, in the different temperature conditions, under light or darkness. The morphology, biology of Saponaria officinalis seeds was described. Basing in the obtained results, we recommend to store Saponaria officinalis seeds within 3 months in paper container at the temperature of - 18??.

  14. Improving Tree Seed Germination by Electrostatic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Zhi-bin Gui,; Antonio Piras; Li-min Qiao,

    2013-01-01

    Tree species with shallow dormancy are used for reforestation by airplane sowing in order to establish forest in mountain areas. To enhance germination, the quality of young seedling, an electrostatic field is used to treat pine seeds. Experiments found that treatment effect depended on the dosage, process and vigor index of seeds, and the optimal dosage was 500 kV/m 10 minutes for dry or wet seeds to improve germination, seedling height and root length during initial germination and middle a...

  15. Impact of Weed Seed Mixture in Seed Health of Aus Rice and Factors Affecting it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazlul Islam

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A socio-agronomical survey and a laboratory experiment on weed seed mixture with rice seed were carried out at the three different villages of Mymensingh district and in the laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh respectively during the period from January to June 2002 to know the farmer’s knowledge and idea about the impact of weed seed mixture on the quality of rice seeds, and to know the status of seed purity in rice collected from different locations of Bangladesh. In the socio-agronomical survey, 100 farmers from six villages e.g. Kazirshimla, Dewanibari, Seedstore, Bharadoba, Churkhai and Rampur under three Upazilas namely Trishal, Bhaluka and Sadar were randomly selected for interview. Pre-prepared questionnaire were used to ask questions on different aspects of weed contamination with rice seeds. Results revealed that 90% farmers of the area cultivated IR50 and only 3% farmers grew BR2 rice variety. They got higher average yields from IR50 (1.96 t ha-1 than other varieties e.g. BR2 (1.65 t ha-1 and BR3 (1.75 t ha-1. Farmers found five noxious weed seeds e.g. Echinochloa crusglli, E. colonum, Cyperus iria, Scirpus spp. and C. difformis in the rice seeds. E. crusgalli was appeared as the notorious weed to rice farmers. Forty percent of the interviewed farmers were educated up to class five and literate farmers used higher seed rate, which led to less weed infestation in the field. Eighty nine percent farmers used their own seed, which were produced and processed with care, and there was less possibility of weed seed contamination. Eight percent farmers used seeds from market, which contained more weed seeds in rice seeds. Laboratory analysis of seed samples collected from different locations of the country revealed that location has an impact on the weed seed mixture in rice seeds. Samples collected from the village more away from Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh contained more weed seeds. The purity percentage of farmers saved seed was about 95% and it contained 0.08% weed seed. The weed seeds found in the farmers saved seed samples were E. crusgalli, E.colonum, Scirpus spp. and Cyperus difformis.

  16. Past and present management influences the seed bank and seed rain in a rural landscape mosaic

    OpenAIRE

    Auffret, Alistair G.; Cousins, Sara A. O.

    2011-01-01

    1. Seed bank and seed rain represent dispersal in time and space. They can be important sources of diversity in the rural landscape, where fragmented habitats are linked by their histories. 2. Seed bank, seed rain and above-ground vegetation were sampled in four habitat types (abandoned semi-natural grassland (ABA), grazed former arable field (FAF), mid-field islet (MFI) and grazed semi-natural grassland (SNG)) in a rural landscape in southern Sweden, to examine whether community patterns can...

  17. Storage crambe seed treated with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cabral e Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of low quality seeds with a lower physiological reflects one of the major causes of low productivity. Thus the storage conditions of seed must be taken into consideration. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of natural and synthetic insecticides on emergence and seed storage of crambe, as these substances are essential to prevent infestation of seeds of other species by harmful organisms. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 3 x 8 ( 8 substances and 3 storage times with 4 replications. We assessed the following natural insecticides: saffron, lime, ash, neem, diatomaceous earth, and synthetic: chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin; besides the control consisting of seeds without any treatment. We evaluated the percentage of emergence, speed of emergence index and time to reach 50 % of emergency. In all characteristics, it was found that no influence of neem on seed vigor. There are disadvantages in the application of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diatomaceous earth, which interfered with the emergence rate of seeds of crambe. The seeds treated with other insecticides had different behavior of untreated seeds after 120 days of storage to assess the time that they take to reach 50 % germination.

  18. Proteopathic tau seeding predicts tauopathy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Brandon B; Furman, Jennifer L; Mahan, Thomas E; Yamasaki, Tritia R; Mirbaha, Hilda; Eades, William C; Belaygorod, Larisa; Cairns, Nigel J; Holtzman, David M; Diamond, Marc I

    2014-10-14

    Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell-cell transfer in neural networks. The critical role of tau seeding activity is untested, however. It is unknown whether seeding anticipates and correlates with subsequent development of pathology as predicted for a causal agent. One major limitation has been the lack of a robust assay to measure proteopathic seeding activity in biological specimens. We engineered an ultrasensitive, specific, and facile FRET-based flow cytometry biosensor assay based on expression of tau or synuclein fusions to CFP and YFP, and confirmed its sensitivity and specificity to tau (? 300 fM) and synuclein (? 300 pM) fibrils. This assay readily discriminates Alzheimer's disease vs. Huntington's disease and aged control brains. We then carried out a detailed time-course study in P301S tauopathy mice, comparing seeding activity versus histological markers of tau pathology, including MC1, AT8, PG5, and Thioflavin S. We detected robust seeding activity at 1.5 mo, >1 mo before the earliest histopathological stain. Proteopathic tau seeding is thus an early and robust marker of tauopathy, suggesting a proximal role for tau seeds in neurodegeneration. PMID:25261551

  19. Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

  20. Indirect interactions between browsers and seed predators affect the seed bank dynamics of a chaparral shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveny, Adrian J; Fox, Laurel R

    2006-11-01

    Interactions between herbivores and seed predators may have long-term consequences for plant populations that rely on persistent seed banks for recovery after unpredictable fires. We assessed the effects of browsing by deer and seed predation by rodents, ants and birds on the densities of seeds entering the seed bank of Ceanothus cuneatus var. rigidus, a maritime chaparral shrub in coastal California. Ceanothus produced many more seeds when protected from browsers in long-term experimental exclosures than did browsed plants, but the seed densities in the soil beneath browsed and unbrowsed Ceanothus were the same at the start of an intensive one-year study. The density of seeds in the soil initially increased in both treatments following summer seed drop: while densities returned to pre-drop levels within a few weeks under browsed plants, soil seed densities remained high for 5-8 months beneath unbrowsed plants. Rodent abundance (especially deer mice) was higher near unbrowsed plants than >30 m away, and rodents removed Ceanothus seeds from dishes in the experimental plots. At least in the short term, rodent density and rates of seed removal were inversely related to the intensity of browsing. Our data have management implications for maintaining viable Ceanothus populations by regulating the intensity of browsing and the timing, intensity and frequency of fires. PMID:16896769

  1. Glyphosate and boron application effects on seed composition and seed boron in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Seed quality is determined by the content of protein and oil. Soybean seed contains five major fatty acids, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic). Both linoleic and li...

  2. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  3. Two-phase seed dispersal: linking the effects of frugivorous birds and seed-caching rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B; Kuhn, Kellie M; Gworek, Jennifer R

    2005-09-01

    Frugivorous birds disperse the seeds of many fruit-bearing plants, but the fate of seeds after defecation or regurgitation is often unknown. Some rodents gather and scatter hoard seeds, and some of these may be overlooked, germinate, and establish plants. We show that these two disparate modes of seed dispersal are linked in some plants. Rodents removed large (>25 mg) seeds from simulated bird feces (pseudofeces) at rates of 8-50%/day and scatter hoarded them in soil. Ants (Formica sibylla) also harvested some seeds and carried them to their nests. Rodents carried seeds 2.5+/-3.2 m to cache sites (maximum 12 m) and buried seeds at 8+/-7 mm depth. Enclosure studies suggest that yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) made the caches. In spring, some seeds germinated from rodent caches and established seedlings, but no seedlings established directly from pseudofeces. This form of two-phase seed dispersal is important because each phase offers different benefits to plants. Frugivory by birds permits relatively long-range dispersal and potential colonization of new sites, whereas rodent caching moves seeds from exposed, low-quality sites (bird feces on the ground surface) to a soil environment that may help maintain seed viability and promote successful seedling establishment. PMID:15959820

  4. Comparisons of seed longevity under simulated aging and genebank storage conditions using brassicaceae seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds survive for years under dry conditions but then viability crashes without warning. Efforts to provide high quality seeds to customers, breed longer-living seeds, or to investigate the underlying causes of deterioration during storage prompt the need for a reliable measure of the longevity phe...

  5. Living boundaries: tracking weed seed movement with non-dormant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic seed banks are a useful tool for increasing precision of counts in weed demography studies. By sowing a known number of seeds of a single accession within a spatially well-described area, an investigator can greatly improve the signal to noise ratio, relative to the ambient weed seed bank,...

  6. Seed protein variability in safflower

    OpenAIRE

    Obreht Dragana R.; Vapa Ljiljana B.; Kiš Sándor A.; Takács Mária-Hajos; Stefánovics Éva-Bányai; Vörösvári Gábor; Kastori Rudolf R.

    2002-01-01

    Total seed proteins in two safflower species (Carthamus tinctorius L. and C. lanatus L) have been separated by the SDS-PAGE method. Their molecular masses ranged from 120 to 20 kDa. All C. tinctorius genotypes under study exhibited identical electrophoretic patterns which differed from the pattern exhibited by the wild species C. lanatus in the number and position of protein bands. Differences in protein profiles occurred in regions around 60 kDa, from 43 to 36 kDa and around 30 kDa. Statisti...

  7. 7 CFR 201.64 - Pure live seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure...

  8. 7 CFR 201.49 - Other crop seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other crop seed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Agriculture Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the...

  9. 7 CFR 201.31a - Labeling treated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling treated seed. 201.31a Section 201.31a Agriculture ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General §...

  10. Tumor interventional therapy using 125I seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility, safety, and effect of interventional technology for inserting 125I seeds into tumor focus and to study the advantage or shortcome of different image equipment used in seed implantation. Methods: Fifteen cases of advanced stage tumor with metastasis and another 15 cases of advanced unresectable esophageal cancer were enrolled. Method of seed implantation was carried out by inserting 125I seeds into tumor foci through percutaneous puncture under ultrasound or CT guidance, and placed the esophageal stent binding with 125I seed to the diseased esophageal segment under DSA. Results: All 125I seeds were successfully released to the target places under ultrasound, CT and DSA guidance, except one seed was found to be lost from one esophageal 125I seed irradiated stent due to misoperation. A follow-up showed obvious improvement of clinical symptom, no significant changes of hemogram, immunity markers, and no complications including esophageal perforation, hemorrhage, and skin necrosis. No radiation seeds shedded during the releasing processes by ECT. One month follow-up by CT showed the target places were thinned in 13 cases, thickened in 2 cases. 3 cases had been followed-up for 13 months, CT revealed the obvious thinning of the foci. Three-month follow up with gastroendoscopy and biopsy demonstrated that the foci within the 125I seede binding stent placement segment resoleede binding stent placement segment resolved markedly, with no tumor cells found in biopsy for 3 of 5 cases. 15 cases by percutaneous puncture implantation had been followed-up for two months, showed the foci becoming obviously small under diagnostic imaging. Conclusions: It is feasible and safe to insert 125I seeds into tumor foci by interventional technology and the confirmed effect is favorable. (authors)

  11. Prostate brachytherapy seed localization by analysis of multiple projections: Identifying and addressing the seed overlap problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraoperative three-dimensional reconstruction of seed locations during prostate brachytherapy for purposes of immediate computation of radiation dosimetry is an active area of current investigation, including methods which use multiple fluoroscopic projections. A simulation study using seed locations extracted from clinical CT data was performed; the result showed that on average one quarter of the seeds had a projection image overlapping with other seeds. The average percentage of non-overlapping seeds for the prostate implants and seed types investigated was 74.5% with a range of 56.9%-92.9%. The distribution of seeds in different cluster sizes was analyzed as well as the distribution of pixel counts of connected components. A statistical classifier was developed to determine the number of seed images in a self-connected component in the segmented images. The classifier was tested with simulation data, and the error rate was below 2%. A method to determine seed image position is also provided. A modified three-film technique was used to reconstruct 3-D seed locations. The algorithm allows unequal number of seed images for each projection as input while current methods require the same number of seed images detected in all projections. An accuracy analysis based on angular and positional uncertainty was performed. The reconstruction and seed localization algorithms were tested with simulation data, and the mean distance error of the reconstructed results was 0.61 mor of the reconstructed results was 0.61 mm. A phantom study was performed to validate the seed localization method. Three false positive seeds, 4.7% of the total, in the reconstruction result were observed in this study

  12. Effect of Physical Seed Sorting, Seed Treatment with Garlic Extract and Vitavax 200 on Seed Borne Fungal Flora and Seed Yield of Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, S. M. A.; Hossain, I.; Fakir, G. A.; Asad-ud-doullah, M.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of physical seed sorting, seed treatment with garlic extract (1:2) and Vitavax 200 (0.4%) were investigated for controlling seed borne fungal flora and seed yield of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.). Seed health test of jute revealed that farmer`s saved seed (control) yielded all together 13 different fungi of 11 genera. Prevalence of Colletotrichum corchori, Macrophomina phaseolina, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were by 4.25...

  13. Study of Seed Dormancy Mechanisms; Causes and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Nasreen; Yousaf, M.; Mohmand, Akbar S.; Ashraf Mailk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Dormancy mechanisms in cereals and oilseed crops were reviewed. Objective was to determine the causes of seed dormancy. The methods of control of seed dormancy were also reviewed and the following results were obtained. During seed dormancy, a mature embryo remains inactive but viable. An understanding of seed dormancy mechanisms can be helpful in optimizing the distribution of seed germination in time or space. Seed coats, cotyledons and growth hormones play an important role in maintaining ...

  14. Determining Relationships Between Seed Yield and Yield Components in Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman Sengul; Meryem Sengul

    2006-01-01

    Path analysis was performed on plant characters in spaced plants of land races alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to determine: seed yield per plant, stem number, internodes number, plant height, blooming periods, leaf length, raceme length, number of pods per raceme, number of seeds per raceme, number of seeds per pod, 00-seed weight. Positive relationships existed between seed yield and all its components with the exceptions of the internodes numbers, blooming periods and 1000-seeds weight. Signi...

  15. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME ON ALFALFA SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir ?UPI?

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a crop characterised by presence of hard (dormant seed that are viable but do not germinate in seed quality testing. In Republic of Croatia seed are frequently stored for three to four years due to low needs for seed of alfalfa and considerable import. The share of hard seed is decreased by storage time, temperature and air moisture changes and therefore directly keeps the level of seed germination in a longer period of storage.

  16. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  17. Incorporating animal behavior into seed dispersal models: implications for seed shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Sabrina E; Portnoy, Stephen; Augspurger, Carol K

    2006-12-01

    Seed dispersal fundamentally influences plant population and community dynamics but is difficult to quantify directly. Consequently, models are frequently used to describe the seed shadow (the seed deposition pattern of a plant population). For vertebrate-dispersed plants, animal behavior is known to influence seed shadows but is poorly integrated in seed dispersal models. Here, we illustrate a modeling approach that incorporates animal behavior and develop a stochastic, spatially explicit simulation model that predicts the seed shadow for a primate-dispersed tree species (Virola calophylla, Myristicaceae) at the forest stand scale. The model was parameterized from field-collected data on fruit production and seed dispersal, behaviors and movement patterns of the key disperser, the spider monkey (Ateles paniscus), densities of dispersed and non-dispersed seeds, and direct estimates of seed dispersal distances. Our model demonstrated that the spatial scale of dispersal for this V. calophylla population was large, as spider monkeys routinely dispersed seeds >100 m, a commonly used threshold for long-distance dispersal. The simulated seed shadow was heterogeneous, with high spatial variance in seed density resulting largely from behaviors and movement patterns of spider monkeys that aggregated seeds (dispersal at their sleeping sites) and that scattered seeds (dispersal during diurnal foraging and resting). The single-distribution dispersal kernels frequently used to model dispersal substantially underestimated this variance and poorly fit the simulated seed-dispersal curve, primarily because of its multimodality, and a mixture distribution always fit the simulated dispersal curve better. Both seed shadow heterogeneity and dispersal curve multimodality arose directly from these different dispersal processes generated by spider monkeys. Compared to models that did not account for disperser behavior, our modeling approach improved prediction of the seed shadow of this V. calophylla population. An important function of seed dispersal models is to use the seed shadows they predict to estimate components of plant demography, particularly seedling population dynamics and distributions. Our model demonstrated that improved seed shadow prediction for animal-dispersed plants can be accomplished by incorporating spatially explicit information on disperser behavior and movements, using scales large enough to capture routine long-distance dispersal, and using dispersal kernels, such as mixture distributions, that account for spatially aggregated dispersal. PMID:17249240

  18. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  19. Preliminary Studies on the Characterization of Orange Seed and Pawpaw Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ihedioha, J. N.; Ibeto, C. N.; Okoye, C. O. B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of seeds and oil extracted from both papaya and orange seeds. The seeds of papaya and orange are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of papaya and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. The seeds were collected from homes and the oils obtained by solvent extraction were analysed for pH, moisture content, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification v...

  20. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)