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1

Spectroscopic and thermooxidative analysis of organic okra oil and seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2 °C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption.

de Sousa Ferreira Soares G; Gomes Vde M; Dos Reis Albuquerque A; Barbosa Dantas M; Rosenhain R; de Souza AG; Persunh DC; Gadelha CA; Costa MJ; Gadelha TS

2012-01-01

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Spectroscopic and thermooxidative analysis of organic okra oil and seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus.  

Science.gov (United States)

With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2 °C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption. PMID:22645459

de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; Dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antônio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

2012-05-03

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Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus  

Science.gov (United States)

With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2°C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption.

de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Georgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antonio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria Jose de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

2012-01-01

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Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed(Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies on the Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour was carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degrees C for 10 - 60 mins. The roasted seed was subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pretreatment by roasting was found to increase yield but was found to be time depended. The range mean obtained for protein, fat, ash, fibre and sugar contents were 42.14 - 38.10, 31.04 - 17.22, 4.06 - 3.42, 3.45 - 3.60 and 8.82 - 8.65 respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities was available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts.

Adelakun OE; Oyelade OJ; Ade-Omowaye BI; Adeyemi IA; Venter MV

2009-02-01

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Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts.

Adelakun OE; Oyelade OJ; Ade-Omowaye BI; Adeyemi IA; Van de Venter M

2009-06-01

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Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control. PMID:22803337

Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

2012-06-01

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Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control.

Naz A; Jamil Y; ul Haq Z; Iqbal M; Ahmad MR; Ashraf MI; Ahmad R

2012-06-01

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Effect of Fertilizer and Drying Methods on Seed Germination of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cultivars at Different Harvesting Times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Okra hardseedness results in slow and uneven germination. This study determined the effects of fertilizer application and drying methods on hardseedness breakdown of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars (cv. Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylias’). Three fertilizer level (150, 300 and 450 mg L-1 N) and two different drying methods (seeds and pods) were applied. The results showed that by increasing N application from 150 to 450 mg L-1 N increased seed germination regardless of drying method, whereas the application of 450 mg L-1 N resulted in the higher seed germination percentage, regardless of cultivar and drying method. In addition, harvesting seeds at 40 days after flowering (DAF) resulted in an increase of germination rate, especially when 450 mg L-1 N were applied. Seed germination of seeds harvested at 40 to 50 days after flowering (DAF) was reduced, especially when seed drying instead of pod drying was applied. However, for cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ the application of 150 mg L-1 N resulted in higher percentage of hard seeds and lower seed germination rate, whereas pod drying reduced the occurrence of hardseedness. For all cultivars, seeds from the middle part of the plant had a higher seed germination percentage at 450 mg L-1 N level, regardless of drying methods. In conclusion, increasing the N application rate up to 450 mg L-1, harvesting seeds at 40 DAF and collecting seeds from the middle part of the plant could be a useful means for reducing the occurrence of hardseedness and increasing germination percentage of okra seeds.

Ghadir Mohammadi; Ebrahim M. Khah; Spyridon A. Petropoulos; Garip Yarsi; Apostolos Vlasakoudis

2013-01-01

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Effect of Fertilizer and Drying Methods on Seed Germination of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cultivars at Different Harvesting Times  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Okra hardseedness results in slow and uneven germination. This study determined the effects of fertilizer application and drying methods on hardseedness breakdown of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars (cv. Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylias’). Three fertilizer level (150, 300 and 4...

Ghadir Mohammadi; Ebrahim M. Khah; Spyridon A. Petropoulos; Garip Yarsi; Apostolos Vlasakoudis

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Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from ...

de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel

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Mineral composition and the functional attributes of Nigerian okra seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) flour  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra seed was subjected to different pretreatments such as soaking, blanching, malting and roasting at varying times following standard methods reported in literature. The seeds were milled and sieved to obtain a flour fraction of less than 250?m. Pretreated and untreated okra seed flour was analysed for functional properties and mineral contents. Pretreatments of okra seed had effects on the mineral and the functional properties of the flour. Soaking reduced all minerals investigated and are time dependent. Blanching reduced all mineral content except magnesium. Malting reduced P, K, Mg and Fe while increases in Ca, Na, Zn and Mn were observed. Roasting increased all the mineral content except phosphorus and magnesium. Functional properties showed that all pretreatments resulted in increase in water and oil absorption capacities, decrease in emulsion ability and stability and decrease in foam capacity and stability except malting which showed an increase in foam capacity and stability. Incorporation of okra seed flour into various food formulations will be beneficial to human health.

Adelakun OE; Ade-Omowaye BIO; Adeyemi IA; Van de Venter M

2012-07-01

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First identification of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infusion of roasted okra seeds has long been consumed in Turkey for diabetes mellitus therapy. Previous reports of a hypoglycemic effect observed in rats administrated with okra seed extract indicated a possible connection with inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase. An attempt to identify active components was first herein conducted using alpha-glucosidase-inhibition-guided isolation, yielding two major flavonol glucosides named isoquercetin (2) and quercetin-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1"' --> 6")-glucoside (3). They selectively inhibited rat intestinal maltase and sucrase, in which isoquercetin (2) was 6-10 times more potent than its related diglucoside 3. This result suggested that an increase in hydrophilicity by the additional glucose residue in 3 led to a significant decline in the inhibitory effect and raised the possible involvement of the free 3-OH in exerting the inhibition. Our postulation was evaluated by examining alpha-glucosidase inhibition of quercetin (1), and the aglycone of 2 and 3, whose 3-OH is free from any glucose moiety. Interestingly, 1 displayed a broad inhibitory effect toward rat intestinal and baker's yeast alpha-glucosidases, with improved potency. A kinetic study of 1 indicated that it inhibited maltase by two distinct mechanisms, in competitive (K(i) 462 microM) and noncompetitive (K(i) 2153 microM) manners, whereas the mechanism underlying the inhibition of sucrase was verified as being of a competitive behavior (K(i) 218 microM). PMID:24079173

Thanakosai, Wannisa; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

2013-08-01

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First identification of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infusion of roasted okra seeds has long been consumed in Turkey for diabetes mellitus therapy. Previous reports of a hypoglycemic effect observed in rats administrated with okra seed extract indicated a possible connection with inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase. An attempt to identify active components was first herein conducted using alpha-glucosidase-inhibition-guided isolation, yielding two major flavonol glucosides named isoquercetin (2) and quercetin-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1"' --> 6")-glucoside (3). They selectively inhibited rat intestinal maltase and sucrase, in which isoquercetin (2) was 6-10 times more potent than its related diglucoside 3. This result suggested that an increase in hydrophilicity by the additional glucose residue in 3 led to a significant decline in the inhibitory effect and raised the possible involvement of the free 3-OH in exerting the inhibition. Our postulation was evaluated by examining alpha-glucosidase inhibition of quercetin (1), and the aglycone of 2 and 3, whose 3-OH is free from any glucose moiety. Interestingly, 1 displayed a broad inhibitory effect toward rat intestinal and baker's yeast alpha-glucosidases, with improved potency. A kinetic study of 1 indicated that it inhibited maltase by two distinct mechanisms, in competitive (K(i) 462 microM) and noncompetitive (K(i) 2153 microM) manners, whereas the mechanism underlying the inhibition of sucrase was verified as being of a competitive behavior (K(i) 218 microM).

Thanakosai W; Phuwapraisirisan P

2013-08-01

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Impact of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seed flour on nutrients, functional properties and zinc bioavailability of plantain flour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In Nigeria, nursing mothers are advised to give their infants plantain flour paste 'amala ogede' with 'ewedu' Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning. Over-matured okra is typically discarded resulting in substantial post-harvest waste; the seed could be processed into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the addition of okra seed flour on the nutrients, functional properties, minerals and zinc bioavailability of plantain flour. METHODS: Okra seed flour was used to fortify plantain flour in the ratio 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30. RESULTS: The addition of okra seed flour to the plantain flour resulted in a significant increase in the protein, fat, fibre and ash content of the fortified plantain flour, while that of moisture and carbohydrate decreased. The mineral levels of Zn, K and Fe increased significantly while the calcium content decreased. The calculated phytate--zinc molar ratio and [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio of the fortified plantain flour were below the critical levels. CONCLUSION: The study showed that fortifying plantain flour with okra seed flour resulted in an increase in several nutrients, rendering the zinc more bioavailable. This fortified food has potential as a complimentary food in Nigeria.

Adetuyi FO; Adelabu HA

2011-12-01

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Biochemical and Mineral Responses of Okra Seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Variety Marsaouia) to Salt and Thermal Stresses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research has studied the effects of NaCl and temperature on germination and emergence of okra. Studies were carried out with seeds of a local okra variety (Marsaouia) subjected to 0 and 100 mM NaCl, performed in the dark at 10, 15, 25, 35 and 40°C at germination stage and by 12 h light at emergence stage. The cumulative germination percentage, the cumulative emergence percentage, starch content, the reducing sugars levels, total amylase activity, sodium and potassium accumulation were quantified in germinated seeds at 15°C, 25 and 35°C. Temperature presented a significant effect on salt sensitivity of this species at germination and emergence stages. Germination of okra seeds was completely inhibited at 10 and 40°C. The best germination and emergence temperature was recorded at 25°C. The adverse effect of salt was more pronounced at low and high temperature. During the salt stress treatment, the level of starch reserves was higher at 25°C and lower at 15 and 35°C, an increase in reducing sugars content in cotyledons was observed. The activity of total amylase was most intensive at lower temperature in control seeds and at higher temperature in salt treated seeds. The sodium concentration on germinated seeds increased significantly at 15 and 35°C, but potassium amount did not change regularly within thermal and salt stress interaction.

B.D. Besma; D. Mounir

2010-01-01

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Influence of pre-treatment on yield chemical and antioxidant properties of a Nigerian okra seed (Abelmoschus esculentus moench) flour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra seeds are reported to be limited to re-generational purpose in Nigeria while majority are discarded as unfit for this purpose. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of soaking and blanching on the yield, proximate composition and antioxidant activity of okra seed flour. Pre-treatment by soaking and blanching were found to increase yield which was time dependent. The range mean obtained for protein, fat, ash and fiber contents were 46.10-38.99, 28.08-25.08, 3.95-3.15 and 3.76-3.10, respectively. Slight but significant DPPH radical scavenging activity increase was observed in soaked samples at 18th-h while blanching resulted into progressive decrease.

Adelakun OE; Oyelade OJ; Ade-Omowaye BI; Adeyemi IA; Van de Venter M; Koekemoer TC

2009-03-01

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CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSES OF SEED YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) MOENCH)  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted at Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola and Shelleng LGA, Adamawa State, Nigeria during the year 2011. A line x tester analysis was made to identify the correlation and path coefficients analysis in Okra. Eight lines/females (SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, GR1, GR2, GR3 and GR4) and Two testers/males (Paysan and Clemson) were crossed to develop 16 F1 hybrids. These genotypes were evaluated along with parents in RCBD with three replications. Analysis of variance and other genetic analyses such as genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation and path coefficient analyses were performed. The results obtained showed highly significant variation in all the genotype except days to 50% flowering, and characters measured such as number of pods per plant (54.365**), number of branches per plant (8.2063**), number of leaves per plant (45.891**), days to pod formation, pod length (6.6526**), pod width (54.306**), seed index (20.787**), number of seeds per pod (2.4373**), plant height at 50% flowering (2543.5**), pod yield (45.395**), seed yield (427.73**), seed size (0.0144**) and internodes distance (0.6602**). Genotypic coefficient of correlation showed more significant relationship between the pair of characters, meaning that, these characters are more related genotypically. Path coefficient analysis revealed that Seed size had positive and highly significant genotypic association with seed yield (0.709**) and also with high positive direct effect on seed yield (0.703), this suggests that the two attributes have a strong influence on seed yield. Number of seeds per pod had the highest significant correlation effect on seed yield (0.846**) as well as highest negative direct effect with seed yield (-1.00) indicating that selection of number of seeds per pod will increase seed yield.

S.Y. Simon; I. Musa; M.G. Nangere

2013-01-01

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EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus) FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn) FLOUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P?0.05), protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P?0.05) as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P?0.05) from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P?0.05) (10 to 20). The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg) were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

Foluso Adetuyi; Lola Ajala; Tesleem Ibrahim

2012-01-01

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Efeitos de métodos de colheita e da localização dos frutos na planta sobre a ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Effects of harvesting methods and fruit position in plant on hard seed occurrency in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) foi estudada em função da colheita única dos frutos na senescência das plantas ou da colheita periódica dos frutos no estádio de maturação morfológica. As cultivares utilizadas foram "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" e "Campinas-2 IAC 4076" e os frutos foram separados em aqueles provenientes da haste principal e os oriundos dos ramos laterais. A porcentagem de sementes duras foi avaliada por meio do teste padrão de germinação e os dados obtidos permitiram verificar que o método de colheita única aumentou a ocorrência de sementes duras e, pelo fato de "Amarelinho" não apresentar essa característica, esse método pode ser utilizado para a mesma, com redução nos custos de produção de sementes sem afetar sua qualidade.The occurrency of hard seeds was studied in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) as a function of single fruit harvesting after plant senescence or periodical fruit harvesting in the morphological ripening stage. The cultivars "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" and "Campinas IAC 4076" were utilized, considering fruits beared on the main stem and those beread on lateral branches. The percentage of hard seeds was evaluated by the standard germination test and it was observed that single fruit harvest after plant senescence increased the occurrence of hard seeds independently of the utilized harvesting method. The possibility of taking advantage of single fruit harvesting during plant senescence is suggested, which will reduce seed production costs without interfering on seed quality.

J. W. Setubal; A.C.W. Zanin; J. Nakagawa

1994-01-01

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Efeitos de métodos de colheita e da localização dos frutos na planta sobre a ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)/ Effects of harvesting methods and fruit position in plant on hard seed occurrency in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) foi estudada em função da colheita única dos frutos na senescência das plantas ou da colheita periódica dos frutos no estádio de maturação morfológica. As cultivares utilizadas foram "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" e "Campinas-2 IAC 4076" e os frutos foram separados em aqueles provenientes da haste principal e os oriundos dos ramos laterais. A porcentagem de sementes duras foi avaliad (more) a por meio do teste padrão de germinação e os dados obtidos permitiram verificar que o método de colheita única aumentou a ocorrência de sementes duras e, pelo fato de "Amarelinho" não apresentar essa característica, esse método pode ser utilizado para a mesma, com redução nos custos de produção de sementes sem afetar sua qualidade. Abstract in english The occurrency of hard seeds was studied in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) as a function of single fruit harvesting after plant senescence or periodical fruit harvesting in the morphological ripening stage. The cultivars "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" and "Campinas IAC 4076" were utilized, considering fruits beared on the main stem and those beread on lateral branches. The percentage of hard seeds was evaluated by the standard germination test and it was observe (more) d that single fruit harvest after plant senescence increased the occurrence of hard seeds independently of the utilized harvesting method. The possibility of taking advantage of single fruit harvesting during plant senescence is suggested, which will reduce seed production costs without interfering on seed quality.

Setubal, J. W.; Zanin, A.C.W.; Nakagawa, J.

1994-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

Salt stress effects on some morphological and physiological characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)  

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Full Text Available Salinity is worldwide problem that limits the growth and productivity of all vegetations and it is going toincreasing day by day. The objective of the investigation was to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL.) in terms of morphological and physiological characteristics under salt stress conditions. Okra seeds of cultivarChinese Red were grown in plastic pots having fine sand as growth medium. After 30 days of germination, theplants were subjected to salt stress under control, 25, 50, and 75 mM NaCl. Increasing salinity caused a decrease ofgermination percentage, shoot and root length, plant height, pod weight, pod length, photosynthesis rate, andstomatal conductance. The Na+ and Cl- accumulation were correlated with a decline in concentration of K+ inleaves and roots. Under salinity, a high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were noted in both leave and roots portions.

Muhammad Adnan Shahid*, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Rashid Mukhtar Balal, Rashid Ahmad, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Tahira Abbas and Naheed Akhtar

2011-01-01

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Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Ten Cultivars of Okra-Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench  

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Full Text Available Ten quantitative traits of 10 genotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were investigated with a view to identifying the high yielding potential of the cultivars and to determining the extent of association among their contributing traits. The plant materials used are labeled according to their genotypes as follows: NH47-4, MHae 474, FEae 98, FEak, Agk98, Agkae, Aklc, Ilae, Ijae2000 and Alae- B. Using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications, the ten genotypes of okra were grown (one seed per hill) at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria during the rainy season of 2002 and 2003. At the appropriate stages of growth, the following traits were investigated: days to flowering, height at flowering, number of pods per plant, pod length, pod width, number of branches per pant, days to maturity, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred seeds and final plant height. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and phenotypic and genotypic correlation analyses computed. Results show that there is a strong relationship between pod length and pod width with the juxtaposition of number of seeds per pod. Hence, selection programme based on these traits are most likely to bring about further improvement in the yield of okra under rainfed conditions.

O.S. Osekita; B.O. Akinyele

2008-01-01

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Comparative study of quality changes in okra abelmoschus esculentus (L) moench stored at different relative humidities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) pods were stored at the relative humidity of 90% and 100% for up to 10 days. The moisture content, crude fibre, and protein, fat, viscosity, hydrolysable and condensed tannin, total phenol, vitamin C and reducing power of the okra were determined on alternate days. Okra pods stored at 100% RH experienced the least percentage loss in all the determined parameters though the loss of antinutrient was lower at this relative humidity. (author)

2008-01-01

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Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content. Okra slice sizes and drying temperatures affected all the quality parameters significantly (p?

Pendre, N K; Nema, Prabhat K; Sharma, Harsh P; Rathore, S S; Kushwah, S S

2011-06-10

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Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content. Okra slice sizes and drying temperatures affected all the quality parameters significantly (p?

Pendre NK; Nema PK; Sharma HP; Rathore SS; Kushwah SS

2012-06-01

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Synergistic Effect of Fungicides on the Incidence of Seed Mycoflora of Okra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) variety Arka anamika were treated with 5 fungicides including Anucop, Bavistin, Captan, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax with different doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) and the combination Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Captan, Anucop + Vitavax, Bavistin +...

S. Lokesh; Mashooda Begum

27

Effects of morphactin and gamma irradiation on the growth and yield in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. ) Moench. )  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations were carried out to examine the individual and combined influence of a morphactin (chlorflurenol) (10-100 ppm) and gamma-irradiation(40-60 KR) on growth and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Cv-Pusa Sawani. Morphactin caused inhibition of vegetative growth and weakened apical dominance. Gamma-irradiation of seeds reduced the growth and stimulated the branching. The combinations of gamma radiation and morphactin were found to inhibit the growth more vigorously. Morphactin application promoted fruit-set and yield at all the used concentrations. Gamma-irradiation enhanced the fruit-set and yield at 40 and 50 KR and reduced drastically at 60 KR. Combination of gamma radiation (40 KR) with morphactin (10-50 ppm) increased the yield while other combinations reduced this factor in okra.

Paliwal, N.K.; Agarwal, S.; Singh, V.P. (Hindu Coll., Moradabad (India))

1983-06-01

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Effects of morphactin and gamma irradiation on the growth and yield in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations were carried out to examine the individual and combined influence of a morphactin (chlorflurenol) (10-100 ppm) and gamma-irradiation(40-60 KR) on growth and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Cv-Pusa Sawani. Morphactin caused inhibition of vegetative growth and weakened apical dominance. Gamma-irradiation of seeds reduced the growth and stimulated the branching. The combinations of gamma radiation and morphactin were found to inhibit the growth more vigorously. Morphactin application promoted fruit-set and yield at all the used concentrations. Gamma-irradiation enhanced the fruit-set and yield at 40 and 50 KR and reduced drastically at 60 KR. Combination of gamma radiation (40 KR) with morphactin (10-50 ppm) increased the yield while other combinations reduced this factor in okra. (author)

1983-01-01

29

Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Anthocyanins, Membrane Permeability and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Marsaouia) to salinity, the effect on seedling growth, water content, anthocyanins content and chlorophyll fluorescence was investigated. Okra seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and sown in peat culture under controlled conditions and submitted during 2 weeks to saline stress ranging from 0 (distilled water) to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmol of NaCl. Results showed that salt has no significant effect on aerial part dry weight and it showed no changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo and Fv/Fm). By contrast, root dry weight decreased with increasing NaCl concentration with a subsequent increase in root water content and cotyledons+hypocotyls/root ratio. In addition, anthocyanins content and electrolyte leakage were highly increased by exposure to high levels of salt especially 80 and 100 mmol NaCl.

Besma Ben Dkhil; Mounir Denden

2012-01-01

30

Effect of Postharvest Storage Techniques on the Nutritional Properties of Benin Indigenous Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Nigeria, okra Abelmoschus esculentus are packed and stored in polypropylene bag when moved from outlying villages to the city market. The study aims at assessing other storage method for Benin indigenous okra other than polypropylene bag with respect to nutrients, antinutrients and antioxi...

F.O. Adetuyi; A.U. Osagie; A.T. Adekunle

31

Physicochemical properties of pectins from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra pectin obtained by hot buffer extraction (HBSS) consists of an unusual pectic rhamnogalacturonan I structure in which acetyl groups and alpha galactose residues are substituted on rhamnose residues within the backbone. The okra Chelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) pectin consists of slightly different structures since relatively more homogalacturonan is present within the macromolecule and the rhamnogalacturonan I segments carry slightly longer side chains. The rheological properties of both okra pectins were examined under various conditions in order to understand the unusual slimy behaviour of okra pectins. The viscosity of the okra HBSS pectin was 5-8 times higher than the viscosity of the okra CHSS pectin. The okra HBSS pectin showed an elastic behaviour (G' > G'') over a wide range of frequencies (10?¹-10 Hz), at a strain of 10%, while okra CHSS and saponified okra HBSS/CHSS pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G' < G'') over the same frequency range. The results suggest that the structural variation within the okra pectins greatly affect their rheological behaviour and it is suggested that acetylation of the pectin plays an important role through hydrophobic associations. Dynamic light scattering was used to study the association behaviour of both okra pectins at low concentration (0.001-0.1% w/w). Results showed that the saponified okra pectins did not exhibit a tendency to aggregate in the concentration range studied, whereas both non saponified samples showed a substantial degree of association. These results suggest that the unusual slimy behaviour of the non saponified samples may be related to the tendency of these pectins to associate, driven by hydrophobic interactions.

Sengkhamparn Nipaporn; Sagis LeonardMC; de Vries Renko; Schols HenkA; Sajjaanantakul Tanaboon; Voragen AlphonsGJ

2010-01-01

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Physicochemical properties of pectins from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Okra pectin obtained by hot buffer extraction (HBSS) consists of an unusual pectic rhamnogalacturonan I structure in which acetyl groups and alpha galactose residues are substituted on rhamnose residues within the backbone. The okra Chelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) pectin consists of slightly d...

Sengkhamparn, N.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Vries, R.J., de; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

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Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted (more) of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p

Adewole, M. B; Ilesanmi, A. O

2011-01-01

34

Yield response of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench to leaf damage by the flea beetle, Podagrica uniforma Jacoby (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yield-related response of okra plants, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, to artificial infestation of the flea beetle (Podagrica uniforma Jac.) at different densities (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 pairs per cage) was studied in screen house and field experiments. In both experiments, increase in beetle density resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fruit production, fruit length, fruit width, fresh fruit weight, number of seeds per fruit, 100 seed weight and fresh fruit yield. In addition, higher densities caused more dry matter accumulation in the seeds than in the husk of okra fruits. Compensation was noticed at the 5- and 10-pair levels of infestation in some of the variables measured. Fresh fruit yield reduction was more than 50% when beetle density was increased beyond 20 pairs per cage in both experiments. The lowest density of P. uniforma at which significant reduction (P < 0.05) occurred in fresh fruit yield per cage, when compared with the control, was the 20-pair level, representing the damage threshold of the beetle at which initiation of control measures would be justified. Regression analysis indicated that flea beetle density was linearly associated with fruit damage and fresh fruit yield. Also, chi-square analysis showed that the models derived from the screen house and field experiments were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other, and either could be used for prediction purposes.

Pitan OOR; Ekoja EE

2011-10-01

35

Characterisation of twenty-nine (29) accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of investigations were carried out to determine the genetic variability within 29 accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) through characterisation using morphological, biochemical, nutritional and molecular markers. The goal was to obtain information on key traits of okra germplasm relevant to breeders and other researchers towards improvement of the crop. Twenty six (26) indigenous (landraces) and three (3) exotic accessions of okra were collected from eight regions of Ghana and their morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated under field conditions at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research fields using the International Plant Genetic Research Institute (IPGRI) descriptor list for okra. The 29 exhibited significant variation in all but two quantitative traits studied. Block coefficients of variation were extremely low, implying that results obtained are reliable and repeatable over replications. The 29 accessions were grouped into two major clusters and subsequently into five sub-clusters based on both quantitative and qualitative characters studied. The association between pairs of quantitative yield traits in the okra landraces revealed that flowering and fruiting parameters had significant (P

2012-01-01

36

Callus Induced Organogenesis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculents L. Moench.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A viable protocol has been developed for indirect shoot organogenesis of okra. To establish a stable and high-frequency plant regeneration system, leaf disc and hypocotyl explants were tested with different combinations of ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA),iIndole-3-but...

M. Anisuzzaman; S. Jarin; K. Naher; M.M. Akhtar; M.J. Alam; M. Khalekuzzaman; I. Alam; M.F. Alam

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Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated.

Tongjaroenbuangam W; Ruksee N; Chantiratikul P; Pakdeenarong N; Kongbuntad W; Govitrapong P

2011-10-01

38

Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05) higher nutrient uptake [N (0.0034 mg kg-1), K (0.0160 mg kg-1), Na (0.9753 mg kg-1), Ca (0.0130 mg kg-1) and Cu (0.01136 mg kg-1)] in the okra roots than in the other treatments, yet the significantly (p < 0.05) highest uptake of P (0.0012 mg kg-1) was obtained with the MY treatment. Lower values of these nutrient contents were obtained in the shoots. The control treatment gave the significantly highest values of crude fibre (27.33%) and total ash (14.05%), as compared to the other treatments, whereas the other nutritional properties obtained showed no significant difference among any of the treatments. The results indicated that high-quality okra pods could be effectively produced with no soil amendment when planted in soils with a high fertility, such as those treated with sewage sludge.

M. B Adewole; A. O Ilesanmi

2011-01-01

39

Physical properties of okra seed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The physical properties of okra seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content (m.c.). The average length, breadth and thickness of the seed varied from 5.92 to 7.30, 4.71 to 5.40 and 4.59 to 5.36 mm, respectively, as the moisture content increased from 8.16 to 87.57% d.b. The roundness and sphericity increased from 77.76 to 79.35% and 74.48 to 76.52%, respectively, with increase in moisture content from 8.16 to 19.56% d.b. and then decreased to 72.39 and 70.63%, respectively, with further increase of moisture content. In the moisture range of 8.16-87.57%, the seed volume increased from 0.067 to 0.124 cm3, 1000 seed weight, W1000 from 65.78 to 129.75 g and the angle of repose from 27.60 to 39.47 degrees. The bulk density, true density and porosity decreased from 0.592 to 0.558 g cm(-3), 1.107 to 0.986 g cm(-3) and 46.34 to 43.20%, respectively, in the moisture range from 8.16 to 87.57% d.b. The static coefficient of friction increased on four structural surfaces namely, aluminium (0.390-0.484), bakelite (0.345-0.480), galvanised iron (0.368-0.493) and mild steel (0.389-0.480) as the moisture content increased from 8.16 to 87.57% d.b.

Sahoo PK; Srivastava AP

2002-12-01

40

The okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) transcriptome as a source for gene sequence information and molecular markers for diversity analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined leaf and pod transcriptome of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) has been produced by RNA sequencing and short read assembly. More than 150,000 unigenes were obtained, comprising some 46 million base pairs of sequence information. More than 55% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The okra transcriptome sequences were mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 935 non-redundant SSR motifs identified in the unigene set, 199 were chosen for testing in a germplasm set, resulting in 161 polymorphic SSR markers. From this set, 19 markers were selected for a diversity analysis on 65 okra accessions comprising three different species, revealing 58 different genotypes and resulted in clustering of the accessions according to species and geographic origin. The okra gene sequence information and the marker resource are made available to the research community for functional genomics and breeding research. PMID:23299025

Schafleitner, Roland; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Chen-Yu; Hegde, Satish Gajanana; Ebert, Andreas

2013-01-05

 
 
 
 
41

The okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) transcriptome as a source for gene sequence information and molecular markers for diversity analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A combined leaf and pod transcriptome of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) has been produced by RNA sequencing and short read assembly. More than 150,000 unigenes were obtained, comprising some 46 million base pairs of sequence information. More than 55% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The okra transcriptome sequences were mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 935 non-redundant SSR motifs identified in the unigene set, 199 were chosen for testing in a germplasm set, resulting in 161 polymorphic SSR markers. From this set, 19 markers were selected for a diversity analysis on 65 okra accessions comprising three different species, revealing 58 different genotypes and resulted in clustering of the accessions according to species and geographic origin. The okra gene sequence information and the marker resource are made available to the research community for functional genomics and breeding research.

Schafleitner R; Kumar S; Lin CY; Hegde SG; Ebert A

2013-03-01

42

Genetic Variability and Diversity in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of some yield contributingcharacters, and the genetic diversity in fifty genotypes of okra collected from the NBPGR New Delhi, India. Analysis ofvariance indicated significant difference among the genotypes for different morphological characters. High values of GCV,PCV, heritability and genetic advance (% of mean) observed for number of fruiting nodes, number of ridges per fruit, plantheight and number of fruiting nodes indicated these characters might be controlled by additive genes. On the basis of D2analysis, the 50 genotypes could be grouped into 5 clusters. Cluster I had the highest number of genotypes (45) followed bycluster II (2). Remaining clusters were monogenotypic. Plant height had the highest contribution towards the total geneticdivergence. The highest intra-cluster distances were recorded in cluster I followed by cluster II. The maximum inter-clusterdistance was recorded between cluster IV and cluster II, followed by cluster V and cluster II. Among the 50 genotypes, IC-332454 showed the highest cluster mean for fruit yield per plant and number of fruits per plant. The genotypes which were inthe cluster V, III and II also exhibited significant performance for fruit yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and plantheight sequentially. On the basis of groupings of individual genotypes into different clusters, contribution of individualcharacter towards total genetic divergence, inter-cluster distance and cluster mean, the genotypes such as IC-9856B, IC-331157, IC-342075, IC-332453 and IC-43736 were found promising for using in the hybridization programme.

Pradip K. Akotkar, D.K. De and A.K. Pal

2010-01-01

43

Lectin of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The anti-tumor effects of a newly-discovered lectin, isolated from okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (AEL), were investigated in human breast cancer (MCF7) and skin fibroblast (CCD-1059 sk) cells. AEL induced significant cell growth inhibition (63 %) in MCF7 cells. The expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3, caspase-9, and p21 genes was increased in MCF7 cells treated with AEL, compared to those treated with controls. In addition, AEL treatment increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in MCF7 cells. Flow cytometry also indicated that cell death (72 %) predominantly occurred through apoptosis. Thus, AEL in its native form promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells and may represent a potential therapeutic to combat human breast cancer.

Monte LG; Santi-Gadelha T; Reis LB; Braganhol E; Prietsch RF; Dellagostin OA; E Lacerda RR; Gadelha CA; Conceição FR; Pinto LS

2013-10-01

44

Composition analysis and immuno-modulatory effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract and investigate the effect of A. esculentus L. polysaccharides (AE-PS) on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs) in vitro. BMHC-derived immature DCs (BMHC-imDCs) were extracted from rats and treated with AE-PS. The hydrolysed okra extract contained 0.6% ?-1, 3-D-glucan. AE-PS induced the presence of polymorphic nuclei and elongated protrusion in the BHMC-imDCs, indicating DC activation. Treatment with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS increased the MHC class II and CD80/86 expression levels by 41% and 42%, respectively. Treated cells had reduced endocytosis activity. The secretion of IL-12 and IFN-? increased significantly by 120% and 75%, respectively, when treated with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS. Moreover, IL-10 production was reduced by 66%. In conclusion, AE-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat dendritic cells and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines. PMID:23442637

Sheu, Shyang-Chwen; Lai, Mei-Huei

2012-04-03

45

Composition analysis and immuno-modulatory effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract and investigate the effect of A. esculentus L. polysaccharides (AE-PS) on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs) in vitro. BMHC-derived immature DCs (BMHC-imDCs) were extracted from rats and treated with AE-PS. The hydrolysed okra extract contained 0.6% ?-1, 3-d-glucan. AE-PS induced the presence of polymorphic nuclei and elongated protrusion in the BHMC-imDCs, indicating DC activation. Treatment with100?g/mL of AE-PS increased the MHC class II and CD80/86 expression levels by 41% and 42%, respectively. Treated cells had reduced endocytosis activity. The secretion of IL-12 and IFN-? increased significantly by 120% and 75%, respectively, when treated with 100?g/mL of AE-PS. Moreover, IL-10 production was reduced by 66%. In conclusion, AE-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat dendritic cells and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines.

Sheu SC; Lai MH

2012-10-01

46

Composition analysis and immuno-modulatory effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract and investigate the effect of A. esculentus L. polysaccharides (AE-PS) on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs) in vitro. BMHC-derived immature DCs (BMHC-imDCs) were extracted from rats and treated with AE-PS. The hydrolysed okra extract contained 0.6% ?-1, 3-D-glucan. AE-PS induced the presence of polymorphic nuclei and elongated protrusion in the BHMC-imDCs, indicating DC activation. Treatment with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS increased the MHC class II and CD80/86 expression levels by 41% and 42%, respectively. Treated cells had reduced endocytosis activity. The secretion of IL-12 and IFN-? increased significantly by 120% and 75%, respectively, when treated with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS. Moreover, IL-10 production was reduced by 66%. In conclusion, AE-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat dendritic cells and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines.

Sheu SC; Lai MH

2012-10-01

47

Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)were studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) andP10(IC111443) during mid kharif (July-October), 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819) and P7(IC89976) were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716), C17(IC27826-A × IC111443), C42(IC89976 × IC111443) were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443) and (IC27826-A × IC89819) having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize additive gene action to develop high yielding lines or varieties in okra.

Medagam Thirupathi Reddy1; Kadiyala Haribabu2; Mutyala Ganesh3; Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4; Hameedunnisa Begum1,; Reddivenkatagari Subbararama Krishna Reddy1; Jampala Dilip Babu1

2012-01-01

48

Phenotypic diversity within a collection of distinct okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) cultivars derived from Turkish land races.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ten traditional, Turkish okra cultivars (Bati Trakya, Akkoy 41, Kabakli II, Denizli, Denizli uzun, Bornova (TR-57377 and TR-57420), Amasya Cicek, Balikesir T-1, Aglasun/Burdur) and one commercial cultivar (Sultani/May Seed Company) were selected to represent the variability within domestic okra germplasm from the Anatolian Plateau. Replicated field trials were conducted to evaluate a total of 21 morphological, horticultural and physiological characteristics. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that first two PC axes explained 49.66% of the total multivariate variation with the first six PC axes explaining 84.23%. The first PC axis separated number of locules, mature pod length and internode length, while the second PC axis separated pod yield/plant, pod number/plant, pedicel length and number of branches. All 21 characters were statistically significant among the cultivars and had at least one high coefficient in at least one of the first six PC axes, which demonstrated that all of them served as distinguishing characters among the cultivars. By using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average four main clusters were consistently formed across all years. The four clusters were also related to the eco-geographic distribution of the cultivars. Each cluster members were also described for their main characteristics, which also provide useful criteria for further evaluation of okra germplasm across Turkey.

Duzyaman E

2005-12-01

49

Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest dose of fertilizers.

Muhammad Akbar Anjum; Muhammad Amjad

1999-01-01

50

Differential Responses for Harvesting Times and Storage on Hardness of Different Varieties of Okra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Okra seed hardness results in slow and nonuniform germination. This study was conducted to determine the effects of time of harvest and storage on seed germination of four different cultivars of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). The study was carried out at Agricultural faculty of Razi University in...

Ghadir MOHAMMADI; Ebrahim M. KHAH; Mohammad BANNAYAN AVAL

51

Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra.

Moyin-Jesu EI

2007-08-01

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Producción y tecnología de la Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) en el noreste de México/ Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and technology in northeastern Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En México la okra es una hortaliza no tradicional cuya producción oscila de 4 000 a 7 000 ha anuales y rendimiento medio de 10 t ha-1, se destina para el mercado de exportación hacia Estados Unidos de América. Los principales estados productores son Morelos, Michoacán, Guerrero y Tamaulipas; éste último cuenta con la mayor área productora de 5 000 ha. Además de ser un cultivo generador de divisas y rentable, la okra representa una fuente de empleo. La investigaci (more) ón sobre el cultivo de la okra se inició afínales de ladécadade los ochenta. La calidad de fruto es determinante para su comercialización; se prefiere fruto de textura suave, de verdor intenso y de forma regular. El rendimiento de okra es mayor en suelos de textura franco arcillosos. Un problema para el establecimiento es el bajo nivel de emergencia de la okra que es atribuido a las bajas temperaturas del suelo en siembras tempranas (febrero). La fertilización foliar no tiene efecto en el rendimiento de fruto. La poda resulta atractiva ya que optimiza la producción de una sola siembra, al continuar con la cosecha después del término del ciclo normal. Algunos híbridos probados en la región muestran ventajas productivas con relación a la var. testigo 'Clempson Spineless'. La enfermedad de mayor impacto es el moteado amarillo de la okra transmitida por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Esta virosis ha sido la causa del abandono del cultivo en los estados de Guerrero y Morelos. El inadecuado control de la maleza en okra tiene efectos directos en el rendimiento, dificulta la cosecha e incrementa los costos de producción. Abstract in english In Mexico, the okra is a non-traditional vegetable cultivated in 4000 to 7000 ha annually with an average yield of 10 t ha-1; most of the production is exported to the United States of America. Main okra producer states include: Morelos, Michoacan, Guerrero and Tamaulipas. In this last state okra is produced in up to 5 000 ha. Okra is a rentable vegetable crop that also promotes hand labor. Research on okra started in Mexico twenty years ago. Fruit quality is a key factor (more) for okra marketing; soft texture fruits with intense green color and of regular shape are preferred. Higher okra yield are obtained in clay loam soils. A problem for crop establishment are the low soil temperatures that causes low okra emergence in early plantings. Foliar fertilization has not being effective to increase yields. Pruning is a promising practice because its optimizes crop yields by extending the crop season. Some okra hybrids tested in the region show productive advantages in relation to the traditional cultivar 'Clemson Spineless'. The most important disease is yellow mottled virus, transmitted by whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). This virus has caused the abandonment of the okra crop in the states of Guerrero and Morelos. Ineffective weed control in okra has deleterious effects on yield, increases production cost and difficults harvest.

Díaz Franco, Arturo; Loera Gallardo, Jesús; Rosales Robles, Enrique; Alvarado Carrillo, Manuel; Ayvar Serna, Sergio

2007-12-01

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Biological Control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood, Root Knot Nematodes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench  

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Full Text Available In a greenhouse study P. lilacinus, T. harzianum and T. flavus were used as seed treatment and soil drench. Seed treatment by P. lilacinus reduced gall formation, egg mass production, nematode soil and root densities as compared to control and other treatments. P. lilacinus improved plant growth followed by T. flavus and T. harzianum comparing with control. In another experiment, where soil was treated with conidial suspension, maximum plant height and shoot weight was achieved by P. lilacinus > T. harzianum compared to control, whereas T. flavus was found less effective in the enhancement of plant tops. Maximum suppression in gall formation (at p<0.01) and egg mass production (at p<0.001) was obtained in okra plants treated with P. lilacinus whereas T. flavus and T. harzianum were almost equally effective. Conidial suspension of microbial antagonists used as soil amendment also reduced nematode root invasion (at p<0.001) as well as soil densities

Amer-Zareen; Nargis Jamil Khan; M. Javed Zaki

2001-01-01

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Decontamination of sliced and powdered okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and some aspects of nutrient quality before and after gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Food security in Africa is crucial for survival of the increasing population. However, agricultural produce in the field are drastically reduced along the food pipeline (from farm gate to the consumer's table) by bioderioagents including microorganisms. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is one such farm produce of economic importance in Ghana with a great potential of providing essential nutrients and vitamins in our diet. The high moisture content of the fresh fruit makes it susceptible to microbial deterioration in a short time. Dehydration methods (sun-drying and solar drying) are practiced worldwide but in Africa, this is attended by contamination by aeromycoflora and other agents such as insect eggs and larvae. In addition are physical and chemical contaminants. In this thesis, the mycoflora and Total Aerobic Bacteria load of market samples and solar-dried okra (Clemson spineless and Legon Finger) chips and powder were ascertained with the view to documenting toxin-producing fungal species and update the resident mycoflora and bacteria load. Insects resident in the samples were detected by the hidden infestation technique; mycoflora was determined by the decimal serial dilution method on different media and Total Aerobic Bacteria population was determined on Plate Count Agar at 320C for 48hr. In order to establish storage stability of the okra, the chips and powdered samples were placed in glass desiccators with glycerol: water mixtures providing Environmental Relative Humidities of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95% representative of the Ghanaian Tropic Conditions to undergo sorption at the same temperature. Gamma irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 20kGy) were used as a preservation process to decontaminate resident mycoflora and total aerobic bacteria. This was supplemented by an in vitro study in the radio-resistance of six selected resident fungi (Aspergillus; Penicllium spp). The veracity of the dry okra supporting growth of selected Aspergillus and Penicillium species was carried out in liquid cultures (okra meal broth and okra meal broth amended with glucose) using the conventional oven dry weight method at 300C for 5 days. The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in an artificially inoculated 'black' and 'white' market samples of okra powder was studied using the current Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) to quantify aflatoxins with post column derivatisation (PCD) involving bromination. Elemental composition (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Na, K, Ca, Fe) was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Flame Photometer methods. A Bench Nuclear Magnetic Resonance equipment determined percentage moisture and fat concurrently; crude protein was ascertained by the Kjeldahl method, total ash was determined by the dry ashing method using Carblolite Eurotherm CW Furnace. Vitamin C was determined by the AOAC (2000) Iodometric Titration method and pH was estimated by AOAC (2000) method, while Brabender Viscograph measured viscosity of powdered samples of okra and Brookfield Viscometer was employed for the okra chips. Colour change was determined on L*a*b* system using a Minolta CR-30 Chromameter. The chips of Clemson spineless and Legon finger as well as the 'black' and 'white' okra powder were hygroscopic and equilibrated at 20-95% ERH with 6-8 days. Samples were visibly mouldy after 6-10 days and harboured a miscellany of fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pullularia, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Rhodotorula sp). Potential toxin-producing fungi (A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. sulphureus, P. digitatum, P. citrinum, P. brevicompactum, F. verticillioides, P. expansum) variably contaminated the samples. The Cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricone was recorded for the first time in 'white' okra powder but not the remaining samples. The insect showed mycophagy, ingesting spores of the Mucorales. The okra fruit was a good medium for vegetative growth of the resident fungi. A dose of 10kGy significantly (p?0.05) eliminated resident mycoflora a

2012-01-01

55

Comparative Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction Techniques in West African Okra, (Abelmoschus caillei, A. Chev Stevels)  

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Full Text Available West African okra occurs in wild and unselected variants in Nigeria but farmers desire stable and high-yielding cultivars. Twenty-five West African okra genotypes from diverse geographical backgrounds were evaluated in five different environments for stability of performance. Performance was measured by number of days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plants, number of seeds per pod, plant height at maturity and seed yield per plant. A regression method, Additive main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) and Genotype main effect and genotype x environment Interaction (GGE) were employed in the evaluation. Joint regression and AMMI analyses showed significant (P

C.O Alake; O.J Ariyo

2012-01-01

56

'Anjitha'- A new okra variety through induced mutation in inter specific hybrids of Abelmoschus SPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Studies on inter specific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional combination breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistant genes and wild character of A. manihot. The present study envisaged the breaking of undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (10, 20, 30 and 40 kRad) of F1 seeds obtained by inter specific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluation and selection of high yielding YVM resistant types from the segregating generations till F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of gamma rays. The mutated hybrids and the wild parent showed complete resistance to YVM disease incidence which was confirmed through grafting trials. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more number of leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 20 kR while fruit yield was maximum in 40 kR due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 30kR which suggested that 30 kR could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Thirteen superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to three Comparative Yield Trials (CYT). Culture AE18 out yielded the others in CYTs and Farm trials and was released as 'Anjitha' by the XXIII State Seed Sub Committee during 2006 for cultivation in Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

2008-01-01

57

Nature and magnitude of genetic variability and diversity studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)  

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Full Text Available In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of yield contributing characters, and the genetic diversityin forty-four genotypes of okra collected from the IIHR, Bangalore, India. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among thegenotypes for different morphological characters. High GCV and PCV were observed for plant height, inter-nodal length, first flowering node,first fruit producing node, height of first flowering node, average fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit. On the basis of D2 analysis, the 44genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters. The cluster III was the largest with eight genotypes followed by cluster I and VIII with seven,cluster II with five, cluster XII with three while, clusters IV, V, VI, IX, X and XI included only two genotype in each. The intra-cluster distancewas maximum in cluster XII (28.14), while inter-cluster distance was maximum between cluster VI and VIII (35.57) followed by I and IX(35.31), thus being a good source for attempting hybridization. Among the 44 genotypes, IIHR-238, IIHR-241 showed maximum number offruits per plant and total yield per plant (g). The characters namely days to 50% flowering (35.62%), 100 seed weight (28.44%), number of seedsper fruit (17.23%) and average fruit weight (8.14%) directly contributed towards maximum divergence and, therefore, selection of divergentparents based on these characters is recommended for getting good hybrids or segregants in okra.

K. Prakash and M. Pitchaimuthu

2010-01-01

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Effect of Postharvest Storage Techniques on the Nutritional Properties of Benin Indigenous Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria, okra Abelmoschus esculentus are packed and stored in polypropylene bag when moved from outlying villages to the city market. The study aims at assessing other storage method for Benin indigenous okra other than polypropylene bag with respect to nutrients, antinutrients and antioxidants. In this study fresh harvested Benin okra were harvested and divided into three parts. One part was stored in 100% RH at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C, another at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C and the last part in polypropylene bag. The nutrients, antinutrients (Phytate and Saponin) antioxidants (Vitamin C and Total Phenol) and the Viscosity were subsequently determined. The result of the study indicates that the nutrient, antinutrient and antioxidant content reduces significantly (p>0.05) in the three storage methods: Moisture (88.73-84.62)%, fibre (10.63-7.22)%, protein (14.87-12.84)%, fat (9.67-7.96)%, phytate (3.84-1.18)%, saponin (0.612-0.284)%, vitamin C (46.28-14.39) mg/100g, total phenol (0.095-0.059)% and the viscosity (58.16-53.42)cp. The method of storage of 100%RH recorded the least percentage loss in moisture, fibre antioxidant and viscosity content of the okra while the least % loss was recorded for protein and fat in the polypropylene bag method. The highest loss of the antinutrient was recorded at the storage method of temperature of 10°C ± 2°C. On the average the storage method of 100%RH at temperature of 10°C ±2°C shows to be better method than the others.

F.O. Adetuyi; A.U. Osagie; A.T. Adekunle

2008-01-01

59

Season-dependent mineral accumulation in fruits of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Season-dependent mineral accumulation was recorded in fruits of Okra and Tomato. The highest concentration was in summer in Okra and in winter in Tomato. Lowest concentrations were in winter in Okra and rainy in Tomato. Both crop plants indicated that the mineral contents were in the order of P > K > Ca > Mg > Na > Fe which also signify their relative functional importance in growth and metabolism.

Sen S; Mukherji S

2002-01-01

60

Interrelationships among Characters and Path Analysis for Pod Yield Components in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev) Stevels)  

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Full Text Available Correlation, stepwise multiple regression and path coefficient analysis were used to determine the relationships, direct and indirect effects of agronomic and reproductive characters on pod and seed yield. Eighteen F2 generation obtained from hybridization of West African okra were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications in a single locations. Data were collected on agronomic and reproductive characters. Significant differences were observed among the segregating population for pods/branch, seeds/pod, inter node distance, seeds/ridge branch length, height at flower bud initiation and height at flowering. A positive correlation (p<0.05) was recorded for number of pods/plant and seed weight, height at maturity, ridges/pod and seeds/ridge. The seed weight recorded a positive correlation coefficient with edible pod width, seeds/ridge and pods/plant. The stepwise multiple regression analysis identified two characters (height at maturity and number of pods/plant) to have accounted for 31% of variation observed in seed weight. Mature pod length was responsible for 39% of variability in seed weight. The numbers of ridges per pod and plant height at maturity were responsible for 25% of variation due to regression in pod yield. The path analysis identified plant height at maturity, ridges/pod, pods/plant, mature pod length and seed/ridge as selection indicators for pod and seed yield improvement in West African Okra.

O.T. Adeniji; C.O. Aremu

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Synergistic Effect of Fungicides on the Incidence of Seed Mycoflora of Okra  

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Full Text Available Seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) variety Arka anamika were treated with 5 fungicides including Anucop, Bavistin, Captan, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax with different doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) and the combination Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Captan, Anucop + Vitavax, Bavistin + Vitavax, Anucop + Dithane, Bavistin + Dithane, Bavistin + Captan, Captan + Vitavax, Anucop + Bavistin + Captan, Anucop + Bavistin + Dithane, Anucop + Captan + Vitavax, Bavistin + Captan + Vitavax were used to test their potency against the seed-borne fungal diseases. Among these, Anucop at a concentration of 0.3%, Bavistin @ 0.2%, Captan @ 0.3%, Dithane @ 0.3%, Vitavax @ 0.3% and their combinations, like Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Dithane, Bavistin + Dithane, Anucop + Captan + Vitavax, Bavistin + Captan + Vitavax were most effective in the improvement of crop both in greenhouse and field conditions. These chemicals at different doses and in combinations increased the total number of leaves, fruits, mean length, girth and biomass of fruits. Apart from these, the total number of seeds per fruit, seed density and weight and ascorbic acid content were also enhanced. These chemicals reduced the incidence of seed mycoflora, thereby enhancing the seed germination percentage and vigour index of the seedlings.

S. Lokesh; Mashooda Begum

2008-01-01

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Dissipation of flubendiamide in/on okra [Abelmoschus esculenta (L.) Moench] fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field experiment was undertaken at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif (rainy season) in the year 2010 to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits following foliar application of Belt 39.35% SC formulation at 24 (standard dose) and 48 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1). After HPLC analysis study revealed that residues of flubendiamide in/on okra persisted till 5th and 7th day after the last spray at standard and double dose, respectively. The residues of flubendiamide were reported as parent compound, and des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite (photo product) of flubendiamide, was not detected in/on okra at any time during the study period. The initial deposits of 0.28 and 0.53 ?g g(-1) in/on okra fruits reached below determination level of 0.01 ?g g(-1) on the 7th and 10th day at standard and double dose, respectively. The half life of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits ranged from 4.7 to 5.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Soil sample collected from the treated field on the 15th day after the last spray revealed residues of flubendiamide or its metabolite below determination level (0.01 ?g g(-1)) at single and double dose.

Das SK; Mukherjee I; Das SK

2012-03-01

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Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)/ Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El estudio de heterosis podría ayudar en la selección de cruzas heteróticas para la explotación comercial de híbridos F1 de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Cuarenta y cinco F1s fueron desarrolladas cruzando 10 líneas elite de gombo: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) y P10(IC111443), en forma de medio dialelo durante el verano 2009. Todas las 45 F1s junto con sus 10 p (more) adres y un control estándar (Híbrido de Mahyco N° 10) fueron evaluadas en un diseno de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones durante kharif temprano (junio a septiembre) 2009 en la Estación de Investigación de Vegetales, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, para heterosis de la producción de gombo y sus componentes. La significancia de cuadrados medios debida a genotipos reveló la presencia de variabilidad genética considerable entre el material estudiado para casi toda la producción y atributos de producción excepto la altura de planta. La heterosis media total entre los padres y control estándar para la producción total por planta fue 6,92 y -15,44%, respectivamente, mientras para la producción comerciable por planta fue 6,64 y el -22,18%, respectivamente. Cruzas negativamente heteróticas como C19(P3XP5) para días a 50% floración (-4.35%) y C4(P1XP5) para primera floración y nudos fructíferos (-15,22%), respectivamente, son importantes para explotar heterosis de precocidad en quingombó. Las cruzas con heterosis estándar no significativa en cualquier dirección dada para producción total por planta C42, C31, C35, C25, y C36 (8,6; -0,08; -2,61; -3,26; y -4,57%, respectivamente) y producción comerciable por planta C42, C31, y C36 (-5,87; -6,56, y -10,54%, respectivamente), fueron estadísticamente iguales con el control estándar para rendimiento medio y fueron tan prometedoras como aquellas del control estándar. El híbrido F1 C42(P7XP10) con alto potencial de rendimiento tiene potencial para cultivo comercial después de evaluación adicional para la temporada kharif temprana. Abstract in english The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Ma (more) hyco Hybrid N° 10) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates during early kharif (June to September) 2009 at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, for heterosis of yield and its components of okra. Significance of mean squares due to genotypes revealed the presence of considerable genetic variability among the material studied for almost all yield and yield attributes except plant height. The overall mean heterosis over mid parent and standard control for total yield per plant was 6.92 and -15.44%, respectively, while for marketable yield per plant were 6.64 and -22.18%, respectively. Negatively heterotic crosses like C19 (P3XP5) for days to 50% flowering (-4.35%) and C4(P1XP5) for first flowering and fruiting nodes (-15.22%), respectively, are important to exploit heterosis for earliness in okra. The crosses with non-significant standard heterosis in any given direction for total yield per plant C42, C31, C35, C25, and C36 (8.63, -0.08, -2.61, -3.26, and -4.57%, respectively) and marketable yield per plant C42, C31, and C36 (-5.87, -6.56, and -10.54%, respectively), were statistically on par with the standard control in their mean performance and are found to be as promising as that of the standard control. The F1 hybrid C42(P7XP10) with high yield potential has the potential for commercial cultivation after further evaluation for early kha

Reddy Medagam, Thirupathi; Kadiyala, Haribabu; Mutyala, Ganesh; Hameedunnisa, Begum

2012-09-01

64

Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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Full Text Available The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Mahyco Hybrid N° 10) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates during early kharif (June to September) 2009 at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, for heterosis of yield and its components of okra. Significance of mean squares due to genotypes revealed the presence of considerable genetic variability among the material studied for almost all yield and yield attributes except plant height. The overall mean heterosis over mid parent and standard control for total yield per plant was 6.92 and -15.44%, respectively, while for marketable yield per plant were 6.64 and -22.18%, respectively. Negatively heterotic crosses like C19 (P3XP5) for days to 50% flowering (-4.35%) and C4(P1XP5) for first flowering and fruiting nodes (-15.22%), respectively, are important to exploit heterosis for earliness in okra. The crosses with non-significant standard heterosis in any given direction for total yield per plant C42, C31, C35, C25, and C36 (8.63, -0.08, -2.61, -3.26, and -4.57%, respectively) and marketable yield per plant C42, C31, and C36 (-5.87, -6.56, and -10.54%, respectively), were statistically on par with the standard control in their mean performance and are found to be as promising as that of the standard control. The F1 hybrid C42(P7XP10) with high yield potential has the potential for commercial cultivation after further evaluation for early kharif season.El estudio de heterosis podría ayudar en la selección de cruzas heteróticas para la explotación comercial de híbridos F1 de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Cuarenta y cinco F1s fueron desarrolladas cruzando 10 líneas elite de gombo: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) y P10(IC111443), en forma de medio dialelo durante el verano 2009. Todas las 45 F1s junto con sus 10 padres y un control estándar (Híbrido de Mahyco N° 10) fueron evaluadas en un diseno de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones durante kharif temprano (junio a septiembre) 2009 en la Estación de Investigación de Vegetales, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, para heterosis de la producción de gombo y sus componentes. La significancia de cuadrados medios debida a genotipos reveló la presencia de variabilidad genética considerable entre el material estudiado para casi toda la producción y atributos de producción excepto la altura de planta. La heterosis media total entre los padres y control estándar para la producción total por planta fue 6,92 y -15,44%, respectivamente, mientras para la producción comerciable por planta fue 6,64 y el -22,18%, respectivamente. Cruzas negativamente heteróticas como C19(P3XP5) para días a 50% floración (-4.35%) y C4(P1XP5) para primera floración y nudos fructíferos (-15,22%), respectivamente, son importantes para explotar heterosis de precocidad en quingombó. Las cruzas con heterosis estándar no significativa en cualquier dirección dada para producción total por planta C42, C31, C35, C25, y C36 (8,6; -0,08; -2,61; -3,26; y -4,57%, respectivamente) y producción comerciable por planta C42, C31, y C36 (-5,87; -6,56, y -10,54%, respectivamente), fueron estadísticamente iguales con el control estándar para rendimiento medio y fueron tan prometedoras como aquellas del control estándar. El híbrido F1 C42(P7XP10) con alto potencial de rendimiento tiene potencial para cultivo comercial después de evaluación adicional para la temporada kharif temprana.

Thirupathi Reddy Medagam; Haribabu Kadiyala; Ganesh Mutyala; Begum Hameedunnisa

2012-01-01

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Salt (NaCl)-Induced Modulation in some Key Physio-Biochemical Attributes in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salt (NaCl)-induced regulation of some key physio-biochemical characteristics in two okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars (Nirali and Posa Sawni) was examined under greenhouse conditions. Plants of both cultivars were subjected for 30 days to sand culture salinized with four salt levels [0 (control), 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl] in Hoagland's nutrient solution. Salt stress significantly reduced the shoot and root fresh weights, transpiration rate, chlorophyll b content, net CO? assimilation (A), transpiration rate (E), while enhanced leaf and root Na? and Cl? concentrations in both cultivars. In contrast, chlorophyll a content, stomatal conductance (gs), leaf internal CO? (Ci), Ci/Ca ratio, water-use efficiency (A/E) and fluorescence characteristics such as photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), efficiency of PS-II (Fv/Fm), proline contents, and leaf and root K?, Ca² ? and N contents remained almost unaffected in both lines due to salt stress. The efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), A, chlorophyll b, root fresh weight and root N were higher in relatively salt tolerant cv. Nirali, whereas leaf Na? and root Cl? were higher in cv. Posa Sawni. The relatively more reduction in growth in the cv. Posa Sawni was found to be associated with higher accumulation of Na? in its leaves and Cl? in roots.

Saleem A; Ashraf M; Akram NA

2011-06-01

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Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the h...

Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

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Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

2010-03-15

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Genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra (abelmoschus esculentus L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The development of salt tolerant plants through selection and breeding depends on the presence of the genetic variability within the crop species in response to salt stress, which must have significant genetic component. Such information is not extensively available in vegetable crops. The present study was carried out to gain some information on the genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra. North Carolina Mating Design II (NCM II) was used for the estimation of genetic components of variation in the traits affecting salinity tolerance. The inheritance of the traits affecting salinity tolerance at the seedling stage appeared to be controlled by both additive and non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis). The narrow sense heritability estimates ranged from 40 to 65% and 7 to 70% and the estimates of broad sense heritability ranged from 65 to 99% and 20 to 99% for absolute and relative values. The additive effects were relatively more prominent and narrow sense heritability was moderate. The high additive component for absolute Na/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio at 60 and 80 mM NaCl, relative Na+ at 80 mM NaCl suggested that improvement for salinity tolerance in okra would be possible on the basis of these characteristics through selection and breeding. The genetic variation for tolerance to NaCl salinity existed among the okra genotypes, which had considerable heritable component and, therefore, genetic improvement of okra genotypes for salinity tolerance through recurrent selection method is possible. (author)

2010-01-01

69

Quality Attributes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Pods as Affected by Cultivar and Fruit Size  

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Full Text Available Okra is a vegetable widely grown in the tropics, sub-tropics and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Fruit quality plays an important role in marketability and it is mainly related to the characteristic pod length. This work was intended to classify okra fruits belonging to different genotypes (a local variety - LV - and the cultivars Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Annie Oakley II) according to their length and to compare certain quality attributes. LV fruits were considerably firm although they were smaller, thus they should be more suitable for canning or pickling. The hybrid material (Annie Oakley II) yielded high quality fruits. These fruits may be destined for fresh consumption, given that they showed lower fibrousness. At the same time, they had high dry matter content, being suitable for dehydration. Okra fruits highlighted for their contribution of phenolic compounds.Total phenols levels significantly increased with fruit size in LV fruits, meanwhile no significant difference was observed for Annie Oakley II samples. Total flavonoids content showed a similar tendency although values did not differ significantly. Total flavonoids represented between 18-22% of the total phenols contents for the analyzed samples.

Daniela F. Olivera; Alicia Mugridge; Alicia R. Chaves; Rodolfo H. Mascheroni; Sonia Z. Viña

2012-01-01

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Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the high polysaccharide content of okra pods, resulting in a highly viscous solution with a slimy appearance when okra is extracted with water. In this study, we present a structural characterisation of all major cell wall polysaccharides originating from okra pods. The sequential extraction of okra cell wall material yielded fractions of soluble solids extractable using hot buffer (HBSS), chelating agent (CHSS), dilute alkaline (DASS) and concentrated alkaline (CASS). The HBSS fraction was shown to be rich in galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the ratio 1.3:1:1.3. The degree of acetylation is relatively high (DA=58) while the degree of methyl esterification is relatively low (DM=24). The CHSS fraction contained much higher levels of methyl esterified galacturonic acid residues (63% galacturonic acid; DM=48) in addition to minor amounts of rhamnose and galactose. The ratio of galactose to rhamnose to galacturonic acid was 1.3:1.0:1.3 and 4.5:1.0:1.2 for HBSS and CHSS, respectively. These results indicated that the HBSS and CHSS fractions contain rhamnogalacturonan type I next to homogalacturonan, while the latter is more prevailing in CHSS. Also the DASS fraction is characterised by high amounts of rhamnose, galactose, galacturonic acid and some arabinose, indicating that rhamnogalacturonan I elements with longer arabinose- and galactose-rich side chains were part of this fraction. Partial digestion of HBSS and CHSS by pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase resulted in a fraction with a lower Mw and lower viscosity in solution. These samples were subjected to NMR analysis, which indicated that, in contrast to known RG I structure, the acetyl groups in HBSS are not located on the galacturonic acid residues, while for CHSS only part of the acetyl groups are located on the RG I galacturonic acid residues. The CASS fraction consisted of XXXG-type xyloglucan and 4-methylglucuronoxylan as shown by their sugar (linkage) composition and enzymatic digestion.

Sengkhamparn N; Verhoef R; Schols HA; Sajjaanantakul T; Voragen AG

2009-09-01

71

Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seed and Oil  

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Full Text Available Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet) and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1) (Blye and Dyer).The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet) to 21.98%(Blye & Dyer). The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters,unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differential scanning calorimetry w eredetermined. Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds have ash content of 5.68% (with the presence of followingminerals: Ca, M g, K and N a). The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especiallyoleic (up to 24.89%) and linoleic (up to 42.78%). Abelmoschus esculentus L. oil can be classified in theoleic-linoleic acid group. The dominant saturated acid w as palmitic (up to 25.79%). Abelmoschus esculentusL. seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (24.85%). The content of insaponifiables is1.53%. Taking into account these results, the gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) finds its applications in thefood and cosmetic industry.

J.M. Nzikou

2010-01-01

72

Rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and yellow vein mosaic virus infected okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations on the rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and virus (YVMV) infected okra plants showed a higher fungal population in the rhizosphere of healthy plants at preflowering and post-flowering stages than in that of diseased ones. Maximum population was observed during flowering both in healthy and diseased plant rhizosphere as well as in non-rhizosphere soil. However, virus infected plants showed a higher population at the flowering stage than healthy ones. The quantitative differences in the rhizosphere of healthy and diseased plants during flowering seem to be due to a change in C/N ratio and amino acids. The drastic reduction in diseased plant rhizospheres during the post-flowering stage may be due to either change in C/N ratio unfavourable to mycoflora or production of some toxic substances inhibiting multiplication of the mycoflora. PMID:94749

Singh, S J; Tewari, R P

1979-01-01

73

Rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and yellow vein mosaic virus infected okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigations on the rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and virus (YVMV) infected okra plants showed a higher fungal population in the rhizosphere of healthy plants at preflowering and post-flowering stages than in that of diseased ones. Maximum population was observed during flowering both in healthy and diseased plant rhizosphere as well as in non-rhizosphere soil. However, virus infected plants showed a higher population at the flowering stage than healthy ones. The quantitative differences in the rhizosphere of healthy and diseased plants during flowering seem to be due to a change in C/N ratio and amino acids. The drastic reduction in diseased plant rhizospheres during the post-flowering stage may be due to either change in C/N ratio unfavourable to mycoflora or production of some toxic substances inhibiting multiplication of the mycoflora.

Singh SJ; Tewari RP

1979-01-01

74

Advances in breeding of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] in India  

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Full text: Okra, an important vegetable of the tropics and sub-tropics is very popular in India. Its production is limited by 'yellow vein mosaic virus'. Advances in breeding for resistance to this virus have been made through inter-specific hybridisation as well as mutagenesis. Hybridisation used A. manihot ssp. manihot and ssp. tetraphyllus. New varieties showed 87-146% yield increases over older virus susceptible varieties. The number of fruits increased by 13-30%, virus incidence decreased by 84-99%. An EMS induced mutant 'EMS8' showed a yield increase of 107%, a fruit number increase of 16% and a disease decrease of 99%. The mutant also carries a good amount of resistance to the fruit borer; infestation decreased by 46%. The mutant is the best among the tested varieties for canning, is suitable for dehydration, and can be stored prepacked at room temperature for 6 days. (author)

1990-01-01

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USE IN COSMETICS OF A PROTEIN FRACTION EXTRACTED FROM OKRA SEEDS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention concerns the use of at least one protein fraction extracted from okra seeds and a cosmetic composition containing same. It concerns the use of a soluble protein fraction extracted from Hibiscus esculentus or Okra seeds as a substitute for casein in a cosmetic composition or product, said composition comprising between 0.01 % and 50.00 % of said fraction.

PAULY Gilles

76

Ferti-irrigational Effect of Paper Mill Effluent on Agronomical Characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra)  

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Full Text Available The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation of A. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO43¯, SO42¯, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (p>0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr>Cd>Mn>Zn>Cu for soil and Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

Vinod Kumar; A.K. Chopra

2013-01-01

77

Combining ability through diallel analysis in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) moench)  

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Full Text Available Combining ability analysis was carried out for fruit yield and its components in okra in a 12 x 12 diallel cross (excludingreciprocals). Both general a combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances were highlysignificant for all the characters indicating the importance of both additive and non additive gene actions. However,preponderance of additive gene action was recorded for the traits viz., primary branches per plant, ridges/fruit and fruitdiameter, preponderance of non additive gene action was recorded for plant height, nodes on main stem, days to firstflowering, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. The parents Sat-dhari, Ratna - 78,VRO 5 and Varsha Uphar were found to be the best general combiners and close correspondence between per seperformance of parents and their gca effects were observed. The cross combinations viz., Sat-dhari x Ratna–78, VRO 5 xSagun, Ratna-78 x Punjab 8, Ankur–40 x Pankaj Dwarf, Sat-dhari x Varsha Uphar, Arka Anamika x Punjab-5 showedsignificant sca effects in desirable direction for fruit yield per plant and associated characters and were expected to producetransgressive segregants. Exploitation of hybrid vigour from these crosses through heterosis breeding method is advocated

Atanu K Pal; T. Sabesan

2009-01-01

78

Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na(+) and K(+)) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars.

Haq IU; Khan AA; Khan IA; Azmat MA

2012-07-01

79

Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny*  

Science.gov (United States)

The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars.

Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

2012-01-01

80

Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na(+) and K(+)) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars. PMID:22761245

Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Avaliação da sensibilidade de plantas jovens de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) ao ozônio/ Assessment of the sensitivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) to ozone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A sensibilidade de Abelmoschus esculentus ao ozônio (O3) foi determinada em plantas expostas por quatro dias, seis horas/dia, ao ar filtrado (AF) e ao AF enriquecido com 80 ppb de O3 (AF+O3), em câmaras de fumigação, analisando-se sintomas foliares visíveis e alterações nas trocas gasosas e em antioxidantes. Avaliaram-se os sintomas foliares diariamente e as trocas gasosas e antioxidantes (ácido ascórbico e superóxido dismutase) ao fim do experimento. Todas as p (more) lantas em AF+O3 apresentaram sintomas foliares, caracterizados por pontuações avermelhadas na superfície adaxial, entre as nervuras. Em média, o índice de injúria foliar foi de 15% e a severidade de 62%. Fotossíntese líquida, condutância estomática, transpiração, concentração de ácido ascórbico e atividade da superóxido dismutase foram reduzidas significativamente nestas plantas, em comparação com as mantidas sob ar filtrado. Os resultados sugerem que Abelmoschus esculentus é sensível ao O3, apresentando baixos níveis de defesas antioxidativas e distúrbios fisiológicos. Abstract in english The sensitivity of Abelmoschus esculentus to ozone (O3) was assessed in plants exposed during four days, six hours/day, to filtered air (AF) and to AF plus 80 ppb of O3 (AF+O3) into fumigation chambers, by determining visible leaf symptoms and changes on gas exchange and on antioxidants. Visible symptoms were daily evaluated. Gas exchange and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase) were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All plants from AF+O3 treatment s (more) howed leaf injury, characterized by interveinal reddish punctuations on the adaxial surfaces. In average, 15% of leaf injury index and 62% of severity were estimated. Net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, ascorbic acid level and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly reduced in those plants, compared to measurements performed in plants exposed to AF only. The results suggest that Abelmoschus esculentus is sensitive to ozone, showing low levels of antixidative defenses and physiological distubances.

Bulbovas, Patricia; Sant'Anna, Silvia Maria Romano; Moraes, Regina Maria de; Lima, Elisabeth de Souza; Pina, Juliana Moreno; Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Ferreira, Maurício Lamano; Spielmann, Adriano Afonso; Sollito, Ciliane Matilde; Rinnert, Cynthia Hering; Peralta, Denílson Fernandes; Cardoso, Juliana da Silva; Carminitti, Lílian; Canêz, Luciana da Silva; Reis, Marcelo M. dos Santos; Benatti, Michel Navarro; Souza, Silvia Ribeiro de; Domingos, Marisa

2008-01-01

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Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L) seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pilot-scale supercritical fluid extraction of okra seeds was carried out, using carbon dioxide as solvent, at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 degrees C and pressures of 150, 300 and 450 bar. Laboratory-scale Soxhlet extraction of the ground seeds was carried out with ethanol and n-hexane. The yields of supercritical fluid extraction and n-hexane Soxhlet extractions were similar. The ethanol Soxhlet extraction gave the highest yield, but the concentrations of beta-sitosterol and tocopherols in this extract were lower than in the supercritical fluid extraction product. The fatty acid profiles of the extracts were determined, and a high unsaturated/saturated ratio was observed. The fatty acid compositions were only slightly different for oils obtained by the different extraction methods.

Andras CD; Simandi B; Orsi F; Lambrou C; Missopolinou-Tatala D; Panayiotou C; Domokos J; Doleschall F

2005-06-01

83

Effect of Seed Treatment on the Incidence of Seed-borne Diseases of Okra  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to know the effect of seed treatment on the incidence of seed-borne fungal diseases and on production of seed yield of okra. The lowest germination (95.0%) was recorded in unclean farmer`s seeds; while highest germination (99.0%) was recorded in Vitavax-200 treated seeds followed by clean apparently healthy seeds (98.5%). Seed-borne fungal diseases of okra in the field, five diseases viz. Foot and root rot, Anthracnose and die-back, Cercospora leaf spot, Corynespora leaf spot and leaf blight, respectively caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum dematium, Cercospora abelmoschi, Corynespora cassiicola and Macrophonina phaseolina were recorded. The incidence of five seed-borne diseases have been found to be reduced by the use of seeds treated with Vitavax-200 and clean apparently healthy seeds. Vitavax-200 treated seeds as well as clean apparently healthy seeds increased the seed yield by 21.62 and 15.31%, respectively, over the unclean farmers` seeds.

M.K. Anam; G.A. Fakir; K.M. Khalequzzaman; M.M. Hoque; Abdur Rahim

2002-01-01

84

Effect of Storage Conditons on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Fresh Okra (Abelmoschus esculenta) Fruits  

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Full Text Available The effects of storage conditions on some physico-chemical and microbiological qualities of fresh okra were determined and compared. Fresh okra fruits were stored in open plates and sealed polyethylene bags in the refrigerator (F1, F2), on the shelf in the laboratory (S1, S2) and in the open sun (O1, O2) respectively for a period of nine (9) days. The moisture content, viscosity, microbiological composition and sensory properties of the stored fruits were determined on a daily basis during the period of storage. The moisture content and viscosity decreased during storage from 92.00% and 700 cP in fresh okra to 35.50% and 100 cP in okra stored in open plates in the sun (O2), respectively. On the other hand, bacterial count increased from 2.27x104 CFU/mL in fresh okra to 2.72x105 CFU/mL in okra stored in polyethylene bag in the sun (O2), while okra stored in open plates on the shelf (S1) had the highest mould count of 9.0x104 CFU/mL. Okra stored in polyethylene bag in the refrigerator (F2) had the highest moisture content of 84.50%, viscosity of 440 cP and the lowest bacterial and mould counts of 1.15x104 and 4.0x103 CFU/mL, respectively. Mean sensory scores in respect of colour, smell, texture and general acceptability showed that samples stored in the refrigerator scored higher in all attributes and had higher acceptability at the end of the storage period, which compared favourably with fresh okra fruits.

D.I. Gernah; A.A. Daagema

2012-01-01

85

Studies on the morphology characters and chemical composition of [Abelmoschus Manihot (L.)] seeds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

[Abelmoschus manihot (L.)] seed morphology chatacters is reported relatively entire in the article at first. And the chemical composition of its seeds have been studied either. The results showed: there are plenty of fatty acids in the seed oil which is necessary for human body. The main component were: linolic acid (82.179%), oleic acid (9.195%), palmitic acid (4.756%), stearic acid (2.681%), linolenic acid (0.328%) etc, and eighteen kinds of amino acids, twenty four kinds of mineral elements from the seed were also determined. The contents of amino acid and mineral elements from the seed were also determined. The contents of amino acid and mineral elements in the seeds were abundant and there were plenty of unsaturated fatty acids in its seed oil, and its content reached 91.185%. The results showed that the seed and its oil were mourishment and in health protection, and of potential value in exploitation and utilization.

Lin Wenqun; Chen Zhong; Chen Jinling; Wu Huiping; Liu Jianqiu

2002-01-01

86

Separation of mature okra seed into component fractions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is directed to a method for separating mature okra seed into its essential basic components of oil, germ, kernel material and hull. The separation is obtained by cracking the seed in, or immersing previously cracked seed in a liquid medium having a specific gravity of 1.3 plus or minus 0.2 at 60 DEG F. The liquid medium may be an aqueous solution adjusted with sodium chloride, sugar, or other water soluble organic material. However, in order to extract the oil, a solvent such as 1,1,1,-trichloroethane or a blend of trichlorotrifluoroethane and hexane is suitable. The liquid medium will separate the cracked components because of the differences in density of the various components. The hulls will sink in the liquid, and the germ and kernel floats or remains suspended in the liquid. The germ and kernel is then decanted from the hulls, the oil and liquid solvent is separated from the solids by a filter and the oil is extracted from the liquid solvent.

KRESSE HERMAN J

87

Effect of Spacing and NPK Fertilizer on the Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons with the aim of assessing the effect of spacing and NPK fertilizer on the yield and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Treatments consisted of four spacing (60x30 cm, 90x30 cm, 60x60 cm and 75x45 cm) and four NPK rates (0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) in a split plot design with plant spacing allocated to main plots and fertilizer in sub plots. The treatments were replicated three times to give a total of forty eight sub plots. Parameter such as number of fruits per plant, length of fruit, fresh weight of fruits per hectare and dry weight of fruits per hectare were measured. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as described by Gomez and Gomez and treatment means were separated using Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results showed that yield and yield components such as number of fruits per plant and length of fruit were not significantly affected by spacing in 2007. However, significant difference was obtained at 52 DAS in 2008. Number of fruits per plant and length of fruits were significantly affected by fertilizer levels. In 2008, there was significant interaction in respect to fresh weight of fruits per hectare. Also, there was significant interaction between spacing and fertilizer in respect to dry weight of fruits per hectare in 2007 and 2008. The results indicated that spacing of 90x30 cm and application of 150 kg ha-1 (22.5 kgN, 22.5 kg P2O5 and 22.5 kg K2O5) of NPK gave the highest yield of okra in Mubi.

C.B. Philip; A.A. Sajo; K.N. Futuless

2010-01-01

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Evaluation of Different Cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan  

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Five different cultivars of okra viz. (penta green, pusa sawani, local cultivar, pusa green and clemson) were evaluated for their performance under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan. Minimum number of days to flowering (36.33), maximum pods per plant (43.42), highest pods weight per plant (44...

Farooq Ali Khan; Jalal-ud-din; Abdul Ghaffoor; Kashif Waseem Khan

89

Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)  

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The efficacy of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticides), Cascade (insect growth regulator) and Pressurized water spray (M. Y. strategy) was evaluated against insect pests of okra. Cascade was found to be the best efficient against Helicoverpa armigera and Earias spp. Pirate showed maximum ef...

Muhammad Tariq; M. Altaf Sabri; M. Javed Sultan

90

Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticides), Cascade (insect growth regulator) and Pressurized water spray (M. Y. strategy) was evaluated against insect pests of okra. Cascade was found to be the best efficient against Helicoverpa armigera and Earias spp. Pirate showed maximum efficacy against Amrasca biguttula biguttula, whereas, against Bemisia tabaci, the most effective treatment was Azodrin followed by M.Y. strategy.

Muhammad Tariq; M. Altaf Sabri; M. Javed Sultan

2000-01-01

91

Effect of Chemical Paclobutrazol on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This investigation was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand in the late rainy season of the 2003 to 2004 with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The experiment aims to search for more information on the effect of different rates of chemical Paclobutrazol (PBZ) application on growth, yield and quality of edible okra pods. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCDB) with four replications was used for the experiment. The experiments consisted of five treatments, i.e., 0 (T1), 4,000 (T2), 8,000 (T3), 12,000 (T4) and 16,000 ppm ha-1 (T5) of chemical PBZ. The results showed that an increase in PBZ application rate highly decreased plant height, harvesting age and significantly decreased leaf area of the fifth leaf but highly increased pod length, fresh weight/pod and fresh pod yield ha-1 of the okra plants. PBZ had no significant effect on stem diameter and diameter of pods of the okra plants. Total soluble solid, fibre content, titratable acid, vitamin C and pectin contents in pods were not affected by chemical PBZ application. Pod yield highly increased with an increase in rate of PBZ application. The highest edible pod yield reached a value of 4,501 kg ha-1 for the highest rate of PBZ application (T5).

Chutichudet Benjawan; P. Chutichudet; T. Chanaboon

2007-01-01

92

Purification and biological activities of Abelmoschus esculentus seed lectin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae) plant originated in Africa and has spread across a number of tropic countries, including northeastern Brazil. The plant has been used to treat various disorders, such as cancer, microbial infections, hypoglycemia, constipation, urine retention and inflammation. The lectin of A. esculentus (AEL) was isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a saturation level of 30/60 and purified by ion exchange chromatography (Sephacel-DEAE). The electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profile of the AEL showed two protein bands of apparent molecular mass of approximately 15.0 and 21.0 kDa. The homogenity of the protein was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which revealed the presence of a 10.29-kDa monomer and a 20.58-kDa dimer. The AEL exhibits agglutinating activity against rabbit (74.41 UH/mP) and human type ABO erythrocytes (21.00 UH/mP). This activity does not require the presence of divalent cations and is specifically inhibited by lactose, fructose and mannose. The intravenous treatment with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg of AEL inhibited the paw edema elicited by carrageenan by approximately 15, 22 and 44 %, respectively, but not that induced by dextran. In addition, treatment with 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg of AEL also inhibited the abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid by approximately 52, 57 and 69 %, respectively. In conclusion, AEL is a new lectin with a molecular mass of 20.0 kDa, which is -composed of a 10.291-Da monomer and a 20.582-kDa dimer, that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and hemagglutinating activities. In addition, the lectin hemagglutinating property is both metallo-independent and associated with the lectin domain.

de Sousa Ferreira Soares G; Assreuy AM; de Almeida Gadelha CA; de Morais Gomes V; Delatorre P; da Conceição Simões R; Cavada BS; Leite JF; Nagano CS; Pinto NV; de Luna Freire Pessoa H; Santi-Gadelha T

2012-12-01

93

Effects of Green Manures on Growth, Yield and Quality of Green Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., T1 (Control), T2 (Jack bean), T3 (Cowpea), T4 (Green gram) and T5 (Giant sensitive plant). The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults) contained some considerable mean values of organic matter (1.64-1.66%) but soil available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were relatively low, particularly potassium. Green manures of the four legume plants slightly improved soil property of the Roi-Et soil series (tested at the end of the experimental period). The most effective green manure on stem diameter, bushy diameter, leaf numbers plant- 1 and leaf area of the fifth leaf of the okra plants, in most cases, was found with Jack bean and Cowpea ranked the second. However, in most cases, Cowpea gave a similar effect as that of Green gram and Giant sensitive plant. Pod length and weight pod- 1, pod diameter and edible fresh pod yields (5,941.86 kg ha- 1) were highest with Jack bean green manure treatment (T2), whilst the rest, in most cases, were similar. Green manure treatments gave highly significant effect on total soluble solids of pods over the control treatment, whilst total acidity, fibre and pectin contents were unaffected by green manure treatments. Green manure of Jack bean was the best legume crop for green manure to be used in improving soil fertility, particularly for Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults).

Chutichudet Benjawan; P. Chutichudet; S. Kaewsit

2007-01-01

94

METHODS FOR PLANT REGENERATION, TRANSFORMATION AND PRODUCTION OF INSECT RESISTANT TRANSGENIC OKRA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present description concerns methods for regeneration of whole plant from the explants obtained from the Abelmoschus species preferably A. esculentus. In addition the present description also concerns methods for transforming okra plant, plant cells and tissues either with the use of recombinant Agrobacterium strain or by bombarding the explants with tungsten or gold particles coated with DNA sequences of interest. An efficient method to isolate embryos from imbibed seeds of okra is also described which enables the use of young meristematic cells of plumule tip for efficient regeneration and transformation of okra plants. Further, transformed okra plants, plant cells and tissues for improved agronomic/non agronomic traits and insect resistance are produced either by using marker based or marker free systems.

ZEHR USHA BARWALE; NAIR MADHAVAN NARENDRAN; DEOLE SATISH GOVINDRAO

95

METHODS FOR PLANT REGENERATION, TRANSFORMATION AND PRODUCTION OF INSECT RESISTANT TRANSGENIC OKRA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides methods for regeneration of whole plant from the explants obtained from the Abelmoschus species preferably A. esculentus. In addition the present invention also provides methods for transforming okra plant, plant cells and tissues either with the use of recombinant Agrobacterium strain or by bombarding the explants with tungsten or gold particles coated with DNA sequences of interest. An efficient method to isolate embryos from imbibed seeds of okra is also described which enables the use of young meristematic cells of plumule tip for efficient regeneration and transformation of okra plants. Further, transformed okra plants, plant cells and tissues for improved agronomic/non agronomic traits and insect resistance are produced either by using marker based or marker free systems.

ZEHR USHA BARWALE; NAIR MADHAVAN NARENDRAN; DEOLE SATISH GOVINDRAO

96

Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India  

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Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae) is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogen...

Venkataravanappa V; Lakshminarayana Reddy CN; Swaranalatha P; Jalali Salil; Briddon Rob W; Reddy M Krishna

97

Qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro em função da idade e do repouso pós-colheita dos frutos/ Okra seed quality as a function of age and fruit post harvest rest  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho foi conduzido na FCA-UNESP, em Botucatu (SP), objetivando-se estudar o efeito da idade do fruto e o período de repouso pós-colheita sobre a qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.). No dia da antese, as flores foram etiquetadas e os frutos foram colhidos com 34, 41, 48 e 55 dias após a antese (DAA). Para cada idade, em metade dos frutos as sementes foram extraídas imediatamente e a outra metade ficou em repouso p (more) or quatorze dias, antes da extração das sementes. Para verificar a qualidade das sementes os seguintes testes foram realizados: teor de água no dia da extração das sementes, massa de 100 sementes, teste de germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e condutividade elétrica. Pode-se concluir que o armazenamento para qualquer idade do fruto melhora o vigor das sementes. Para germinação final, o armazenamento é favorável quando os frutos são colhidos ainda novos (34 e 41 DAA). Abstract in english The work was carried out at FCA-UNESP, in Botucatu (SP), with the aim of studying the effect of fruit age and post harvest rest on quality of okra seeds cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.). At the day of the anthesis, the flowers were labeled and fruits were picked with 34,41,48 and 55 days after the anthesis (DAA). For each age, in half of the fruits the seeds were immediately extracted and the another half was stored for fourteen days before seed extracti (more) on. To verify the quality of seeds the following tests were accomplished: seed water content at extraction, weight of 100 seeds, germination test, first counted of germinated seeds and eletrical conductivity. It may be concluded that the fruit storage for any fruit age increases seed vigour, and for final germination, the rest is favorable when fruits are picked still new (34 and 41 DAA).

Castro, Márcia Maria; Godoy, Amanda Regina; Cardoso, Antonio Ismael Inácio

2008-10-01

98

Pre-germinative treatments in okra seeds in different stadiums of fruit maturationTratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de quiabo em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the pre-soak and of the thermotherapy in the germination and in the energy of the okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus) in different stadiums of maturation of the fruit. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5 x 9, five maturation stadiums (green, semi-hard, hard, dry and dehiscent) and nine treatments pre-germination: pre-soak for immersion of the seeds in water to the temperature of 30ºC for 6, 12 and 24 hours; immersion of the seeds in water to 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC for 3 minutes; thermotherapy for immersion of the seeds in water to the ebullition temperature (97ºC) until cooling and intact seeds (control). The seeds were sowed in paper-towel rolls and they were maintained in camera type BOD regulated to 20-30ºC and photoperiod of 8-16 hours. The okra seeds originating from dry and dehiscent fruits presented larger germination performance. The pre-germination treatments more effective to accelerate the germination of seeds obtained from dry and dehiscent fruits are the pre-soak for 6 hours and thermotherapy at 60 °C for 3 minutes, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da pré-embebição e da termoterapia na germinação e no vigor das sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 5 x 9, cinco estádios de maturação (verde, semi-duro, duro, seco e deiscente) e nove tratamentos pré-germinativos: pré-embebição por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de 30ºC por 6, 12 e 24 horas; imersão das sementes em água a 40, 50, 60 e 70ºC por 3 minutos; termoterapia por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de ebulição (97ºC) até esfriar e sementes intactas (testemunha). As sementes foram semeadas em rolos de papel-toalha que foram mantidos em câmara tipo BOD regulada a 20-30ºC e fotoperíodo de 8-16 horas. As sementes de quiabo oriundas de frutos secos e deiscentes apresentam maior desempenho germinativo. Os tratamentos pré-germinativos mais eficientes para acelerar a germinação das sementes obtidas de frutos secos e deiscentes são a pré-embebição por 6 horas e a termoterapia a 60ºC por 3 minutos, respectivamente.

Camila Aparecida da Silva Martins; José Carlos Lopes; Célia Maria Peixoto de Macedo

2011-01-01

99

Efficient genetic transformation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) and generation of insect-resistant transgenic plants expressing the cry1Ac gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

KEY MESSAGE: Agrobacterium -mediated transformation system for okra using embryos was devised and the transgenic Bt plants showed resistance to the target pest, okra shoot, and fruit borer ( Earias vittella ). Okra is an important vegetable crop and progress in genetic improvement via genetic transformation has been impeded by its recalcitrant nature. In this paper, we describe a procedure using embryo explants for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and tissue culture-based plant regeneration for efficient genetic transformation of okra. Twenty-one transgenic okra lines expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis gene cry1Ac were generated from five transformation experiments. Molecular analysis (PCR and Southern) confirmed the presence of the transgene and double-antibody sandwich ELISA analysis revealed Cry1Ac protein expression in the transgenic plants. All 21 transgenic plants were phenotypically normal and fertile. T1 generation plants from these lines were used in segregation analysis of the transgene. Ten transgenic lines were selected randomly for Southern hybridization and the results confirmed the presence of transgene integration into the genome. Normal Mendelian inheritance (3:1) of cry1Ac gene was observed in 12 lines out of the 21 T0 lines. We selected 11 transgenic lines segregating in a 3:1 ratio for the presence of one transgene for insect bioassays using larvae of fruit and shoot borer (Earias vittella). Fruit from seven transgenic lines caused 100 % larval mortality. We demonstrate an efficient transformation system for okra which will accelerate the development of transgenic okra with novel agronomically useful traits.

Narendran M; Deole SG; Harkude S; Shirale D; Nanote A; Bihani P; Parimi S; Char BR; Zehr UB

2013-08-01

100

Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Brazil/ Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um levantamento de begomovírus de quiabeiro foi realizado no Brasil Central. Amostras foliares foram coletadas em campos de produção de quiabo e avaliadas em testes utilizando primers universais para begomovírus. A infecção por begomovírus foi confirmada em apenas uma amostra (#5157) de um total de 196 amostras. O DNA total foi submetido à amplificação por PCR e introduzido em plântulas de quiabeiro pelo método de biobalística, sendo que a amostra de DNA bomb (more) ardeada foi infecciosa em plantas de quiabeiro. O DNA-A e DNA-B do isolado #5157 foram clonados e a sequência de nucleotídeos mostrou características típicas de begomovírus do Novo Mundo. A sequência do DNA-A apresentou 95,6% de identidade nucleotídica com um isolado de Sida micrantha mosaic virus do Brasil, sendo assim identificado como sua estirpe de quiabeiro. Os clones gerados a partir da amostra #5157 foram infecciosos para quiabeiro, Sida santaremnensis e em um grupo de plantas solanáceas quando inoculados por biobalística após circularização do inserto isolado, seguido por amplificação por círculo rolante. Abstract in english A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157) out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and introduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotid (more) e sequences exhibited typical characteristics of New World bipartite begomoviruses. The DNA-A sequence shared 95.6% nucleotide identity with an isolate of Sida micrantha mosaic virus from Brazil and thus identified as its okra strain. The clones derived from #5157 were infectious to okra, Sida santaremnensis and to a group of Solanaceae plants when inoculated by biolistics after circularization of the isolated insert, followed by rolling circle amplification.

Aranha, Silvia de Araujo; Albuquerque, Leonardo Cunha de; Boiteux, Leonardo Silva; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Brazil Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil  

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Full Text Available A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157) out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and introduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotide sequences exhibited typical characteristics of New World bipartite begomoviruses. The DNA-A sequence shared 95.6% nucleotide identity with an isolate of Sida micrantha mosaic virus from Brazil and thus identified as its okra strain. The clones derived from #5157 were infectious to okra, Sida santaremnensis and to a group of Solanaceae plants when inoculated by biolistics after circularization of the isolated insert, followed by rolling circle amplification.Um levantamento de begomovírus de quiabeiro foi realizado no Brasil Central. Amostras foliares foram coletadas em campos de produção de quiabo e avaliadas em testes utilizando primers universais para begomovírus. A infecção por begomovírus foi confirmada em apenas uma amostra (#5157) de um total de 196 amostras. O DNA total foi submetido à amplificação por PCR e introduzido em plântulas de quiabeiro pelo método de biobalística, sendo que a amostra de DNA bombardeada foi infecciosa em plantas de quiabeiro. O DNA-A e DNA-B do isolado #5157 foram clonados e a sequência de nucleotídeos mostrou características típicas de begomovírus do Novo Mundo. A sequência do DNA-A apresentou 95,6% de identidade nucleotídica com um isolado de Sida micrantha mosaic virus do Brasil, sendo assim identificado como sua estirpe de quiabeiro. Os clones gerados a partir da amostra #5157 foram infecciosos para quiabeiro, Sida santaremnensis e em um grupo de plantas solanáceas quando inoculados por biobalística após circularização do inserto isolado, seguido por amplificação por círculo rolante.

Silvia de Araujo Aranha; Leonardo Cunha de Albuquerque; Leonardo Silva Boiteux; Alice Kazuko Inoue-Nagata

2011-01-01

102

Improvement of Okra Seed Quality by Pre-soaking in H2O2 Solution  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of H2O2 solution in improving the seed quality of two Indian okra varieties (Anamika and Parbhani kanti) was investigated. The seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations for six hours. Vigour index and % germination were estimated. Root and shoot lengths as well as dry matter contents of the normal seedlings were determined. Moreover, crop growth rate (CGR) at 10 and 20 days after sowing (DAS) were also worked-out. It has been experienced that, pre-soaking at 2.0% concentration significantly enhanced all the parameters studied. However, in some cases, 1.5 to 2.5% concentrations also gave identically the best results. Afterwards toxicity was clearly manifested through reduction of the studied parameters. Contrastly, pre-soaking in plain water resulted in poor values for all the parameters noted. Moreover, in terms of variety, Anamika was significantly better than Parbhani kanti.

T. M. T. Iqbal; M. M. Bahadur; M. A. Kabir; M. A. Hasan; D. A. N.Majumder

2001-01-01

103

Influence of Some Soil Amendments on Insect Pest Infestation and Damage to Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) in Umudike, Abia State  

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Full Text Available Field experiment to determine the effect of three soil amendments (Poultry manure, goat manure and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer) on insect pest infestation and damage to Okra (Oboro dwarf variety) was conducted in 2006 at Umudike, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three treatments and control replicated five times. During the experiment, application of poultry manure and goat manure at 50g/plant and 20g/plant of NPK 15:15:15 were applied two weeks after planting in a ring form. Results obtained showed that the application of goat manure and poultry manure generally, significantly reduced the prevalence of Podagrica spps with regards to plant height and leaf area of Okra. The application of NPK 15:15:15 may have promoted vegetative growth of Okra, making it more succulent and thereby enhancing high pest attack, survival and damage of the Okra. Hence, increasing the application rates of the different soil amendments may have significant increase on the yield as well as reduce pest invasion.

E.F. Asawalam; K.C. Emeasor; O. Adieze

2007-01-01

104

Response of Maize (Zea mays) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

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Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05) affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1), okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1) and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1) in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

M.O. Akande; F.I. Oluwatoyinbo; C.O. Kayode; F.A. Olowokere

2006-01-01

105

Molecular characterization and phylogeny of phytoplasma associated with bunchy top disease in its new host Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in India reveal a novel lineage within the 16SrI group  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra plants with bunchy top disease were found to be prevalent during the period of August–October 2009 in New Delhi, India. The common symptoms observed were shortening of internodes, aggregation of leaves at the apical region, reduced leaf lamina, stem reddening, fruit bending, phyllody and stunting of plants. The disease incidence ranged from 2–60% accompanied by significant reductions in production of both flowers and seeds. Nested polymerase chain reaction targeting phytoplasma specific 16S rDNA and rp genes revealed all symptomatic plants to be positive for phytoplasma. Homology searches depicted its closest identity to phytoplasmas of 16SrI ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, like the Sugarcane yellows and Periwinkle phyllody phytoplasmas. Profiles for 16S rDNA obtained with 10 restriction endonucleases, differed in TaqI sites for two phytoplasma isolates (BHND5 & 10) from the standard pattern of 16SrI-B subgroup, the latter was seen in the case of isolate BHND1. Restriction fragment analysis of rp genes with AluI, Tsp509I matched with patterns of the rpI-B phytoplasmas. Phylogenetic reconstruction of rp genes revealed okra bunchy top phytoplasma (BHND1) as a divergent isolate, the subsequent sequence analysis of which showed the presence of a novel BslI site. These significant differences suggest that multiple phytoplasma strains are affecting okra, one of which is a diverging lineage within the 16SrI-B group while others represent a new 16SrI subgroup not reported so far. Additionally, this is the first report of a phytoplasma associated disease in okra plants worldwide.

Kumar S; Singh V; Lakhanpaul S

2012-06-01

106

A study on some physico-chemical properties of Turkey okra (Hibiscus esculenta L.) seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical and physical properties of mature okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) seeds from Mersin (Buyukeceli-Gulnar) in Turkey were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, crude energy, water-soluble extract, ether-soluble extract and non-soluble HCl acid ash. The physical properties were evaluated at three moisture content levels of 6.35%, 9.87% and 15.22% d.b. In this moisture range, seed length, width, thickness, mass and geometric diameter increased from 5.178 to 5.507 mm, 4.786 to 4.960 mm, 4.121 to 4.362 mm, 0.059 to 0.067 g and 4.665 to 4.913 mm, respectively; the seed porosity, volume, projected area and terminal velocity increased from 48.92% to 52.08%, 47.38 to 54.68 mm3, 0.225 to 0.333 cm2 and 5.20 to 5.68 ms(-1), respectively; bulk density decreased from 636.10 to 577.99 kg m(-3); the sphericity decreased from 0.905 to 0.897. The coefficient of static friction on iron and galvanized iron sheets increased with increasing moisture content.

Calisir S; Ozcan M; Haciseferogullari H; Yildiz MU

2005-05-01

107

The Effect of Combined Application of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on the Growth and Yield of Okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of combined application of poultry manure and sawdust on soil properties, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) were investigated at the main campus of Tai solarin University of Education Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria during 2010/2011 dry season. This size of the plot was 45 m by 5m; the seed was planted with three seed per hole at a spacing of 0.5 m. The total numbers of plots were 27 plots, for the avoidance of doubt; it comprises three treatments and each treatment was replicate three times. The treatments consisted of 0, 5, 10 ton/ha Broiler litter (Poultry manure) and 0, 2, 5 ton/ha (sawdust). The results indicated a significant increase in growth parameters in those plants planted in 0, 2, 5 ton/ha poultry manure plot than sawdust plot. However, treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters (plant height, stem girth and number of leaves) were increased significantly (p has significant increase in fruit yield of okra increase. The combined application of poultry manure and sawdust does not have effect on yield and fruit number of okra but there is a slight effect on plant height. Based on the findings of the experiments it could be deduced that poultry manure seems to promote higher growth and yield of okra. Thus, it should be recommended for farmers growing okra in region.

Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

2013-01-01

108

Abelmoschus manihot health care soft opaque capsule  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a health Abelmoschus manihot soft non-transparent gelatin capsule containing raw material of active constituents, wherein the weight percents of the active constituent raw material include Abelmoschus manihot seed powder 15-65%, Abelmoschus manihot oil 25-75%, Abelmoschus manihot extract 10-60%, the content of total flavones is greater than 50 mg/100g. The functions of the capsule include improving human body immunity, enhancing constitution lowering blood fat and blood pressure, improving microcirculation, improving human body's anti-oxidizing ability, and regulating kidney hypofunction.

YUFENG WANG; WEIDONG ZHANG; XIANGZHONG ZHAO

109

ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT (LINN.) MEDIUS KERNEL PRODUCT FOR NATURAL NUTRITIONAL EDIBLE AND PHARMACEUTICAL RAW MATERIAL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius kernel product for natural nutritional edible and pharmaceutical raw material. It is prepared by removing impurity and then cracking the shell of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed; and removing the seed shell to separate the particle powder of the Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed, and degreasing the particle powder of the Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed. It is used as the raw materials of edible product or biomedical product.

WANG ZHIYUAN; WANG SHAOZHANG

110

ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT (LINN.) MEDIUS KERNEL PRODUCT FOR NATURAL NUTRITIONAL EDIBLE AND PHARMACEUTICAL RAW MATERIAL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius kernel product for natural nutritional edible and pharmaceutical raw material. It is prepared by removing impurity and then cracking the shell of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed and removing the seed shell to separate the particle powder of the Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed, and degreasing the particle powder of the Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed. It is used as the raw materials of edible product or biomedical product.

WANG ZHIYUAN; WANG SHAOZHANG

111

ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT (LINN.) MEDICUS KERNEL PRODUCT FOR NATURAL NUTRITIONAL EDIBLE AND PHARMACEUTICAL RAW MATERIAL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius kernel product for natural nutritional edible and pharmaceutical raw material. It is prepared by removing impurity and then cracking the shell of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed and removing the seed shell to separate the particle powder of the Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed, and degreasing the particle powder of the Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius seed. It is used as the raw materials of edible product or biomedical product.

WANG ZHIYUAN; WANG SHAOZHANG

112

DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE QUIABEIRO [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] EM DIFERENTES TIPOS DE BANDEJA E SUBSTRATO/ OKRA SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES AND TRAYS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Devido as vantagens que o sistema apresenta, a produção de mudas utilizando bandejas de isopor, cada vez mais vem sendo utilizada no estado de São Paulo. O sistema proporciona maior cuidado na fase de germinação e emergência, fazendo com que, muitas vezes, uma semente origine uma planta, além de proporcionar menor custo no controle de pragas e doenças e alto índice de pegamento após o transplante. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de quiabeiro (more) , cultivar Santa Cruz - 47, produzidas no sistema de bandejas de isopor, montou-se um experimento, em ambiente protegido. Foram comparados três tipos de bandeja, que diferiam entre si pelo volume a altura das células, associadas a quatro diferentes substratos. Os substratos constaram de variações de uma mistura comercial, produzida pela Empresa Gioplanta. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema fatorial 3X4. Para as condições do experimento concluiu-se que as bandejas de maior volume proporcionaram melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de quiabeiro para todos os parâmetros estudados. No substrato que recebeu casca de arroz carbonizado na proporção 1:1, observou-se menor desenvolvimento das mudas. A utilização do produto comercial (adubado) com suplementação de nutrientes favoreceu o desenvolvimento das mudas de quiabeiro. Abstract in english An experiment with three types of trays with four substrates was carried out in a greenhouse using trays with different cell sizes for okra seedling production. The substrates used were a blend of a commercial mixture made by Empresa Gioplanta. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement, with 3 types of trays and the 4 substrates. The evaluation of growth was done 32 days after germination. The results indicated tha (more) t the production of okra seedlings in trays with the largest cell volume presented the best results for all the parameters studied. Trays of various types that contained substrate GII and carbonized rice hulls in the proportion 1:1, presented the least developed seedlings. Fertilization applied initially and during seedling growth permitted a better development of okra seedlings.

Modolo, Valéria Aparecida; Tessarioli Neto, João

1999-01-01

113

DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE QUIABEIRO [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] EM DIFERENTES TIPOS DE BANDEJA E SUBSTRATO OKRA SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES AND TRAYS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Devido as vantagens que o sistema apresenta, a produção de mudas utilizando bandejas de isopor, cada vez mais vem sendo utilizada no estado de São Paulo. O sistema proporciona maior cuidado na fase de germinação e emergência, fazendo com que, muitas vezes, uma semente origine uma planta, além de proporcionar menor custo no controle de pragas e doenças e alto índice de pegamento após o transplante. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de quiabeiro, cultivar Santa Cruz - 47, produzidas no sistema de bandejas de isopor, montou-se um experimento, em ambiente protegido. Foram comparados três tipos de bandeja, que diferiam entre si pelo volume a altura das células, associadas a quatro diferentes substratos. Os substratos constaram de variações de uma mistura comercial, produzida pela Empresa Gioplanta. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema fatorial 3X4. Para as condições do experimento concluiu-se que as bandejas de maior volume proporcionaram melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de quiabeiro para todos os parâmetros estudados. No substrato que recebeu casca de arroz carbonizado na proporção 1:1, observou-se menor desenvolvimento das mudas. A utilização do produto comercial (adubado) com suplementação de nutrientes favoreceu o desenvolvimento das mudas de quiabeiro.An experiment with three types of trays with four substrates was carried out in a greenhouse using trays with different cell sizes for okra seedling production. The substrates used were a blend of a commercial mixture made by Empresa Gioplanta. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement, with 3 types of trays and the 4 substrates. The evaluation of growth was done 32 days after germination. The results indicated that the production of okra seedlings in trays with the largest cell volume presented the best results for all the parameters studied. Trays of various types that contained substrate GII and carbonized rice hulls in the proportion 1:1, presented the least developed seedlings. Fertilization applied initially and during seedling growth permitted a better development of okra seedlings.

Valéria Aparecida Modolo; João Tessarioli Neto

1999-01-01

114

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Chlormequat Chloride (CCC) Application and Terminal Apex Excision to Restrict Plant Height in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench.) and Optimize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two methods for restricting plant height (CCC application and excision of the main shoot apex) were applied to okra cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ with the aim of assisting crop management and optimizing yield. Apex excision 26 or 40 days after transplantation (DAT) effectively restricted plant height, but either had no effect (40 DAT) or reduced the number of side shoots per plant (26 DAT). Moreover, although the length of side shoots increased after apex excision, the number of nodes per side shoot was not affected. Hence pod number and weight was less than in the control (untreated). CCC application (500 and 2000 ppm) reduced plant height due to a reduction in internode length; however, when applied at the time of transplantation (0 DAT) (both concentrations) or 26 DAT (2000 ppm) it also caused a reduction in node number on the main stem. CCC did not affect the number of side shoots or the number of nodes per shoot, and side shoot length decreased due to shorter internode lengths. The number and weight of pods per plant was reduced by 2000 ppm CCC irrespective of the time of application, but was not affected by 500 ppm CCC at 0 DAT (pod number) or 40 DAT (pod weight and number). We conclude that the application of 500 ppm CCC at 40 DAT may aid okra cultivation since it reduces overall plant size (height and diameter) without adversely affecting yield, and may thus assist crop management (e.g. easier hand-harvesting) and permit an increase in plant density.

Charalambos Thanopoulos; Spyridon A. Petropoulos; Alexios A. Alexopoulos; Ioannis C. Karapanos; Ebrahim M. Khah; Konstantinos A. Akoumianakis; Harold C. Passam

2013-01-01

115

Controlled deterioration to evaluate okra seed vigor/ Deterioração controlada para avaliação do vigor de sementes de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os testes de germinação e de vigor são componentes essenciais do processo de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes. Objetivou-se com essa pesquisa estudar a metodologia do teste de deterioração controlada, visando a identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Colhe Bem e Santa Cruz 47, representadas por quatro e cinco lotes de sementes, respectivamente. As nove amostras de sementes for (more) am submetidas às avaliações de germinação, emergência de plântulas, deterioração controlada (sementes com umidade de 18, 21 e 24%; a 45ºC durante 24 e 48 horas) e grau de umidade no início dos testes e durante o monitoramento para o teste de deterioração controlada. O teste de deterioração controlada conduzido a 45ºC, com grau de umidade das sementes de 24% e período de exposição de 24 horas é eficiente para a avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de quiabo. Abstract in english Germination and vigor tests are essential components of seed quality control programs adopted by seed industries. We studied different procedures to perform the controlled deterioration test to identify differences in vigor among okra seed lots. Four seed lots of Colhe Bem cultivar and five seed lots of Santa Cruz 47 cultivar were submitted to the following tests: germination, seedling emergence, controlled deterioration (seeds with moisture contents of 18, 21 and 24% at (more) 45°C for 24 and 48 hours) and moisture content. The controlled deterioration test is efficient to evaluate the physiological potential of okra seeds, and the combination of 24% water, 45°C during 24 hours is recommended.

Torres, Salvador B; Gomes, Maryjane DA; Silva, Francisca Gleiciane da; Benedito, Clarisse P; Pereira, Francisco ECB

2013-06-01

116

IN VITRO BINDING OF BILE ACIDS BY OKRA, BEETS, ASPARAGUS, EGGPLANT, TURNIPS, GREEN BEANS, CARROTS, AND CAULIFLOWER  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro binding of bile acids by okra (abelmoschus esculentus), beets (beta vulgaris), asparagus (asparagus officinalis), eggplant (solanum malongena), turnips (brassica rapa rapifera), green beans (phaseolus vulgaris), carrots (daucus carota), and cauliflower (brassica oleracea botrytis) was d...

117

Abelmoschus manihot health care soft capsule  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a health Abelmoschus manihot soft transparent gelatin capsule containing raw material of active constituents, wherein the weight percents of the active constituent raw material include Abelmoschus manihot seed oil 40-98%, Abelmoschus manihot extract 2-60%, the content of total flavones is greater than 50 mg/100g. The functions of the capsule include improving human body immunity, enhancing constitution lowering blood fat and blood pressure, improving microcirculation, improving human body's anti-oxidizing ability, and regulating kidney hypofunction.

YUFENG WANG; WEIDONG ZHANG; XIANGZHONG ZHAO

118

Abelmoschus manihot health care hard capsule  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a health Abelmoschus manihot hard gelatin capsule containing raw material of active constituents, wherein the weight percents of the active constituent raw material include Abelmoschus manihot seed powder 1-95%, Abelmoschus manihot extract 5-90%, the content of total flavones is greater than 50 mg/100g. The functions of the capsule include improving human body immunity, enhancing constitution, lowering blood fat and blood pressure, improving microcirculation, improving human body's anti-oxidizing ability, and regulating kidney hypofunction.

YUFENG WANG; WEIDONG ZHANG; XIANGZHONG ZHAO

119

Okra pectin contains an unusual substitution of its rhamnosyl residues with acetyl and alpha-linked galactosyl groups  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The okra plant, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, a native plant from Africa, is now cultivated in many other areas such as Asia, Africa, Middle East, and the southern states of the USA. Okra pods are used as vegetables and as traditional medicines. Sequential extraction showed that the Hot Buffer...

Sengkhamparn, N.; Bakx, E.J.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

120

NATURAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD OF ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT (LINN.) MEDIUS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A natural nutritional supplementary food of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius. It comprises separating and classifying seed, flower, caudex and root of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius, then harvesting and processing. The materials are directly used as raw material product, or the materials separated and classified are used as filling in the proportion of l%-20% respectively and added into food main materials.

WANG ZHIYUAN; WANG SHAOZHANG

 
 
 
 
121

NATURAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD OF ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT (LINN.) MEDIUS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A natural nutritional supplementary food of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius. It comprises separating and classifying seed, flower, caudex and root of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) medius, then harvesting and processing. The materials are directly used as raw material product, or the materials separated and classified are used as filling in the proportion of 1%-20% respectively and added into food main materials.

WANG ZHIYUAN; WANG SHAOZHANG

122

Germination and hardseedness of seeds in okra elite lines Germinação e dureza de sementes em linhas elite de quiabo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of hardseedness and the low percentage of seed germination are major challenges when growing okra. For this reason, five elite lines of okra developed at the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC), three with angular pods (lines 8.1, 20.1.2 and 47.1) and two with cylindrical pods (lines 13.1.2 and 20.1.R), were evaluated for seed quality and compared to two commercial seed samples (Horticeres Sementes and Sakata Seed Sudamerica) of cultivar Santa Cruz 47. Seeds were field produced in an experiment set in the Technological Park of the Horticulture Center of IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with three replications and 20-plant plots. Fruits were harvested 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 days after anthesis (DAA). Seeds were extracted straight away and subjected to the standard germination test in the laboratory. Observing the results, we concluded that, as far as seed quality is concerned, angular pods must be harvested earlier than cylindrical pods, more precisely 45 DAA to the line 47.1 and 45 to 55 DAA for lines 8.1 and 20.1.2. Seeds extracted from angular fruits harvested after these periods had reduced germination and increased hardseedness. Seeds from cylindrical capsules had the same behavior of the commercial seeds of cultivar Santa Cruz 47, showing better germination when extracted from pods harvested between 55 and 75 DAA, and no hardseedness.A presença de sementes duras e a baixa porcentagem de germinação são desafios importantes para o cultivo de quiabo. Por este motivo, cinco linhas elite de quiabo desenvolvidas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC), sendo três com cápsulas quinadas (linhas 8.1, 20.1.2 e 47.1) e duas com cápsulas cilíndricas (linhas 13.1.2 e 20.1.R), foram avaliadas para qualidade de sementes, em comparação com dois lotes comerciais (Horticeres Sementes e Sakata Seed Sudamerica) de sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47. As sementes foram produzidas em experimento instalado no Parque Tecnológico do Centro de Horticultura do IAC, em Campinas, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas de 20 plantas. As cápsulas foram colhidas 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 e 75 dias após a antese (DAA), sendo as sementes extraídas imediatamente e submetidas ao teste padrão de germinação em laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, no que diz respeito à qualidade das sementes, cápsulas quinadas devem ser colhidas mais precocemente que cápsulas cilíndricas, mais precisamente 45 DAA para a linha 47.1 e de 45 a 55 DAA para as linhas 8.1 e 20.1.2. Sementes extraídas de cápsulas quinadas colhidas após esses períodos apresentaram redução na germinação e aumento no índice de dureza. Já as sementes provenientes de cápsulas cilíndricas apresentaram comportamento semelhante às sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47, apresentando melhor capacidade germinativa quando provenientes de cápsulas colhidas de 55 a 75 DAA, e ausência de dureza.

Luis Felipe V Purquerio; Antonio A do Lago; Francisco Antonio Passos

2010-01-01

123

Germination and hardseedness of seeds in okra elite lines/ Germinação e dureza de sementes em linhas elite de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A presença de sementes duras e a baixa porcentagem de germinação são desafios importantes para o cultivo de quiabo. Por este motivo, cinco linhas elite de quiabo desenvolvidas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC), sendo três com cápsulas quinadas (linhas 8.1, 20.1.2 e 47.1) e duas com cápsulas cilíndricas (linhas 13.1.2 e 20.1.R), foram avaliadas para qualidade de sementes, em comparação com dois lotes comerciais (Horticeres Sementes e Sakata Seed Sudameri (more) ca) de sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47. As sementes foram produzidas em experimento instalado no Parque Tecnológico do Centro de Horticultura do IAC, em Campinas, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas de 20 plantas. As cápsulas foram colhidas 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 e 75 dias após a antese (DAA), sendo as sementes extraídas imediatamente e submetidas ao teste padrão de germinação em laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, no que diz respeito à qualidade das sementes, cápsulas quinadas devem ser colhidas mais precocemente que cápsulas cilíndricas, mais precisamente 45 DAA para a linha 47.1 e de 45 a 55 DAA para as linhas 8.1 e 20.1.2. Sementes extraídas de cápsulas quinadas colhidas após esses períodos apresentaram redução na germinação e aumento no índice de dureza. Já as sementes provenientes de cápsulas cilíndricas apresentaram comportamento semelhante às sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47, apresentando melhor capacidade germinativa quando provenientes de cápsulas colhidas de 55 a 75 DAA, e ausência de dureza. Abstract in english The occurrence of hardseedness and the low percentage of seed germination are major challenges when growing okra. For this reason, five elite lines of okra developed at the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC), three with angular pods (lines 8.1, 20.1.2 and 47.1) and two with cylindrical pods (lines 13.1.2 and 20.1.R), were evaluated for seed quality and compared to two commercial seed samples (Horticeres Sementes and Sakata Seed Sudamerica) of cultivar Santa Cruz 47. Seeds (more) were field produced in an experiment set in the Technological Park of the Horticulture Center of IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with three replications and 20-plant plots. Fruits were harvested 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 days after anthesis (DAA). Seeds were extracted straight away and subjected to the standard germination test in the laboratory. Observing the results, we concluded that, as far as seed quality is concerned, angular pods must be harvested earlier than cylindrical pods, more precisely 45 DAA to the line 47.1 and 45 to 55 DAA for lines 8.1 and 20.1.2. Seeds extracted from angular fruits harvested after these periods had reduced germination and increased hardseedness. Seeds from cylindrical capsules had the same behavior of the commercial seeds of cultivar Santa Cruz 47, showing better germination when extracted from pods harvested between 55 and 75 DAA, and no hardseedness.

Purquerio, Luis Felipe V; Lago, Antonio A do; Passos, Francisco Antonio

2010-06-01

124

First report of an alphasatellite associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An alphasatellite DNA associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV) which causes enation and leaf curling in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants was characterized. The full-length DNA comprises 1,350 nucleotides and shows typical genome organization of an alphasatellite. It shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity (79.7 %) to Hollyhock yellow vein virus-associated symptomless alphasatellite (HoYVSLA). This is the first report of the association of an alphasatellite with OELCuV from India.

Chandran SA; Packialakshmi RM; Subhalakshmi K; Prakash C; Poovannan K; Nixon Prabu A; Gopal P; Usha R

2013-06-01

125

Wide hybridization in okra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crosses were made between members of the two West African okra types Soudanien and Guineen. All crosses succeeded in both directions and the F1 plants which showed hybrid vigour for plant stature were partially sterile. Cytological observations of the F1 plants revealed abnormal meiosis which resulted in the production of microspores of variable sizes. The frequency of viable pollen (as indicated by acetocarmine staining) was low in the hybrids: 35.80% (U.I.92× U.I.313) and 39.41% (1bk-1×U.I.215). The number of seeds produced per fruit was low in the hybrids and only a few of these seeds are viable. The possibility of gene transfer between the two okra types was discussed.

Fatokun CA

1987-01-01

126

Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight,...

Ogaji Ikoni; Nnoli Obiageli

127

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on seed borne fungal pathogens in okra  

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The effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates was tested against some seed bor...

MASHOODA BEGUM, V. RAVISHANKAR RAI* and S. LOKESH

128

Genotypic performance, character correlations and path analysis of pod yield in Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels  

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Full Text Available Direct selection based on pod yield is often a problem in West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels) breeding programs. Information on inter-relationships among traits to implement indirect selection for pod yield is needed. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of West African okra varieties in two cropping seasons prevailing in Nigeria, and to determine the associations among main agronomic characters and their influence on pod yield. Twenty-five genotypes were grown in two planting seasons at the Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 2008-2009 using a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Sixteen plant characters were measured. The data were subjected to variance, correlation and path analyses. Four genotypes, viz., CEN 010, CEN 012, NGAE-96-04 and AGA 97/066-5780 demonstrated potential for high pod yield. CEN 012 and AGA 97/066-5780 in addition, demonstrated early flowering higher number of pods. Character associations varied between planting seasons. The dependence of pod yield on final plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per branch, number of pods per plant, number of ridges per pod, weight of 250 seeds, pod length and seed weight per plant was noted in both planting seasons. In both seasons, number of pods per plant exhibited a high positive direct effect on pod yield. In conclusion, the trait of most interest for improving pod yield under early and late-season conditions was number of pods per plant.

Christopher O. Alake; Omolayo J. Ariyo; Moninuola A. Ayo-Vaughan

2012-01-01

129

Rheological characterization of okra pectins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polysaccharides from okra pods (Abelmoschus esculentus) were extracted using a sequential extraction protocol and compared with a simple extraction at pH 6. Rheological properties of three okra extracts were then investigated by means of molecular weight determination, dilute solution rheology, steady shear and oscillatory rheological measurements. The extraction protocols resulted in extracts of relatively high purity and multimodal molecular weight distribution. Furthermore, molecular parameters of the isolated biopolymers such as intrinsic viscosity, Huggins constant, critical concentration and coil overlap parameter were calculated from dilute solution viscometry. Investigation of the generalized flow behaviour using a modified Cross equation and Cox–Merz plots showed evidence that as concentration increases specific interactions start taking place among the polymeric chains that modify the rheological behaviour of the extracts. The change in the rheological behaviour could not only be explained by differences in the molecular weight of the samples but also should be attributed to the fine structure of the chains that are obtained under the different extraction protocols. Present investigation shows that further optimization of such protocols may result in polysaccharide fractions with specific rheological properties.

Kontogiorgos V; Margelou I; Georgiadis N; Ritzoulis C

2012-12-01

130

Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria  

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This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view ...

Adewole Moses B.; Ilesanmi Abiola O.

131

First report of an alphasatellite associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alphasatellite DNA associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV) which causes enation and leaf curling in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants was characterized. The full-length DNA comprises 1,350 nucleotides and shows typical genome organization of an alphasatellite. It shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity (79.7 %) to Hollyhock yellow vein virus-associated symptomless alphasatellite (HoYVSLA). This is the first report of the association of an alphasatellite with OELCuV from India. PMID:23475199

Chandran, S A; Packialakshmi, R M; Subhalakshmi, K; Prakash, C; Poovannan, K; Nixon Prabu, A; Gopal, P; Usha, R

2013-03-10

132

Diversity and phylogeography of Begomovirus-associated beta satellites of Okra in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae) is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites). We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. RESULTS: The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein), were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB) and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB) that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB). This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB) in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect ?C1 gene. ?C1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity determinant of begomovirus-beta satellite complexes and is involved in overcoming host defenses based on RNAi. CONCLUSION: The diversity of beta satellites in okra across the sub-continent is higher than previously realized and is higher than for any other malvaceous plant species so far analyzed. The beta satellites identified in okra show geographic segregation, which has implications for the development and introduction of resistant okra varieties. However, the finding that the ?C1 gene of the major okra beta satellites (OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB) share high sequence identity and provides a possible avenue to achieve a broad spectrum resistance.

Venkataravanappa V; Reddy CN; Swaranalatha P; Jalali S; Briddon RW; Reddy MK

2011-01-01

133

Formulation and Evaluation of Okra Fruit Mucilage as a Binder in Paracetamol and Ibuprofen Tablet  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to search for cheap and effective natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage form. The mucilage from the OkraFruit (Abelmoschus esculentus) was subjected to Preformulation study for evaluation of its safety and suitability for use as binding agent. The mucilage extracted is devoid of toxicity. Tablets of Lactosewere prepared as a control and with 1-5% w/v concentrations of Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage and compared paracetamol, Ibuprofen tablet. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness,friability and disintegration time according to the USP. Studies indicate that the mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus may be used as a pharmaceutical adjuvant and as a binding agent at 4 to 5%w/v, depending on its binding ability and the stability of the resulting tablets.

Vasim I Patel; Hitesh A Patel; Malay Jani; Shankul kumar; Shah A; Jatin A Patel

2012-01-01

134

Pheromone Technology for the Control of Helicoverpa armigera in Okra  

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Full Text Available Pheromone traps against American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were installed at 1.5 m from the ground in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). First moth, in the field, was appeared during 7th and 6th weeks of traps installation each year 1995 and 1996, respectively. Maximum mean numbers of moths (11th and 7th) were captured during 9th and 7th weeks of traps installation, when the average temperatures were 28.38 and 25.78oC each year, respectively. A total mean number of 24 and 17 moths were captured during the two years of study respectively. The adult pest remained in the field till 11th and 4th August 1995 and 1996, respectively. The study strongly recommends the use of pheromones over pesticides against the said pest in okra.

Muhammad Faheem Malik; Daud-ur-Rahman; Liaquat Ali

2003-01-01

135

STUDY OF CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE IN SEEDS OF CORN,  

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Full Text Available Glyphosate is an agrochemical from the group of phosphonates, which is widely used as a herbicide. Although it kills almost any plant, it can be used to eliminate weeds during the growth of crops that are resistant to glyphosate. This research aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of the herbicide in a study using as test organism seeds of maize (Zea mays), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) and arugula (Eruca sativa). The toxicological testing was to use a paper towel dampened with a sample of glyphosate and twenty seeds evenly distributed in containers with lids, left in a dry and airy place, and watered once a day for 5 days. It was possible to check the toxic effect of glyphosate for corn seeds at concentrations above 90 mg.L-1, for okra seeds at concentrations above 75 mg L-1 and arugula seeds in concentrations above 2 mg L - 1. Thus it was concluded that the seeds studied showed a high sensitivity with the possibility to be applied in toxicity testing, representing a simple and low cost.

Ana Cláudia Rebessi; Núbia Natália de Brito

2011-01-01

136

Edible oil and health product prepared using Abelmoschus esculentus as raw material  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to edible oil and a health-care product made by using okra as a raw material, in particular to edible oil which is made by using okra seeds as a raw material and has the original nutrients and health-care effect of okra and a health-care product prepared by mixing raw materials of okra seeds with Chinese medicinal plant including okra flowers and heterophylly falsestarwort root, rose, finger citron flowers, osmanthus flowers and flos albiziae and high-quality green tea and has special health-care effects and a traditional flavor of tea drinks. The edible oil is extracted from oil plants through the prior common oil pressing equipment and technique. The health-care product is manufactured by the following steps of: roasting the okra seeds crushing the roasted okra seeds and the heterophylly falsestarwort root into 60-mesh powder crushing the okra flower, rose, finger citron flowers, osmanthus flowers and flos albiziae and high-quality green tea into sheets in tea leaf shape mixing all components and stirring the mixture uniformly and packing the mixture with 18-gram filter paper bags to make tea drink products or making the mixture into oral buccal tablets or pills by using a Chinese patent medicine preparation technical method.

JUNQING LI

137

Complete nucleotide sequences of okra isolates of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a major crop in Niger. In the fall of 2007, okra leaf curl disease was observed in Niger and the begomovirus and DNA-beta satellite were found associated with the disease. The complete nucleotide sequences of DNA-A (FJ469626 and FJ469627) and associated DNA-beta satellites (FJ469628 and FJ469629) were determined from two samples. This is the first report of molecular characterization of okra-infecting begomovirus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger. The begomovirus and DNA-beta have been identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite, respectively, which are reported to also infect okra in Egypt, Mali and Sudan.

Shih SL; Kumar S; Tsai WS; Lee LM; Green SK

2009-01-01

138

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS AND INOCULUM LEVELS OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON OKRA  

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Among two methods of Macrophomina phaseolina inoculation used for pathogenicity test, soil infestation method comparatively checked more plant growth of okra plants than seed infestation method. Minimum plant length and weight, as well as seed germination were observed by...

Anam M. Khanzada; Abdul M. Lodhi; Nargis Shah; Sultan A. Maitlo

139

ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT MEDICUS FLOWER PERFUMED PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Abelmoschus manihot Medicus flower perfumed product, which is made by immersing the Abelmoschus manihot Medicus flower containing volatile substance in Abelmoschus manihot Medicus oil, vegetable oil with more than 60% unsaturated fatty acid or cosmetic base oil grade mineral oil.

WANG ZHIYUAN; WANG SHAOZHANG

140

Desempenho do quiabeiro consorciado com adubos verdes eretos de porte baixo em dois sistemas de cultivo/ Okra performance intercropped with small size and erect green manure in two production systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o cultivo intercalar de adubos verdes eretos e de porte baixo na cultura do quiabeiro, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em cultivo convencional em Monte Alegre do Sul e outro em cultivo orgânico em São Roque-SP, de fevereiro a julho de 2008 e de dezembro de 2008 a junho de 2009, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos, constando de quiabeiro em cultivo "solteiro" (more) e consorciado com uma ou duas linhas de mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana) e de crotalária-espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis) nas entrelinhas. No cultivo orgânico, dois novos tratamentos foram adicionados ao experimento para avaliar os adubos verdes em cultivo solteiro. No quiabeiro avaliou-se a produção (g planta-1) e número de frutos por planta, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e altura média do dossel em diferentes épocas após a semeadura. Nos adubos verdes avaliaram-se altura média das plantas e produtividade de massa fresca. A eficiência do consórcio foi mensurada por meio da relação de área equivalente (RAE). A produção média do quiabeiro por planta foi de 190,9 e 582,0 g planta-1, respectivamente, no sistema convencional e orgânico. A RAE foi de 1,5 e 1,6 no consórcio do quiabeiro com duas linhas de mucuna-anã e crotalária-espectábilis, respecticamente. Verificou-se viabilidade agronômica da adoção do cultivo intercalar pelo agricultor familiar de quiabeiro, especificamente com duas linhas dos adubos verdes de porte ereto e baixo. Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic viability of the intercropping okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) with small size and erect green manuring species Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, two experiments were carried out, one in conventional system at Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo state, Brazil, from February to July 2008 and one in an organic system at São Roque, São Paulo state, Brazil, from December 2008 to June 2009. The experimental design was randomized complete (more) blocks, with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were constituted by okra monoculture and okra intercropped with one or two lines of M. deeringiana and one or two lines of C.spectabilis in the seeded at the same time of the okra crop. In organic farming two new treatments were added to the experiment to evaluate the green manures in single cropping. Production, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and diameter and plant height were evaluated in okra plants and plant height and fresh matter weight were determined in the green manuring plants at different periods after seeding.. The evaluation of the efficiency of the consortium was measured by the ratio of area equivalent (RAE). Average yield per okra plant was 190.9 and 582.0 g plant-1, respectively, under conventional and organic cropping. The RAE was 1.5 and 1.6 in the consortium of okra with two rows of M. deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, respectively. Intercropping erect short green manuring species with okra is agronomically viable and can be used by family farmers without interference with the yield of okra crop.

Tivelli, Sebastião Wilson; Kano, Cristiaini; Purquerio, Luis Felipe V; Wutke, Elaine B; Ishimura, Issáo

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Abelmoschus manihot fragrance product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a kind of wild lotus fragrance product, belonging to agricultural products field. The wild lotus is herb in Malvaceae and Abelmoschus, the code is 6000010003 in state standard GB/ T14467- 93 in January 1, 1994. The most improtant functional matter of wild lotus is volatile substance, but it is difficult for its storage in packing, transportation and usage. The invention is to find propeor carrier for volatile substance in wild lotus, solve problem of difficult separation and storage for said volatile substance, provide products for foodstuff or raw material for exterior healthy industry. The anti- oxidation function of natural vitamin P complex in wild lotus is distinctive for fat antioxidation.

SHAOZHANG WANG

142

Roles and interactions of begomoviruses and satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Mali, West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production in West Africa. Two monopartite begomoviruses (okra virus-1 and okra virus-2), a betasatellite and a DNA1 satellite are associated with OLCD in Mali. Okra virus-1 is an isolate of okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV), okra virus-2 is a recombinant isolate of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) and the betasatellite is a variant of cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB). Cloned DNA of OYCrV and CLCuGV were infectious and induced leaf curl symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, but did not induce OLCD in okra. However, when these clones were individually co-inoculated with the cloned CLCuGB DNA, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in N. benthamiana plants and typical OLCD symptoms were induced in okra. The CLCuGB was also replicated by, and increased symptom severity of, three monopartite tomato-infecting begomoviruses, including two from West Africa. The sequence of the DNA1 satellite was highly divergent, indicating that it represents a distinct West African lineage. DNA1 replicated autonomously, and replication required the DNA1-encoded Rep protein. Although DNA1 reduced helper begomovirus DNA levels, symptoms were not attenuated. In the presence of CLCuGB, DNA levels of the helper begomoviruses and DNA1 were substantially increased. Together, these findings establish that OLCD in Mali is caused by a complex of monopartite begomoviruses and a promiscuous betasatellite with an associated parasitic DNA1 satellite. These findings are discussed in terms of the aetiology of OLCD and the evolution of new begomovirus/satellite DNA complexes.

Kon T; Rojas MR; Abdourhamane IK; Gilbertson RL

2009-04-01

143

The Effects of Tillage Methods on Soil Penetration Resistance, The Effects of Tillage Methods on Soil Penetration Resistance, Porosity and OkraYield  

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Full Text Available The effects of primary, minimum, conventional and ridging tillage on soil penetration resistance, porosity and the yield response of Okra (Abelmoschus) were investigated for a growing season in 2008, on a sandy loam soil. Experimental factors included tillage depths, tillage operations, and soil properties such, as soil resistance and porosity. Two different tillage depths of 0-150 and 150-300 mm were studied. Okra parameters investigated were plant height, plant leaf count and yield in terms of number of seeds per plot, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, length and diameter of the fruits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and regression analysis. Results showed that the highest porosity of 31.78% (v/v) was recorded on the ploughed + harrowed + harrowed plot, 30.35% (v/v) was recorded on ridged, while 29.76% (v/v) and 29.67% (v/v) were recorded in ploughed + harrowed plot and ploughed plot respectively. The results further showed that the highest soil penetration resistance of 1.13 KN was recorded in the ploughed plot, while the lowest value of 0.61 KN was obtained from the ridged plot. The other values were 1.08 and 1.05 KN for ploughed + harrowed plot and ploughed + harrowed + harrowed plot, respectively. Analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in soil porosity for depths, between plots and blocks at the 5% level of significance, while penetration resistance showed significant difference at the same level of significance. On the whole the mean highest okra yield was obtained from ploughing + harrowing + harrowing tillage operation. The values were 30.26 kg/ha for number of plant per plot, 5.27 kg/ha for number of fruits per plant, 1.76 kg for fruit weight, 68.2 mm fruit length and 31.5 mm for fruit diameter. This study has ploughing + harrowing + harrowing as the best operation suitable for efficient mechanization underlying the high labour productivity for Okra.

S.O. Nkakini; I. Fubara-Manuel

2012-01-01

144

Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P < 0.005) at 30 min after application. Skin moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy.

Kanlayavattanakul M; Rodchuea C; Lourith N

2012-06-01

145

Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P < 0.005) at 30 min after application. Skin moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy. PMID:22404565

Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

2012-04-04

146

Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot.  

Science.gov (United States)

Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium (Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd. PMID:16083107

Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Xing

2005-01-01

147

ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT MEDICUS FLOWER PERFUMED PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Abelmoschus manihot Medicus flower perfumed product, which is made by immersing the Abelmoschus manihot Medicus flower containing volatile substance in Abelmoschus manihot Medicus oil, vegetable oil with more than 60% unsaturated fatty acid or cosmetic base oil grade mineral oil. The product using the edible oil and fat as the carrier can be used as food materials and that using mineral oil as the carrier can be used as the raw materials of medicine, skin care and hair care products.

WANG ZHIYUAN; WANG SHAOZHANG

148

Molecular characterization of distinct bipartite begomovirus infecting bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yellow vein mosaic disease of okra is a whitefly transmitted begomovirus causing heavy economic loss in different parts of India. The okra isolate (OY131) of this virus from a bhendi plant [(Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench] showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting, reduced leaves, and a bushy appearance in the Palem region, New Delhi, India, was characterized in the present study. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B sequences have been determined and are comprised of 2,746 and 2,703 nucleotides, respectively. The betasatellite (DNA-?) component was absent in the sample. The genome organization was typically of biparite begomoviruses, which were characterized earlier. Comparison of DNA-A component with other known begomoviruses suggest that this virus, being only distantly related (<85.9% similarity with its nearest relative, BYVMV) to other known begomoviruses, is a new species. We have tentatively assigned the genome to a novel geminivirus species Bhendi yellow vein mosaic Delhi virus [BYVDV-IN (India: Delhi: okra)]. DNA-B showed highest sequence identity (87.8% identical) to that of a ToLCNDV (AY158080). The phylogenetic analysis of the present isolate is distinct from all other viruses; however clusters with ToLCNDV group infect different crops. The recombination analysis revealed that this isolate has sequences originated from ToLCNDV. This is the first known bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease associated bipartite begomovirus from India.

Venkataravanappa V; Lakshminarayana Reddy CN; Jalali S; Krishna Reddy M

2012-06-01

149

Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra  

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A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

2006-04-15

150

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS AND INOCULUM LEVELS OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON OKRA  

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Full Text Available Among two methods of Macrophomina phaseolina inoculation used for pathogenicity test, soil infestation method comparatively checked more plant growth of okra plants than seed infestation method. Minimum plant length and weight, as well as seed germination were observed by soil infestation method. Significantly maximum plant mortality and root infection was also occurred in soil infestation method. Seed germination, plant growth, plant mortality and root infection of okra plants were adversely affected with the increasing inoculum levels of M. phaseolina. Seed germination and plant growth were negatively correlated with inoculated pathogen population; whereas, plant mortality and root infection were positively correlated with the inoculum level of M. phaseolina.

Anam M. Khanzada; Abdul M. Lodhi; Nargis Shah; Sultan A. Maitlo

2012-01-01

151

Management studies of okra powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum) using bio-agents, plant extracts and chemical fungicides  

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Full Text Available Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench occupies a prominent place in the horticultural wealth and economy of the country. Powdery mildew disease on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench incited by fungus, Erysiphe cichoracearum is a limiting factor in the successful cultivation in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State. Studies were carried out to find out disease management strategies against okra powdery mildew using bioagents, plant extracts and chemical fungicides. Disease incidence and severity declined only after third and fourth sprays. The fungicide Dinocap 46% EC (0.1 %) showed significantly lowest disease incidence (18.51 %) and disease severity (9.86 PDI) with maximum (84.09 %) disease control. On the basis of effectiveness in controlling the powdery mildew disease of okra the most effective fungicides recorded in the order of merit were Dinocap 46% EC (0.1 %), Sulphur 80 WP (0.3 %) and Propiconazole 25 EC (0.1%). The fruit yield (t/ha) ranged from 7.53 to 11.21 t/ha. Maximum fruit yield (11.21 t/ha) and highest per cent increase in yield (58.92 per cent) over unsprayed control was recorded in fungicide dinocap 46% EC sprays followed by sulphur 80 WP (0.3 %) and propiconazole 25 EC (0.1%) fungicides. Maximum test weight (60.80 g) and maximum increase in test weight (15.94 g) over unsprayed control was also found in fungicide dinocap 46% EC.

P.V. KHALIKAR; G.P. JAGTAP*; P.L. SONTAKKE

2011-01-01

152

Patogenicidade de Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae em quiabeiro/ Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae in okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos do parasitismo de Pratylenchus brachyurus e de dois isolados de P. coffeae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) em experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação. Algumas mudanças anatômicas induzidas no hospedeiro por P. brachyurus foram observadas e registradas em laboratório. O quiabeiro reagiu como bom hospedeiro para P. brachyurus e para um dos isolados de P. coffeae (K5). Entretanto, apenas a primeira espécie reduziu o crescimento da pl (more) anta. Outro isolado de P. coffeae (M2) não se multiplicou em quiabeiro nem afetou o crescimento. Esse fato indicou a possibilidade do quiabeiro ser utilizado no futuro para diferenciação de isolados. Diferentemente das relações parasito-hospedeiro envolvendo Pratylenchus spp., P. brachyurus não causou lesões radiculares delimitadas, mas grandes áreas necrosadas. Sintomas iniciais foram observados em quiabeiro dez e 15 dias após a inoculação com P. brachyurus, não se verificando a presença do parasito no estelo de raízes infetadas. Abstract in english The effect of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The anatomical changes caused by P. brachyurus were studied under laboratory conditions. Okra was a good host for P. brachyurus and one isolate of P. coffeae (K5), but only the former decreased its growth. The other isolate of P. coffeae used (M2) did not multiply on nor damage okra, so this plant can be used to differentiate both i (more) solates. In contrast to typical Pratylenchus spp. host plant relationships, P. brachyurus did not cause well-delimited root lesions, but large extensions of decayed tissues. Necrosis in okra roots was observed ten days after inoculation, but P. brachyurus was not found in the stele of infected roots 15 days after inoculation.

Inomoto, Mário M.; Silva, Rosangela A.; Pimentel, João P.

2004-10-01

153

Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium (Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p < 0.05) inhibitory effects of Cd on root elongation of the tested plant. When the concentration of added Cd was low( < 20 mg/L), significant antagonistic effects on root elongation were observed. And synergic effects were observed when Cd was added in high dose( > 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd.

Wang XF; Zhou QX

2005-01-01

154

PRODUCTIVITY OF OKRA VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY SEASONAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available In northern Nigeria, two distinct season are noticeable and these are the wet (April to October) and the dry (November to March) seasons. Due to little or no documented work conducted to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), this study is therefore undertaken to compare the performance of okra during the wet and the dry seasons of northern Nigeria. Two okra varieties ('White velvet' and 'Ex-Borno') were evaluated during the 1997 and 1999 wet seasons and 1997/98 and 1999/2000 dry seasons at Samaru in northern Nigeria, in order to determine their productivity. The variables measured at the reproductive stage were plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf area, days to first flower, fruit weight/plant and fruit yield (t/ha). Significant differences were observed for all variables among seasons and among varieties. The wet season conditions were most favourable for increased growth, leaf formation and fruit yield, as compared with the dry season environment which resulted in less vegetative and reproductive growth. The interaction of season x variety was highly significant for plant height, fruit weight/plant, fruit yield and significant for leaf area and number of fruits/plant. The variety 'White velvet' produced more fruits than 'Ex-Borno'.

M. D. KATUNG

2007-01-01

155

Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO), compost organic fertilizer (OR), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT) was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m) was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05) higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

Adewole Moses B.; Ilesanmi Abiola O.

2012-01-01

156

Molecular characterization of distinct bipartite begomovirus infecting bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yellow vein mosaic disease of okra is a whitefly transmitted begomovirus causing heavy economic loss in different parts of India. The okra isolate (OY131) of this virus from a bhendi plant [(Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench] showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting, reduced leaves, and a bushy appearance in the Palem region, New Delhi, India, was characterized in the present study. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B sequences have been determined and are comprised of 2,746 and 2,703 nucleotides, respectively. The betasatellite (DNA-?) component was absent in the sample. The genome organization was typically of biparite begomoviruses, which were characterized earlier. Comparison of DNA-A component with other known begomoviruses suggest that this virus, being only distantly related (ToLCNDV (AY158080). The phylogenetic analysis of the present isolate is distinct from all other viruses; however clusters with ToLCNDV group infect different crops. The recombination analysis revealed that this isolate has sequences originated from ToLCNDV. This is the first known bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease associated bipartite begomovirus from India. PMID:22447131

Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

2012-03-24

157

Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

2010-09-01

158

Okra pod harvester and cutter  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An okra pod harvester and cutter which is of a piece of material bent to form two arms with their ends spaced from each other. One arm has a portion bent at a 90 DEG angle which is formed with a V-shape cut out and a cutting blade is secured across the V-shape cut out and held in place. The other arm is cut across its end at a 90 DEG angle and has a length such that when the two arms are pressed toward each other, the one arm passes close within the bent end portion and passes the position of the cutter. As the one arm passes the bent end portion an okra pod placed in the V-shaped end of the bent portion is cut from the bush and is held between the two arms until the cut okra pod is placed into a container.

WELBORN WOODROW W

159

Okra-leaf accessions of the upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): genetic variability in agronomic and fibre traits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra-leaf types of the upland cotton have the potential to be competitive to the normal-leaf types in yield and fibre quality, in addition to its potential resistance to insect pests and drought. Okra-leaf cotton accessions, collected at Cotton Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan, were evaluated in respect of genetic variance and relative performance in half- and full-sib crosses (combining ability) for 2 years. Variation due to parents x years interaction was significant for lint percentage, seed weight and earliness index, resulting in moderately low but significant genetic variance across environments (years) for these traits. Interaction of environment with general combining ability was significant for seed yield, seed weight, and earliness index. General combining ability variation, contributed by females and males together, accounted for 71% of the total variation available for seed cotton yield, 60% of that for seed weight and height to node ratio each, and 75% of that for earliness index. Specific combining ability variation accounted for 85% and 51% of the total variation available for lint percentage and staple length, respectively. The contribution of female parents to general combining ability variation was higher than that of male parents for seed cotton yield, seed weight, height to node ratio, and earliness index. Okra-leaf accessions HR-VO-MS and HR107-NH were predicted to produce progenies having high yield, HR109-RT high lint percentage, while HR100-Okra, Gambo-Okra and HR-VO-1 were predicted to impart early crop maturity to their progenies by reason of their good general combining ability for these traits. The results also provided evidence that genes controlling high yield in HR-VO-MS and HR107-NH were different from those controlling high yield in HR109-RT. The set of genes controlling the high earliness index in HR100-Okra and that in HR-VO-MS also appeared to differ in expression.

Hafeez-ur-Rahman; Bibi A; Latif M

2005-01-01

160

Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm  

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Full Text Available – Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’). Inoculation (in all assays) was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates (‘Fus-194’ and ‘Fus-201’). Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-194’ during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-201’. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to ‘Fus-194’, and 32% were resistant to ‘Fus-201’. The accessions ‘Santa Cruz-47’, ‘BR-2399’ and ‘BR-1449’ were the most promising resistance sources.

Frederick Mendes Aguiar; Sami Jorge Michereff; Leonardo Silva Boiteux; Ailton Reis

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Impact Of Chlorpyriphos On The Morphological Parameters Of Cauliflower, Tomato And Okra  

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Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to work out the effect of a wide spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, chlorpyriphos (O, O-Diethyl O- 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) on the morphological features of three commonly grown vegetables in the study area i.e. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, Variety: Snowball 16), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Variety: Pusa Ruby) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L., Variety: Pusa Sawani). Results revealed that on an average, the impact of chlorpyriphos on various morphological parameters of all the three vegetables have been statistically insignificant (using t- Test) except for height of the plants in cauliflower treated with double the recommended dose which exhibited a significant decrease and weight of the head in cauliflower treated with recommended dose of chlorpyriphos which showed a significant increase. Also in okra total number of flowers/plant at treatment with both the dosages along with total number of fruits/plant at treatment with the recommended dose has exhibited statistically significant increase.

Mosmi Raina; Anil Raina

2012-01-01

162

Single and interactive effects of root-knot nematode and coal-smoke on okra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of coal-smoke pollutants and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1, singly and jointly, were investigated on okra, Abelmoschus esculentus in 1988 and 1989. Plants in clay pots were placed at two sites (K1 and K2), 1 and 2 km away from the stack of a coal-fired thermal power plant, and also at a control site. The mean concentrations of SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2] and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 141, 76 and 309 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K1, and 184, 93 and 205 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K2, but the concentrations of the pollutants at the control site were very low. Okra plants at the K2 site showed browning of the leaves, whereas injury was mild at K1. The intensity of the browning and the impact of nematode disease was appreciably higher in the infected plants at the polluted sites in both the years. The plants grown at the two sites exhibited suppressions in plant growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments, particularly at K2. M. incognita at the control site also cause significant reductions, but joint effects of the nematode and coal-smoke were synergistic.

Khan, M.R.; Khan, M.W. (Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Botany)

1994-02-01

163

Skin lesions due to okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.): proteolytic activity and allergenicity of okra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present report describes experimental studies on the proteolytic activity of the secretion on the surface of okra pods and the allergenicity of okra components, to clarify the etiology of skin lesions due to okra. Proteolytic activity was detected on the surface of immature okra pods and seemed to be sufficient to cause the skin lesions. Further, in vivo, intradermal injection of the enzyme solution prepared from immature okra pods led to increased capillary permeability in guinea pigs, in contrast to heated preparations. The fraction purified by preparative paper chromatography from an ethyl acetate extract of okra pods showed moderate allergenicity in the guinea pig maximization test. The present experimental evidence supports our suggestions from previous surveys that the proteolytic enzyme of okra may be responsible for development of skin lesions, and that allergic contact dermatitis may also play a part in addition to irritant contact dermatitis.

Manda F; Tadera K; Aoyama K

1992-02-01

164

Skin lesions due to okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.): proteolytic activity and allergenicity of okra.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present report describes experimental studies on the proteolytic activity of the secretion on the surface of okra pods and the allergenicity of okra components, to clarify the etiology of skin lesions due to okra. Proteolytic activity was detected on the surface of immature okra pods and seemed to be sufficient to cause the skin lesions. Further, in vivo, intradermal injection of the enzyme solution prepared from immature okra pods led to increased capillary permeability in guinea pigs, in contrast to heated preparations. The fraction purified by preparative paper chromatography from an ethyl acetate extract of okra pods showed moderate allergenicity in the guinea pig maximization test. The present experimental evidence supports our suggestions from previous surveys that the proteolytic enzyme of okra may be responsible for development of skin lesions, and that allergic contact dermatitis may also play a part in addition to irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:1378780

Manda, F; Tadera, K; Aoyama, K

1992-02-01

165

Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo  

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Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection) and eggs (magnifying lens) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual) e de ovos (lentes de aumento) de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas.

Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Marcelo Picanço; Gulab Newandram Jham; Márcio Dionízio Moreira

2005-01-01

166

Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations/ Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares d (more) e nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual) e de ovos (lentes de aumento) de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas. Abstract in english The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium conte (more) nts, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection) and eggs (magnifying lens) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.

Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Picanço, Marcelo; Jham, Gulab Newandram; Moreira, Márcio Dionízio

2005-01-01

167

Glycosylated compounds from okra inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Asian medicine the fruit of the okra plant, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., is used as a mucilaginous food additive against gastric irritative and inflammative diseases. To find a rational basis for its use against these diseases, several crude and purified carbohydrate-containing fractions from immature okra fruits were isolated and analyzed, and their effects against Helicobacter pylori in an in situ adhesion model on sections of human gastric mucosa were determined. Pretreatment of the bacteria with a fresh juice preparation inhibited the bacterial adhesion almost completely. Lyophilization and reconstitution of an extract solution led to a reduction of this effect. A crude polysaccharide (RPS) isolated from the fresh juice by ethanolic precipitation showed strong inhibitory effects. Further fractionation of RPS revealed a purified, highly acidic subfraction (AF III) with high antiadhesive qualities. Carbohydrate analysis revealed the presence of rhamnogalacturonans with a considerable amount of glucuronic acid, whereas other inactive subfractions contained little glucuronic acid or were glucuronic acid-free. After heat denaturation of the fresh juice or protein precipitation with 5% TCA the antiadhesive activity of the fresh extract was reduced, indicating that besides polysaccharides, protein fractions also exhibited antiadhesive properties. SDS-PAGE analysis of the precipitate revealed several bands of glycosylated proteins between 25 and 37 kDa that were almost diminished in the nonactive supernatant. Preincubations of gastric tissue with any of the active fractions did not lead to reduced bacterial binding. The antiadhesive activity is therefore due to the blocking capacity of specific Helicobacter surface receptors that coordinate the interaction between host and bacterium. Neither of the active fractions showed inhibitory effects on bacterial growth in vitro. The antiadhesive qualities of okra were assumed to be due to a combination of glycoproteins and highly acidic sugar compounds making up a complex three-dimensional structure that is fully developed only in the fresh juice of the fruit.

Lengsfeld C; Titgemeyer F; Faller G; Hensel A

2004-03-01

168

Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the svalbard global seed vault: assessing the current status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

Westengen OT; Jeppson S; Guarino L

2013-01-01

169

Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the svalbard global seed vault: assessing the current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

2013-05-09

170

Agro-potentiality of distillery effluent on soil and agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (okra).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study showed that irrigation of soil with different effluent concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) of distillery effluent (DE) for 60 days resulted in significant (P??0.05) changes were observed for water-holding capacity and bulk density of the soil. Among various concentrations of DE irrigation, irrigation with 100 % effluent concentration increased moisture content, (24.85 %), EC (77.88 %), Cl(-) (285.95 %), TOC (3,171.42 %), exchangeable Na(+) (241.04 %), available K(+) (52.49 %), Ca(2+) (990.37 %), Mg(2+) (1,751.72 %), TKN (1,417.00 %), available P (305.00 %), and SO4 (2-) (75.32 %) in the soil and decreased pH (-20.22 %). The more stimulation in agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and crop yield of A. esculentus were observed to be inversely proportional to the concentration of effluent water, with the best results being obtained at a dilution of 25 % of DE concentration. PMID:23264061

Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin; Kumar, Vinod; Pathak, Chakresh

2012-12-21

171

Agro-potentiality of distillery effluent on soil and agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (okra).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study showed that irrigation of soil with different effluent concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) of distillery effluent (DE) for 60 days resulted in significant (P??0.05) changes were observed for water-holding capacity and bulk density of the soil. Among various concentrations of DE irrigation, irrigation with 100 % effluent concentration increased moisture content, (24.85 %), EC (77.88 %), Cl(-) (285.95 %), TOC (3,171.42 %), exchangeable Na(+) (241.04 %), available K(+) (52.49 %), Ca(2+) (990.37 %), Mg(2+) (1,751.72 %), TKN (1,417.00 %), available P (305.00 %), and SO4 (2-) (75.32 %) in the soil and decreased pH (-20.22 %). The more stimulation in agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and crop yield of A. esculentus were observed to be inversely proportional to the concentration of effluent water, with the best results being obtained at a dilution of 25 % of DE concentration.

Chopra AK; Srivastava S; Kumar V; Pathak C

2013-08-01

172

Combining ability in bhindi [ Abelmoschus spp.  

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Full Text Available Combining ability was estimated for six diverse okra genotypes or varieties by diallel analysis. The combininganalysis revealed that Arka Anamika was found to be a good general combiner for fruit number, fruit weight and fruit length.KL9 showed high gca for days to first flowering, internode number and fruit weight. In this study, it was observed thatpresence of overdominance for most of the yield contributing traits

Divya Balakrishnan; E. Sreenivasan; R. Sujatha; K. V. Suresh Babu

2009-01-01

173

Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso  

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Full Text Available Abstract Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD.

Tiendrébéogo Fidèle; Lefeuvre Pierre; Hoareau Murielle; Villemot Julie; Konaté Gnissa; Traoré Alfred S; Barro Nicolas; Traoré Valentin S; Reynaud Bernard; Traoré Oumar; Lett Jean-Michel

2010-01-01

174

Molecular diversity of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD.

Tiendrébéogo F; Lefeuvre P; Hoareau M; Villemot J; Konaté G; Traoré AS; Barro N; Traoré VS; Reynaud B; Traoré O; Lett JM

2010-01-01

175

A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.)  

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Full Text Available The Abelmoschus manihot (L.) commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm count on sexually normal male mice. Two doses i.e. 100and 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract administered to Swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency.The result of the present study signatured for sexual enhancing capacity of the drug Abelmoschus manihot is an individual and also holds good aphrodisiac property when compared with standard drug. It was noticed that a 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect. Therefore, the conclusion suggestive that the Abelmoschus manihot will be a drug of choice or alternative therapy for a marketed product. Which may help the population to lead their sexual life perfectly with full of pleasure to interact body, mind and sole.Keywords: Abelmoschus manihot, Aphrodisiac, Mounting frequency, Intromission frequency, Penile erection index.

K.K. Rewatkar; Naiyer Shahzad; Ayaz Ahmed; Mohd. Irfan Khan; N. Ganesh

2011-01-01

176

Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites  

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Full Text Available The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2) okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

Srinivasababu; K. Murali Mohan Rao; J. Suresh kumar

2009-01-01

177

MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L.) MEDIK (MALVACEAE)  

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Full Text Available Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03) of Abelmoschus moschatus (L.) Medik (Family: Malvaceae) were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76%, soil pH 6.85) during the rainfed seasons of 2009 and 2010 (July to December) and morphological (taxonomical details), anatomical (transverse sections of ovary, stem and root), stomatal, cytological (meiotic chromosome behavior) and pollen attributes (fertility, viability and acetolysis studies) were assessed. Results indicated marked differences between the cultivars and based on observations cultivar I is recommended as tall, branched whereas cultivar II as dwarf, unbranched types and the cultivars may further be explored for pharmacological research.

Dubey Kumari Priyanka; Datta K. Animesh; Mandal Aninda; Saha Aditi; Sengupta Sonali

2011-01-01

178

Okra Leaf Cotton, its Commercial Utilization in Sindh  

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Studies were under taken to assess the yield, earliness and insect pest resistance of some newly developed okra leaf strains compared with normal leaf commercial varieties CRIS-9 and NIAB-78. Accordingly, almost all the okra leaf mutants yielded better than NIAB-78. Out of nine okra leaf strains, th...

A.R. Soomro; A. W. Soomro; G. H. Mallah; A. M. Memon; A. H. Soomro; A. D. Kalhoro

179

Complete nucleotide sequence and experimental host range of Okra mosaic virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra mosaic virus (OkMV) is a tymovirus infecting members of the family Malvaceae. Early infections in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) lead to yield losses of 12-19.5%. Besides intensive biological characterizations of OkMV only minor molecular data were available. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a Nigerian isolate of OkMV. The complete genomic RNA (gRNA) comprises 6,223 nt and its genome organization showed three major ORFs coding for a putative movement protein (MP) of M r 73.1 kDa, a large replication-associated protein (RP) of M r 202.4 kDa and a coat protein (CP) of M r 19.6 kDa. Prediction of secondary RNA structures showed three hairpin structures with internal loops in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) which comprises the anticodon for valine, typical for a member of the genus Tymovirus. Phylogenetic comparisons based on the RP, MP and CP amino acid sequences showed the close relationship of OkMV not only to other completely sequenced tymoviruses like Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (KYMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Erysimum latent virus (ErLV), but also to Calopogonium yellow vein virus (CalYVV), Clitoria yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Desmodium yellow mottle virus (DYMoV). This is the first report of a complete OkMV genome sequence from one of the various OkMV isolates originating from West Africa described so far. Additionally, the experimental host range of OkMV including several Nicotiana species was determined.

Stephan D; Siddiqua M; Ta Hoang A; Engelmann J; Winter S; Maiss E

2008-02-01

180

Complete nucleotide sequence and experimental host range of Okra mosaic virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra mosaic virus (OkMV) is a tymovirus infecting members of the family Malvaceae. Early infections in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) lead to yield losses of 12-19.5%. Besides intensive biological characterizations of OkMV only minor molecular data were available. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a Nigerian isolate of OkMV. The complete genomic RNA (gRNA) comprises 6,223 nt and its genome organization showed three major ORFs coding for a putative movement protein (MP) of M r 73.1 kDa, a large replication-associated protein (RP) of M r 202.4 kDa and a coat protein (CP) of M r 19.6 kDa. Prediction of secondary RNA structures showed three hairpin structures with internal loops in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) which comprises the anticodon for valine, typical for a member of the genus Tymovirus. Phylogenetic comparisons based on the RP, MP and CP amino acid sequences showed the close relationship of OkMV not only to other completely sequenced tymoviruses like Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (KYMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Erysimum latent virus (ErLV), but also to Calopogonium yellow vein virus (CalYVV), Clitoria yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Desmodium yellow mottle virus (DYMoV). This is the first report of a complete OkMV genome sequence from one of the various OkMV isolates originating from West Africa described so far. Additionally, the experimental host range of OkMV including several Nicotiana species was determined. PMID:18049886

Stephan, Dirk; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Ta Hoang, Anh; Engelmann, Jill; Winter, Stephan; Maiss, Edgar

2007-11-30

 
 
 
 
181

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TABLETS BASED ON POLYELECTROLYTE COMPLEX BETWEEN OKRA MUCILAGE AND CHITOSAN  

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Full Text Available Recent years there has been greater utilization of natural polymers in the development of delivery systems. The present work is an effort towards development of matrix tablets using polyelectrolyte complex formed between the oppositely charged natural polymers like okra mucilage obtained from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus and chitosan. The effect of pH and polymer volume ratio on yield of polyelectrolyte complex was studied. It was observed that the yield was maximum (96.45%) at pH 5 and at polymer volume ratio of 9:1 between okra mucilage and chitosan. The prepared polyelectrolyte complex was also characterised by conductimetry, FTIR, DSC. The results confirmed the formation of polyelectrolyte complex between the natural polymers. The matrix tablets were formulated for model drug diclofenac sodium using the best polyelectrolyte complex at different drug to polymer ratios and compared with formulations containing individual polymers as well as marketed formulation. The prepared formulations showed satisfactory physical parameters. Formulations F2 and F3 extended the drug release for more than 8 h with (83.87± 0.8321%) and (77.125± 0.125%) drug release respectively in 8 h. The formulations F2 and F3 followed zero order kinetics with anomalous diffusion mechanism. The mean dissolution times were 3.6042 and 3.5935 hrs and the % dissolution efficiency were 54.9467 and 55.7203 % for formulations F2 and F3 respectively. The similarity factor f2 for formulation F2 was 61.6751 and for formulation F3, it was found to be 60.5025.The formulations were found to be stable.

Ashwini Rajendra; Bushetti S S

2012-01-01

182

Rheology of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) and dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) polysaccharides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polysaccharide extracts were prepared from two traditional food thickeners with extensive domestic use in central and western parts of Africa: okra (Hibiscus esculentis L.) and the seed kernel from 'dika nut' (Irvingia gabonensis). Both demonstrated typical polyelectrolyte behaviour in solution, and were therefore studied under fixed ionic conditions (0.1 M NaCl), yielding intrinsic viscosities of [eta]=7.6 dl g-1 for okra and [eta]=44 dl g-1 for dika. Concentrated solutions gave mechanical spectra typical of entangled networks, with close Cox-Merz superposition of eta (omega) and eta(gamma). The variation of 'zero-shear' specific viscosity with degree of space-occupancy (c[eta]) was also broadly similar to the general form observed for most disordered polysaccharides, but with greater separation of c(*) and c(**) and steeper slope of log eta sp vs. log c above c* (approximately 4.0 for okra and approximately 4.6 for dika, in comparison with the usual value of approximately 3.3). As found for normal disordered polysaccharides, the shear-thinning behaviour of dika gum could be reduced to a single 'master-curve' for all concentrations above c**, but the absolute value of the terminal slope of log (eta-etas)vs. log gamma was unusually low (approximately 0.58, in comparison with the normal value of approximately 0.76). Terminal slopes for okra gum were also unusually low, and varied systematically with polymer concentration. These departures from normal solution properties are tentatively ascribed to compact macromolecular structures, coupled, in the case of okra gum, with a strong tendency to self-association.

Ndjouenkeu R; Goycoolea FM; Morris ER; Akingbala JO

1996-03-01

183

Method for producing Abelmoschus manihot medicus flower perfumed product  

Science.gov (United States)

A producing method of Abelmoschus manihot Medicus flower perfumed products comprises steps of choosing a carrier from one of Abelmoschus manihot Medicus oil, vegetable oil with unsaturated fatty acid more than 60% and acid value less than 4.0, and cosmetic base oil grade high purity mineral oil; choosing Abelmoschus manihot Medicus flowers as main ingredient flowers; immersing the main ingredient flowers in the carrier by immersing the main ingredient flowers below a liquid level of the carrier; and placing stationarily the carrier with the main ingredient flowers immersed therein in dark places and keeping the carrier out of any direct sunlight under an environment with a temperature between 18 degrees centigrade and 48 degrees centigrade for more than 6 hours, or a temperature below 18 degrees centigrade for more than 180 hours.

2013-01-01

184

Effect of different levels of n. p. k. (20:10:10) fertilizer on the growth and yield of six okra cultivars in Asaba soils  

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Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the effect of different levels of N.P.K fertilizer on six cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Data collected at different sampling periods included plant height, total leaf area, number of pods and fresh weight of pods. The application of N.P.K 20:10:10 at 250kg/ha level was significantly different from others in growth and yield parameters. Higher mean values were observed with 250kg/ha level followed by 150kg/ha. Cultivar LD – 88 performed better in number of pods and fresh pod weight. Other cultivars had areas where they performed well. The application of 250kg/ha level of N.P.K.20:10:10 fertilizer is appropriate in attaining high pod yield in Asaba and Cultivar LD-88 showed the best performance in Asaba soil.

Achebe U.A. et al.

2013-01-01

185

Combined effects of Psoralens and ultraviolet-B on growth, pigmentation and biochemical parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of pre-treatment of Psoralens (furocoumarin compounds) and supplemental ultraviolet-B (sUV-B) were studied on plant growth, photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments, protein, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidative defense potential as well as their ultimate effects on biomass production in Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra) plants. Psoralens are capable of absorbing radiant energy and stimulating the pigmentation of human skin when photo-activated in presence of UV-A or UV-B making them beneficial in the treatment of vitilago. Pre-treatment of Psoralens against sUV-B (pUV-B), stimulates higher production of UV-B protective pigments (flavonoids and carotenoids) and helps in maintaining its biomass against UV-B stress. Antioxidative defense system in the test plant was activated by combined treatment of Psoralens and sUV-B as evidenced by the enhanced activity of enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase-APX, superoxide dismutase-SOD, POX) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid and phenol) antioxidants. Individual treatments of Psoralens and sUV-B showed inhibitory effect on various morphological traits i.e. reduction in plant height, leaf area and ultimately on biomass production. Our results clearly indicated that adverse effect of sUV-B on biomass production was ameliorated by pre- treatment with Psoralens.

Kumari R; Singh S; Agrawal SB

2009-05-01

186

Selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease of okra by induced mutation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmochus esculentus) production for both export and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were gamma-irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and planted at Huaysai King's Project in Petchaburi Province. M3 plants were screened for OYVMD (Okra YVMD) resistance under field conditions at Huaysai King's Project and Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) in Phichit Province. In addition, M4 plants were screened for OYVMD resistance under greenhouse conditions at Crop Protection Research and Development Office using whitefly transmission. None of Annie was found resistant but one plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400 Gy was found to be highly resistant. Ten resistant lines obtained through rescreening of B-21 descendants up to M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at PHRC and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS). The mutants had good stature and fruit shape but the fruits have spines on the ridges. Selections for OYVMD resistance and spineless fruits were performed at PHRC in three generations and seven of the lines were chosen for yield trial at PHRC. Three of the mutant lines were also screened for OYVMD resistance at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi Province, okra growing area, where OYVMD was seriously widespread. All mutant lines showed resistance against the local OYVMV isolates up to a month before they started showing signs of the disease. Seeds were collected from resistant individuals and planted in farmers's fields for further selection. The farmers were very satisfied with the stature and fruit shape of the mutants when tested against a commercial variety. (author)

2008-01-01

187

Study on the degumming process of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic fiber  

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Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic has drawn much attention recently due to its potential beneficial health effects. The roots, flowers and seeds of A.manihot play an important role as medical materials. In this paper, the result of the chemical composition testing shows that the main constituent of A.manihot bast of the stems is cellulose (41.80 %). A.manihot fibers are extracted from A.manihot bast by the treatment of degumming. In the degumming process, the key parameters have been optimized. The results of FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other impurities can be effectively removed by this degumming process, and the main components of A.manihot fiber was cellulose much the same as cotton, the crystallinity of A.manihot bast and fiber were 50.45% and 63.73% respectively.

Chun-Yan Li; Li-Jun Qu; Xiao-Qing Guo

2013-01-01

188

Okra Leaf Cotton, its Commercial Utilization in Sindh  

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Full Text Available Studies were under taken to assess the yield, earliness and insect pest resistance of some newly developed okra leaf strains compared with normal leaf commercial varieties CRIS-9 and NIAB-78. Accordingly, almost all the okra leaf mutants yielded better than NIAB-78. Out of nine okra leaf strains, three were better yields, two equally good and four gave low yield than CRIS-9 the second check variety. Highest yielding okra leaf strain produced 27 and 35 percent higher yield than CRIS-9 and NIAB-78 respectively. Okra leaf strains were documented as early maturing, whitefly tolerant and boll rot disease resistant. Realizing the better performance of okra leaf strains with reduced insecticide applications, the commercial utilization of these varieties in Sindh can not be ignored and may prove better replacement of current cultivars.

A.R. Soomro; A. W. Soomro; G. H. Mallah; A. M. Memon; A. H. Soomro; A. D. Kalhoro

2000-01-01

189

Occupational dermatoses in farmers growing okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

By questionnaire survey, 32 out of 52 workers (61.5%) reported previous or current skin diseases from okra cultivation. The sites of skin lesions were mainly the arms, fingers and fingertips. Positive patch test reactions with preparations of okra leaves or immature pods in 111 workers, compared to 63 control subjects, were significantly higher in okra workers than in controls (p less than 0.01), ranging from 9.8 to 30.0%. 37 out of 111 workers (33.3%) were diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis (n = 17; 15.3%) and irritant contact dermatitis (n = 18; 16.2%) from okra cultivation. PMID:2533535

Matsushita, T; Aoyama, K; Manda, F; Ueda, A; Yoshida, M; Okamura, J

1989-11-01

190

Occupational dermatoses in farmers growing okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By questionnaire survey, 32 out of 52 workers (61.5%) reported previous or current skin diseases from okra cultivation. The sites of skin lesions were mainly the arms, fingers and fingertips. Positive patch test reactions with preparations of okra leaves or immature pods in 111 workers, compared to 63 control subjects, were significantly higher in okra workers than in controls (p less than 0.01), ranging from 9.8 to 30.0%. 37 out of 111 workers (33.3%) were diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis (n = 17; 15.3%) and irritant contact dermatitis (n = 18; 16.2%) from okra cultivation.

Matsushita T; Aoyama K; Manda F; Ueda A; Yoshida M; Okamura J

1989-11-01

191

Effect of Different Dose and Application Methods of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson against Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoidand White) Chitwood in Okra  

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Full Text Available The biocontrol potential of Paecilomyces lilacinus was evaluated in field conditions in two seasons during 2005-2008 at Annamalainagar and Vallambadugai of Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. In the field evaluation of different doses and application methods of P. lilacinus viz., seed treatment, seedling treatments, soil application treatments and the integration treatments produced mixed results on the growth of okra in both Annamalainagar and Vallambadugai. In two field trials of okra at two locations, shoot length, shoot weight and root length were significantly increased in mixture treatments compared to individual treatments, principally combination of seedling treatment (10g/l water) + soil application treatment (5.0 kg/acre) documented maximum shoot length (60 and 90 DAS), shoot weight (90 DAS) and root length (90 DAS) and they were positively correlated with fruit yield of okra.

Raja Kannan; Renganathan Veeravel

2012-01-01

192

Comparative study between microwave and conventional dehydration of okra.  

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This study was conducted to evaluate different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on the quality of okra. No significant differences were found among pretreatments and dehydration methods for the chemical composition of dehydrated okra samples. Dipping in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at ...

Shams El Din, M. H. A.; Shouk, A. A.

193

Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

1991-09-01

194

[Chemical constituents from petroleum ether portion of Abelmoschus esculentus II].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of Abelmoschus esculentus. METHOD: The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatography on silica gel and recrystallization. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. RESULT: Fourteen compounds were isolated and identified as 6-hydroxy-stigmasta-4-en-3-one(1), 6-hydroxy-stigmasta4,22-dien-3-one(2), stigmasta-5-en-3-ol-7-one(3), stigmasta-5, 22-dien-3-ol-7-one(4), stigmast-5-en-3, 7-diol(5), stigmast-5, 22-dien-3, 7-diol(6), stigmast-4, 22-dien-3, 6-dione(7), stigmasta-4, 22-dien-3-one(8), ergosta-7, 22-dien-3-ol(9), cycloart-25-en-3,24-diol(10), lupeol(11), aurantiamide acetate (12), stigmasterol(13), hexadecanoic acid (14). CONCLUSION: Compounds 1-12 are obtained from the genus Abelmoschus plant for the first time and also from the Malvaceae for the first time.

Jia L; Guo M; Li D; Jing L

2011-04-01

195

Novel medicinal use of active parts of abelmoschus manihot general flavones  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a novel medicinal use of the active parts of abelmoschus manihot general flavones, in particular use of the active parts of abelmoschus manihot general flavones in the preparation of medicaments for treating urinary tract infection including cystitis and urethritis. Abelmoschus manihot has the effects of disinhibiting water, dissipating stasis, dispersing swelling, detoxification and relieving common symptoms of urinary tract infection, such as frequent micturition, urgent urination, odynuria and unwell micturition. The active parts of abelmoschus manihot general flavones have excellent inhibiting effects on staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis and other gram-positive bacteria and negative bacteria, and have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects and an obvious diuretic effect. Therefore, the active parts of abelmoschus manihot general flavones have excellent effects on the treatment of urinary tract infection, particularly chronic recurrent urinary tract infection.

LING ZHANG; PEIXUE LING; LIXIA SHANG

196

Effect of Mulching on Growth and Productivity of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench under Saline Irrigation Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present study the treatments comprises four levels of EC (0.87 EC, 4EC, 8EC and 12ECdS m-1) for Saline water irrigation, three levels Mulches (without Mulch, sugar cane trash at the rate of 10 tons ha-1 and 50 ? black plastic mulch) and two varieties. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replication.Among the various saline irrigation water treatments under 4EC dS m-1 treatment higher value of transpiration rate, photosynthesis, pod length, pod girth and pod yield per plant were recorded as compared to EC8 and EC12 dS m-1. Black plastic mulch and sugarcane trash mulch significantly gave higher value of transpiration rate, photosynthesis, pod length and pod yield per plant as compared to without mulch except pod girth which was found lesser value under both types of mulches.

Hitendra Singh Bhadauria; Vijay Kumar

2006-01-01

197

Screening of virus inhibitory chemicals and neem products against okra yellow vein mosaic virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pot experiments were conducted in the glasshouse to determine the effect of virus inhibitory chemicals (acetyl salicylic acid @ 200 and 500 ppm, salicylic acid @ 500 ppm, benzoic acid @ 500 ppm and barium chloride @ 1000 ppm) and neem products (neemoil @ 3% aqueous solution and neem seed kernel extract @ 5% aqueous solution) on the control of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV) infection of okra (cv. Pusa Sawani). The treatments were applied as sprays on the primary leaves of 7-day-old seedlings24 hr before inoculation of the seedlings with viruliferous Bemisia tabaci adults. All the chemicals and neem products significantly reduced OYVMV infection. Among the chemicals, barium chloride was the most effective (76.67% reduction in infection in comparison with the control) followed by acetyl salicylic acid @ 200 ppm and salicylic acid @ 500 ppm, which gave reductions of 75.0 and 73.3%, respectively. Neem oil and neem seed kernel extract reduced virus infection by 88.3 and 86.7%, respectively.

K.B. PUN, SABITHA DORAISWAMY and R. JEYARAJAN

2012-01-01

198

Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74%) was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82%) and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%). Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap) showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15%) and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM; Hazim Abd El-Rahman OBIADALLA ALI

2012-01-01

199

[Absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot extract by in situ intestinal perfusion].  

Science.gov (United States)

To explore the mechanism of the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, in situ intestinal recirculation was performed to study the effect of the absorption at different concentrations and different intestinal regions. To evaluate the conditions of the absorption of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, the concentrations of Abelmoschus manihot in the perfusion solution were determined by HPLC at predesigned time. And we have investigated the inhibitory effect of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. The results demonstrated that the absorption rates of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers are not significantly different (P > 0.05) at various drug concentrations, the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers is a first-order process with the passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption rates of each of flavonoids are significantly different. The absorption rate of flavonoid glycoside was lower than that of aglycone; the flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers could be absorbed in all of the intestinal segments. The best parts of intestine to absorb hyperoside and myricetin are jejunum and duodenum, separately. Verapamil could enhance the absorption of isoquercitrin, hyperoside, myricetin and quercetin-3'-O-glucoside by inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. PMID:21751500

Xue, Cai-fu; Guo, Jian-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shu, Yan

2011-04-01

200

7 CFR 319.56-21 - Okra from certain countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

...accordance with an approved treatment listed in part 305 of this chapter. (e) Imports from Andros Island of the Bahamas. Okra produced on Andros Island, Commonwealth of the Bahamas, may be imported into the United States in accordance...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra  

Science.gov (United States)

The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), proposes to revise the voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Okra by removing the ``Unclassified'' section from the...

2013-05-01

202

7 CFR 319.56-21 - Okra from certain countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Mexico, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and the West Indies may be imported into the United States in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this...

2012-01-01

203

78 FR 63158 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra  

Science.gov (United States)

The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the Department of Agriculture (USDA) is revising the voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Okra by removing the ``Unclassified'' category from the...

2013-10-23

204

Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema) colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A) enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5) e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias), com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5), three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days) and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara; Luís Rodrigues Freire; Manlio Silvestre Fernandes

1999-01-01

205

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ASCORBATE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON OKRA (Hibiscus esculents L.) GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of drought stress was investigated at water potentials of-0.2 &-0.4 MPA (by using PEG 6000) on okra germination and seedling growth. In this study, percent germination, average time necessary for germination in day, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of okra seedlings were measured. Effect of ascorbate and salicylic acid and interaction of these tow substances were investigated on germination and seedling growth under normal condition and dry conditions. Drought inhabits from germination and seedling growth in this plant. Ascorbate and salicylic acid increase germination and decrease of average time necessary for germination under drought conditions. The seeds that were treated by ascorbate and salicylic acid, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of radical and plumule were increased. Results showed that ascorbate and salicylic acid decrease effects and damages of drought stresses on okra germination and seedlings growth. In general, adding salicylic acid and ascorbic acid significantly relieved the harsh effects of drought on okra germination and growth parameters and it seems that ascorbate and salicylic acid were able to enhance the tolerant ability of the plant to drought stress.

Amin Baghizadeh; Mahmood Hajmohammadrezaei

2011-01-01

206

Impact of okra leaf curl disease on morphology and yield of okra  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of okra leaf curl disease on four accessions of a local okra cultivar and four commercial okra cultivars was assessed in field conditions from June to October in 2007 and 2008. Disease incidence varied from 68.5% to 72.5% among accessions of the local cultivar while commercial cultivars were much less infected (8.7-16.2%). Diseased plants of the local cultivar suffered more reduced growth (58% reduction) than those of the commercial cultivars (39.6%). The number of marketable fruits per plant, the fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit weight which were subject to reductions of 26-61%, 19-64%, 6-42% and 23-63%, respectively. The overall yield losses were significantly higher in accessions of the local cultivar (26-55%) than in the commercial ones (4.4-9.6%). The average economic losses for one hectare of crop were estimated at of 11,100 USD and 1950 USD, respectively for the local and the commercial cultivars.

Tiendrébéogo Fidèle; Traoré VSEdgar; Lett Jean-Michel; Barro Nicolas; Konaté Gnissa; Traoré AlfredS; Traoré Oumar

2010-07-01

207

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations/ Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperat (more) ura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual) ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares) ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões. Abstract in english The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on at (more) tack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.

Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Picanço, Marcelo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gusmão, Marcos Rafael

2007-04-01

208

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual) ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares) ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões.

Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Marcelo Picanço; José Cola Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael Gusmão

2007-01-01

209

Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeli...

Hayder A. Abdul Bari; Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam; Rohaida Che Man

210

Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The proliferation and apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells are often abnormal. We have evaluated the action of a pectic rhamnogalacturonan obtained by hot buffer extraction of okra pods (okra RG-I) on melanoma cell growth and survival in vitro. We added okra RG-I containing an almost pure RG-I car...

Vayssade, M.; Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R.P.; Delaigue, C.; Goundiam, O.; Vigneron, P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

211

Investigation of in vivo metabolic profile of Abelmoschus Manihot based on pattern recognition analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. var. manihot is one of the most commonly used Chinese medicines and has played an important role in treating chronic glomerulonephritis and diabetic nephropathy. AIM OF THE STUDY: Metabolites identification of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a complex and time-consuming process due to the complicity of TCM and subsequent large number of detected ions. In this paper, UPLC-MS combined with pattern recognition analysis approach were used to simplify and quicken the identification of the metabolites of Abelmoschus Manihot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat urine samples were collected before (as control sample) and after Abelmoschus Manihot administration. Pattern recognition analysis method was used to differentiate components between Abelmoschus Manihot-treated group and its controlled comparison. These components could be considered as Abelmoschus Manihot-related metabolites in vivo. RESULTS: LC-MS based metabolomics could be an advanced tool to help us find metabolites with regards to its capacity of processing large datasets, differentiating and classifying of sample groups, as well as its indiscriminative nature of biomarker and metabolite identification. Using this method, seven metabolites were identified, which are flavonoid aglycone glucuronidation, sulfatation, and methylation metabolites. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that UPLC-MS based- pattern recognition analysis approach can be used to quickly identify Abelmoschus Manihot related metabolites in biological fluids. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the potential application of combining the UPLC-MS approach with the metabolomics approach in identifying the metabolites of TCM.

Guo JM; Lin P; Lu YW; Duan JA; Shang EX; Qian DW; Tang YP

2013-06-01

212

Effect of household processing on fenazaquin residues in okra fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fenazaquin (4-[[4 (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl] ethoxy]quinazoline) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. Residue levels of fenazaquin were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing, boiling and washing followed by boiling) in reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of fenazaquin (Magister 10 EC) @ 125 ga.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 250 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 3, 7, 15 days after treatment and at harvest (30 days). Residues were estimated by gas chromatograph equipped with capillary column and nitrogen phosphorus detector. Residues reached below maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg/kg at harvest. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.13 days at lower dose and 4.43 days at higher dose. Processing is shown to be very effective in reducing the levels of fenazaquin residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (60-61%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by boiling/cooking (38-40%) and then by washing (31-32%).

Duhan A; Kumari B; Gulati R

2010-02-01

213

Induced mutation breeding for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus in okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were irradiated by gamma rays to induce mutations for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD). In experiment I, seeds were irradiated at 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then planted at Huaysai King's Project, Petchaburi Province. Plants with a good plant type and green pods were selected for M2 generation. M3 plants were grown at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) where YVMD was seriously widespread. 33 plants without disease symptoms were selected for further screening. By using white fly transmission under greenhouse conditions, only four lines showed no disease symptoms. They were transplanted to the field at PHRC. Only Okura irradiated at 400 Gy, designated Rd53-3 showed disease resistance. Subsequent selections were conducted under greenhouse and field conditions up to M7 generation. Twelve resistant lines showing uniformity of plant type were selected for yield trial observation. All bore reasonable yield but their fruit shape was not suitable for the export market. They will be used as parental lines in further breeding programs. In experiment II, seeds of Annie and Okura were irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and then planted at Huaysai. M2 seeds were collected by two methods, the pedigree method by collecting seeds from selected healthy plants, and then planted them at Huaysai. The other method was bulk selection and then seeds were planted at Huaysai and PHRC. The M3 generation was screened for disease resistance under greenhouse and field conditions. The plants from bulk selection were all infected. By pedigree selection, 34 and 35 lines of Annie and Okura, respectively were obtained. Screening for okra YVMD resistance under greenhouse and field conditions in M4 generation, it was found that only one plant of Okura irradiated at 400 Gy designated B-21, showed no disease symptoms. Disease resistance screenings under greenhouse and field conditions were performed during M5 to M7 generation. Ten lines selected from B-21 showed a good plant type coupled with a desirable fruit shape. They will be used for further yield trials. (author)

2004-01-01

214

'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of 'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property.

Alqasoumi SI

2012-04-01

215

'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of 'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

Alqasoumi, S I

2011-11-07

216

A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-4''-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS) spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. RESULTS: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. CONCLUSION: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource.

Liao H; Liu H; Yuan K

2012-01-01

217

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum) in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose) and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate) were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w) of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w) and P.V.P (22 %w/w) were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability) as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time) were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

N Tavakoli; N Ghassemi Dehkordi; R Teimouri; H Hamishehkar

2008-01-01

218

Comparative study between microwave and conventional dehydration of okra.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on the quality of okra. No significant differences were found among pretreatments and dehydration methods for the chemical composition of dehydrated okra samples. Dipping in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at room temperature and immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C improved the retention of ascorbic acid of okra samples after dehydration by either conventional or microwave oven. Also, the reduced dehydration time required for microwave dehydration produced far less destruction of ascorbic acid. The highest rehydration ratio was found in unwashed okra sample and dehydrated by microwave after immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C. Dehydrated okra samples by sun drying and conventional oven had lower retention percentages of total chlorophyll and carotenoids than those of dehydrated okra samples by microwave oven. The general appearance and colour scores of dehydrated okra samples by microwave were significantly different from those of conventionally dehydrated or sun dried okra samples.Este estudio se ha realizado para evaluar los diferentes pretratamientos y métodos de deshidratación en la calidad del kimbombó. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ellos respecto a la composición química de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas. La inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a temperatura ambiente y la inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a 92-95 °C mejoraron la retención de ácido ascórbico de las muestras de kimbombó después de la deshidratación tanto utilizando el homo convencional como el horno microondas. Además el menor tiempo necesario para la deshidratación usando el horno microondas produjo menos destrucción de ácido ascórbico. La mayor relación de rehidratación fue encontrada en muestras de kimbombó no tratadas o deshidratadas usando horno microondas tras inmersión en metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % y 92-95 °C. Las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas por secado al sol y homo convencional tuvieron menores porcentajes de retención de clorofilas totales y carotenoides que las de muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas usando homo microondas. La apariencia general y la calidad del color de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas mediante horno microondas fueron significativamente diferentes de aquéllas deshidratadas mediante homo convencional o secadas al sol.

Shams El Din, M. H. A.; Shouk, A. A.

1999-01-01

219

Identification of okra mosaic virus from Indigofera spicata in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra mosaic virus (OMV, tymovirus group) was isolated from Indigofera spicata plants growing at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Its identity was established on the basis of particle morphology, analysis of viral coat protein and nucleic acid and serology. In reciprocal agar gel diffusion tests, the virus isolate from I. spicata and an OMV isolate from okra in Ibadan (OMV-Ibadan isolate) were found to be serologically identical. However, because the isolates differ in symptom induction in various host plants, the name OMV-Indigofera isolate is suggested. This is the first report on the occurence of OMV in I. spicata. PMID:9171449

Thottappilly, G

220

Identification of okra mosaic virus from Indigofera spicata in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra mosaic virus (OMV, tymovirus group) was isolated from Indigofera spicata plants growing at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Its identity was established on the basis of particle morphology, analysis of viral coat protein and nucleic acid and serology. In reciprocal agar gel diffusion tests, the virus isolate from I. spicata and an OMV isolate from okra in Ibadan (OMV-Ibadan isolate) were found to be serologically identical. However, because the isolates differ in symptom induction in various host plants, the name OMV-Indigofera isolate is suggested. This is the first report on the occurence of OMV in I. spicata.

Thottappilly G

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Preventive effect of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. on bone loss in the ovariectomised rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because the biggest culprit in pathogenesis of osteoporosis is oestrogen deficiency, hormone replacement therapy remained the mainstay for prevention. However most of postmenopausal women are more inclined to use natural alternative. We thus investigated the ability of Abelmoschus manihot, a herbal medicine to prevent bone loss in ovariectomised rats. Female Wistar rats were sham operated (SH: 8) or ovariectomised (OVX: 24). On day 0, OVX rats were randomly assigned to groups as follows: eight received 10% Abelmoschus manihot leaves in their diet, eight were given 15% Abelmoschus manihot leaves and eight were untreated (OVX). Compounds were mixed with a soy protein-free diet and given orally for 3 months. At necropsy, bone mineral density (BMD) in the femur and in its metaphyseal zone was lower in OVX than SH (p<0.05). This osteopenia was prevented by consumption of the highest dose of Abelmoschus manihot leaves. Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total femur and its metaphyseal and diaphyseal subregions was improved, as well (p<0.05). This could be explained by a trend towards decreased bone resorption. The lowest dose did not elicit any significant effect. In conclusion, Abelmoschus manihot consumption, at the dose of 15% in the diet, provided bone-sparing effects by improving both BMD and BMC. PMID:15848020

Puel, C; Mathey, J; Kati-Coulibaly, S; Davicco, M J; Lebecque, P; Chanteranne, B; Horcajada, M N; Coxam, V

2005-05-13

222

Preventive effect of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. on bone loss in the ovariectomised rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because the biggest culprit in pathogenesis of osteoporosis is oestrogen deficiency, hormone replacement therapy remained the mainstay for prevention. However most of postmenopausal women are more inclined to use natural alternative. We thus investigated the ability of Abelmoschus manihot, a herbal medicine to prevent bone loss in ovariectomised rats. Female Wistar rats were sham operated (SH: 8) or ovariectomised (OVX: 24). On day 0, OVX rats were randomly assigned to groups as follows: eight received 10% Abelmoschus manihot leaves in their diet, eight were given 15% Abelmoschus manihot leaves and eight were untreated (OVX). Compounds were mixed with a soy protein-free diet and given orally for 3 months. At necropsy, bone mineral density (BMD) in the femur and in its metaphyseal zone was lower in OVX than SH (p<0.05). This osteopenia was prevented by consumption of the highest dose of Abelmoschus manihot leaves. Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total femur and its metaphyseal and diaphyseal subregions was improved, as well (p<0.05). This could be explained by a trend towards decreased bone resorption. The lowest dose did not elicit any significant effect. In conclusion, Abelmoschus manihot consumption, at the dose of 15% in the diet, provided bone-sparing effects by improving both BMD and BMC.

Puel C; Mathey J; Kati-Coulibaly S; Davicco MJ; Lebecque P; Chanteranne B; Horcajada MN; Coxam V

2005-05-01

223

Immediate-type allergy related to okra (Hibiscus esculentus Linn) picking and packing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two workers (cases A and B) engaged in picking and packing okra who had complaints of work-related allergic symptoms showed distinct positive intradermal reactions to two brands of okra extracts only with thresholds of 1 x 10(-8) w/v for Case A and 1 x 10(-6) w/v for Case B. Both also showed positive reactions to okra extracts in the Prausnitz-Küstner test and in the provocative nasal test. The radioallergosorbent test scores to the okra extract were determined to be 2 (defined as clear positive) for Case A and 1 (border line) for Case B. These findings indicated that the allergic conditions of these cases were from an IgE-mediated immediate-type allergy induced by handling okra. To confirm the etiology of the two cases 14 farmers engaged in picking and packing okra were examined. Among them, 8 subjects (57%) showed positive intradermal reactions to okra extracts. A close association between intradermal reactions to okra extracts and complaints of work-related allergic symptoms was seen in these subjects. These results confirm that the okra may be capable of inducing IgE-mediated immediate-type allergy to workers handling okra.

Ueda A; Manda F; Aoyama K; Ueda T; Obama K; Li Q; Tochigi T

1993-08-01

224

Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans) were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I) has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated potential antiproliferative activity against two human cell lines - Colorectal adenocarcinoma (COLO-205) and retinoblastoma (Y79). Conclusion The seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus possess significant antioxidant activity and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger, or substitute, probably as primary antioxidants. The plant possesses moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains used in this study. Hydroalcoholic seed and leaf extracts also exhibited antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines. A. moschatus may therefore, be a good candidate for functional foods as well as pharmaceutics.

Gul Mir Z; Bhakshu Lepakshi M; Ahmad Farhan; Kondapi Anand K; Qureshi Insaf A; Ghazi Irfan A

2011-01-01

225

Roles of arginine in growth of Clostridium botulinum Okra B.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Group I strains of Clostridium botulinum are known to degrade arginine by the arginine deiminase pathway. We have found that C. botulinum Okra B consumed a level of arginine (20 g/liter) higher than the basal requirement for growth (3 g/liter). Arginine was probably the preferred source of nitrogen ...

Patterson-Curtis, S I; Johnson, E A

226

Pectic Polysaccharides Isolated from Fruit Pods of Okra  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for producing a high molecular weight pectin-like polysaccharide from fruit pods of okra. The high molecular weight pectin-like polysaccharide, when dissolved in a buffer, exhibit viscoelastic properties, and is very useful in applications such as ophthalmic surgery, dermatology and orthopedics.

VERA JOSE CALDERON; HEIWALL ANNA; OGBONNAYA DANIEL

227

77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra  

Science.gov (United States)

The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), prior to undertaking research and other work associated with revising official grade standards, is soliciting comments on the possible revisions to the United States Standards for Grades of Okra. AMS has been reviewing the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable grade standards for usefulness in serving the industry. As a result, AMS has identified the United States......

2012-02-09

228

Effect of calcium addition and acidification on the quality characteristics of canned okra (Hibiscus esculentus L).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted on calcium chloride treatments of canned okra acidified by adding either acetic, citric, lactic, malic or tartaric acids or by lactic fermentation. The quality of the processed okra was determined by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses after a two month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated the possibility of processing high quality canned okra by small canneries, with low cost equipment and low energy requirements. The acidification procedures ensure minimal risk of botulism.

Nogueira JN; Cantarelli PR; Gallo CR; Moreno IA; Matsuura FC; Tiba MA

1997-03-01

229

Effect of calcium addition and acidification on the quality characteristics of canned okra (Hibiscus esculentus L).  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted on calcium chloride treatments of canned okra acidified by adding either acetic, citric, lactic, malic or tartaric acids or by lactic fermentation. The quality of the processed okra was determined by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses after a two month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated the possibility of processing high quality canned okra by small canneries, with low cost equipment and low energy requirements. The acidification procedures ensure minimal risk of botulism. PMID:9429644

Nogueira, J N; Cantarelli, P R; Gallo, C R; Moreno, I A; Matsuura, F C; Tiba, M A

1997-03-01

230

Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV) and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Correlation of environmental factors (maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) with percent plant infection of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV) was also determined. There was a significant correlation between environment and disease severity.

Muhammad Irfan Ali; Muhammad Aslam Khan; Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Ehetisham-ul-haq; Muhammad Talha Javed; Muhammad Sajid

2012-01-01

231

Polysaccharide extraction from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization by response surface methodology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crude polysaccharide extraction from the Iranian Abelmoschus esculentus was performed using water decoction. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a five level, four variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was employed to obtain the best possible combination of extraction time (X1: 0.5-6.5 h), extraction temperature (X2: 80-100 °C), number of extraction (X3: 1-5), and water to the raw material ratio (X4: 4-28) for maximum polysaccharide extraction. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time of 4.94 h, extraction temperature of 94.97 °C, number of extraction of 4, and the ratio of water to raw material of 21.74. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 16.895±0.29%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 16.916%.

Samavati V

2013-06-01

232

Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm/ Busca por fontes de resistência à murcha de fusário (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) em germoplasma de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) é um dos patógenos mais destrutivos do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil. Cinquenta e quatro acessos de quiabeiro foram avaliados quanto à resistência a FOV em casa de vegetação. Inicialmente foi conduzida uma seleção com o isolado 'Fus-194'. Trinta e três acessos, que foram resistentes na seleção inicial, foram reavaliadas em dois ensaios adicionais (sob duas condições de ambiente), utilizando dois isola (more) dos de FOV. Destes, onze acessos foram classificadas como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-194' em agosto (estação seca e com temperatura moderada), enquanto que 28% dos acessos foram classificados como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-201'. No ensaio conduzido na estação úmida e quente, 72% dos acessos apresentaram reação de alta a média resistência a 'Fus-194', enquanto que 32% foram resistentes a 'Fus-201'. A cultivar 'Santa Cruz-47' e os acessos 'BR-2399' e 'BR-1449' foram as fontes de resistência mais promissoras. Abstract in english Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate ('Fus-194'). Inoculation (in all assays) was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-e (more) valuated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates ('Fus-194' and 'Fus-201'). Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-194' during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-201'. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to 'Fus-194', and 32% were resistant to 'Fus-201'. The accessions 'Santa Cruz-47', 'BR-2399' and 'BR-1449' were the most promising resistance sources.

Aguiar, Frederick Mendes; Michereff, Sami Jorge; Boiteux, Leonardo Silva; Reis, Ailton

2013-03-01

233

Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade), bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI), período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI) e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI), considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura.An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after emergence (DAE). Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI), Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI) and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP) were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

J.B. Santos; T.P. Silveira; P.S. Coelho; O.G. Costa; P.M. Matta; M.B. Silva; A.P. Drumond Neto

2010-01-01

234

Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro/ Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema) colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A) enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpu (more) m, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5) e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias), com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, (more) Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5), three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days) and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

Berbara, Ricardo Luís Louro; Freire, Luís Rodrigues; Fernandes, Manlio Silvestre

1999-09-01

235

Roles of arginine in growth of Clostridium botulinum Okra B.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Group I strains of Clostridium botulinum are known to degrade arginine by the arginine deiminase pathway. We have found that C. botulinum Okra B consumed a level of arginine (20 g/liter) higher than the basal requirement for growth (3 g/liter). Arginine was probably the preferred source of nitrogen for biosynthesis but did not serve as a major source of energy. Citrulline and proline were produced as major fermentation products in media containing high levels of arginine, but in media with basal amounts of arginine these products were produced in lower quantities during growth and were later reassimilated. The results indicate that C. botulinum Okra B changes its metabolism during consumption of surplus arginine, and this change is associated with toxin repression, formation of citrulline and proline as end products, and possibly resistance to environmental stresses such as increased acidity and osmolarity.

Patterson-Curtis SI; Johnson EA

1992-07-01

236

Response of okra to gamma-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The seeds of variety Pusa A-4 were treated with gamma-rays at three different doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 KGy. In M1 generation there was reduction in seed germination and pollen fertility. An interesting feature observed was the peculiar Y shaped branching in treated plants at 0.4 and 0.6 KGy doses. In M2 generation few morphological mutants were isolated. Seventy five percent of the observed mutants were isolated from the 0.6 KGy dose. (author)

1999-01-01

237

Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV) and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolera...

Muhammad Irfan Ali; Muhammad Aslam Khan; Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Ehetisham-ul-haq; Muhammad Talha Javed; Muhammad Sajid

238

First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS) at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. T...

Eman S.H. Farrag

239

Hypolipidemic Activity of Okra is Mediated Through Inhibition of Lipogenesis and Upregulation of Cholesterol Degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the hypolipidemic activity of okra; therefore, we investigated the hypolipidemic activity of okra and its interaction with gene expression of several key components involved in lipid homeostasis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed with hyperlipidemic diet or two hyperlipidemic diets supplemented with 1% or 2% okra powder for eight weeks. Results demonstrated that okra dose-dependently decreased serum and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride, and enhanced fecal excretion of bile acids. Gene expression analysis revealed that okra upregulated cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression, downregulated expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), with no effect on sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A). It was suggested that hypolipidemic activity of okra was mediated most likely by upregulation of cholesterol degradation through CYP7A1 and by inhibition of lipogenesis through SREBP1c and FAS. Okra raw and fractionated polysaccharide showed strong bile acid binding capacity in vitro, which may contribute to the hypolipidemic activity observed. In conclusion, okra has potential application in the management of hyperlipidemia and its associated metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23606408

Wang, Hong; Chen, Gu; Ren, Dandan; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-04-22

240

Hypolipidemic Activity of Okra is Mediated Through Inhibition of Lipogenesis and Upregulation of Cholesterol Degradation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about the hypolipidemic activity of okra; therefore, we investigated the hypolipidemic activity of okra and its interaction with gene expression of several key components involved in lipid homeostasis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed with hyperlipidemic diet or two hyperlipidemic diets supplemented with 1% or 2% okra powder for eight weeks. Results demonstrated that okra dose-dependently decreased serum and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride, and enhanced fecal excretion of bile acids. Gene expression analysis revealed that okra upregulated cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression, downregulated expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), with no effect on sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A). It was suggested that hypolipidemic activity of okra was mediated most likely by upregulation of cholesterol degradation through CYP7A1 and by inhibition of lipogenesis through SREBP1c and FAS. Okra raw and fractionated polysaccharide showed strong bile acid binding capacity in vitro, which may contribute to the hypolipidemic activity observed. In conclusion, okra has potential application in the management of hyperlipidemia and its associated metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wang H; Chen G; Ren D; Yang ST

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Screening of Okra Germplasm for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus under Field Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twelve okra germplasms were screened for resistance to okra yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) under field conditions. Lines OK-292 and OK-285 showed resistant to YVMV in both season and OK 315, OK 316 and OK 317 were found tolerant. The highest yield per hectare found in the line OK-292 (18.00 t h...

M.H. Rashid; L. Yasmin; M.G. Kibria; A.K.M.S.R. Mollik; S.M. Monowar Hossain

242

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with...

Adekunle O.K.; Akinlua A.

243

Development and Performance Evaluation of an Okra Drying Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An okra dryer was designed, constructed and evaluated in this study for post-harvest processing of the fruit. The dryer consists of a heating chamber, two drying trays, a blower of 1hp, two heating elements of 2000 W each, 4 roller tyres for ease of mobility, a control box which consist of a thermostat that regulates the temperature in the dryer. The result of evaluation of the dryer in no load indicated that it was able to yield temperature very close to the preset (by the thermostat) after about 3 min. The dryer was evaluated by drying okra of different thickness (5 and 10 mm), in two trays at two heights (25 and 50 cm from the bottom) and at a preset temperatures of 50º and 70ºC. Moisture losses from the slices were obtained at intervals of 30, 45, 60 and 90 min. The result showed that increase in temperature from 50º to 70ºC, increases moisture loss from the slices. Slices of 5 mm thickness were observed to dry faster than 10 mm slices with those on the upper tray losing more moisture. The study further showed that slice thickness of 5 mm dried at 70ºC in the upper tray level of 60 cm from the base of the dryer are suitable for drying okra slices in the dryer.

O.K. Owolarafe; S.O. Obayopo; O. A. Amarachi; O. Babatunde; O.A. Ologunro

2011-01-01

244

Analysis and comparison of the active components and antioxidant activities of extracts from Abelmoschus esculentus L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Abelmoschus esculentus L. is a healthy vegetable belonging to the family Malvaceae. This article reports the contents of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) in 80% methanol extracts of the flower (FL), fruit (FR), leaf (L), and seed (S) of A. esculentus, and in 0, 10, 30, 50, and 70% methanol eluates (ME), through the HP-20 column chromatography of 80% of the methanol fruit extract after it is defatted with petroleum and extracted with ethyl acetate. All the names of the samples are shortened for AEE-FL, AEE-FR, AEE-L, AEE-S and 0% MEF-WE, 10% MEF-WE, 30% MEF-WE, 50% MEF-WE, 70% MEF-WE respectively. In addition, the effects of the aforementioned extracts on 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and on ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) have been evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and the enrichment fraction of A. esculentus were also evaluated by two assays, the DPPH radical-scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The content measurement of TF and TP adopts the UV-2102 PCS method, and the measurement of the antioxidant activity adopts the Infinite M 200 method. RESULTS: The experiment results show that all the different parts and different enrichment fractions of the water extracts of A. esculentus contain phenolics and flavonoids. Through the research of antioxidant activity we know that all the parts of the methanol extracts and different enrichment fractions of water extracts in the A. esculentus have the effect of scavenging free radicals, among which the antioxidant activity in the 50% MEF-WE part is the strongest. Here, the main components of antioxidant activity must be the flavonoids and phenolics, and furthermore, we know that there is a direct relationship between the contents of flavonoids and phenolics and the antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that A. esculentus may be the potential rich source of natural antioxidant. The experiment result provided a scientific basis for the further research and development of A. esculentus.

Liao H; Dong W; Shi X; Liu H; Yuan K

2012-04-01

245

Some Studies on the Comparative Efficacy of Different Traditional and Non-traditional Insecticides Against Okra Jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida) on Okra, Variety "Pusa Green"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasaca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found...

Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

246

Okra mosaic virus empty protein shells in nuclei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra mosaic virus produces large quantities (approximately 10 mg/g of tissue) of empty viral protein shells in inoculated cucumber cotyledons. Virus particles could not be detected in isolated nuclei, but empty protein shells accumulated there. At one day after inoculation, about half the total viral protein shells were found in the nucleus. This accumulation occurred in the presence of virus particles in the cytoplasm. The most likely explanation for this active and preferential accumulation is that viral coat protein enters the nucleus in the form of monomers or pentamers and hexamers, and is assembled into shells once inside.

Marshall B; Matthews RE

1981-04-01

247

Histopathology of Okra and Ridgeseed Spurge Infected with Meloidodera charis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Histological observations of okra Abelomoschus esculentus 'Clemson Spineless' and ridgeseed spurge Euphorbia glyptosperma (a common weed) infected with Meloidodera charis Hopper, indicated that the juvenile nematode penetrated the roots intercellularly. Within 5 days after plant emergence the nematode positioned its body in the cortical tissue parallel to the vascular system. By 10 days after plant emergence the juvenile had extended its head into the vascular system and initiated giant cell formation, generally in protophloem tissue. Giant cells were one celled and usually multi-nucleate. Eggs were observed in the female body 30 days after plants emerged and juveniles were found within the female body by 40 days. Nematode development progressed equally in the root system of either host plant. Generally, throughout the nematode's life cycle its entire body remained inside the cortical tissue of okra. In ridgeseed spurge, however, the posterior portion of the female erupted through the host epidermis as early as 15 days after plant emergence; only the head and neck remained embedded in the host. The nematode caused extensive tissue disruption in the cortical and vascular system of both plant species. Corn, Zea mays, was another host of the nematode.

Heald CM

1984-01-01

248

The occurrence and importance of okra mosaic virus in Nigerian weeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Nigerian National Horticultural Research Institute experimental and commercial farm has a long history of okra mosaic virus (OMV) disease. In an attempt to determine possible sources of inoculum, weeds growing within or around the vicinity of the farm were investigated. Several weeds showed virus or virus-like disease symptoms and mechanical inoculation of crude sap from three malvaceous weeds (Abutilon hirtum, Sida acuta, and Malvastrum coromandelianum) and one solanaceous weed (Physalis angulata) induced symptoms of OMV on okra test seedlings; serological tests confirmed the presence of OMV. Beetle vectors caught both from weeds and from okra were infective when confined on healthy okra seedlings for 48 h. Increase in the abundance of beetle vectors was accompanied by an increase in the incidence of OMV disease. The implications of these findings in the epidemiology and control of OMV are discussed.

Atiri GI

1984-04-01

249

Effect of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) addition on the technological properties of a wheat flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of the addition of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) pods to wheat flour devoted to bread preparation were investigated. Results showed the effectiveness of this crop as food additive to produce bread of adequate technological and sensory characteristics. PMID:12396462

Acquistucci, Rita; Francisci, Roberta

2002-09-01

250

Effect of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) addition on the technological properties of a wheat flour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of the addition of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) pods to wheat flour devoted to bread preparation were investigated. Results showed the effectiveness of this crop as food additive to produce bread of adequate technological and sensory characteristics.

Acquistucci R; Francisci R

2002-09-01

251

Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found ...

Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

252

Kinetic thermal degradation of vitamin C during microwave drying of okra and spinach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this present study, the effect of microwave output power and sample amount on vitamin C loss in okra (Hibiscus esculenta L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were investigated using the microwave drying technique. The procedure is based on the reaction between l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. The proposed method was applied successfully to both okra and spinach for the determination of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content. It was observed that as the microwave output power increased or as the sample amount decreased, the vitamin C in okra and spinach decreased as well. The activation energy for degradation of vitamin C for both okra and spinach was calculated using an exponential expression based on the Arrhenius equation.

Dadali G; Ozbek B

2009-01-01

253

Histopathology of Okra and RidgeseedSpurge Infected with Meloidodera charis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Histological observations of okra Abelomoschus esculentus 'Clemson Spineless' and ridgeseed spurge Euphorbia glyptosperma (a common weed) infected with Meloidodera charis Hopper, indicated that the juvenile nematode penetrated the roots intercellularly. Within 5 days after plant emergence the nemato...

Heald, Charles M.

254

Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo/ Weed interference in okra crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a em (more) ergência (DAE). Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade), bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI), período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI) e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI), considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after emergence (DAE). Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI), Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI) and T (more) otal Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP) were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

Santos, J.B.; Silveira, T.P.; Coelho, P.S.; Costa, O.G.; Matta, P.M.; Silva, M.B.; Drumond Neto, A.P.

2010-06-01

255

Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and okra plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 microns (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m3 kg-1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m3 kg-1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m3 kg-1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m3 kg-1. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively.

Singhal RK; Narayanan U; Bhat IS

1994-11-01

256

Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and Okra plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 ?m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m3 kg-1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m3 kg-1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m3 kg-1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m3 kg-1. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

1994-01-01

257

Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and okra plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 microns (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m3 kg-1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m3 kg-1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m3 kg-1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m3 kg-1. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. PMID:7928364

Singhal, R K; Narayanan, U; Bhat, I S

1994-11-01

258

An Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Abelmoschus esculentus on Clinically Isolated Infectious Disease Causing Bacterial Pathogen from Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six different organic solvents such as n-butanol, petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus to screen the antibacterial activity against infectious disease causing bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by paper disc method. The butanolic extract of Abelmoschus esculentus was more active against almost 90% of the organism tested. It was followed by Ethyl acetate, Methanol, Petroleum ether, Chloroform in inhibiting the growth of organism tested

Yogesh Chaudhari; Dr. E. P. Kumar; Manisha Badhe; Hardik R. Mody; Vamshikrishna B. Acharya

2012-01-01

259

Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos/ Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Cam (more) pos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto. Abstract in english Twenty-seven morphological characteristics (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative) were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 39 Abelmoschus accessions by hierarchic method of single linkage and principal component analysis for the grouping of the genotypes. Standardized average Euclidean distance was used as dissimilarity measure. Plants were grown in field conditions at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, using randomized co (more) mplete blocks design with four replications. The accessions groups formation based on the hierarchic method of single linkage showed similar results to those obtained by principal components analysis since both methods grouped A. esculentus and A. caillei accessions. The hierarchic method has grouped the genotypes in the same way as for the 27 descriptors (quantitative and qualitative) as for the 13 quantitative descriptors, demonstrating that qualitative descriptors had a little influence on the genotypic discrimination. Qualitative descriptors were able to correctly classify species, although they masked the genetic variability at the germplasm, not allowing a comprehensive survey of the genomes. The characters that less contributed for the genotypes discriminations were the epicalyx length, 100 seeds weight, number of stigma segments, plant height, leaf width, first flowering node and fruit length.

Martinello, Gilmar Efrem; Leal, Nilton R.; Amaral Júnior, Antônio T.; Pereira, Messias G.; Daher, Rogério F.

2002-03-01

260

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da Silva; Aurenice Lucena Pereira

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro/ Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em (more) vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the contro (more) l. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Silva, Gilson Soares da; Pereira, Aurenice Lucena

2008-12-01

262

Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa.

Leke WN; Sattar MN; Ngane EB; Ngeve JM; Kvarnheden A; Brown JK

2013-06-01

263

Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa. PMID:23535770

Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

2013-03-25

264

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique....

A.J. Farinde; O.K. Owolarafe; O.I. Ogungbemi

265

Use of at least one protein fraction extracted from Hibiscus esculentus seeds and cosmetic composition containing such a fraction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a use of at least one protein fraction extracted from Hibiscus esculentus seeds and to a cosmetic composition containing such a fraction. Use of at least one soluble protein fraction extracted from Hibiscus esculentus seeds or okra as a substitute for casein in a cosmetic composition or product, the composition containing between 0.01% and 50.00% of the fraction.

GILLES PAULY

266

Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B colonization on okra- and normal-leaf upland cotton strains and cultivars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We compared smooth-leaf okra- and normal-leaf upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) strains and cultivars for susceptibility to colonization by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Experiments were conducted at seven field sites, five at Holtville, CA, and two at Maricopa, AZ, during 1996-2000. Okra-leaf strains and cultivars, as a group, had lower numbers of adults, eggs, and nymphs compared with normal-leaf strains and cultivars indicating the potential of okra-leaf genetic traits for reducing colonization by B. tabaci. Results also suggest that okra-leaf shape may provide less favorable micro-environmental conditions for the habitat of B. tabaci because of more open canopy as evidenced by higher leaf perimeter to leaf area ratio. The okra-leaf cultivar 'Siokra L-23' appears to have genetic traits that should be examined further as a source of B. tabaci resistance.

Chu CC; Natwick ET; Henneberry TJ

2002-08-01

267

Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent  

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Full Text Available A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeline. In this study, the effect of the presence of a Drag Reducing Agent (DRA) on the pressure drop in horizontal pipes carrying water is investigated. An experimental rig is set-up. The test section of the experimental set-up is consisted of: a smooth PVC pipe with length of 50 time pipe diameter connected to rough galvanized iron with 5 testing section 0.5 meter each The employing DRA is a new natural additive which is okra mucilage as polymeric DRA. The percent drag reduction (%DR) is calculated using the obtained experimental data, in presence of the DRA. The results show that addition of DRA could be effective with several doses of DRA after average reading for 5 min. Highest %DR for about 60% is obtained for some experimental conditions. The result shows that okra mucilage is a potential DRA to be use in water transportation.

Hayder A. Abdul Bari; Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam; Rohaida Che Man

2011-01-01

268

Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Residue levels of chlorpyriphos were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing and washing followed by boiling/cooking) on reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of chlorpyriphos (Radar 20 EC) at 200 g a.i./ha and 400g a.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 400 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 days and at harvest after treatment. Residues were estimated by GC-ECD system and reached BDL of 0.010 mg kg(-1) on 7th and 15th day in case of single and double dose, respectively. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.15 days at lower dose and 3.46 days at higher dose following biphasic first order kinetics. Processing was found very effective in reducing the levels of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (64-77%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by washing (13-35%).

Samriti; Chauhan R; Kumari B

2011-08-01

269

Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The proliferation and apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells are often abnormal. We have evaluated the action of a pectic rhamnogalacturonan obtained by hot buffer extraction of okra pods (okra RG-I) on melanoma cell growth and survival in vitro. We added okra RG-I containing an almost pure RG-I carrying very short galactan side chains to 2D (on tissue culture polystyrene, tPS) and 3D (on poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate), polyHEMA) cultures of highly metastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. We then analyzed cell morphology, proliferation index, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and the expression of adhesion molecules. Immunostaining and western blotting were used to assay galectin-3 (Gal-3) protein.Incubation with okra RG-I altered the morphology of B16F10 cells and significantly reduced their proliferation on both tPS and polyHEMA. The cell cycle was arrested in G2/M, and apoptosis was induced, particularly in cells on polyHEMA. The expression of N-cadherin and alpha5 integrin subunit was reduced and that of the multifunctional carbohydrate-binding protein, Gal-3, at the cell membrane increased.These findings suggest that okra RG-I induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by interacting with Gal-3. As these interactions might open the way to new melanoma therapies, the next step will be to determine just how they occur.

Vayssade M; Sengkhamparn N; Verhoef R; Delaigue C; Goundiam O; Vigneron P; Voragen AG; Schols HA; Nagel MD

2010-07-01

270

RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT) of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI) of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi t from intercrop is 10% higher than monocrops. This is because of the attendant reduction in variable costs of labour and fertilizer that are associated with intercrops. The economic implication of this study is that any strategy that reduces cost of production in maize/ okra intercrops will increase its profi tability and attractiveness to farmers.

R ALABI; A Esobhawan

2007-01-01

271

Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop. PMID:19274256

Ritzinger, C H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

1998-12-01

272

Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop.

Ritzinger CH; McSorley R; Gallaher RN

1998-12-01

273

Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

1994-11-01

274

7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Botanical name Common name(s) Fruit fly Abelmoschus esculentus = Hibiscus esculentus Okra Melon, Peach. Acca sellowiana = Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Actinidia chinensis Kiwi...

2010-01-01

275

Characterization of Pectobacterium carotovorum causing a new soft rot disease on okra in Malaysia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dark brown, necrotic pods with extensive water-soaked lesions caused by plant pathogenic bacteria were found on okra plants in different fields in Malaysia in 2010. PCR amplification of the pectate lyase (pel) gene and amplification of the 16S–23S rRNA (ITS) with G1 and L1 primers produced 434-, 535- and 570-bp fragments, respectively. From the similarity between the results of biochemical tests and their equivalency with standard bacteriological sources, PCR-based pel gene, and RFLP analysis of the ITS-PCR products, all isolates were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum. This is the first report of P. carotovorum in okra from Malaysia.

Nazerian E; Sijam K; Meor Ahmad ZA; Keshavarz K

2011-09-01

276

Proximate Composition of Selected Congo Oil Seeds and Physicochemical Properties of the Oil Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proximate composition, energy content and mineral concentrations of oil seeds which can be usedin the preparation of Congolese diets were investigated. The paper also reports the physicochemicalcharacteristics of the oil extracts from the seeds. Moisture content (on dry weight basis) was highest(9.45 ± 0.8%) in gumbo (Abelmoschus esclentus) seeds (AES), followed by amarenthus hybridus seeds (AHS)(9.07 ± 0.84%) but was lowest (4.13 ± 0.24%) in terminalia catappa seeds (TCS). Ash was highest(7.18 ± 0.97%) in solanum nigrum L seeds (SNS) followed by gumbo (Abelmoschus esclentus) seeds (AES)with a value of 5.68 ± 0.12% and was lowest (3.7 ± 0.97%) in sesame (SIS). Protein ranged from 37.6 ± 1.07%in moringa olifeira (MOS) to 17.04 ± 0.67% in SNS. Sesame seed (SIS) had the highest crude fat of54 ± 0.16%, followed by TCS (51.80 ± 0.21%) and the lowest value of 10.57 ± 0.05% in AHS. Values for SISand TCS did not differ significantly. Total carbohydrates were generally low in all the seeds and ranged from13.6% in MOS to 36.58% in AES, only the AHS has a high total carbohydrate value (58.31%). The oil seedswere found to be good sources of minerals. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to beliquid at room temperature (20±1 ºC). All the studied oil samples contain the oleic and linoleic acids, these oilscan be classified in the oleic-linoleic acid group. It can be inferred that the oil seeds investigated (except AHSwhich has a weak oil yield environ 10%) are good sources of crude fat, crude protein, ash, energy and minerals.The oil extracts exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be useful as edible oils and for industrialapplications.

J.M. Nzikou

2010-01-01

277

Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mungbean. Apart from suppressing root knot nematode, T. harzianum also elevated plant height and fresh shoot weight of both okra and munhbean.

Imran A. Siddiqui; Amer-Zareen; M. Javed Zaki; S. Shahid Shaukat

2001-01-01

278

Natural mucoadhesive microspheres of Abelmoschus esculentus polysaccharide as a new carrier for nasal drug delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work describes the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres, using Abelmoschus esculentus polysaccharide as a novel carrier for safe and effective delivery of rizatriptan benzoate into nasal cavity. The polysaccharide was extracted from the fruit of A. esculentus and mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by emulsification, followed by crosslinking using epichlorohydrin. Prepared microspheres were evaluated for size, morphology, swelling properties, mucoadhesive strength, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. Microspheres were found to release 50% of drug within 15 min and rest of the drug was released within 60 min. The drug release was found to decrease with increasing concentration of polysaccharide. To determine the retention time of the microspheres in the nasal cavity of rabbits, the microspheres were radiolabelled with (99m)Tc and subjected to gamma scintigraphy. The results showed a significant improvement in the nasal retention of the microspheres as compared to the aqueous solution of radiolabelled free-drug.

Sharma N; Kulkarni GT; Sharma A; Bhatnagar A; Kumar N

2013-01-01

279

First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt  

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Full Text Available During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS) at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Samples of diseased leaves were collected to isolate the causal organisms. Isolated fungi were purified using single spore culture technique. Developed fungus was identified as Cercospora sp. Fresen based on cultural and morphological characteristics after light microscope examination. Also, Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus niger were isolated as associated fungi. Pathoginicity test confirmed efficiency of Cercospora sp. to induce typical symptoms on okra plants compared with other fungi. Foliar application using different concentrations of Topsin M-70WP and lemongrass oil was significantly reduced disease incidence compared with control. According to the available literature, this is the first record of CLS on okra in Egypt under natural infection in the field.

Eman S.H. Farrag

2011-01-01

280

Effects of Management Practices on Nematode and Fungi Populations andOkra Yield  

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Okra was grown in field plots of Tifton loamy sand naturally infested with the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemoides ornalus and the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Plots were treated with various soil pesticides and left exposed or covered wit...

Johnson, A. W.; Sumner, D. R.; Jaworski, C. A.; Chalfant, R. B.

 
 
 
 
281

Analysis of insecticides in okra and brinjal from IPM and non-IPM fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of okra and brinjal fruits, collected from non-integrated pest management (Non-IPM) and IPM fields in village Raispur, Ghaziabad District (U.P.), were analyzed for pesticide residues. The residues of chlorpyrifos in soil were 4.219 and 1.135 microg/g at harvest time in non-IPM and IPM fields of summer okra crop from initial value of 0.407 microg/g before sowing, while in brinjal crop, it was not detected in soils of any trials. During first year of study, the residues of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in okra fruit were observed to be 5.75 and 0.625 microg/g, respectively, for non-IPM fields; and 0.104 microg/g of chlorpyrifos for IPM trials. The pesticide residues were found to be 0.77, 1.39, 0.4 and 0.32 microg/g for cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and dimethoate, respectively, for non-IPM okra fruits in second year. For brinjal fruit, residues of cypermethrin and imidacloprid were not detected in IPM trials while it was found to be 0.28 and 0.78 microg/g for cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos respectively, for non-IPM trials. PMID:18415692

Arora, Sumitra

2008-04-16

282

Analysis of insecticides in okra and brinjal from IPM and non-IPM fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Samples of okra and brinjal fruits, collected from non-integrated pest management (Non-IPM) and IPM fields in village Raispur, Ghaziabad District (U.P.), were analyzed for pesticide residues. The residues of chlorpyrifos in soil were 4.219 and 1.135 microg/g at harvest time in non-IPM and IPM fields of summer okra crop from initial value of 0.407 microg/g before sowing, while in brinjal crop, it was not detected in soils of any trials. During first year of study, the residues of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in okra fruit were observed to be 5.75 and 0.625 microg/g, respectively, for non-IPM fields; and 0.104 microg/g of chlorpyrifos for IPM trials. The pesticide residues were found to be 0.77, 1.39, 0.4 and 0.32 microg/g for cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and dimethoate, respectively, for non-IPM okra fruits in second year. For brinjal fruit, residues of cypermethrin and imidacloprid were not detected in IPM trials while it was found to be 0.28 and 0.78 microg/g for cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos respectively, for non-IPM trials.

Arora S

2009-04-01

283

Gamma ray induced okra leaf mutant in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An orka leaf mutant characterised by narrow leaves was induced in M2 generation following 20 kr gamma ray irradiation in 320-F variety of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The mutant bred true for okra leaves in M3 generation. The mutant is earlier in maturity than 320-F and has more number of bolls, bigger boll size, higher yield and better staple than the latter. Okra leaf mutant by virtue of its having narrow leaves and consequently lesser transpiring surface withstands moisture stress better than the mother line. In an experiment under 'barani' (with only pre-sowing irrigation), okra leaf mutant recorded cotton yield of 1042 kg/ha as against 469 kg/ha in 320-F and 766 kg/ha in G.27, a 'Desi' variety which grows under moisture stress better than the hirsutums. Orka leaf character is a monogenic recessive, with F1 a medium-lobed heterozygote, as is seen from hybridisation between okra leaf mutant and broad leaved 320-F. (author)

1974-04-12

284

Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra  

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Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05) reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the tr...

M. J. Zaki; M. A. Maqbool

285

Regulation of neurotoxin and protease formation in Clostridium botulinum Okra B and Hall A by arginine.  

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Supplementation of a minimal medium with high levels of arginine (20 g/liter) markedly decreased neurotoxin titers and protease activities in cultures of Clostridium botulinum Okra B and Hall A. Nitrogenous nutrients that are known to be derived from arginine, including proline, glutamate, and ammon...

Patterson-Curtis, S I; Johnson, E A

286

Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments  

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The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus escu...

Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

287

Effect of Some Insecticides on the Population of Insect Pests and Predators on Okra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field study was carried out to determine the efficacy of different insecticides against different insect pests and their predators on okra crop during the year 2005. The treatments included four insecticides i.e., Confidor, Sundaphos, Polo and Mospilan and their efficacy was checked by a control p...

Bhai Khan Solangi; Mohammad Khan Lohar

288

Anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like activity of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract and its potential active components in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Searching for antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and antidepressant-like medicines from natural products is very important for the treatment of this disease. The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been reported to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury. In order to further explore the activity of Abelmoschus manihot on the central nervous system, the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like effects of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract (AMEE) as well as its potential active components in vivo was investigated in the present study. It was found that AMEE could protect mice against PTZ-induced clonic convulsions and mortality. AMEE could also decrease immobility time in the FST in mice. Furthermore, the potential active components of AMEE in rat brain were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS). Five parent components including isoquercitrin, hyperoside, hibifolin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin and three metabolites were detected in rat brain after administration of AMEE. In conclusion, eight flavonoids were identified in rat brain after administration of AMEE; meanwhile, these flavonoids might represent the potential bioactive components of AMEE and contribute to its anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activity in vivo. PMID:21784623

Guo, Jianming; Xue, Caifu; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; You, Yi

2011-07-23

289

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the respondents are males and married. Women do not own personal okra farms but they do work with their husband on the family farms and mostly involved independently at the processing, preservation and marketing levels more than at the production level. About 49.0% of the respondents did not have any formal education while 51.0% were literates who have access to intermediate farm technology. The mean years of okra production experience is 16.91 years and the mean okra farm size is 3.64 acres with standard deviation of 2.58 acres. All the respondents practiced mixed cropping where other crops such as yam, banana, pineapples, cassava and others were planted with okra. Land preparation for okra production includes land clearing, ploughing, harrowing and heaping or ridging. About 80.0% of the okra farmers used cutlass and hoe regularly, which might have been responsible for okra production at subsistence or small-scale level. Only 20.0% of the okra farmers employed use of tractor. Majority of the farmers hired labour to supplement family labour. The mean persons day of family labour was 6.03 and that of hired labour was 1.25 persons day. Processing and preservation are carried out using traditional techniques of slicing, sun drying and grinding (using mortar and pestle). Sliced and dried okra are stored in gourd, basket and clay-pots. Fresh okra are put in basket lined with leave for maximum of three days during which it is marketed on retail and wholesale basis. Okra is consumed fresh and dried mostly to make draw soup by 81.0% of the respondents. Positive and significant relationships existed between socioeconomic characteristics of respondents investigated and total yield of okra produced. The r-value for variable related to land preparation and operation are low, between r = 0.234 and r = 0.470. The r-value of variables related to farm size and output (yield) are very high between r = 0.550 and r = 0.922, which spelt out a situation tending towards a perfect relationship. There is also sharp difference in the r-value of farm size for okra (0.922) and farm size for other crops (0.550). It therefore means that okra yield depends on the size of the farm.

A.J. Farinde; O.K. Owolarafe; O.I. Ogungbemi

2006-01-01

290

Effect of blanching, dehydration method and temperature on the ascorbic acid, colour, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Freshly harvested okra fruits were blanched in boiling water (with or without 0.2% sodium metablsulphite salt) and the effect of this treatment, dehydration methods and temperature on certain characteristics of okra investigated. Blanching resulted in the slight decrease in carbohydrate, fat, ash, colour components, ascorbic acid and viscosity. Besides this initial loss, blanching in sulphite solution led to the retention of more of the colour components and ascorbic acid during dehydration. All dehydrated okra samples had higher contents of carbohydrate, fat and ash but lesser contents of protein and ascorbic acid than fresh okra. Fresh okra fruits, on the other hand, had higher content of the colour pigments and were more viscous than all dehydrated products. Samples blanched prior to dehydration retained more of the colour components but were less viscous than unblanched samples. Vacuum dehydrated samples retained more ascorbic acid, colour pigment and mucilage at each of the dehydration temperatures than those from a hot air oven. High dehydration temperatures had negative effect on the colour, ascorbic acid and viscosity of okra.

Inyang UE; Ike CI

1998-03-01

291

Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable) was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature.

Zin T; Maw M; Pai DR; Paijan RB; Kyi M

2012-05-01

292

Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus  

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Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 ?m. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 ?m pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

Mohammed Jurial Baloch; Abdul Rahim Lakho; Hidayatullah Bhutto; Mohammed Yousuf Solangi

2001-01-01

293

Further evidence reveals that okra mottle virus arose from a double recombination event.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of surveys of okra begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) conducted over the last five years in Central Brazil, we report the complete genome sequence of an isolate of okra mottle virus (OMoV). The DNA-A and DNA-B components were 2660 and 2653 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and they were most closely related to the DNA-A (~99 % nt identity) and DNA-B (~98 % nt identity) components of an OMoV isolate from a soybean plant. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on these sequences, and it was shown that both of the OMoV DNA components were grouped in a branch with Brazilian begomoviruses known to infect weeds. By recombination analysis, strong evidence was observed that the OMoV genome may have been the product of a double inter-species recombination event. PMID:22941555

Albuquerque, Leonardo C; Aranha, Silvia A; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

2012-09-01

294

Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable) was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature. PMID:22624073

Zin, Thant; Maw, Myat; Pai, Dinker Ramananda; Paijan, Rosaini Binti; Kyi, Myo

2012-05-16

295

Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable) was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature.

Thant Zin; Myat Maw; Dinker Ramananda Pai; Rosaini Binti Paijan; Myo Kyi

2012-01-01

296

Further evidence reveals that okra mottle virus arose from a double recombination event.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a result of surveys of okra begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) conducted over the last five years in Central Brazil, we report the complete genome sequence of an isolate of okra mottle virus (OMoV). The DNA-A and DNA-B components were 2660 and 2653 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and they were most closely related to the DNA-A (~99 % nt identity) and DNA-B (~98 % nt identity) components of an OMoV isolate from a soybean plant. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on these sequences, and it was shown that both of the OMoV DNA components were grouped in a branch with Brazilian begomoviruses known to infect weeds. By recombination analysis, strong evidence was observed that the OMoV genome may have been the product of a double inter-species recombination event.

Albuquerque LC; Aranha SA; Fernandes FR; Inoue-Nagata AK

2013-01-01

297

Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 ?g/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 ?g/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 ?g/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

Essumang DK; Asare EA; Dodoo DK

2013-09-01

298

Oviposition Patterns of Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Okra-Leaf and Normal-Leaf Cotton  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the oviposition behavior of Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L, on okra-leaf and normal-leaf genotypes that differed significantly in their leaf morphology and trichome densities. In a no-choice study, the site preference and numbers of eggs oviposited by C. signatus were identical for the okra-leaf and normal-leaf. In a free-choice test, C. signatus showed a significant preference for the normal-leaf by ovipositing 3 times the number of eggs than on okra-leaf, but the site locations and percentages of egg distributions were similar for the two cotton types. The leaf petiole was the most preferred site for oviposition, followed by the main stem, and fruiting structures (squares and small bolls). The majority of eggs were oviposited in the leaf petioles associated with the mid-portion (nodes 4-8) of the plant. Trichome densities on the leaf petioles, main stem, and leaf veins were similar for node 3, but they were significantly higher on these structures for nodes 5 and 8 for the okra-leaf compared with the normal-leaf. The strong selection of oviposition sites in the normal-leaf cotton in this study may be due to some factor other than trichome density. This information should increase the knowledge for scouting for the presence of eggs and young nymphs and serve as a starting point for the selection of nonpreferred cotton varieties for oviposition by this mirid.

Armstrong JScott; Coleman RandyJ; Sétamou Mamoudou

2009-03-01

299

Effects of drying methods on the physicochemical and compressional characteristics of Okra powder and the release properties of its metronidazole tablet formulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study has been made of the effects of sun and oven drying methods on the physicochemical characteristics and compressibility of Okra powder and the release properties of its metronidazole tablet formulation. Corn starch was used as the reference standard. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated using crushing strength and friability, while the release properties were determined using the disintegration times and dissolution rates. The results obtained showed that sun-dried Okra powder had smaller particle size, exhibited good flow and possessed higher hydration and swelling capacities compared to the oven dried samples. The compressibility of Okra powders assessed by the indices of plasticity from Heckel (Py) and Kawakita plots (Pk) showed that sun dried Okra powders had higher Py but lower Pk values than the oven-dried Okra powder. Metronidazole tablets formulated with oven dried Okra powder formed stronger tablets than tablets containing sun dried Okra powder. Generally, tablets containing sun dried Okra powders had faster disintegration and dissolution than tablets formulated with oven-dried powder. The results suggest that the choice of drying method during the processing of pharmaceutical raw materials is critical to its physicochemical properties and the release properties of its tablet formulations.

Bakre LG; Jaiyeoba KT

2009-02-01

300

In vivo and in vitro antiviral activity of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L) medik.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L) medik. METHODS: The human hepatoma Hep G2.2.15 cell culture system and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection model were used as in vivo and in vitro models to evaluate the anti-HBV effects. RESULTS: In the cell model, the 50% toxic concentration of hyperoside was 0.115 g/L; the maximum nontoxic concentration was 0.05 g/L. On the maximum nontoxic concentrations, the inhibition rates of hyperoside on HBeAg and HBsAg in the 2.2.15 cells were 86.41% and 82.27% on d 8, respectively. In the DHBV infection model, the DHBV-DNA levels decreased significantly in the treatment of 0.05 g x kg(-1 ) x d(-1 ) and 0.10 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) dosage groups of hyperoside (P<0.01). The inhibition of the peak of viremia was at the maximum at the dose of 0.10 g x kg(-1 ) x d(-1) and reached 60.79% on d 10 and 69.78% on d 13, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that hyperoside is a strong inhibitor of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion in 2.2.15 cells and DHBV-DNA levels in the HBV-infected duck model.

Wu LL; Yang XB; Huang ZM; Liu HZ; Wu GX

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

[Clinical observation on diabetic nephropathy treated with alcohol of Abelmoschus manihot].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-eight cases of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) complicated with nephropathy were randomly divided into two groups: treated group, 35 cases treated with alcohol extraction of Abelmoschus manihot, Gliclazide and Captopril tablets; control group, 33 cases treated with Gliclazide and Captopril tablets, over a period of 8 weeks. The total effective rate in treated and control group were 83.87% and 31.03%(P < 0.01), urinary micro-albumin were 31.7 mg/L and 76.3 mg/L (P < 0.05), proteinuria were 0.41 g/24h and 0.77 g/24h (P < 0.01), blood beta 2-microglobulin were 3317.8 ng/ml and 3473.1 ng/ml (P < 0.05), urinary beta 2-microglobulin were 367.2 ng/ml and 641.5 ng/ml (P < 0.01), urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) were 26.3 u/L and 66.7 u/L (P < 0.01), plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) were 6.13 nmol/L and 8.78 nmol/L (P < 0.05), and plasma superoxide anion were 8.36 kcpm and 10.42 kcpm respectively (P < 0.05). It was suggested that Abemoschus manihot alcohol extraction could eliminate oxygen free radicals, alleviate renal tubular-interstitial diseases, improve renal function and reduce proteinuria. PMID:7640495

Yu, J Y; Xiong, N N; Guo, H F

1995-05-01

302

[Clinical observation on diabetic nephropathy treated with alcohol of Abelmoschus manihot  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sixty-eight cases of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) complicated with nephropathy were randomly divided into two groups: treated group, 35 cases treated with alcohol extraction of Abelmoschus manihot, Gliclazide and Captopril tablets; control group, 33 cases treated with Gliclazide and Captopril tablets, over a period of 8 weeks. The total effective rate in treated and control group were 83.87% and 31.03%(P < 0.01), urinary micro-albumin were 31.7 mg/L and 76.3 mg/L (P < 0.05), proteinuria were 0.41 g/24h and 0.77 g/24h (P < 0.01), blood beta 2-microglobulin were 3317.8 ng/ml and 3473.1 ng/ml (P < 0.05), urinary beta 2-microglobulin were 367.2 ng/ml and 641.5 ng/ml (P < 0.01), urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) were 26.3 u/L and 66.7 u/L (P < 0.01), plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) were 6.13 nmol/L and 8.78 nmol/L (P < 0.05), and plasma superoxide anion were 8.36 kcpm and 10.42 kcpm respectively (P < 0.05). It was suggested that Abemoschus manihot alcohol extraction could eliminate oxygen free radicals, alleviate renal tubular-interstitial diseases, improve renal function and reduce proteinuria.

Yu JY; Xiong NN; Guo HF

1995-05-01

303

Simultaneous determination of seven active flavonols in the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot by HPLC.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-performance liquid chromatography method is developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven flavonols, namely quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, and quercetin, in the flower of Abelmoschus manihot. These seven flavonols are selected as chemical markers because they are the major pharmacologically active constituents in the flower. The method involves the use of a Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL reversed-phase column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) at 25 degrees C with a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous H(3)PO(4) as the mobile phase and detection at 370 nm. The recovery of the method is 94.31-107.08% with an RSD 0.9996) is obtained for all the flavonoids. The current assay method can be readily utilized for the determination of the flavonols present in the flower and is considered to be suitable for the quality control of A. manihot samples. The comparison of flowers collected from nine locations shows that flavonoid glucoside is more stable than aglycon in the flower. This is the first study that analyzes the stability of flavonoids in the flower of A. manihot. This research also provides important evidence that the flower is a potentially abundant resource for obtaining hibifolin. PMID:19298707

Lai, Xianyin; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin

2009-03-01

304

Simultaneous determination of seven active flavonols in the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot by HPLC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A high-performance liquid chromatography method is developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven flavonols, namely quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, and quercetin, in the flower of Abelmoschus manihot. These seven flavonols are selected as chemical markers because they are the major pharmacologically active constituents in the flower. The method involves the use of a Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL reversed-phase column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) at 25 degrees C with a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous H(3)PO(4) as the mobile phase and detection at 370 nm. The recovery of the method is 94.31-107.08% with an RSD < or = 3.14% and the linearity (r(2) > 0.9996) is obtained for all the flavonoids. The current assay method can be readily utilized for the determination of the flavonols present in the flower and is considered to be suitable for the quality control of A. manihot samples. The comparison of flowers collected from nine locations shows that flavonoid glucoside is more stable than aglycon in the flower. This is the first study that analyzes the stability of flavonoids in the flower of A. manihot. This research also provides important evidence that the flower is a potentially abundant resource for obtaining hibifolin.

Lai X; Liang H; Zhao Y; Wang B

2009-03-01

305

Genetics of the radiation-induced yellow vein mosaic disease resistance mutation in okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. AFLP and MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 population revealed DNA fragments that are potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

2008-01-01

306

Effects of tillage methods and depth on fuel consumption and profitability of late season okra productions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The disc plough and disc harrow were used singly and in combination to produce seedbeds of depths 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm for late season okra (Abelmuscus esculentus) production. During the seedbed preparation, the time used for tilling and the fuel consumed were used to calculate the tillage energy as well as the specific power requirement. Using the different tillage methods, the cost of seedbed preparation was estimated for the various tillage depths. Yield from the plots and the benefits accruing from the sale of harvested okra fruits were used to compare the tillage methods at the different tillage depths. Total cost, fuel consumption, time of operation, fuel and tillage energies increased with tillage depth and were higher for combined tillage operations than the single ones. Specific power requirement decreased with increased tillage depth and was not statistically different in any tillage method. Yield and economic profitability were higher for the combined tillage operations but were varied between tillage depths. Harrowing once after ploughing at 15 and 20 cm depths were the most profitable tillage method and depths for late season okra production.

Asoegwu S.N.

1999-01-01

307

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resulted in reduced nematode population, reduced galling, reduced nematode reproduction rate and enhanced fruit weight. Chemical analysis revealed that G. sepium leaves contained phenolic compound and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of aromatic amide, phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. L. leucocephala leaves showed the presence of phenolic compound, aromatic amide and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. The results of this study suggest that leaf and root extracts of L. leucocephala and G. sepium at the rate of 40,000 mg / kg could be useful in root knot nematode management in vegetable beds.

Adekunle O.K.; Akinlua A.

2007-01-01

308

Response of young plants to mercury. [Pennisetum typhoideum, Medicago sativa L. var. Raska, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. var. Pusa-savni  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Young individuals of three plant species viz., Pennisetum typhoideum Stapf. var. PHB-14, Medicago sativa L. var. Raska and Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. var. Pusa-savni, were tested for their response to Hg. All of them were found to be affected, Pennisetum being the most sensitive, followed by Medicago and Abelmoxchus in that order. The visible injury to leaves of plants, chlorophyll content and total dry matter was found to be affected in proportion to the metal doses administered. Measurement of Leaf Injury Index (LII) as a simple parameter of the susceptibility of the species is discussed.

Mhatre, G.N.; Chaphekar, S.B.

1984-01-01

309

Comparative Effect of Insecticide and Blue Polythene Hanging on the Incidence and Severity of Okra Mosaic in the Growth of Okra Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field study was conducted to compare the efficacy of blue polythene hanging over the plant and spraying insecticide in reducing incidence and severity of okra mosaic under natural inoculated condition. Size of blue polythene strip was 0.04x3.5 m2 and six polythene strips were used per plot and the recommended dose of insecticide was 454 ml per acre. Blue polythene strips and insecticide reduced the infection of okra mosaic virus. The number of disease infected plants per plot and mosaic infected leaves per plant were the lowest and number of leaves per infected plant and plant height was the highest in the plots, where blue polythene strips were hanged and insecticide was sprayed followed by the spraying of insecticide and hanging of blue polythene strips. The number of disease infected plants per plot and mosaic infected leaves per plant were the highest and number of leaves per infected plant and plant height was the lowest in the control plots.

Md. Fazlul Haque; S.M. Asraful Islam; M. Moktar Alam; A.F.M.G. Faruque Hossain; M.K. Anam

2002-01-01

310

Competitividad productiva de cuatro híbridos de Okra en fechas de siembra en el norte de Tamaulipas/ Productive Competitiveness of four Okra Hybrids in Planting Dates in Northern Tamaulipas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La principal región productora de okra en México es el norte de Tamaulipas, la producción anual se divide en dos períodos: siembras "tempranas" de febrero a marzo y "tardías" de abril a mayo. La variedad de okra 'Clemson Spineless 80' es de uso generalizado. Para conocer su competitividad productiva, se evaluaron los híbridos PX41596, PX41696, Cajun Delight y Cajun Delisht, en cuatro fechas de siembra en 1998 (26 de febrero, 18 de marzo, 17 de abril y 11 de mayo) y (more) 1999 (1 y 20 de marzo, 19 de abril y 11 de mayo), en Río Bravo, Tamaulipas, México. Los híbridos utilizados superaron a la variedad Clemson Spineless 80 en producción precoz (primer mes de cosecha) y producción total en 227 y 29%, respectivamente. Se observó mayor contenido de clorofila en fruto y follaje en los híbridos PX41596 y PX41696, características interrelacionadas (R²= 0.77* *). El mayor rendimiento precoz de fruto se obtuvo en la siembra "temprana" de 1998 y 1999 (3101 kg ha-¹, promedio). Para el rendimiento total (14 975 kg ha-¹) y altura de planta (112.8 cm), destacaron las siembras de 26 de febrero de 1998 y 1 de marzo de 1999. En 1999 se registraron mayores valores en: rendimiento precoz (3172 kg ha-¹), total (16 501 kg ha-¹), altura de planta (99 cm) y período de cosecha (13 a 15 semanas). Se determinaron asociaciones positivas entre rendimiento precoz de fruto y rendimiento total (r= 0.60 **), y entre rendimiento total y altura de planta (r= 0.85**). Los híbridos estudiados mostraron mayor productividad que la variedad Clemson Spineless 80. Abstract in english The main okra producing area in Mexico is northern Tamaulipas. In this region yearly production occurs in two periods, an early sowing period from February to March, and a late sowing period from April to May. In this region cultivars of the Clemson Spineless 80 type are widely grown. The yield of okra hybrids PX41596, PX41696, Cajun Delight and Cajun Delisht, was evaluated in four planting dates in 1998 (Feb 26, Mar 18, Apr 17, and May 11) and 1999 (March 1st and 20th, A (more) pril 19, and May 11), at Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. In comparison with cv. Clemson Spineless 80, early fruit yield (first month of harvest production) and total fruit yield of the hybrids was significantly superior in 227 and 29%, respectively. The highest fruit and foliar chlorophyll content were observed in hybrids PX41596 and PX41696, both traits were correlated (R²= 0.77**). In both years, the highe st early fruit yield (3101 kg ha-¹) was obtained in the early sowing period. The February 26, 1998 and March 1 st, 1999 sowing dates, gave the highest total fruit yield (14 975 kg ha-¹) and the higher plant height (112.8 cm). The highest values of early fruit yield (3172 kg ha-¹), total fruit yield (16 501 kg ha-¹), plant height (99 cm), and harvest period (13 to 15 weeks) were registered in 1999. Positive correlations were found between early and total fruit yield (r= 0.60* *), and between total fruit yield and plant height (r= 0.85**). The okra hybrids tested had a higher productivity than the cv. Clemson Spineless 80.

Díaz Franco, Arturo; Ortegón Morales, Alfredo Sergio; Ramírez de León, José Alberto

2007-04-01

311

Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.). Seed shape, size and colour as well as outer epidermal cell patterns as seen by SEM, anticlinal cell boundaries and periclinal cell walls sculpture allow the recognition of two distinct groups among studied taxa. Seed coat features indicated both intra-group and inter-group relationships. Recognized groupings do not correspond well with the classical treatments of the Malvaceae, rather they suggest restructuring of tribal and generic taxonomy in the family. One important conclusion of this study is the inclusion of Lavatera cretica L. in the genus Malva as M. linnaei, M. F. Ray.

Salah M. I. El Naggar

2001-01-01

312

Hepatoprotective role of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Context: Chronic liver disease has become a global health problem. The research for prominent herbal agents for the management of liver diseases is widely increased. Objective: The root of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., (Malvaceae) has been used as a remedy for liver disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of A. esculentus root. Materials and method: The antioxidant effect was assessed using DPPH and hydroxy radical scavenging assays. The hepatoprotective effect of the extract was evaluated using CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell line and Wistar rats by estimating the levels of hepatic and antioxidant markers. Results: The extract of A. esculentus showed IC50 values of 270.99 and 532.86?µg/mL for DPPH and hydroxy radical scavenging assays, respectively. The incubation of HepG2 cells with CCl4 drastically decreased the cell viability and increased the leakage of transaminases. Pre-treatment with the extract significantly restored the cell death by 31.25 and 39.04% at 200 and 400?µg/mL concentrations, respectively. The reduction of ALT leakage by the treatment was 18.62, 38.59 and 52.15% compared to the CCl4 treated cells at 100, 200 and 400?µg/mL, respectively. In in-vivo experiments also the treatment reduced the levels of transaminases, ALP, MDA, total bilirubin and hepatic TNF? levels as well as increased the antioxidant levels in a dose dependent manner. Histological observations of liver sections showed reduction in steatosis, necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: The results substantiated the hepatoprotective activity of A. esculentus through its antioxidant capacity.

Saravanan S; Pandikumar P; Pazhanivel N; Paulraj MG; Ignacimuthu S

2013-09-01

313

Hepatoprotective role of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Context: Chronic liver disease has become a global health problem. The research for prominent herbal agents for the management of liver diseases is widely increased. Objective: The root of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., (Malvaceae) has been used as a remedy for liver disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of A. esculentus root. Materials and method: The antioxidant effect was assessed using DPPH and hydroxy radical scavenging assays. The hepatoprotective effect of the extract was evaluated using CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell line and Wistar rats by estimating the levels of hepatic and antioxidant markers. Results: The extract of A. esculentus showed IC50 values of 270.99 and 532.86?µg/mL for DPPH and hydroxy radical scavenging assays, respectively. The incubation of HepG2 cells with CCl4 drastically decreased the cell viability and increased the leakage of transaminases. Pre-treatment with the extract significantly restored the cell death by 31.25 and 39.04% at 200 and 400?µg/mL concentrations, respectively. The reduction of ALT leakage by the treatment was 18.62, 38.59 and 52.15% compared to the CCl4 treated cells at 100, 200 and 400?µg/mL, respectively. In in-vivo experiments also the treatment reduced the levels of transaminases, ALP, MDA, total bilirubin and hepatic TNF? levels as well as increased the antioxidant levels in a dose dependent manner. Histological observations of liver sections showed reduction in steatosis, necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: The results substantiated the hepatoprotective activity of A. esculentus through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:23581558

Saravanan, Subramanian; Pandikumar, Perumal; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2013-05-17

314

Okra polysaccharide improves metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra is a tropical vegetable that is rich in polysaccharides. Here, we investigated the effects of okra polysaccharide (OP) on metabolic disorders in mice. We found that OP lowered body weight and glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased serum total cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. OP regulated the gene expression of liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in the liver and the adipose tissue of the mice. These results suggest that OP may have therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases via the inhibition of LXR and PPAR signaling.

Fan S; Guo L; Zhang Y; Sun Q; Yang B; Huang C

2013-07-01

315

Okra polysaccharide improves metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra is a tropical vegetable that is rich in polysaccharides. Here, we investigated the effects of okra polysaccharide (OP) on metabolic disorders in mice. We found that OP lowered body weight and glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased serum total cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. OP regulated the gene expression of liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in the liver and the adipose tissue of the mice. These results suggest that OP may have therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases via the inhibition of LXR and PPAR signaling. PMID:23894043

Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yang, Baican; Huang, Cheng

2013-07-26

316

Growth and Yield of Okra with Rock-Phosphate – Amended Organic Fertilizer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorous supply from organic manures for okra production can be insufficient for optimal fruit yield. The growth and yield of okra (Variety: NHAe 47-4) were assessed in field experiments with an organic fertilizer made from cowdung (CD), fortified with Ogun Rock Phosphate (ORP). The ORP was applied sole at 100 kg ha-1 and also with each of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 t ha-1 cowdung. There was a standard check of NPK 20-10-10 applied 2 weeks after planting at 400 kg ha-1 and an unfertilized control., Average number of leaves per plant, stem diameter and plant height were all similar, with 4 weeks growth. Average plant leaf area was however higher with ORP added to either 7.5 or 10.0 t ha-1 CD, relative to either sole ORP or the unfertilized treatments. At 8 weeks after planting, plant height was highest with 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP and was comparable only with plants from 7.5 t ha-1 CD + ORP application. Plant stem girths were similar with all ORP applications. Number of leaves per plant and average leaf area were highest with 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP. Applications of 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 t ha-1 CD + ORP had comparable leaf areas. Application of 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP gave the highest okra fruit yield which was comparable with yields from 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 t ha-1 CD +ORP that ranged from 2.92 to 3.05 t ha-1. Pod length and pod circumference were significantly higher with ORP + 10.0 or 7.5 t ha-1 CD. Plants from the unfertilized control treatment had significantly shorter pods with lower circumference than all the fertilized plants. Okra fruit yield is significantly increased with organic fertilizer fortification with ORP.

Eyitayo A. Makinde

2013-01-01

317

Microbial, Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Traditional Sundried Okra (Orunla) in Selected Markets in South-Western Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial load and evaluate the nutritional content and sensory property of traditional sun dried okra (“orunla” - Yoruba, Nigeria). Samples were purchased from four different markets at different time in South-western Nigeria. Microorganisms prese...

A.K. Arise; R.O. Arise; A.A. Akintola; O.A. Idowu; O.C. Aworh

318

Effects of management practices on nematode and fungi populations and okra yield.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra was grown in field plots of Tifton loamy sand naturally infested with the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemoides ornalus and the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Plots were treated with various soil pesticides and left exposed or covered with biodegradable paper film mulch under trickle irrigation. Soil was assayed for nematodes and fungi, and plant roots were examined for root-rot and insect damage. Fewer nematodes and fungi generally were recovered from soil treated with DD-MENCS (with and without film mulch) or methyl bromide-chloropicrin (2:1) (MBC) and film mulch than from nontreated soil. Funfigation with DD-MENCS or MBC suppressed populations of M. incognita, C. ornatus, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Ethoprop (alone or combined with other pesticides), sodium azide, and chloroneb were less effective than DD-MENCS and MBC. Plant growth anti yield were greatest when nematodes and pathogenic fungi were controlled. Yield was increased 3-fold by DD-MENCS + film mulch or MBC + film mulch in comparison with the average yield of okra produced in Georgia. The root-knot nematode-Fusarium wilt complex was most severe in nonfuntigated soil.

Johnson AW; Sumner DR; Jaworski CA; Chalfant RB

1977-04-01

319

Combined effect of drying time and slice thickness on the solar drying of okra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of slice thickness and drying time on colour, viscosity, microbial load, moisture, crude fibre, vitamin C and ash contents of okra (Hibiscus esculentus) during solar drying was studied using three slice thicknesses (5.0 mm, 10.0 mm, 15.0 mm) obtained from a survey and five drying times (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). The results showed that slice thickness had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on moisture, crude fibre and ash contents but not on vitamin C content, viscosity, colour and microbial load. However, the effect of drying time was highly significant (p < 0.01) on all the parameters determined. The combined effects of slice thickness and drying time were observed to be highly significant (P < 0.05) on ash, crude fibre and moisture contents, viscosity and microbial load but had no significant effect (P < 0.05) on colour and vitamin C content. There was a strong correlation between moisture content and ash (R = - 0.926), crude fibre (R = - 0.94), vitamin C contents (R = 0.928) and viscosity (R = - 0.963) in all samples during drying. The study showed that a slice thickness of 10.0 mm and a drying time of 48 h was suitable for the solar drying of okra.

Adom KK; Dzogbefia VP; Ellis WO

1997-03-01

320

Estimation of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in okra fruits and soil by chromatography techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dissipation of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in okra was studied following three applications of a combination formulation of Solomon 300 OD (?-cyfluthrin 9 % + imidacloprid 21 %) @ 60 and 120 g a.i. ha(-1) at 7 days interval. Residues of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in okra were estimated by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Residues of ?-cyfluthrin were confirmed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and that of imidacloprid by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Half-life periods for ?-cyfluthrin were found to be 0.91 and 0.68 days whereas for imidacloprid these values were observed to be 0.85 and 0.96 days at single and double the application rates, respectively. Residues of ?-cyfluthrin dissipated below its limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 3 and 5 days at single and double the application dosage, respectively. Similarly, residues of imidacloprid took 5 and 7 days to reach LOQ of 0.01 mg kg(-1), at single and double dosages respectively. Soil samples collected after 15 days of the last application did not show the presence of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid at their detection limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1).

Sahoo SK; Chahil GS; Mandal K; Battu RS; Singh B

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Determination of enzymes from Colletotrichum sp. AHU9748 essential for lepidimoide production from okra polysaccharide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The allelopathic substance lepidimoide (Lp), which exhibits multiple functions in the growth and development of plants, was produced by Colletotrichum sp. AHU9748 from okra polysaccharide. Okra polysaccharide has the repeating structure (1-->4)-O-alpha-(d-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-->2)-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranose in its hexasaccharide repeating unit of its main chain. To determine the enzymes essential for Lp production, the supernatant of a culture broth was fractionated by repeated column chromatographies to identify two serial fractions responsible for Lp production and non-Lp production by measuring Lp production together with beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), rhamnogalacturonan lyase (RG-lyase) and acetylesterase (AE) activities, which we hypothesized to be necessary for Lp production from the structure of Lp. We confirmed the presence of these three enzymatic activities in the highest-Lp-producing fraction. The addition of purified RG-lyase to fractions producing no or a small amount of Lp demonstrated that beta-gal and RG-lyase activities are necessary for Lp production. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three separated proteins on SDS-PAGE confirmed the presence of enzymes identical to beta-gal, RG-lyase and AE in the Lp-producing fractions.

Saranpuetti C; Tanaka M; Sone T; Asano K; Tomita F

2006-11-01

322

Inheritance of Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance, a Mutant Phenotype from Gamma Radiation Mutagenesis in Okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting export-grade okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. This study aimed at determining the inheritance of YVMD resistance from B4610 through genetic analysis. Segregation analysis of the F2 and BC1F1 progeny from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a susceptible variety, indicated that YVMD resistance phenotype resulted from a single locus mutation (p > 0.05). In addition, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to aid in the assignment of YVMD resistance phenotype. Combinations of primers AV1F1 or AV1F2 with AV1R1 successfully amplified a DNA fragment from infected susceptible individuals but not from resistant individuals. DNA sequencing of the PCR product confirmed the identity of AV1 gene belonging to the yellow vein mosaic virus

2009-01-01

323

Computer simulation of osmotic expansion and shrinkage in okra hypocotyl segments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra hypocotyl segments were incubated in solutions of 0.3 or 0.4 M sorbitol at various temperatures and their shrinkage was measured. The result yielded an apparent activation energy for shrinkage of 4.8 kcal/mol, which is close to that of the viscosity of water. This coincidence suggests that the viscosity of water, i.e., the reciprocal function of water conductivity, is a limiting factor for osmotic shrinkage. Abrasion of okra hypocotyl segments with Carborundum substantially increased the rate of their osmotic shrinkage, indicating that the cuticle is the major barrier to water uptake by segments. The apparent activation energy for osmotic shrinkage was 4.5 kcal/mol in abraded segments. By introducing water conductivity into an algorithm, osmotic shrinkage and expansion of hypocotyl segments was successfully predicted by computation with this algorithm. Hence the extent of the contribution of water conductivity in osmotic shrinkage and expansion can be evaluated. Based on this simulation, water conductivity was identified as one of the major factors in governing the elongation growth rate of cells along with the osmotic pressure of the cell sap and the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

Yamamoto R; Fujii S; Tanimoto E; Nevins DJ

2000-01-01

324

Protective effect of total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic against poststroke depression injury in mice and its action mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic (TFA) is the major active component isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic. We investigated the protective effect of TFA against poststroke depression (PSD) injury in mice and its action mechanism. A mouse model of PSD was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO) 30 min/reperfusion, followed by isolation feeding and chronic unpredictable mild stress for 2 weeks. Treatment groups received TFA at three different doses (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (Flu, 2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 24 days. Change in behavior, brain tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mRNA expression of BDNF and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment with TFA (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated mice escape-directed behavioral impairment induced by PSD, markedly reduced MDA levels, and increased the activity of SOD, GSH-Px close to normal levels. TFA administration also attenuated PSD-induced neuronal death/losses, upregulated expression of BDNF both at mRNA and protein levels, as well as CREB mRNA levels. TFA had a protective effect against PSD injury in mice. Cardioprotection involves the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and upregulation of BDNF-CREB levels in the hippocampus, which may also be important mechanism of its antidepressants. This potential protection makes TFA a promising therapeutic agent for the PSD. PMID:19248161

Liu, Mei; Jiang, Qiu-Hong; Hao, Ji-Li; Zhou, Lan-Lan

2009-03-01

325

Protective effect of total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic against poststroke depression injury in mice and its action mechanism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic (TFA) is the major active component isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic. We investigated the protective effect of TFA against poststroke depression (PSD) injury in mice and its action mechanism. A mouse model of PSD was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO) 30 min/reperfusion, followed by isolation feeding and chronic unpredictable mild stress for 2 weeks. Treatment groups received TFA at three different doses (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (Flu, 2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 24 days. Change in behavior, brain tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mRNA expression of BDNF and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment with TFA (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated mice escape-directed behavioral impairment induced by PSD, markedly reduced MDA levels, and increased the activity of SOD, GSH-Px close to normal levels. TFA administration also attenuated PSD-induced neuronal death/losses, upregulated expression of BDNF both at mRNA and protein levels, as well as CREB mRNA levels. TFA had a protective effect against PSD injury in mice. Cardioprotection involves the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and upregulation of BDNF-CREB levels in the hippocampus, which may also be important mechanism of its antidepressants. This potential protection makes TFA a promising therapeutic agent for the PSD.

Liu M; Jiang QH; Hao JL; Zhou LL

2009-03-01

326

Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente/ Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo, sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líq (more) uido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas. Abstract in english Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was sown in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hyb (more) rid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

Santos, Marlei Rosa dos; Sediyama, Maria Aparecida Nogueira; Santos, Izabel Cristina dos; Salgado, Luís Tarcísio; Vidigal, Sanzio Mollica

2011-02-01

327

Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo, sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líquido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas.Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was sown in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hybrid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

Marlei Rosa dos Santos; Maria Aparecida Nogueira Sediyama; Izabel Cristina dos Santos; Luís Tarcísio Salgado; Sanzio Mollica Vidigal

2011-01-01

328

A convenient synthesis of lepidimoide from okra mucilage and its growth-promoting activity in hypocotyls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The total synthesis of the unsaturated disaccharide, lepidimoide 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-L-rhamnopyranose sodium salt, has been carried out from D-glucose and L-rhamnose (Tetrahedron Lett. 1993, 34, 2653), but the process is very long and complicated. A method for more easily producing this compound and in large quantities is necessary for further research. We have succeeded in conveniently synthesizing lepidimoide from okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruit mucilage. At the same time, the isomer (epi-lepidimoide) was obtained as a byproduct. The structure was determined as the 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-6-deoxy-L-glucopyranose sodium salt by spectral analysis. We found that lepidimoide easily epimerized to epi-lepidimoide in alkaline media. Both lepidimoide and epi-lepidimoide exhibited the same high activity in the cockscomb hypocotyls elongation test.

Hirose K; Endo K; Hasegawa K

2004-01-01

329

A convenient synthesis of lepidimoide from okra mucilage and its growth-promoting activity in hypocotyls.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total synthesis of the unsaturated disaccharide, lepidimoide 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-L-rhamnopyranose sodium salt, has been carried out from D-glucose and L-rhamnose (Tetrahedron Lett. 1993, 34, 2653), but the process is very long and complicated. A method for more easily producing this compound and in large quantities is necessary for further research. We have succeeded in conveniently synthesizing lepidimoide from okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruit mucilage. At the same time, the isomer (epi-lepidimoide) was obtained as a byproduct. The structure was determined as the 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-6-deoxy-L-glucopyranose sodium salt by spectral analysis. We found that lepidimoide easily epimerized to epi-lepidimoide in alkaline media. Both lepidimoide and epi-lepidimoide exhibited the same high activity in the cockscomb hypocotyls elongation test. PMID:14659666

Hirose, Katsutoshi; Endo, Keiichiro; Hasegawa, Koji

2004-01-01

330

Persistence and dissipation of readymix formulations of insecticides in/on okra fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dissipation behaviour of ready mix polytrin C 44EC (profenophos 40% + cypermethrin 4%) and spark 36EC (triazophos 35% + deltamethrin 1%) applied at 1 L/ha in okra crop during Kharif in year 2000 was studied at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment. Dissipation on 7th day was found to be maximum (98.4%) for profenophos followed by triazophos (86.2%), cypermethrin (73.5%) and deltamethrin (55.7%). Half life (t1/2) values for the above insecticides were 1.35, 2.55, 4.11 and 7.60 days, respectively. All the insecticides followed a first order kinetics. Profenophos and triazophos followed a biphasic dissipation pattern with faster dissipation in phase I (0-1 days) and manifesting slower rate of dissipation in phase II (1-7 days).

Nath P; Kumari B; Yadav PR; Kathpal TS

2005-08-01

331

Persistence of propargite on okra under subtropical conditions at Ludhiana, Punjab, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Residues of propargite were estimated in okra fruits by high performance liquid chromatography following single application of Omite 57 EC @570 and 1,140 g a.i./ha. Residues of propargite were confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography. The average initial deposits of propargite were observed to be 1.36 and 3.32 mg/kg, respectively, which were below its maximum residue limit of 2 mg/kg. The residue levels of propargite dissipated below its limit of quantification of 0.02 mg/kg after 7 days at single dose and after 10 days at double dose. The half-life values (T ?(/)?) of propargite were worked out to be 0.79 and 0.73 days, respectively, at recommended and double the recommended dosages.

Kang BK; Jyot G; Sharma RK; Battu RS; Singh B

2010-10-01

332

Persistence of new insecticides and their efficacy against insect pests of okra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Persistence and efficacy of bifenthrin (25 and 50 g ai ha(-1)), fipronil (50 and 100 g ai ha(-1)) and indoxacarb (70 and 140 g ai ha(-1)) has been studied in okra fruits. The initial deposits varied from 0.259-0.382 microg g(-1) at low and 0.461-0.688 microg g(-1) at high rate of application. The residues persisted upto 10 days with half-life of 1.32-1.58 days for bifenthrin, 0.65-1.12 days for fipronil and 0.58-1.02 days for indoxacarb. Based on ADI, the suggested waiting period was 1 day for bifenthrin and indoxacarb and 3 days for fipronil. All the insecticides were found effective against leafhopper and shoot and fruit borer.

Gupta S; Sharma RK; Gupta RK; Sinha SR; Singh R; Gajbhiye VT

2009-02-01

333

GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY LIVE MULCH IN SAMARU, ZARIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of theInstitute for Agricultural Research; Ahmadu Bello University Zaria located on latitude11011’N, longitude 7038’E and 686m above sea level in the Northern Guinea SavannahEcological Zone of Nigeria in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons. The objective of thestudy was to compare the yield of okra grown under different weed managementstrategies. The experiment consisted of four treatments namely: control, cucumber,watermelon and pumpkin. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomised blockdesign (RCBD) with three replications. From the results so far obtained, pumpkinsignificantly gave higher mean values in both growth and yield characters measured,whereas the control treatment, significantly gave lower mean values of both growth andyield parameters throughout the period of assessment.

HAMMA, I. L; IBRAHIM, U; YUSUF, S. M.

2012-01-01

334

Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado.RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

Gilmar E. Martinello; Nilton R. Leal; Antônio T. do Amaral Júnior; Messias G. Pereira; Rogério F. Daher

2003-01-01

335

Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD/ Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos (more) empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado. Abstract in english RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction ( (more) PCR) and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

Martinello, Gilmar E.; Leal, Nilton R.; Amaral Júnior, Antônio T. do; Pereira, Messias G.; Daher, Rogério F.

2003-03-01

336

Emulsifying properties of three African food hydrocolloids: okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis), and khan (Belschmiedia sp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the emulsifying properties of okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) and khan (Belschmiedia sp.), three African food hydrocolloids used to thicken and flavor soups. Results showed that khan has an emulsion potential approximately 20 and 100 times higher than the second and the first, respectively. A kinetic study indicated that the mechanism involved formation of thick and strong interfacial gum films around the oil globules, in addition to a high Water Absorption Capacity and weak gelling behavior of khan gum in solution. These results indicated that, when used in soups, which are typical oil/water emulsions, khan contribute both to thickening and stabilizing of the emulsion, whereas okra and dika nut functioned more as thickeners than as emulsion stabilizers. PMID:9629864

Ndjouenkeu, R; Akingbala, J O; Oguntimein, G B

1997-01-01

337

Emulsifying properties of three African food hydrocolloids: okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis), and khan (Belschmiedia sp.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the emulsifying properties of okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) and khan (Belschmiedia sp.), three African food hydrocolloids used to thicken and flavor soups. Results showed that khan has an emulsion potential approximately 20 and 100 times higher than the second and the first, respectively. A kinetic study indicated that the mechanism involved formation of thick and strong interfacial gum films around the oil globules, in addition to a high Water Absorption Capacity and weak gelling behavior of khan gum in solution. These results indicated that, when used in soups, which are typical oil/water emulsions, khan contribute both to thickening and stabilizing of the emulsion, whereas okra and dika nut functioned more as thickeners than as emulsion stabilizers.

Ndjouenkeu R; Akingbala JO; Oguntimein GB

1997-01-01

338

Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo/ Periods of weed interference in okra crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE), com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com (more) maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo. Abstract in english Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE) with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and (more) Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

Bachega, L.P.S; Carvalho, L.B; Bianco, S; Cecílio Filho, A.B

2013-03-01

339

Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE), com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE) with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

L.P.S Bachega; L.B Carvalho; S Bianco; A.B Cecílio Filho

2013-01-01

340

SEED PRIMING  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for treating plant seed is provided comprising contacting them with a first surface of semi-permeable membrane (2) having first and second surfaces, the second surface being in direct contact with a solution of predetermined osmotic potential (5), whereby the seeds (6) abstract water from the solution through the membrane (2), wherein the seed (6) and semi-permeable membrane (2) are constantly or periodically caused to move relative to each other such as to constantly or periodically reorient the seed (6) with respect to the first surface such that the transfer of water occurs evenly over substantially the entire surface area of the seed. For seed priming the osmotic pressure and the period for which the seeds (6) are maintained in contact with the membrane (2) are sufficient to allow pre-germinative metabolic processes to take place within the seeds up to a level limited to that immediately preceding radicle emergence. Methods for germinating seed and inducing desiccation tolerance in seed are also provided. Preferably the semi-permeable membrane (2) is provided in the form of a tube of circular or polygonal cross section which is rotated with the seeds (6) on its inner surface and the solution retained between its outer surface and a further body to which the membrane is sealed in a watertight manner.

ROWSE Hugh Robert; MCKEE John Michael Terence

 
 
 
 
341

Seed priming  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PCT No. PCT/GB95/02188 Sec. 371 Date Mar. 17, 1997 Sec. 102(e) Date Mar. 17, 1997 PCT Filed Sep. 15, 1995 PCT Pub. No. WO96/08132 PCT Pub. Date Mar. 21, 1996A method for treating plant seed is provided comprising contacting them with a first surface of semi-permeable membrane having first and second surfaces, the second surface being in direct contact with a solution of predetermined osmotic potential, whereby the seeds abstract water from the solution through the membrane, wherein the seed and semi-permeable membrane are constantly or periodically caused to move relative to each other such as to constantly or periodically reorient the seed with respect to the first surface such that the transfer of water occurs evenly over substantially the entire surface area of the seed. For seed priming the osmotic pressure and the period for which the seeds are maintained in contact with the membrane are sufficient to allow pre-germinative metabolic processes to take place within the seeds up to a level limited to that immediately preceding radicle emergence. Methods for germinating seed and inducing desiccation tolerance in seed are also provided. Preferably the semi-permeable membrane is provided in the form of a tube of circular or polygonal cross-section which is rotated with the seeds on its inner surface and the solution retained between its outer surface and a further body to which the membrane is sealed in a watertight manner.

ROWSE HUGH ROBERT; MCKEE JOHN MICHAEL TERENCE

342

Hepatoprotective evaluation of the total flavonoids extracted from flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic: In vitro and in vivo studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The decoction of the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic is traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice and various types of chronic and acute hepatitis in Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces of China. Phytochemical studies have indicated that total flavonoids extracted from flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic (TFA) were the major constituents of the flowers. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the plant extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and liver injury in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the in vitro studies, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were exposed to CCl4 (1%) along with/without various concentrations of TFA (4.5-72mg/L). Cell damage was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion method and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the medium were analyzed. In the in vivo studies, the hepatoprotective activity of TFA (125, 250 and 500mg/kg) were investigated on CCl4-induced liver damages in mice. The levels of ALT, AST and ALP, gamma glutamyltransferase (?-GT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined in serum. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione transferase (GST) were measured in the liver homogenates. Cytokine transcript levels of TNF-?, IL-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver tissues of mice were measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Livers were dissected out and evaluated for histomorphological changes. RESULTS: A concentration-dependent increase in the percentage viability was observed when CCl4-exposed hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of TFA. Levels of ALT, AST and ALP in the medium were significantly decreased. In the animal studies, TFA showed significant protection with the depletion of ALT, AST, ALP and ?-GT in serum as was raised by the induction of CCl4. Moreover, TFA decreased the MDA level and elevated the content of GSH in the liver as compared to those in the CCl4 group. Furthermore, activities of antioxidative enzymes, including SOD, GPx, CAT and GST, were enhanced dose dependently with TFA. Meanwhile, the inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF-?, IL-1? and NO) were inhibited by TFA treatment both at the serum and mRNA levels. Additionally, histological analyses also showed that TFA reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl4. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that TFA protected mice against CCl4-induced liver injury through antioxidant stress and antiinflammatory effects. This finding justified the use of this plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease.

Ai G; Liu Q; Hua W; Huang Z; Wang D

2013-04-01

343

Microbial, Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Traditional Sundried Okra (Orunla) in Selected Markets in South-Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial load and evaluate the nutritional content and sensory property of traditional sun dried okra (“orunla” - Yoruba, Nigeria). Samples were purchased from four different markets at different time in South-western Nigeria. Microorganisms present in the samples were analyzed on nutrient agar, potato dextrose agar and malt extract. Proximate evaluation of the sun dried okra was also carried out to determine the protein, ascorbic acid, ash and crude fibre contents. Nutritional evaluation revealed considerable amount of measured nutrient without significant difference (p>0.05) inspite of the time and place of purchase. Sensory evaluation of the samples showed that they were generally acceptable to a taste panel. Microbial study identified Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergills tamari, Fusarium compactum, Rhizopus nigricans and Bacillus lichiniforms as some of the microorganisms present in the sun-dried vegetable. This study thus, suggested that sun-dried okra could be consumed but when processed under control microbial condition.

A.K. Arise; R.O. Arise; A.A. Akintola; O.A. Idowu; O.C. Aworh

2012-01-01

344

Characterization of the okra mucilage by interaction with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bio-active polysaccharide, which was the major component of the extract of the common okra, Hibiscus esculentus, was isolated from the extract by precipitation with ethanol between 28.5 to 45%. According to a previous report (Whistler, R.L. and Conrad, H.E. (1954) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1673-1674), this polysaccharide contains the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal sequence, which is the ligand for the uropathogenic Escherichia coli and toxic lectins. Analysis of the binding property of the okra polysaccharide by precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins showed that this okra mucilage reacted best with Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I) and precipitated over 80% of the ML-I nitrogen (5.1 micrograms N) added. It also precipitated well with Abrus precatorius (APA), Momordica charantia (MCA) and Ricinus communis (RCA1) agglutinins, but poorly with other lectins. The results obtained suggest that this polysaccharide is a valuable reagent to differentiate Gal specific lectins from the GalNAc and/or GlcNAc specific series.

Wu AM; Jiang YJ; Hwang PY; Shen FS

1995-02-01

345

Characterization of the okra mucilage by interaction with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bio-active polysaccharide, which was the major component of the extract of the common okra, Hibiscus esculentus, was isolated from the extract by precipitation with ethanol between 28.5 to 45%. According to a previous report (Whistler, R.L. and Conrad, H.E. (1954) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1673-1674), this polysaccharide contains the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal sequence, which is the ligand for the uropathogenic Escherichia coli and toxic lectins. Analysis of the binding property of the okra polysaccharide by precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins showed that this okra mucilage reacted best with Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I) and precipitated over 80% of the ML-I nitrogen (5.1 micrograms N) added. It also precipitated well with Abrus precatorius (APA), Momordica charantia (MCA) and Ricinus communis (RCA1) agglutinins, but poorly with other lectins. The results obtained suggest that this polysaccharide is a valuable reagent to differentiate Gal specific lectins from the GalNAc and/or GlcNAc specific series. PMID:7873558

Wu, A M; Jiang, Y J; Hwang, P Y; Shen, F S

1995-02-23

346

New Matrix Tablet from Okra Gum: Effects of Method of Preparation and Gum Concentration on Tablet Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of methods of preparation and concentration of gum on the compressional and mechanical properties of Okra gum matrix. The compressional behavior of Okra gum matrices prepared by direct compression and wet granulations is analyzed using density measurements, Heckel and Kawakita analysis while the mechanical properties of the formulations were assessed using crushing strength (CS) and friability (FR) as well as CSFR ratio. Formulations prepared by direct compression had lower Pk values than those prepared by wet granulation while there was no significant difference between Py values of formulations prepared by direct compression and wet granulations. Therefore, formulations prepared by direct compression underwent plastic deformation more easily and rapidly than those prepared by wet granulation. The results show that DB values increased with decrease in concentration of the gum and granules undergo higher degree of fragmentation than powders. Formulations containing 90% w/w Okra gum exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation and gave the best packing. Tablets prepared by direct compression showed lower bond strength and higher friability values than those prepared by wet granulations. The crushing strength generally decreases with a decrease in the concentration of the gum while there was an inverse relationship between friability and gum concentration. CSFR decreases with a decrease in gum concentration and tablets prepared by wet granulations showed significantly higher values of CSFR (p

Bakre Lateef Gbenga; Abimbola Zulikha

2013-01-01

347

Fenvalerate (alpha-cyano-m-phenoxy-benzyl alpha-isopropyl-p-chlorophenyl acetate) residues in and on okra fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra crop was sprayed with sumicidin 20E (Fenvalerate 20% EC) at the rate of 300 ml/ha (C1), 375 ml/ha (C2) and 500 ml/ha (C3). Residues in fruit samples were determined by gas chromatography (Hewlett Packard 5890 A) at different time intervals to establish the safe waiting period for Fenvalerate. The initial deposits of Fenvalerate on okra fruits for C1, C2 and C3 were 1.4 ppm, 2.8 ppm and 4.5 ppm, respectively. Seven days after spraying, the initial deposits of C1, C2 and C3 decreased to 0.03 ppm, 0.05 ppm and 0.67 ppm, respectively. The residue values of Fenvalerate on okra fruits 7 days after spraying were below the tolerance limit (0.2 ppm; Anonymous, 1978; FAO, 1980) for C1 and C2, but above it in the case of C3. Ten days after spraying, the residue values of C1, C2 and C3 were below the tolerance limit.

Jain RK

1996-09-01

348

Moisture retention and consumer acceptability of chocolate bar cookies prepared with okra gum as a fat ingredient substitute.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low dietary fat intake may reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis. This study determined the feasibility of using okra gum as a fat replacer in chocolate bar cookies. Fat-free cookies were prepared with okra gum (OK) or applesauce (AP), replacing margarine and egg yolk in high-fat cookies (CTL). The moisture content of cookies was determined by using a drying oven. The moisture contents of fresh OK (28.3+/-0.4%) and AP (27.6+1.1%) cookies were higher than CTL (8.5+/-0.3%) and remained higher after 48 hours (P<.001)(n=3). Fifty-two consumers evaluated the quality of cookies using a hedonic scale. Sensory scores for color, smell, flavor, aftertaste, moistness, and overall acceptability for fresh cookies were acceptable, yet lower for flavor and aftertaste in fat-free cookies than CTL (P<.01). After 48 hours, moistness ratings for fat-free cookies were acceptable and higher than CTL (P<.01). Okra gum is an acceptable fat replacer in chocolate bar cookies.

Romanchik-Cerpovicz JE; Tilmon RW; Baldree KA

2002-09-01

349

Inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 95% EtOH extract from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic showed inhibitory activity on TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Chemical studies on the active fraction led to the isolation of 14 flavonoids (1-14). To clarify the multi-mechanism of the isolates on preadipocyte differentiation, the levels of TG and FFA and the related role transcription factors (PPAR?, CEBP/?, and ap2) expression were evaluated. At the concentration of 30 ?M, compounds 1-6 and 10-14 showed inhibitory activity on TG accumulation significantly in mature 3T3-L1 cells. 1, 2, 4-7, 9, 10, 13, and 14 reduced the level of FFA. At the molecular level, the mRNA expressions of PPAR?, CEBP/?, and ap2 were down-regulated by compounds 1, 5, 9, 12, 13; 1-8, 10-14; and 1-4, 6, 8-12, 14, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of the 14 flavonoids were also discussed. PMID:21281705

An, Yating; Zhang, Yi; Li, Chunmei; Qian, Qian; He, Wei; Wang, Tao

2011-01-31

350

Inhibitory effect of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic on NMDA receptor-mediated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The modulatory effect of Total Flavone of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic (TFA) on NMDA-activated current (I(NMDA)) was investigated in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. TFA rapidly and reversibly inhibited the I(NMDA) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, TFA non-competitively inhibited the I(NMDA) by enhancement of the NMDA receptor desensitization. In addition, intracellular application of TFA did not alter the TFA inhibition of I(NMDA). These results suggest that the inhibition of the NMDA receptor response by TFA could be one of the mechanisms for TFA-mediated neuroprotective actions. PMID:16616791

Cheng, Xin-Ping; Qin, Song; Dong, Liu-Yi; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

2006-04-17

351

Inhibitory effect of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic on NMDA receptor-mediated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The modulatory effect of Total Flavone of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic (TFA) on NMDA-activated current (I(NMDA)) was investigated in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. TFA rapidly and reversibly inhibited the I(NMDA) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, TFA non-competitively inhibited the I(NMDA) by enhancement of the NMDA receptor desensitization. In addition, intracellular application of TFA did not alter the TFA inhibition of I(NMDA). These results suggest that the inhibition of the NMDA receptor response by TFA could be one of the mechanisms for TFA-mediated neuroprotective actions.

Cheng XP; Qin S; Dong LY; Zhou JN

2006-06-01

352

Fast and automated characterization of major constituents in rat biofluid after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MetaboLynx.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In drug metabolism research, the setting up of a complex series of mass spectrometry experiments and the subsequent analysis of the large amounts of data produced are often time-consuming. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOFMS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Rat plasma and urine samples collected 1 h and 0-12 h after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot were analyzed by UPLC/QTOFMS within 15 min. The post-acquisition data were processed using MetaboLynx. With key parameters carefully set, MetaboLynx is able to show the presence of a wide range of metabolites with only a limited requirement for manual intervention and data interpretation time. A total of 16 and 38 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine compared with blank samples. The results indicated that methylation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot which will be helpful for fully understanding the mechanism of action of this herb. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC/QTOFMS approach using MetaboLynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites from Chinese herbal medicines.

Guo J; Shang EX; Duan JA; Tang Y; Qian D; Su S

2010-02-01

353

Fast and automated characterization of major constituents in rat biofluid after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MetaboLynx.  

Science.gov (United States)

In drug metabolism research, the setting up of a complex series of mass spectrometry experiments and the subsequent analysis of the large amounts of data produced are often time-consuming. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOFMS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Rat plasma and urine samples collected 1 h and 0-12 h after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot were analyzed by UPLC/QTOFMS within 15 min. The post-acquisition data were processed using MetaboLynx. With key parameters carefully set, MetaboLynx is able to show the presence of a wide range of metabolites with only a limited requirement for manual intervention and data interpretation time. A total of 16 and 38 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine compared with blank samples. The results indicated that methylation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot which will be helpful for fully understanding the mechanism of action of this herb. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC/QTOFMS approach using MetaboLynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites from Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:20069688

Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan

2010-02-01

354

Seed proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rather than providing a single specific protocol, the inclusive area of seed proteomics is reviewed; methods are described and compared and primary literature citations are provided. The limitations and challenges of proteomics as an approach to study seed biology are emphasized. The proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a composite? The physiological status of the seeds must be considered; developing, mature, or germinating? If mature, are they quiescent or dormant? If mature and quiescent, then orthodox or recalcitrant? The genetic uniformity of the population of seeds being compared must be considered. Finally, seeds are protein-rich and the extreme abundance of the storage proteins results in a study-subject with a dynamic range that spans several orders of magnitude. This represents a problem that must be dealt with if the study involves analysis of proteins that are of "normal" to low abundance. Several different methods of prefractionation are described and the results compared. PMID:24136535

Miernyk, Ján A

2014-01-01

355

Seed proteomics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rather than providing a single specific protocol, the inclusive area of seed proteomics is reviewed; methods are described and compared and primary literature citations are provided. The limitations and challenges of proteomics as an approach to study seed biology are emphasized. The proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a composite? The physiological status of the seeds must be considered; developing, mature, or germinating? If mature, are they quiescent or dormant? If mature and quiescent, then orthodox or recalcitrant? The genetic uniformity of the population of seeds being compared must be considered. Finally, seeds are protein-rich and the extreme abundance of the storage proteins results in a study-subject with a dynamic range that spans several orders of magnitude. This represents a problem that must be dealt with if the study involves analysis of proteins that are of "normal" to low abundance. Several different methods of prefractionation are described and the results compared.

Miernyk JA

2014-01-01

356

Scattering Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students will: 1) Investigate how seeds are dispersed. 2) Understand the variety of seed dispersal that exists in the plant kingdom. 3) Understand how factors in the natural environment can effect how far a seed is dispersed. Included in this one to two day lesson plan are the objectives, needed materials, procedures, adaptations for older students, discussion questions, an evaluation, extensions, suggested reading, links to other sites, vocabulary, and academic standards. Students will collect a variety of seeds and design a wind-dispersed seed mechanism. They can click on a vocabulary word to hear its pronunciation and a sentence using the word. Teachers can purchase the video, The Private Life of Plants 5-Pack (Branching Out) and download comprehension questions and answers. They can link to Teaching Tools to create custom worksheets, puzzles, and quizzes. A printable version of this lesson plan can be downloaded.

Discoveryschool.com; Cahill, Mary

2007-01-01

357

Field Efficacy of CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis Biopesticide to Control Helicoverpa armigera (H?bner) and Earias vitella (Fabricius) in Okra Crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis formulation and two other commercial Bt formulations (Agree and Larvo Bt) were tested on Okra fields to control two lepidopteran pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vitella. CAMB Bt formulation was tested from 250-g/h dose to 1500 g/h dose to see the efficacy against target insect pests. Commercial Bt formulations, Agree and Larvo Bt were used as standard with one dose of 1000 g/h. All microbial insecticides successfully controlled H. armigera and E. vitella larvae in okra field. The efficacy of locally developed Bt formulation was promising in comparison to Agree and Larvo BT.

Shahid Karim; Ahmad Usman Zafar; Idrees Ahmad Nasir; Sheikh Riazuddin

2000-01-01

358

Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

2012-01-01

359

Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of okra pod hydrocolloid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed to extract the hydrocolloid from okra pods (OPH). The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction of OPH were determined by response surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (microwave power (X1: 100-500w), extraction time (X2: 30-90min), and extraction temperature (X3: 40-90 (o)C)) on the extraction yield of OPH. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the microwave extraction of OPH. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest recovery of OPH (14.911±0.27%) were as follows: microwave power, 395.56W; extraction time, 67.11min and extraction temperature, 73.33 (o)C. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed with the predicted ones by analysis of variance. It indicated high fitness of the model used and the success of response surface methodology for optimizing OPH extraction. After method development, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the OPH was evaluated. MAE showed obvious advantages in terms of high extraction efficiency and radical scavenging activity of extract within the shorter extraction time.

Samavati V

2013-06-01

360

Regulation of neurotoxin and protease formation in Clostridium botulinum Okra B and Hall A by arginine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supplementation of a minimal medium with high levels of arginine (20 g/liter) markedly decreased neurotoxin titers and protease activities in cultures of Clostridium botulinum Okra B and Hall A. Nitrogenous nutrients that are known to be derived from arginine, including proline, glutamate, and ammonia, also decreased protease and toxin but less so than did arginine. Proteases synthesized during growth were rapidly inactivated after growth stopped in media containing high levels of arginine. Separation of extracellular proteins by electrophoresis and immunoblots with antibodies to toxin showed that the decrease in toxin titers in media containing high levels of arginine was caused by both reduced synthesis of protoxin and impaired proteolytic activation. In contrast, certain other nutritional conditions stimulated protease and toxin formation in C. botulinum and counteracted the repression by arginine. Supplementation of the minimal medium with casein or casein hydrolysates increased protease activities and toxin titers. Casein supplementation of a medium containing high levels of arginine prevented protease inactivation. High levels of glucose (50 g/liter) also delayed the inactivation of proteases in both the minimal medium and a medium containing high levels of arginine. These observations suggest that the availability of nitrogen and energy sources, particularly arginine, affects the production and proteolytic processing of toxins and proteases in C. botulinum.

Patterson-Curtis SI; Johnson EA

1989-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of okra pod hydrocolloid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed to extract the hydrocolloid from okra pods (OPH). The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction of OPH were determined by response surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (microwave power (X1: 100-500W), extraction time (X2: 30-90min), and extraction temperature (X3: 40-90°C)) on the extraction yield of OPH. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the microwave extraction of OPH. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest recovery of OPH (14.911±0.27%) were as follows: microwave power, 395.56W; extraction time, 67.11min and extraction temperature, 73.33°C. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed with the predicted ones by analysis of variance. It indicated high fitness of the model used and the success of response surface methodology for optimizing OPH extraction. After method development, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the OPH was evaluated. MAE showed obvious advantages in terms of high extraction efficiency and radical scavenging activity of extract within the shorter extraction time. PMID:23817104

Samavati, Vahid

2013-06-29

362

Release of indomethacin from bioadhesive tablets containing carbopol 941 modified with Abelmuschus esculentus (okra) gum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carbopol 941 (C-941) and Abelmuschus esculentus gum (Okra gum, AEG) were used as bioadhesive polymers in the formulation of mucoadhesive indomethacin tablets. Different batches of the tablet compacts were formulated based on different combination ratios of the polymers. The bioadhesive properties of the tablets were studied using a tensiometer: Tablets coated with 50% w/v solution of Eudragit I. 100 in ethanol, were also prepared and evaluated. The following tablet physical properties were evaluated: hardness, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, friability, and absolute drug content. Release studies were determined in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF pH 7.2) without pancreatin, and in 0.1 N solution of HCl. Result obtained indicated that tablets with equal ratio of C-941 and AEG (1:1) gave the highest bioadhesive strength for both the coated and uncoated tablets. The percentage of drug released ranged from 53-90% for uncoated tablets in 0.1 N HCl and SIF, and 9-16% for coated tablets in 0.1 N HCl, and 63-100% for coated tablets in SIF after 8 hrs.

Attama AA; Adikwu MU; Amorha CJ

2003-09-01

363

The OKRA leaf shape mutation in cotton is active in all cell layers of the leaf.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Okra (L2O) is a semidominant mutation of cotton (Gossypium barbadense) that alters leaf shape by increasing the length of lobes and decreasing lamina expansion. Chimeras containing L2O and wild-type tissue were generated using Semigamy (Se), a mutation that blocks syngamy during fertilization and produces haploid maternal/paternal chimeral progeny at low frequency. In sectorial chimeras, changes in leaf morphology coincide with the boundary between mutant and wild-type tissues, suggesting that L2O does not regulate a laterally diffusible factor within the leaf. However, in mericlinal or periclinal chimeras, the presence of L2O in tissue derived from any of the three histogenic layers (L1, L2, or L3) of the shoot apical meristem produced leaves with a partial mutant phenotype. The presence of L2O in the epidermis (an L1 derivative), or in the subepidermal mesophyll of the leaf (L2 derivatives) reduced the growth of the lamina and thus increased the depth of leaf lobes. The presence of L2O in the middle mesophyll of the lamina and the vasculature of major lateral veins (L3 derivatives) had no local effect on the expansion of the lamina, but significantly increased lobe length. These results demonstrate that L2O is active in every tissue layer of the leaf.

Dolan L; Poethig R

1998-03-01

364

Effect of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Germination and Growth Performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench—A Widely Cultivated Vegetable Crop in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of crude oil-contaminated soil on the germination and growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus, a widely cultivated vegetable crop in Nigeria. The experiment was conducted in the Screen House, under controlled environmental conditions. The seedling emergence percentage, heights and girths were studied to determine the growth performance of the crop in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the investigation revealed that the crude oil-contaminated soil affects the growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. as hindered germination, reduced heights and girths were observed in the crop planted in treated soil and this adversely and severely affects the crop agronomic growth and development and probably its yield. Therefore, contamination of agricultural soils with crude oil should be avoided and public awareness should be created on the detrimental effects of crude oil pollution in our terrestrial ecosystem. Innovative and environmental-friendly remediation strategies should be carried out on our agricultural soils that have been grossly polluted by crude oil exploitation and exploration.

A. A. Oyedeji; A. O. Adebiyi; M. A. Omotoyinbo; C. O. Ogunkunle

2012-01-01

365

Degradation dynamics and persistence of Quinolphos and Methomyl in/on Okra (Ablemoschus esculentus) fruits and cropped soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dissipation of Quinalphos (Ekalux 20 AF) and Methomyl (Lannate 12.5 L) residues were studied in/on Okra (var. Pusa Sawani) fruits and cropped soil at Baruipur, West Bengal, India. The insecticides were applied at 21 days after sowing by foliar spray at the recommended and double the recommended dose (i.e. 500 and 1,000 g a.i. ha(-1) in both the cases). Four sprays were given at 15 days interval in all the cases. The initial build-up residue on Okra fruits was to the magnitude of 3.20 and 7.50 microg g(-1) for Quinalphos, 5.61 and 8.42 microg g(-1) for Methomyl at lower and higher doses respectively. The half-lives (t(1/2)) in Okra fruit were found to be 1.25-1.43 days for Quinalphos and 0.88-0.94 days for Methomyl. The safe waiting period (T(MRL)) determined were 6.7 and 5.3 days at the lower dose of Quinalphos. The corresponding waiting period for Methomyl were 5.7 and 4.9 days. Decontamination process like washing and cooking dislodged 25.50%-81.50% residue depending on insecticides and doses, whereas 20.00%-69.60% surface residue was removed by washing alone. The residues of both insecticides in soil persisted for 6-8 days depending on dose. The half-lives in soil were found to be 1.07-1.20 days for Quinalphos and 0.97-1.25 days for Methomyl.

Aktar MW; Sengupta D; Chowdhury A

2008-01-01

366

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo/ Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo foram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido), tempo de centrifugação e tipo de emb (more) alagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC) por oito dias). Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1%) durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilization of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid), time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene va (more) cuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC) during eight days). On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1%) used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto G.; Yaguiu, Paula; Reinoso, Anita Caroline L.; Almeida, Gláucia Regina de O.; Lira, Moema L.; Silva, Gabriel Francisco da; Jalali, Vahideh R.R.

2005-12-01

367

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo foram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido), tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC) por oito dias). Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1%) durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento.This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilization of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid), time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC) during eight days). On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1%) used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi; Paula Yaguiu; Anita Caroline L. Reinoso; Gláucia Regina de O. Almeida; Moema L. Lira; Gabriel Francisco da Silva; Vahideh R.R. Jalali

2005-01-01

368

Stabilising turbidity in fruit juices having lipid component, e.g. sea buckthorn berry juice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Process for stabilising the turbidity in juices, cordials and drinks having at least one lipid containing component, especially sea buckthorn berry juice, pulp or macerate, comprises adding at least 3 % pressed juice, extracted juice (calculated as pressed juice), undiluted pulp and/or macerate of fruit of the Okra belonging to the Malvaceae ( Hibiscus esculentus, Abelmoschus esculentus, Moench or Hibiscus abelmoschus).

HEILSCHER KARL PROF DR

369

Improvement of the in vitro digestible iron and zinc content of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) sauce widely consumed in Sahelian Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the formulation (okra, fish, soumbala, extract of wood ash) and cooking time of okra sauce on total iron and zinc content and on their in vitro digestibility were evaluated following a Doehlert uniform shell design with 5 factors and 33 trials. Cooking time had no significant effect on in vitro digestible iron and zinc content, whereas formulation did. Each ingredient had a specific effect. Extract of wood ash, which is a source of soluble and digestible iron and zinc, is a good way of increasing the digestible mineral content of the dish. Okra, the main ingredient in this sauce, has a negative effect and should be added in moderate quantities (< 37.7% of the DM of the sauce). An optimization using the desirability function allows us to identify the optimal recipe that enabled the quantity of digestible iron to be doubled and the quantity of digestible zinc to be increased by one third. This recipe calls for a mixture of 37.7% okra, 26.3% dried fish, 18.5% soumbala, and 3.7% extract of wood ash cooked for 25 min. PMID:17995857

Avallone, Sylvie; Bohuon, Philippe; Hemery, Youna; Treche, Serge

2007-03-01

370

Improvement of the in vitro digestible iron and zinc content of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) sauce widely consumed in Sahelian Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of the formulation (okra, fish, soumbala, extract of wood ash) and cooking time of okra sauce on total iron and zinc content and on their in vitro digestibility were evaluated following a Doehlert uniform shell design with 5 factors and 33 trials. Cooking time had no significant effect on in vitro digestible iron and zinc content, whereas formulation did. Each ingredient had a specific effect. Extract of wood ash, which is a source of soluble and digestible iron and zinc, is a good way of increasing the digestible mineral content of the dish. Okra, the main ingredient in this sauce, has a negative effect and should be added in moderate quantities (< 37.7% of the DM of the sauce). An optimization using the desirability function allows us to identify the optimal recipe that enabled the quantity of digestible iron to be doubled and the quantity of digestible zinc to be increased by one third. This recipe calls for a mixture of 37.7% okra, 26.3% dried fish, 18.5% soumbala, and 3.7% extract of wood ash cooked for 25 min.

Avallone S; Bohuon P; Hemery Y; Treche S

2007-03-01

371

Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L) in a Sub-tropical Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L) is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) where 2.3.2 (22) an inorganic fertilizer was used as a control, and was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level of kraal manure there were significant (p<0.05) increases in all the growth parameters that were measured. There were also significant (p<0.05) differences of fresh mass and dry mass yield of wild okra. There was an increase in fresh and dry mass yield with every increase in application level of kraal manure while the least fresh and dry mass was recorded in plants provided with 2.3.2 (22). Kraal manure applied at 60 ton/ha gave the highest yield of wild okra under the conditions of this experiment.

Michael T. Masarirambi; Nkululeko Sibandze; Paul K. Wahome; Tajudeen O. Oseni

2012-01-01

372

Formulation of Okra-natural Mucilage as Drag Reducing Agent in Different Size of Galvanized Iron Pipes in Turbulent Water Flowing System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of pumping power losses in pipelines carrying liquids and flowing in turbulent mode is one of the major challenges in the power saving field. Pumping power saving by the addition of minute quantities of additives to the main flow was applied in the present study. Natural drag reducing agent was prepared and extracted from okra fruit and it was tested in a closed loop of turbulence water flowing system. Flow tests were conducted using water as the carrying liquid. The experimental work starts by pumping water from reservoir tank that had mixed with mucilage was pumped with six different flow rates in two different pipe diameters (0.015, 0.025 m ID). The types of pipe used are galvanized iron pipe. The testing length of this flow system is 1.5 m. The aim of this study is to formulate and to test the efficiency of okra-natural mucilage as drag reducer agent on transport of water in pipes; different concentrations of mucilage (100, 300, 500, 700 and 1000 ppm) were used. Six different flow rates were used in the purpose to investigate the flow rates effect. The efficiency of mucilage was tested using clear water. The results shows that, percentage drag reduction (Dr%) increases by increasing the concentration of okra-natural mucilage. Maximum Dr% of 71% was obtained using 1000 ppm of okra-natural mucilage in water flow system.

H.A. Abdul Bari; M.A. Ahmad; R.B.M. Yunus

2010-01-01

373