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Sample records for okra seed abelmoschus

  1. Nutritional evaluation of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proximate, functional properties, in-vitro multi enzyme protein digestibility and amino acid compositions of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds were evaluated. the ash, moisture, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate of the okra seeds were: 4.8%, 13.5%, 39.9%, 8.82%, 26.4% and 6.62%, respectively. the water and oil absorption capacities were: 220% and 200% which makes okra seeds exhibit a high water retention capacity. the least gelation concentration was 8% while, emulsion capacity was 45.5% and foaming capacity and stability were: 12% and 2%, respectively. the in vitro protein digestibility was 69.3%. glutamic acid was the most concentrated amino acid (121.1 mg/g crude protein) while, cystine (10.0 mg/g crude protein) was the least concentrated amino acid. the total amino acid was 706 mg/g crude protein. (author)

  2. Micorrización de okra (abelmoschus esculentus l. en riego por goteo

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    Manuel Alvarado Carrillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA Glomus intraradices en la productividad de okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. var. ?Clemson Spineless? en condiciones semiáridas y bajo un sistema de riego por goteo. En 2002 y 2003 se comparó la altura de planta (AP, colonización micorrízica (CM y el rendimiento comercial de fruto (RCF, en plantas originadas de semillas, con o sin la inoculación micorrízica. En 2003 el riego fue con agua con alta concentración de sales (conductividad eléctrica de 3000 mS cm-1. En 2004 se evaluó el índice de clorofila (IC, la AP y el RFC, en plantas de okra de los tratamientos: semilla inoculada con el HMA, con fertilización química (120N-50P-00K, con la combinación del HMA en semilla más 50 % de la fertilización química y el testigo. En 2002 y 2003 se registraron incrementos significativos del HMA en CM y RFC, con relación al testigo. Con agua de riego salina en 2003, se observaron mayores valores de CM y RFC cuando se inoculó con G. intraradices. En 2004 los tratamientos no influyeron significativamente en IC ni en AP; no obstante, en RFC los tratamientos HMA, fertilización química y HMA más 50 % de fertilización, superaron al testigo. Los resultados muestran que G. intraradices aumentó el RFC de okra durante los tres años en el sistema de riego por goteo. El efecto benéfico de la simbiosis con el HMA como promotor del rendimiento de fruto de okra, combinado con el sistema de riego por goteo, pueden representar un manejo de producción eficiente para regiones semiáridas.

  3. Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. B, Adewole; A. O, Ilesanmi.

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from [...] the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p

  4. Genetic Variability and Diversity in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Pradip K Akotkar, D. K. And A. K. Pal

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of some yield contributingcharacters, and the genetic diversity in fifty genotypes of okra collected from the NBPGR New Delhi, India. Analysis ofvariance indicated significant difference among the genotypes for different morphological characters. High values of GCV,PCV, heritability and genetic advance (% of mean) observed for number of fruiting nodes, number of ridges per fruit, plantheight and number o...

  5. Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Thirupathi Reddy Medagam; Haribabu Kadiyala; Ganesh Mutyala; Begum Hameedunnisa

    2012-01-01

    The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Mahyco Hybrid N° 10) w...

  6. Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B Adewole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR, NPK (IO, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY or no soil amendment as the control (CT] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05 higher nutrient uptake [N (0.0034 mg kg-1, K (0.0160 mg kg-1, Na (0.9753 mg kg-1, Ca (0.0130 mg kg-1 and Cu (0.01136 mg kg-1] in the okra roots than in the other treatments, yet the significantly (p < 0.05 highest uptake of P (0.0012 mg kg-1 was obtained with the MY treatment. Lower values of these nutrient contents were obtained in the shoots. The control treatment gave the significantly highest values of crude fibre (27.33% and total ash (14.05%, as compared to the other treatments, whereas the other nutritional properties obtained showed no significant difference among any of the treatments. The results indicated that high-quality okra pods could be effectively produced with no soil amendment when planted in soils with a high fertility, such as those treated with sewage sludge.

  7. Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

    2014-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

  8. The okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) transcriptome as a source for gene sequence information and molecular markers for diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafleitner, Roland; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Chen-Yu; Hegde, Satish Gajanana; Ebert, Andreas

    2013-03-15

    A combined leaf and pod transcriptome of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) has been produced by RNA sequencing and short read assembly. More than 150,000 unigenes were obtained, comprising some 46 million base pairs of sequence information. More than 55% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The okra transcriptome sequences were mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 935 non-redundant SSR motifs identified in the unigene set, 199 were chosen for testing in a germplasm set, resulting in 161 polymorphic SSR markers. From this set, 19 markers were selected for a diversity analysis on 65 okra accessions comprising three different species, revealing 58 different genotypes and resulted in clustering of the accessions according to species and geographic origin. The okra gene sequence information and the marker resource are made available to the research community for functional genomics and breeding research. PMID:23299025

  9. Genetic Variability and Diversity in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip K. Akotkar, D.K. De and A.K. Pal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of some yield contributingcharacters, and the genetic diversity in fifty genotypes of okra collected from the NBPGR New Delhi, India. Analysis ofvariance indicated significant difference among the genotypes for different morphological characters. High values of GCV,PCV, heritability and genetic advance (% of mean observed for number of fruiting nodes, number of ridges per fruit, plantheight and number of fruiting nodes indicated these characters might be controlled by additive genes. On the basis of D2analysis, the 50 genotypes could be grouped into 5 clusters. Cluster I had the highest number of genotypes (45 followed bycluster II (2. Remaining clusters were monogenotypic. Plant height had the highest contribution towards the total geneticdivergence. The highest intra-cluster distances were recorded in cluster I followed by cluster II. The maximum inter-clusterdistance was recorded between cluster IV and cluster II, followed by cluster V and cluster II. Among the 50 genotypes, IC-332454 showed the highest cluster mean for fruit yield per plant and number of fruits per plant. The genotypes which were inthe cluster V, III and II also exhibited significant performance for fruit yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and plantheight sequentially. On the basis of groupings of individual genotypes into different clusters, contribution of individualcharacter towards total genetic divergence, inter-cluster distance and cluster mean, the genotypes such as IC-9856B, IC-331157, IC-342075, IC-332453 and IC-43736 were found promising for using in the hybridization programme.

  10. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moenchwere studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248, P2(IC27826-A, P3(IC29119-B, P4(IC31398-A, P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819, P7(IC89976, P8(IC90107, P9(IC99716 andP10(IC111443 during mid kharif (July-October, 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819 and P7(IC89976 were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716, C17(IC27826-A × IC111443, C42(IC89976 × IC111443 were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443 and (IC27826-A × IC89819 having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize additive gene action to develop high yielding lines or varieties in okra.

  11. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. PMID:25929197

  12. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (PC/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra. PMID:17336057

  13. Producción y tecnología de la Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) en el noreste de México / Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and technology in northeastern Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo, Díaz Franco; Jesús, Loera Gallardo; Enrique, Rosales Robles; Manuel, Alvarado Carrillo; Sergio, Ayvar Serna.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En México la okra es una hortaliza no tradicional cuya producción oscila de 4 000 a 7 000 ha anuales y rendimiento medio de 10 t ha-1, se destina para el mercado de exportación hacia Estados Unidos de América. Los principales estados productores son Morelos, Michoacán, Guerrero y Tamaulipas; éste úl [...] timo cuenta con la mayor área productora de 5 000 ha. Además de ser un cultivo generador de divisas y rentable, la okra representa una fuente de empleo. La investigación sobre el cultivo de la okra se inició afínales de ladécadade los ochenta. La calidad de fruto es determinante para su comercialización; se prefiere fruto de textura suave, de verdor intenso y de forma regular. El rendimiento de okra es mayor en suelos de textura franco arcillosos. Un problema para el establecimiento es el bajo nivel de emergencia de la okra que es atribuido a las bajas temperaturas del suelo en siembras tempranas (febrero). La fertilización foliar no tiene efecto en el rendimiento de fruto. La poda resulta atractiva ya que optimiza la producción de una sola siembra, al continuar con la cosecha después del término del ciclo normal. Algunos híbridos probados en la región muestran ventajas productivas con relación a la var. testigo 'Clempson Spineless'. La enfermedad de mayor impacto es el moteado amarillo de la okra transmitida por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Esta virosis ha sido la causa del abandono del cultivo en los estados de Guerrero y Morelos. El inadecuado control de la maleza en okra tiene efectos directos en el rendimiento, dificulta la cosecha e incrementa los costos de producción. Abstract in english In Mexico, the okra is a non-traditional vegetable cultivated in 4000 to 7000 ha annually with an average yield of 10 t ha-1; most of the production is exported to the United States of America. Main okra producer states include: Morelos, Michoacan, Guerrero and Tamaulipas. In this last state okra is [...] produced in up to 5 000 ha. Okra is a rentable vegetable crop that also promotes hand labor. Research on okra started in Mexico twenty years ago. Fruit quality is a key factor for okra marketing; soft texture fruits with intense green color and of regular shape are preferred. Higher okra yield are obtained in clay loam soils. A problem for crop establishment are the low soil temperatures that causes low okra emergence in early plantings. Foliar fertilization has not being effective to increase yields. Pruning is a promising practice because its optimizes crop yields by extending the crop season. Some okra hybrids tested in the region show productive advantages in relation to the traditional cultivar 'Clemson Spineless'. The most important disease is yellow mottled virus, transmitted by whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). This virus has caused the abandonment of the okra crop in the states of Guerrero and Morelos. Ineffective weed control in okra has deleterious effects on yield, increases production cost and difficults harvest.

  14. Decontamination of sliced and powdered okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and some aspects of nutrient quality before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food security in Africa is crucial for survival of the increasing population. However, agricultural produce in the field are drastically reduced along the food pipeline (from farm gate to the consumer's table) by bioderioagents including microorganisms. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is one such farm produce of economic importance in Ghana with a great potential of providing essential nutrients and vitamins in our diet. The high moisture content of the fresh fruit makes it susceptible to microbial deterioration in a short time. Dehydration methods (sun-drying and solar drying) are practiced worldwide but in Africa, this is attended by contamination by aeromycoflora and other agents such as insect eggs and larvae. In addition are physical and chemical contaminants. In this thesis, the mycoflora and Total Aerobic Bacteria load of market samples and solar-dried okra (Clemson spineless and Legon Finger) chips and powder were ascertained with the view to documenting toxin-producing fungal species and update the resident mycoflora and bacteria load. Insects resident in the samples were detected by the hidden infestation technique; mycoflora was determined by the decimal serial dilution method on different media and Total Aerobic Bacteria population was determined on Plate Count Agar at 320C for 48hr. In order to establish storage stability of the okra, the chips and powdered samples were placed in glass desiccators with glycerol: water mixtures providing Environmeycerol: water mixtures providing Environmental Relative Humidities of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95% representative of the Ghanaian Tropic Conditions to undergo sorption at the same temperature. Gamma irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 20kGy) were used as a preservation process to decontaminate resident mycoflora and total aerobic bacteria. This was supplemented by an in vitro study in the radio-resistance of six selected resident fungi (Aspergillus; Penicllium spp). The veracity of the dry okra supporting growth of selected Aspergillus and Penicillium species was carried out in liquid cultures (okra meal broth and okra meal broth amended with glucose) using the conventional oven dry weight method at 300C for 5 days. The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in an artificially inoculated 'black' and 'white' market samples of okra powder was studied using the current Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) to quantify aflatoxins with post column derivatisation (PCD) involving bromination. Elemental composition (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Na, K, Ca, Fe) was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Flame Photometer methods. A Bench Nuclear Magnetic Resonance equipment determined percentage moisture and fat concurrently; crude protein was ascertained by the Kjeldahl method, total ash was determined by the dry ashing method using Carblolite Eurotherm CW Furnace. Vitamin C was determined by the AOAC (2000) Iodometric Titration method and pH was estimated by AOAC (2000) method, while Brabender Viscograph measured viscosity of powdered samples of okra and Brookfield Viscometer was employed for the okra chips. Colour change was determined on L*a*b* system using a Minolta CR-30 Chromameter. The chips of Clemson spineless and Legon finger as well as the 'black' and 'white' okra powder were hygroscopic and equilibrated at 20-95% ERH with 6-8 days. Samples were visibly mouldy after 6-10 days and harboured a miscellany of fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pullularia, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Rhodotorula sp). Potential toxin-producing fungi (A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. sulphureus, P. digitatum, P. citrinum, P. brevicompactum, F. verticillioides, P. expansum) variably contaminated the samples. The Cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricone was recorded for the first time in 'white' okra powder but not the remaining samples. The insect showed mycophagy, ingesting spores of the Mucorales. The okra fruit was a good medium for vegetative growth of the resident fungi. A dose of 10kGy significantly (p?0.05)

  15. Nature and magnitude of genetic variability and diversity studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prakash and M. Pitchaimuthu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of yield contributing characters, and the genetic diversityin forty-four genotypes of okra collected from the IIHR, Bangalore, India. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among thegenotypes for different morphological characters. High GCV and PCV were observed for plant height, inter-nodal length, first flowering node,first fruit producing node, height of first flowering node, average fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit. On the basis of D2 analysis, the 44genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters. The cluster III was the largest with eight genotypes followed by cluster I and VIII with seven,cluster II with five, cluster XII with three while, clusters IV, V, VI, IX, X and XI included only two genotype in each. The intra-cluster distancewas maximum in cluster XII (28.14, while inter-cluster distance was maximum between cluster VI and VIII (35.57 followed by I and IX(35.31, thus being a good source for attempting hybridization. Among the 44 genotypes, IIHR-238, IIHR-241 showed maximum number offruits per plant and total yield per plant (g. The characters namely days to 50% flowering (35.62%, 100 seed weight (28.44%, number of seedsper fruit (17.23% and average fruit weight (8.14% directly contributed towards maximum divergence and, therefore, selection of divergentparents based on these characters is recommended for getting good hybrids or segregants in okra.

  16. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the high polysaccharide content of okra pods, resulting in a highly viscous solution with a slimy appearance when okra is extracted with water. In this study, we present a structural characterisation of...

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity in okra (abelmoschus esculentus l.) using rapd markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty nine okra genotypes were assessed for genetic variability using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Twenty polymorphic RAPD primers amplified 111 DNA fragments, with an average of 5.5 fragments per primer. Among 39 okra genotypes, 107 fragments (96%) were found to be polymorphic. The UPGMA cluster analysis placed okra genotypes into seven main clusters. Sabzpari 2001 and Acc. No. 019221 had shown maximum similarity (83%) while the minimum similarity (44.14%) was observed between the genotypes Punjab Selection and Acc. No. 019217. Thus, by using RAPD primers a considerable polymorphism appeared to exist, which showed genetic variability in the okra genotypes. (author)

  18. Residue, dissipation, and safety evaluation of pyridalyl nanoformulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L] Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Priya; Gopal, Madhuban; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study on residues and rate of dissipation of a new nanoformulation of pyridalyl and commercial pyridalyl was carried out on okra under net house and field conditions. Okra crop was sprayed with commercial and nanoformulation of pyridalyl at recommended (75 g a. i./ha) and double the recommended dose (150 g a. i./ha) at the time of fruiting. Quantitation of residues of pyridalyl in okra was done by ultra high performance liquid chromatography over a period of 15 days, and recovery of the method ranged from 79 to 87 %. The half life calculated from the dissipation pattern of pyridalyl on okra for commercial and developed nanoformulation proved that residues of nanopyridalyl did not persist much longer than that of conventional formulation in net house as well as in field trials. The risk quotient value of pyridalyl in okra was significantly lower than 1, implying its negligible risk to the humans. PMID:25694033

  19. Generation Mean Analysis of Some Economic Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soher E.A. El-Gendy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the mode of gene action involved in some okra economic traits, three different crosses as started genetic materials were used for this purpose applying generation mean analysis. Significant differences for all studied traits for six populations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 within each cross were found indicating the existence of genetic variation and possibility of selection for these traits. Insignificant negative or positive heterosis and inbreeding depression were registered in most crosses for all studied traits except in plant height. Additive-dominance model was adequate to demonstrate the genetic variation and it is important in the inheritance for weight of 100 seeds, fruit diameter, fruit length and total yield per plant traits. While, non-allelic interactions were found in the other traits for most crosses. The dominancexdominance effects were greater than additivexadditive and additivexdominance, when non-additive portion is larger than additive in most cases which recorded non-allelic interaction. Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV was higher than Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV for all traits indicating sensitivity of studied traits to the environmental conditions. GCV, PCV, heritability and expected Genetic advance GA% of mean in most crosses were found high or moderately high. As most studied traits are influenced by additive model and others showed non-allelic gene interaction, it is suggested that pedigree phenotypic selection method is a useful breeding program for improving these traits.

  20. INFLUENCE OF COVER CROPS AND SOIL AMENDMENTS ON OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) PRODUCTION AND SOIL NEMATODES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pot experiment to determine the effects of summer cover crops and soil amendments on okra yield and population densities of various soil nematode taxa was conducted in two consecutive growing seasons in a subtropical region. Two cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (So...

  1. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

  2. Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) / Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thirupathi, Reddy Medagam; Haribabu, Kadiyala; Ganesh, Mutyala; Begum, Hameedunnisa.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de heterosis podría ayudar en la selección de cruzas heteróticas para la explotación comercial de híbridos F1 de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Cuarenta y cinco F1s fueron desarrolladas cruzando 10 líneas elite de gombo: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398- [...] A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) y P10(IC111443), en forma de medio dialelo durante el verano 2009. Todas las 45 F1s junto con sus 10 padres y un control estándar (Híbrido de Mahyco N° 10) fueron evaluadas en un diseno de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones durante kharif temprano (junio a septiembre) 2009 en la Estación de Investigación de Vegetales, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, para heterosis de la producción de gombo y sus componentes. La significancia de cuadrados medios debida a genotipos reveló la presencia de variabilidad genética considerable entre el material estudiado para casi toda la producción y atributos de producción excepto la altura de planta. La heterosis media total entre los padres y control estándar para la producción total por planta fue 6,92 y -15,44%, respectivamente, mientras para la producción comerciable por planta fue 6,64 y el -22,18%, respectivamente. Cruzas negativamente heteróticas como C19(P3XP5) para días a 50% floración (-4.35%) y C4(P1XP5) para primera floración y nudos fructíferos (-15,22%), respectivamente, son importantes para explotar heterosis de precocidad en quingombó. Las cruzas con heterosis estándar no significativa en cualquier dirección dada para producción total por planta C42, C31, C35, C25, y C36 (8,6; -0,08; -2,61; -3,26; y -4,57%, respectivamente) y producción comerciable por planta C42, C31, y C36 (-5,87; -6,56, y -10,54%, respectivamente), fueron estadísticamente iguales con el control estándar para rendimiento medio y fueron tan prometedoras como aquellas del control estándar. El híbrido F1 C42(P7XP10) con alto potencial de rendimiento tiene potencial para cultivo comercial después de evaluación adicional para la temporada kharif temprana. Abstract in english The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC8 [...] 9819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Mahyco Hybrid N° 10) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates during early kharif (June to September) 2009 at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, for heterosis of yield and its components of okra. Significance of mean squares due to genotypes revealed the presence of considerable genetic variability among the material studied for almost all yield and yield attributes except plant height. The overall mean heterosis over mid parent and standard control for total yield per plant was 6.92 and -15.44%, respectively, while for marketable yield per plant were 6.64 and -22.18%, respectively. Negatively heterotic crosses like C19 (P3XP5) for days to 50% flowering (-4.35%) and C4(P1XP5) for first flowering and fruiting nodes (-15.22%), respectively, are important to exploit heterosis for earliness in okra. The crosses with non-significant standard heterosis in any given direction for total yield per plant C42, C31, C35, C25, and C36 (8.63, -0.08, -2.61, -3.26, and -4.57%, respectively) and marketable yield per plant C42, C31, and C36 (-5.87, -6.56, and -10.54%, respectively), were statistically on par with the standard control in their mean performance and are found to be as promising as that of the standard control. The F1 hybrid C42(P7XP10) with high yield potential has the potential for commercial cultivation after further evaluation for early kharif season.

  3. Genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra (abelmoschus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of salt tolerant plants through selection and breeding depends on the presence of the genetic variability within the crop species in response to salt stress, which must have significant genetic component. Such information is not extensively available in vegetable crops. The present study was carried out to gain some information on the genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra. North Carolina Mating Design II (NCM II) was used for the estimation of genetic components of variation in the traits affecting salinity tolerance. The inheritance of the traits affecting salinity tolerance at the seedling stage appeared to be controlled by both additive and non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis). The narrow sense heritability estimates ranged from 40 to 65% and 7 to 70% and the estimates of broad sense heritability ranged from 65 to 99% and 20 to 99% for absolute and relative values. The additive effects were relatively more prominent and narrow sense heritability was moderate. The high additive component for absolute Na/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio at 60 and 80 mM NaCl, relative Na+ at 80 mM NaCl suggested that improvement for salinity tolerance in okra would be possible on the basis of these characteristics through selection and breeding. The genetic variation for tolerance to NaCl salinity existed among the okra genotypes, which had considerable heritable component and, therefore, genetic improvement of okra genotypes for salinic improvement of okra genotypes for salinity tolerance through recurrent selection method is possible. (author)

  4. Callus Induced Organogenesis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculents L. Moench.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anisuzzaman, M.; Jarin, S.; Naher, K.; Akhtar, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Khalekuzzaman, M.; Alam, I.; Alam, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    A viable protocol has been developed for indirect shoot organogenesis of okra. To establish a stable and high-frequency plant regeneration system, leaf disc and hypocotyl explants were tested with different combinations of ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA),iIndole-3-butyric acid (IBA), thidiazuron (TDZ) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Morphogenic callus induction was observed in highest frequency from hypocotyl explant by culturing in MS medium supplemented wit...

  5. Nature and magnitude of genetic variability and diversity studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchaimuthu, K. Prakash And M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of yield contributing characters, and the genetic diversityin forty-four genotypes of okra collected from the IIHR, Bangalore, India. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among thegenotypes for different morphological characters. High GCV and PCV were observed for plant height, inter-nodal length, first flowering node,first fruit producing node, height of first flowering node, average ...

  6. Quality Attributes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench Pods as Affected by Cultivar and Fruit Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F. Olivera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Okra is a vegetable widely grown in the tropics, sub-tropics and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Fruit quality plays an important role in marketability and it is mainly related to the characteristic pod length. This work was intended to classify okra fruits belonging to different genotypes (a local variety - LV - and the cultivars Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Annie Oakley II according to their length and to compare certain quality attributes. LV fruits were considerably firm although they were smaller, thus they should be more suitable for canning or pickling. The hybrid material (Annie Oakley II yielded high quality fruits. These fruits may be destined for fresh consumption, given that they showed lower fibrousness. At the same time, they had high dry matter content, being suitable for dehydration. Okra fruits highlighted for their contribution of phenolic compounds.Total phenols levels significantly increased with fruit size in LV fruits, meanwhile no significant difference was observed for Annie Oakley II samples. Total flavonoids content showed a similar tendency although values did not differ significantly. Total flavonoids represented between 18-22% of the total phenols contents for the analyzed samples.

  7. Advances in breeding of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Okra, an important vegetable of the tropics and sub-tropics is very popular in India. Its production is limited by 'yellow vein mosaic virus'. Advances in breeding for resistance to this virus have been made through inter-specific hybridisation as well as mutagenesis. Hybridisation used A. manihot ssp. manihot and ssp. tetraphyllus. New varieties showed 87-146% yield increases over older virus susceptible varieties. The number of fruits increased by 13-30%, virus incidence decreased by 84-99%. An EMS induced mutant 'EMS8' showed a yield increase of 107%, a fruit number increase of 16% and a disease decrease of 99%. The mutant also carries a good amount of resistance to the fruit borer; infestation decreased by 46%. The mutant is the best among the tested varieties for canning, is suitable for dehydration, and can be stored prepacked at room temperature for 6 days. (author)

  8. Comparative Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction Techniques in West African Okra, (Abelmoschus caillei, A. Chev Stevels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O Alake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available West African okra occurs in wild and unselected variants in Nigeria but farmers desire stable and high-yielding cultivars. Twenty-five West African okra genotypes from diverse geographical backgrounds were evaluated in five different environments for stability of performance. Performance was measured by number of days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plants, number of seeds per pod, plant height at maturity and seed yield per plant. A regression method, Additive main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI and Genotype main effect and genotype x environment Interaction (GGE were employed in the evaluation. Joint regression and AMMI analyses showed significant (P< 0.01 G x E interaction with respect to seed yield, and both identified NGAE-96-0060 and NGAE-96-0063 as stable genotypes. The AMMI and GGE biplot analyses are more efficient than the Eberhart and Russell analysis. The GGE biplot explains higher proportions of the sum of squares of the GxE interaction and is more informative with regards to environments and cultivar performance than the AMMI analysis. GGE-biplot models showed that the five environments used for the study belonged to three mega-environments with environment 2 (Upland, 2007 being the most representative and most desirable of all. The GGE results also confirmed NGAE-96-0063 as being stable with NGAE-96-04 as the most stable. NGAE-96-04 was identified as most superior genotype in terms of yield and stability of performance and could be recommended for cultivation.

  9. Assessment of genetic relatedness among okra genotypes [abelmoschus esculentus (l. Moench] using rapd markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prakash, M. Pitchaimuthu and K.V. Ravishankar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA based RAPD (Randomly Amplification of Polymorphic DNA markers have been used extensively to study geneticrelationships in number of crop plants. In this study, 44 okra genotypes collected from different parts of India, were selected toassess genetic distinctiveness and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 14arbitrary 10 mer primers. The molecular analysis showed that all the fourteen primers used revealed clear distinction between thegenotypes and they generated a total of 104 RAPD bands most of which were polymorphic across accessions (74.03%. Thenumber of bands resolved per amplification was primer dependent and varied from 4 (OPV-07, OPV-08 to 11 (OPD-05 withaverage number of bands per primer was 7.41. RAPD data were used to calculate a Squared Euclidean Distance matrix, andbased on this, cluster analysis was done using minimum variance algorithm. Cluster analysis showed two major groups. Eachsub-group was characterized using morphological and genetic characteristics of the respective genotypes.

  10. Gene action and combining ability of yield and its components for late kharif season in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Medagam, Thirupathi Reddy; Kadiyala, Hari Babu; Mutyala, Ganesh; Hameedunnisa, Begum; Jampala, Dilipbabu; Reddivenkatagari Subbarama, Krishna Reddy.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic system controlling the quantitative traits is important for devising an efficient selection program through the use of a suitable mating design. Forty five Fis were generated by crossing 10 germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) namely P1(IC282248), P2( [...] IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443) during summer 2009. Forty five F1s along with their 10 parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates during late kharif (August-November) 2009 at Vegetable Research Station, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, for studying gene action and combining ability of yield and its components. Significant general combining ability and specific combining ability variances were obtained in majority of the traits except fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots; implying that both the additive and non-additive gene effects operated in the genetic expression of the traits. The relative magnitude of general and specific combining ability variances indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for majority of the characters studied except number of branches per plant and fruit width. Combining ability analysis of parents revealed that the parental lines P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819) and P7(IC89976) were superior general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and other traits. The crosses C23(IC29119-B x IC99716), Cn(IC27826-A x IC111443), C42(IC89976 x IC111443) and C43(IC90107 x IC111443) were superior specific combiners for total as well as marketable yield per plant with the potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The crosses C17 (IC27826-A x IC111443) and C42(IC89976 x IC111443) involving one or both of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects for marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding.

  11. Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seed and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nzikou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1 (Blye and Dyer.The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet to 21.98%(Blye & Dyer. The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters,unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differential scanning calorimetry w eredetermined. Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds have ash content of 5.68% (with the presence of followingminerals: Ca, M g, K and N a. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especiallyoleic (up to 24.89% and linoleic (up to 42.78%. Abelmoschus esculentus L. oil can be classified in theoleic-linoleic acid group. The dominant saturated acid w as palmitic (up to 25.79%. Abelmoschus esculentusL. seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (24.85%. The content of insaponifiables is1.53%. Taking into account these results, the gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. finds its applications in thefood and cosmetic industry.

  12. Avaliação da sensibilidade de plantas jovens de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) ao ozônio / Assessment of the sensitivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) to ozone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Bulbovas; Silvia Maria Romano, Sant' Anna; Regina Maria de, Moraes; Elisabeth de Souza, Lima; Juliana Moreno, Pina; Marisia Pannia, Esposito; Maurício Lamano, Ferreira; Adriano Afonso, Spielmann; Ciliane Matilde, Sollito; Cynthia Hering, Rinnert; Denílson Fernandes, Peralta; Juliana da Silva, Cardoso; Lílian, Carminitti; Luciana da Silva, Canêz; Marcelo M. dos Santos, Reis; Michel Navarro, Benatti; Silvia Ribeiro de, Souza; Marisa, Domingos.

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de Abelmoschus esculentus ao ozônio (O3) foi determinada em plantas expostas por quatro dias, seis horas/dia, ao ar filtrado (AF) e ao AF enriquecido com 80 ppb de O3 (AF+O3), em câmaras de fumigação, analisando-se sintomas foliares visíveis e alterações nas trocas gasosas e em antio [...] xidantes. Avaliaram-se os sintomas foliares diariamente e as trocas gasosas e antioxidantes (ácido ascórbico e superóxido dismutase) ao fim do experimento. Todas as plantas em AF+O3 apresentaram sintomas foliares, caracterizados por pontuações avermelhadas na superfície adaxial, entre as nervuras. Em média, o índice de injúria foliar foi de 15% e a severidade de 62%. Fotossíntese líquida, condutância estomática, transpiração, concentração de ácido ascórbico e atividade da superóxido dismutase foram reduzidas significativamente nestas plantas, em comparação com as mantidas sob ar filtrado. Os resultados sugerem que Abelmoschus esculentus é sensível ao O3, apresentando baixos níveis de defesas antioxidativas e distúrbios fisiológicos. Abstract in english The sensitivity of Abelmoschus esculentus to ozone (O3) was assessed in plants exposed during four days, six hours/day, to filtered air (AF) and to AF plus 80 ppb of O3 (AF+O3) into fumigation chambers, by determining visible leaf symptoms and changes on gas exchange and on antioxidants. Visible sym [...] ptoms were daily evaluated. Gas exchange and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase) were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All plants from AF+O3 treatment showed leaf injury, characterized by interveinal reddish punctuations on the adaxial surfaces. In average, 15% of leaf injury index and 62% of severity were estimated. Net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, ascorbic acid level and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly reduced in those plants, compared to measurements performed in plants exposed to AF only. The results suggest that Abelmoschus esculentus is sensitive to ozone, showing low levels of antixidative defenses and physiological distubances.

  13. Interrelationships among Characters and Path Analysis for Pod Yield Components in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev) Stevels)

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. Adeniji; C.O. Aremu

    2007-01-01

    Correlation, stepwise multiple regression and path coefficient analysis were used to determine the relationships, direct and indirect effects of agronomic and reproductive characters on pod and seed yield. Eighteen F2 generation obtained from hybridization of West African okra were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications in a single locations. Data were collected on agronomic and reproductive characters. Significant differences were observed among th...

  14. Phosphorus-use Efficiency by Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) at Different Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Levels on Two Tropical Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ezekiel A. Akinrinde; Ismail O. Adigun

    2005-01-01

    Crop growth is continuously threatened by Phosphorus (P) limitation on most tropical and temperate soils. Besides P fertilizer management, soil type could significantly determine the efficiency of P use by specific crop species. In this study, the influence of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg P2O5 kg-1 soil on the growth, P nutrition and production of two fruit vegetables (hot pepper, Capsicum frutescens and okra, Abelmoschus esculentum) were evaluated. The goal was to ascertain and compare P use e...

  15. Generation Mean Analysis of Some Economic Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Soher E.A. El-Gendy; M.H. Abd El-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the mode of gene action involved in some okra economic traits, three different crosses as started genetic materials were used for this purpose applying generation mean analysis. Significant differences for all studied traits for six populations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 within each cross were found indicating the existence of genetic variation and possibility of selection for these traits. Insignificant negative or positive heterosis and inbreeding depression were regi...

  16. Diferenciação de lotes de sementes de quiabo pelo teste de envelhecimento acelerado / Differentiation of seeds lots of okra by accelerated aging test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salvador Barros, Torres; Francisca Gleiciane da, Silva; Maryjane Diniz de Araújo, Gomes; Clarisse Pereira, Benedito; Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra, Pereira; Edvan Costa da, Silva.

    2103-21-01

    Full Text Available Os testes de germinação e de vigor são componentes essenciais do processo de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes, e o teste de envelhecimento acelerado é um dos mais utilizados para avaliação do vigor de sementes. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar a metodolog [...] ia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, visando à identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Para isso, quatro lotes de sementes da cultivar 'Colhe Bem' e cinco lotes da cultivar 'Santa Cruz 47' foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: germinação, emergência de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e em solução saturada com NaCl (38 e 41ºC durante 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas) e grau de umidade no início dos testes e após a incubação para o teste de envelhecimento acelerado. Os testes de envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e em solução saturada com cloreto de sódio, a 41ºC durante 96 horas, constituem em opções promissoras para detectar diferenças de vigor entre lotes de sementes de quiabo. Abstract in english The vigor and germination tests are essential components of seed quality control for the seed industry. Accelerated aging is one for the most useful tests used for the evaluation of seed vigor. In this sense, this paper aimed to study the methodology of the accelerated aging test, in order to identi [...] fy different levels of vigor seed lots of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Four seed lots of the 'Colhe Bem' cultivar and five seed lots of the 'Santa Cruz 47' were submitted to the following assessments: germination, seedling emergence, accelerated aging by traditional procedures and saturated NaCl (38 and 41°C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) and moisture content at the beginning of the tests and, after incubation to accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test at 41°C/96 hours (traditional procedure and saturated NaCl) consisted efficient to detect vigor differences among seed lots of okra.

  17. Development of Seed Treatments Bio fertilizer and Nutrient Uptake Study Using Tracer Technique for Okra Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of bio fertilizer seed treatments for okra seeds were carried out by mixing phosphate solubilising bacteria (AP 3) and plant growth promoter (AP 2) with adhesives. The seeds were coated with inoculum and four types of adhesives namely, Gum Arabic; Polyethylene Glycol (PEG); Sodium Alginate and Methylcellulose respectively. From eight seed treatments, all seed treatments significantly increased seed germinations except treatment T4 (Gum Arabic and AP3). In general, maximum germination rates and log of viable cells were observed when treated with polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) mixed with AP2 (T7) and AP3 (T8). These results show that using PEG as adhesive enhanced the germination rates and log of viable cells of AP2 and AP3. Thus, PEG could be a good adhesive for seed treatment. In greenhouse experiment, okra seeds treatment with AP2 and PEG (T1) showed the highest dry weight compared to other treatments. Seeds treatment with AP3 and PEG (T2) showed higher contribution of N compare to seeds treatment (T1). There were no significant different within seed treatments and urea treatment in okra yield. All treatments significantly increased yields compared with control. (author)

  18. Effect of different levels of nitrogen alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cv. T-13 under the agro-climatic conditions of Mingora, Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Khan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation were undertaken to study the effect of different level of nitrogen (0,100,120,140 kg ha-1 alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorous (90 kg ha-1 on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cv.T-13 at Agriculture Research Station (North Mingora, Swat during 1997. Maximum plant height (185 cm, number of pods per plant (24.59 pod length (12.63 cm, and the highest yield per hectare (16950.79 kg was recorded on the plots fertilized with 120:90:60 kg ha-1. No significance differences were observed in days to emergence, flowering, and first picking respectively.

  19. Effects of Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and Mixture Groundnut (Archis hypogaea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeawuchi, I.I; J.C. Obiefuna; M.C. Ofoh

    2005-01-01

    The effects of various row spacing on the yield and yield components of okra with groundnut were conducted at the training and research farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Yield and yield components of the crops in the various row spacing, monetary value of fresh okra fruits and dry groundnut pods were determined. The efficacy of the inter-cropping on weed suppression was evaluated. Okra plant height showed that R30 (30x50 cm) was highly significant than the other treatments...

  20. Pre-germinative treatments in okra seeds in different stadiums of fruit maturationTratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de quiabo em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Peixoto de Macedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the pre-soak and of the thermotherapy in the germination and in the energy of the okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus in different stadiums of maturation of the fruit. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5 x 9, five maturation stadiums (green, semi-hard, hard, dry and dehiscent and nine treatments pre-germination: pre-soak for immersion of the seeds in water to the temperature of 30ºC for 6, 12 and 24 hours; immersion of the seeds in water to 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC for 3 minutes; thermotherapy for immersion of the seeds in water to the ebullition temperature (97ºC until cooling and intact seeds (control. The seeds were sowed in paper-towel rolls and they were maintained in camera type BOD regulated to 20-30ºC and photoperiod of 8-16 hours. The okra seeds originating from dry and dehiscent fruits presented larger germination performance. The pre-germination treatments more effective to accelerate the germination of seeds obtained from dry and dehiscent fruits are the pre-soak for 6 hours and thermotherapy at 60 °C for 3 minutes, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da pré-embebição e da termoterapia na germinação e no vigor das sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 5 x 9, cinco estádios de maturação (verde, semi-duro, duro, seco e deiscente e nove tratamentos pré-germinativos: pré-embebição por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de 30ºC por 6, 12 e 24 horas; imersão das sementes em água a 40, 50, 60 e 70ºC por 3 minutos; termoterapia por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de ebulição (97ºC até esfriar e sementes intactas (testemunha. As sementes foram semeadas em rolos de papel-toalha que foram mantidos em câmara tipo BOD regulada a 20-30ºC e fotoperíodo de 8-16 horas. As sementes de quiabo oriundas de frutos secos e deiscentes apresentam maior desempenho germinativo. Os tratamentos pré-germinativos mais eficientes para acelerar a germinação das sementes obtidas de frutos secos e deiscentes são a pré-embebição por 6 horas e a termoterapia a 60ºC por 3 minutos, respectivamente.

  1. Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus in Brazil Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Araujo Aranha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157 out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and introduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotide sequences exhibited typical characteristics of New World bipartite begomoviruses. The DNA-A sequence shared 95.6% nucleotide identity with an isolate of Sida micrantha mosaic virus from Brazil and thus identified as its okra strain. The clones derived from #5157 were infectious to okra, Sida santaremnensis and to a group of Solanaceae plants when inoculated by biolistics after circularization of the isolated insert, followed by rolling circle amplification.Um levantamento de begomovírus de quiabeiro foi realizado no Brasil Central. Amostras foliares foram coletadas em campos de produção de quiabo e avaliadas em testes utilizando primers universais para begomovírus. A infecção por begomovírus foi confirmada em apenas uma amostra (#5157 de um total de 196 amostras. O DNA total foi submetido à amplificação por PCR e introduzido em plântulas de quiabeiro pelo método de biobalística, sendo que a amostra de DNA bombardeada foi infecciosa em plantas de quiabeiro. O DNA-A e DNA-B do isolado #5157 foram clonados e a sequência de nucleotídeos mostrou características típicas de begomovírus do Novo Mundo. A sequência do DNA-A apresentou 95,6% de identidade nucleotídica com um isolado de Sida micrantha mosaic virus do Brasil, sendo assim identificado como sua estirpe de quiabeiro. Os clones gerados a partir da amostra #5157 foram infecciosos para quiabeiro, Sida santaremnensis e em um grupo de plantas solanáceas quando inoculados por biobalística após circularização do inserto isolado, seguido por amplificação por círculo rolante.

  2. Comparison of Effectiveness of Raw Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L and Raw Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Wastes as Bioadsorbent of Heavy Metal in Aqueous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabanji I. O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption process had been effective in condensing and concentrating metal ions from aqueous phase to the surface of adsorbent, it is a well established technology that employed the use of synthetic adsorbent which are usually scarce and expensive in waste water treatment. Hence, there is a need to develop new adsorbent which are readily available at low cost to remove metal contaminants in aqueous system. In this work, raw sugarcane waste and raw okra waste which are agricultural by-products were used as adsorbent in the adsorption of Fe(III Cd (II, Pb (II, Zn (II, Ni (II from various aqueous solutions. Infrared spectrum of the okra and sugar cane waste were recorded to detect the functional groups that has the binding capability for the metal ion adsorption. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the adsorption process and its was found that the okra waste was able to adsorb 5.05% of Fe(III,, 44.95% of Cd (II,, 65.10% of Pb (II, 38.78% of Zn (II, 57.80% of Ni(II, while the sugarcane waste was able to adsorb 3.61% of Fe (III, 35.06% of Cd (II, 43.50% of Pb (II,, 24.45% of Zn (II, 35.31% of Ni(II. This work proved that raw okra waste was more effective adsorbent material than raw sugarcane waste for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous systems. The Freundlich adsorption model described well the sorption equilibrium of the metal ions however research study have shown that modified form of okra waste was an excellent adsorbent, there is possibility of modifying the raw sugar cane waste for better performance since it has potential of removing heavy metals in waste water. 

  3. Effect of Chemical Paclobutrazol on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar in Northeast Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chutichudet Benjawan; Chutichudet, P.; Chanaboon, T.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand in the late rainy season of the 2003 to 2004 with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The experiment aims to search for more information on the effect of different rates of chemical Paclobutrazol (PBZ) application on growth, yield and quality of edible okra pods. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCDB) with four replications was used for the experi...

  4. Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataravanappa V; Cn, Lakshminarayana Reddy; Swaranalatha P; Jalali Salil; Briddon Rob W; Krishna, Reddy M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae) is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, sympt...

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L. GENOTYPES FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS REVEALED BY AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser M. Salameh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity in 48 genotypes and accessions using eight Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP primer-pairs. The eight selected AFLP primer-pairs generated a total of 150 polymorphic loci. Using the generated AFLP data, the Un-Weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA ordered the genotypes into six groups based on Dice similarity coefficient. The range in taxonomic distance was from 0.23 to 1.0. Each cluster was found to have genotypes and accessions from different regions and climate and sometimes different continents. The size range of the loci ranged from 87-662 bp. Great variation between the genotypes and accessions in the different cluster could be of high value as the genetically diverse okra genotypes represent a potentially valuable source for improved pathogen and pest resistance.

  6. The Effect of Combined Application of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on the Growth and Yield of Okra

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    Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of combined application of poultry manure and sawdust on soil properties, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were investigated at the main campus of Tai solarin University of Education Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria during 2010/2011 dry season. This size of the plot was 45 m by 5m; the seed was planted with three seed per hole at a spacing of 0.5 m. The total numbers of plots were 27 plots, for the avoidance of doubt; it comprises three treatments and each treatment was replicate three times. The treatments consisted of 0, 5, 10 ton/ha Broiler litter (Poultry manure and 0, 2, 5 ton/ha (sawdust. The results indicated a significant increase in growth parameters in those plants planted in 0, 2, 5 ton/ha poultry manure plot than sawdust plot. However, treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters (plant height, stem girth and number of leaves were increased significantly (p<0.05 as manure rates increased. Poultry manure at 10 ton/ha has significant increase in fruit yield of okra increase. The combined application of poultry manure and sawdust does not have effect on yield and fruit number of okra but there is a slight effect on plant height. Based on the findings of the experiments it could be deduced that poultry manure seems to promote higher growth and yield of okra. Thus, it should be recommended for farmers growing okra in region.

  7. Germination and hardseedness of seeds in okra elite lines / Germinação e dureza de sementes em linhas elite de quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Antonio A do, Lago; Francisco Antonio, Passos.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A presença de sementes duras e a baixa porcentagem de germinação são desafios importantes para o cultivo de quiabo. Por este motivo, cinco linhas elite de quiabo desenvolvidas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC), sendo três com cápsulas quinadas (linhas 8.1, 20.1.2 e 47.1) e duas com cápsulas [...] cilíndricas (linhas 13.1.2 e 20.1.R), foram avaliadas para qualidade de sementes, em comparação com dois lotes comerciais (Horticeres Sementes e Sakata Seed Sudamerica) de sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47. As sementes foram produzidas em experimento instalado no Parque Tecnológico do Centro de Horticultura do IAC, em Campinas, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas de 20 plantas. As cápsulas foram colhidas 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 e 75 dias após a antese (DAA), sendo as sementes extraídas imediatamente e submetidas ao teste padrão de germinação em laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, no que diz respeito à qualidade das sementes, cápsulas quinadas devem ser colhidas mais precocemente que cápsulas cilíndricas, mais precisamente 45 DAA para a linha 47.1 e de 45 a 55 DAA para as linhas 8.1 e 20.1.2. Sementes extraídas de cápsulas quinadas colhidas após esses períodos apresentaram redução na germinação e aumento no índice de dureza. Já as sementes provenientes de cápsulas cilíndricas apresentaram comportamento semelhante às sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47, apresentando melhor capacidade germinativa quando provenientes de cápsulas colhidas de 55 a 75 DAA, e ausência de dureza. Abstract in english The occurrence of hardseedness and the low percentage of seed germination are major challenges when growing okra. For this reason, five elite lines of okra developed at the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC), three with angular pods (lines 8.1, 20.1.2 and 47.1) and two with cylindrical pods (lines 1 [...] 3.1.2 and 20.1.R), were evaluated for seed quality and compared to two commercial seed samples (Horticeres Sementes and Sakata Seed Sudamerica) of cultivar Santa Cruz 47. Seeds were field produced in an experiment set in the Technological Park of the Horticulture Center of IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with three replications and 20-plant plots. Fruits were harvested 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 days after anthesis (DAA). Seeds were extracted straight away and subjected to the standard germination test in the laboratory. Observing the results, we concluded that, as far as seed quality is concerned, angular pods must be harvested earlier than cylindrical pods, more precisely 45 DAA to the line 47.1 and 45 to 55 DAA for lines 8.1 and 20.1.2. Seeds extracted from angular fruits harvested after these periods had reduced germination and increased hardseedness. Seeds from cylindrical capsules had the same behavior of the commercial seeds of cultivar Santa Cruz 47, showing better germination when extracted from pods harvested between 55 and 75 DAA, and no hardseedness.

  8. Genotypic performance, character correlations and path analysis of pod yield in Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels

    OpenAIRE

    Moninuola A. Ayo-Vaughan; Omolayo J. Ariyo; Christopher O. Alake

    2012-01-01

    Direct selection based on pod yield is often a problem in West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels) breeding programs. Information on inter-relationships among traits to implement indirect selection for pod yield is needed. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of West African okra varieties in two cropping seasons prevailing in Nigeria, and to determine the associations among main agronomic characters and their influence on pod yield. Twenty-five genotype...

  9. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Mendes Aguiar; Sami Jorge Michereff; Leonardo Silva Boiteux; Ailton Reis

    2013-01-01

    – Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’). Inoculation (in all assays) was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in t...

  10. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E O; Abenney-Mickson, S

    2015-01-01

    Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

  11. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E. Oppong; Abenney-Mickson, S.

    2015-01-01

    Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

  12. Seedling imaging analysis and traditional tests to assess okra seed vigor / Análise de imagens de plântulas e testes tradicionais para avaliação do vigor de sementes de quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lúcia Pereira, Kikuti; Júlio, Marcos-Filho.

    Full Text Available A avaliação do vigor é essencial em programas de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes. Uma das alternativas mais recentes para essa avaliação é o sistema computadorizado de análise de imagens de plântulas (SVIS), utilizado com sucesso para várias espécies de sementes de grandes [...] culturas e de hortaliças. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a eficiência do SVIS para identificar diferenças no potencial fisiológico de lotes de sementes de quiabo, em comparação com outros métodos utilizados para essa espécie. Cinco lotes da cultivar Clemson Americano e quatro da 'Santa Cruz' foram submetidos a testes de germinação (velocidade e porcentagem), germinação a baixa temperatura (15 ºC), envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com solução saturada de NaCl (41 ºC/72 e 96 horas) e emergência de plântulas. Também foi determinado o índice de vigor, o comprimento e a uniformidade de desenvolvimento de plântulas, por meio do SVIS. Essas avaliações foram realizadas no início, aos seis e doze meses de armazenamento. Concluiu-se que o índice de vigor e o comprimento de plântulas, avaliados por meio do software SVIS, são eficientes para identificar diferenças de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo, proporcionando resultados semelhantes aos obtidos no teste de envelhecimento acelerado (41 ºC/72 horas). Abstract in english Seed vigor testing is an important component of quality control programs adopted by seed industry. The software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) has been successfully used for seed vigor assessment in different species. The objective of this research was to verify the SVIS efficiency to assess okra [...] seed vigor in comparison to other vigor tests used for this species. Five seed lots of 'Clemson Americano' and four of 'Santa Cruz' were submitted to germination (speed and percentage), cold germination (speed and percentage), traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41 ºC/72 and 96 h) and seedling emergence tests during 12 months storage. Vigor index, uniformity of growth and seedling length were determined by the software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS). Results showed that the vigor index and seedling length determined by the SVIS analyses are efficient to determine okra seed vigor as well as the accelerated aging test (41 ºC/72 h).

  13. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Tiendre?be?ogo, Fide?le; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Villemot, Julie; Konate?, Gnissa; Traore?, Alfred S.; Barro, Nicolas; Traore?, Valentin S.; Reynaud, Bernard; Traore?, Oumar; Lett, Jean-michel

    2010-01-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenc...

  14. Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataravanappa V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. Results The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein, were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB. This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect ?C1 gene. ?C1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity determinant of begomovirus-beta satellite complexes and is involved in overcoming host defenses based on RNAi. Conclusion The diversity of beta satellites in okra across the sub-continent is higher than previously realized and is higher than for any other malvaceous plant species so far analyzed. The beta satellites identified in okra show geographic segregation, which has implications for the development and introduction of resistant okra varieties. However, the finding that the ?C1 gene of the major okra beta satellites (OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share high sequence identity and provides a possible avenue to achieve a broad spectrum resistance.

  15. STUDY OF CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE IN SEEDS OF CORN,

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    Ana Cláudia Rebessi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an agrochemical from the group of phosphonates, which is widely used as a herbicide. Although it kills almost any plant, it can be used to eliminate weeds during the growth of crops that are resistant to glyphosate. This research aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of the herbicide in a study using as test organism seeds of maize (Zea mays, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench and arugula (Eruca sativa. The toxicological testing was to use a paper towel dampened with a sample of glyphosate and twenty seeds evenly distributed in containers with lids, left in a dry and airy place, and watered once a day for 5 days. It was possible to check the toxic effect of glyphosate for corn seeds at concentrations above 90 mg.L-1, for okra seeds at concentrations above 75 mg L-1 and arugula seeds in concentrations above 2 mg L - 1. Thus it was concluded that the seeds studied showed a high sensitivity with the possibility to be applied in toxicity testing, representing a simple and low cost.

  16. Desempenho do quiabeiro consorciado com adubos verdes eretos de porte baixo em dois sistemas de cultivo / Okra performance intercropped with small size and erect green manure in two production systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebastião Wilson, Tivelli; Cristiaini, Kano; Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Elaine B, Wutke; Issáo, Ishimura.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o cultivo intercalar de adubos verdes eretos e de porte baixo na cultura do quiabeiro, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em cultivo convencional em Monte Alegre do Sul e outro em cultivo orgânico em São Roque-SP, de fevereiro a julho de 2008 e de dezembro de 2008 [...] a junho de 2009, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos, constando de quiabeiro em cultivo "solteiro" e consorciado com uma ou duas linhas de mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana) e de crotalária-espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis) nas entrelinhas. No cultivo orgânico, dois novos tratamentos foram adicionados ao experimento para avaliar os adubos verdes em cultivo solteiro. No quiabeiro avaliou-se a produção (g planta-1) e número de frutos por planta, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e altura média do dossel em diferentes épocas após a semeadura. Nos adubos verdes avaliaram-se altura média das plantas e produtividade de massa fresca. A eficiência do consórcio foi mensurada por meio da relação de área equivalente (RAE). A produção média do quiabeiro por planta foi de 190,9 e 582,0 g planta-1, respectivamente, no sistema convencional e orgânico. A RAE foi de 1,5 e 1,6 no consórcio do quiabeiro com duas linhas de mucuna-anã e crotalária-espectábilis, respecticamente. Verificou-se viabilidade agronômica da adoção do cultivo intercalar pelo agricultor familiar de quiabeiro, especificamente com duas linhas dos adubos verdes de porte ereto e baixo. Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic viability of the intercropping okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) with small size and erect green manuring species Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, two experiments were carried out, one in conventional system at Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo state, Brazil, fr [...] om February to July 2008 and one in an organic system at São Roque, São Paulo state, Brazil, from December 2008 to June 2009. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were constituted by okra monoculture and okra intercropped with one or two lines of M. deeringiana and one or two lines of C.spectabilis in the seeded at the same time of the okra crop. In organic farming two new treatments were added to the experiment to evaluate the green manures in single cropping. Production, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and diameter and plant height were evaluated in okra plants and plant height and fresh matter weight were determined in the green manuring plants at different periods after seeding.. The evaluation of the efficiency of the consortium was measured by the ratio of area equivalent (RAE). Average yield per okra plant was 190.9 and 582.0 g plant-1, respectively, under conventional and organic cropping. The RAE was 1.5 and 1.6 in the consortium of okra with two rows of M. deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, respectively. Intercropping erect short green manuring species with okra is agronomically viable and can be used by family farmers without interference with the yield of okra crop.

  17. Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole Moses B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO, compost organic fertilizer (OR, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05 higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L.) MEDIK (MALVACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka; Animesh, Datta K.; Mandal Aninda; Saha Aditi; Sengupta Sonali

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03) of Abelmoschus moschatus (L.) Medik (Family: Malvaceae) were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76...

  19. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in okra germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mendes Aguiar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available – Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’. Inoculation (in all assays was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates (‘Fus-194’ and ‘Fus-201’. Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-194’ during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-201’. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to ‘Fus-194’, and 32% were resistant to ‘Fus-201’. The accessions ‘Santa Cruz-47’, ‘BR-2399’ and ‘BR-1449’ were the most promising resistance sources.

  20. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection and eggs (magnifying lens occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual e de ovos (lentes de aumento de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas.

  1. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations / Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; Gulab Newandram, Jham; Márcio Dionízio, Moreira.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica [...] populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual) e de ovos (lentes de aumento) de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas. Abstract in english The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal pop [...] ulation dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection) and eggs (magnifying lens) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.

  2. Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

  3. Analgesic Activity of Abelmoschus manihot Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Surana Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural products served as important sources of medicines now a day increasing, as they possess the therapeutic activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae leaves using hot plate and tail immersion model. The air-dried, powdered leaves (1000 g were extracted over Soxhlet with petroleum ether and methanol. The crude dried petroleum ether (10 g and methanol (25 g extracts was prepared at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 and evaluated for analgesic activity using the hot plate and tail immersion test. The results obtained indicate that the extracts possessed significant (p-1 dose as compared with the standard drug. This study showed that the petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Abelmoschus manihot leaves possess potential pharmacological active constituents responsible for inhibition of the analgesic effect.

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-21 - Okra from certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-21 Okra from certain countries. Okra from...

  5. Molecular diversity of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Villemot, Julie; Konaté, Gnissa; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Valentin S; Reynaud, Bernard; Traoré, Oumar; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD. PMID:20178575

  6. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaud Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF, we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1 molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB (88 to 98% nucleotide identity. One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA (89% nucleotide identity, whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity, provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA. Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009 and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765. Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD.

  7. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence and experimental host range of Okra mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Dirk; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Ta Hoang, Anh; Engelmann, Jill; Winter, Stephan; Maiss, Edgar

    2008-02-01

    Okra mosaic virus (OkMV) is a tymovirus infecting members of the family Malvaceae. Early infections in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) lead to yield losses of 12-19.5%. Besides intensive biological characterizations of OkMV only minor molecular data were available. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a Nigerian isolate of OkMV. The complete genomic RNA (gRNA) comprises 6,223 nt and its genome organization showed three major ORFs coding for a putative movement protein (MP) of M r 73.1 kDa, a large replication-associated protein (RP) of M r 202.4 kDa and a coat protein (CP) of M r 19.6 kDa. Prediction of secondary RNA structures showed three hairpin structures with internal loops in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) which comprises the anticodon for valine, typical for a member of the genus Tymovirus. Phylogenetic comparisons based on the RP, MP and CP amino acid sequences showed the close relationship of OkMV not only to other completely sequenced tymoviruses like Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (KYMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Erysimum latent virus (ErLV), but also to Calopogonium yellow vein virus (CalYVV), Clitoria yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Desmodium yellow mottle virus (DYMoV). This is the first report of a complete OkMV genome sequence from one of the various OkMV isolates originating from West Africa described so far. Additionally, the experimental host range of OkMV including several Nicotiana species was determined. PMID:18049886

  9. Combining ability in bhindi [ Abelmoschus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Balakrishnan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability was estimated for six diverse okra genotypes or varieties by diallel analysis. The combininganalysis revealed that Arka Anamika was found to be a good general combiner for fruit number, fruit weight and fruit length.KL9 showed high gca for days to first flowering, internode number and fruit weight. In this study, it was observed thatpresence of overdominance for most of the yield contributing traits

  10. A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Rewatkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Abelmoschus manihot (L. commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm count on sexually normal male mice. Two doses i.e. 100and 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract administered to Swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency.The result of the present study signatured for sexual enhancing capacity of the drug Abelmoschus manihot is an individual and also holds good aphrodisiac property when compared with standard drug. It was noticed that a 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect. Therefore, the conclusion suggestive that the Abelmoschus manihot will be a drug of choice or alternative therapy for a marketed product. Which may help the population to lead their sexual life perfectly with full of pleasure to interact body, mind and sole.

    Keywords: Abelmoschus manihot, Aphrodisiac, Mounting frequency, Intromission frequency, Penile erection index.

  11. Selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease of okra by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmochus esculentus) production for both export and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were gamma-irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and planted at Huaysai King's Project in Petchaburi Province. M3 plants were screened for OYVMD (Okra YVMD) resistance under field conditions at Huaysai King's Project and Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) in Phichit Province. In addition, M4 plants were screened for OYVMD resistance under greenhouse conditions at Crop Protection Research and Development Office using whitefly transmission. None of Annie was found resistant but one plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400 Gy was found to be highly resistant. Ten resistant lines obtained through rescreening of B-21 descendants up to M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at PHRC and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS). The mutants had good stature and fruit shape but the fruits have spines on the ridges. Selections for OYVMD resistance and spineless fruits were performed at PHRC in three generations and seven of the lines were chosen for yield trial at PHRC. Three of the mutant lines were also screened for OYVMD resistance at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi Province, okra growing area, where OYVMD was seriously widespread. All mutant liMD was seriously widespread. All mutant lines showed resistance against the local OYVMV isolates up to a month before they started showing signs of the disease. Seeds were collected from resistant individuals and planted in farmers's fields for further selection. The farmers were very satisfied with the stature and fruit shape of the mutants when tested against a commercial variety. (author)

  12. Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Salah M. I. El Naggar

    2001-01-01

    Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.). Seed shap...

  13. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazim Abd El-Rahman OBIADALLA ALI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  14. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm / Busca por fontes de resistência à murcha de fusário (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) em germoplasma de quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederick Mendes, Aguiar; Sami Jorge, Michereff; Leonardo Silva, Boiteux; Ailton, Reis.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) é um dos patógenos mais destrutivos do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil. Cinquenta e quatro acessos de quiabeiro foram avaliados quanto à resistência a FOV em casa de vegetação. Inicialmente foi conduzida uma seleção com o isolado 'Fus-194'. Tr [...] inta e três acessos, que foram resistentes na seleção inicial, foram reavaliadas em dois ensaios adicionais (sob duas condições de ambiente), utilizando dois isolados de FOV. Destes, onze acessos foram classificadas como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-194' em agosto (estação seca e com temperatura moderada), enquanto que 28% dos acessos foram classificados como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-201'. No ensaio conduzido na estação úmida e quente, 72% dos acessos apresentaram reação de alta a média resistência a 'Fus-194', enquanto que 32% foram resistentes a 'Fus-201'. A cultivar 'Santa Cruz-47' e os acessos 'BR-2399' e 'BR-1449' foram as fontes de resistência mais promissoras. Abstract in english Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate ('Fus-194'). Inoculation (in all assays) was [...] carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates ('Fus-194' and 'Fus-201'). Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-194' during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-201'. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to 'Fus-194', and 32% were resistant to 'Fus-201'. The accessions 'Santa Cruz-47', 'BR-2399' and 'BR-1449' were the most promising resistance sources.

  15. Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity

    OpenAIRE

    Alqasoumi, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehy...

  16. Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5, three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

  17. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões.

  18. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations / Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; José Cola, Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael, Gusmão.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e par [...] asitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual) ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares) ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões. Abstract in english The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, [...] height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.

  19. Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasoumi, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

  20. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER

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    N Tavakoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w and P.V.P (22 %w/w were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

  1. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

  2. Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV) and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Ali; Muhammad. Aslam Khan; Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Ehetisham-ul-haq; Muhammad Talha Javed; Muhammad Sajid

    2012-01-01

    Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Correlation of environ...

  3. Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Correlation of environmental factors (maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall with percent plant infection of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV was also determined. There was a significant correlation between environment and disease severity.

  4. DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO QUIABEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DAS DATAS DE PLANTIO GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A influência de quatro épocas de plantio (15 de maio, 15 de junho, 15 de julho e 15 de agosto de 1998 no desenvolvimento e na produção do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi investigada em Goiânia, GO. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, cultivado há muitos anos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (Tukey 5% entre épocas de plantio, para as seguintes características: número de frutos produzidos durante as trinta primeiras colheitas, altura das plantas no início da colheita, número de ramos laterais e número de dias da semeadura ao início do florescimento, ao início da colheita e ao início da colheita em 75% das covas. A temperatura média dos meses seguintes às datas de plantio aumentou de maio para agosto. Observou-se uma redução do período da semeadura até o início do florescimento, até o início da colheita e até o início da colheita em 75% das covas. O número de ramos laterais também foi reduzido no mesmo período. Entretanto verificou-se aumento na altura das plantas e no rendimento das primeiras trinta colheitas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abelmoschus esculentus; data de plantio; épocas de plantio.

    The influence of four sowing dates (May 15th, June 15th, July 15th and August 15th, 1998 on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 was studied in Goiânia-GO. The experiment was conducted at the 'Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Goiás', on an oxisol which had been cropped for several years. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Significant differences (Tukey 5% were found among sowing dates for the following traits: number of pods yielded during the first thirty harvests (105 days, plant height at the beginning of harvest, number of lateral branches, number of days from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, number of days from the sowing to the harvest of the first pod and number of days from the sowing to the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills. The average temperature of the months following the sowing dates increased from May to August. The period from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, the beginning of harvest and the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills was shortened and the number of lateral branches decreased from May to August. At the same time, the plant height and the yield of the first thirty harvests increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Abelmoschus esculentus; planting date; development yield.

  5. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Weed interference in okra crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.B., Santos; T.P., Silveira; P.S., Coelho; O.G., Costa; P.M., Matta; M.B., Silva; A.P., Drumond Neto.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz [...] -47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade), bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI), período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI) e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI), considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after em [...] ergence (DAE). Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI), Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI) and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP) were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

  6. Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?BRAH?M DOYMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b. to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b. were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to thirteen thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (?2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Estimations by Approximation of diffusion (for green bean and Midilli et al. models (for okra were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained.

  7. Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro / Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Luís Louro, Berbara; Luís Rodrigues, Freire; Manlio Silvestre, Fernandes.

    1645-16-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema) colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do q [...] uiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A) enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5) e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias), com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a sp [...] ore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5), three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days) and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

  8. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated potential antiproliferative activity against two human cell lines - Colorectal adenocarcinoma (COLO-205 and retinoblastoma (Y79. Conclusion The seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus possess significant antioxidant activity and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger, or substitute, probably as primary antioxidants. The plant possesses moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains used in this study. Hydroalcoholic seed and leaf extracts also exhibited antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines. A. moschatus may therefore, be a good candidate for functional foods as well as pharmaceutics.

  9. Some Studies on the Comparative Efficacy of Different Traditional and Non-traditional Insecticides Against Okra Jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on Okra, Variety "Pusa Green"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mehmood

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr against okra jassid Amrasaca biguttula biguttula (Ishida. All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf was observed in the test area treated with monocrotophos plus surfactant.

  10. Some Studies on the Comparative Efficacy of Different Traditional and Non-traditional Insecticides Against Okra Jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida) on Okra, Variety "Pusa Green"

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

    2001-01-01

    Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasaca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf) was observed in the test area treated with monocroto...

  11. Utilization of Degraded Chitosan for Growth Promoter and Blossom Blight Disease Controls in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment focus on the comparison of the effect of gamma radiation and chemical reagent on degradation of chitosan and preliminary test of degraded chitosan with different molecular weight as plant growth promoter of okra in potting experiment. (author)

  12. First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eman S.H. Farrag

    2011-01-01

    During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS) at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Samples of di...

  13. Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

    2001-01-01

    Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf) was observed in the test area treated with (monocroto...

  14. Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mehmood

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida. All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf was observed in the test area treated with (monocrotophos + surfactant.

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) GENOTYPES FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS REVEALED BY AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Salameh, Naser M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity in 48 genotypes and accessions using eight Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer-pairs. The eight selected AFLP primer-pairs generated a total of 150 polymorphic loci. Using the generated AFLP data, the Un-Weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) ordered the genotypes into six groups based on Dice similarity coefficient. The range in taxonomic distance was from 0.23 to 1.0. Each cluster was found to ha...

  16. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 ?m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m3 kg-1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m3 kg-1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m3 kg-1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m3 kg-1. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos / Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar Efrem, Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T., Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância [...] Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto. Abstract in english Twenty-seven morphological characteristics (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative) were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 39 Abelmoschus accessions by hierarchic method of single linkage and principal component analysis for the grouping of the genotypes. Standardized average Euclidean distance [...] was used as dissimilarity measure. Plants were grown in field conditions at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, using randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The accessions groups formation based on the hierarchic method of single linkage showed similar results to those obtained by principal components analysis since both methods grouped A. esculentus and A. caillei accessions. The hierarchic method has grouped the genotypes in the same way as for the 27 descriptors (quantitative and qualitative) as for the 13 quantitative descriptors, demonstrating that qualitative descriptors had a little influence on the genotypic discrimination. Qualitative descriptors were able to correctly classify species, although they masked the genetic variability at the germplasm, not allowing a comprehensive survey of the genomes. The characters that less contributed for the genotypes discriminations were the epicalyx length, 100 seeds weight, number of stigma segments, plant height, leaf width, first flowering node and fruit length.

  18. Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto.Twenty-seven morphological characteristics (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 39 Abelmoschus accessions by hierarchic method of single linkage and principal component analysis for the grouping of the genotypes. Standardized average Euclidean distance was used as dissimilarity measure. Plants were grown in field conditions at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, using randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The accessions groups formation based on the hierarchic method of single linkage showed similar results to those obtained by principal components analysis since both methods grouped A. esculentus and A. caillei accessions. The hierarchic method has grouped the genotypes in the same way as for the 27 descriptors (quantitative and qualitative as for the 13 quantitative descriptors, demonstrating that qualitative descriptors had a little influence on the genotypic discrimination. Qualitative descriptors were able to correctly classify species, although they masked the genetic variability at the germplasm, not allowing a comprehensive survey of the genomes. The characters that less contributed for the genotypes discriminations were the epicalyx length, 100 seeds weight, number of stigma segments, plant height, leaf width, first flowering node and fruit length.

  19. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

    2013-06-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa. PMID:23535770

  20. Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of a New Polysaccharide Obtained from the Fresh Fruits of Abelmoschus Esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Emeje, Martins; Isimi, Christiana; Byrn, Stephen; Fortunak, Joseph; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first multi-scale characterization of the fluidize-dried gum extracted from the fresh fruits of the plant Abelmoschus esculentus. It describes the physical, thermal, sorptional and functional properties of this natural gum. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transmittance infra red (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic reso...

  1. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

  2. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro / Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilson Soares da, Silva; Aurenice Lucena, Pereira.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g [...] ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infest [...] ed with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

  3. Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeline. In this study, the effect of the presence of a Drag Reducing Agent (DRA on the pressure drop in horizontal pipes carrying water is investigated. An experimental rig is set-up. The test section of the experimental set-up is consisted of: a smooth PVC pipe with length of 50 time pipe diameter connected to rough galvanized iron with 5 testing section 0.5 meter each The employing DRA is a new natural additive which is okra mucilage as polymeric DRA. The percent drag reduction (%DR is calculated using the obtained experimental data, in presence of the DRA. The results show that addition of DRA could be effective with several doses of DRA after average reading for 5 min. Highest %DR for about 60% is obtained for some experimental conditions. The result shows that okra mucilage is a potential DRA to be use in water transportation.

  4. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-08-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod?=?500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes. PMID:25114358

  5. Comparison between the DNA Fingerprints Obtained from the Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Tolerant Okra Mutants and Their Parental Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is a widespread disease that is found among export orchards of okra. In this report, we studied gamma radiation-induced YVMD tolerant okra mutants and other commercial okra varieties at DNA level. We found that DNA extraction method that utilized sodium dodecyl sulfate and potassium acetate to precipitate other biomolecules was a suitable method to use for DNA finger printing of okra. The MFLP finger printing technique was superior to the AFLP technique in finding polymorphisms among different okra varieties. Also polymorphisms between the YVMD-tolerant mutant lines and their parental variety could be detected, indicating that gamma radiation could induce some changes at DNA level in these plants

  6. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Martinello, Gilmar E.; Leal, Nilton R.; Do Amaral Ju?nior, Anto?nio T.; Pereira, Messias G.; Daher, Roge?rio F.

    2003-01-01

    Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e...

  8. 76 FR 64001 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...of Documents. Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL...OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 52 [Document...Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notification...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the...

  9. Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of chlorantraniliprole residues on brinjal and okra fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Beevi, S Naseema; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Xavier, George

    2015-05-01

    Dissipation and decontamination of chlorantraniliprole (Coragen 18.5 SC) in brinjal and okra fruits were studied following field application at single and double doses of 30 and 60 g ai ha(-1), and the residues of the insecticide was estimated using LC-MS/MS. Initial residues of chlorantraniliprole at single and double doses on the fruits of brinjal were 0.72 and 1.48 mg kg(-1), while on okra fruits, the residues were 0.48 and 0.91 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residues reached below detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) on the 10th day. Half-life of chlorantraniliprole at 30 and 60 g ai ha(-1) on brinjal was 1.58 and 1.80 days with the calculated waiting period of 0.69 and 2.38 days, whereas on okra, the values were 1.60 and 1.70 and 0 and 1.20 days, respectively. The extent of removal of chlorantraniliprole using simple decontaminating techniques at 2 h and 3 days after spraying was 40.99-91.37% and 29.85-89.12%, respectively, from brinjal fruits and 47.78-86.10% and 41.77-86.48%, respectively, from okra fruits. PMID:25917186

  10. First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. Farrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L. in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Samples of diseased leaves were collected to isolate the causal organisms. Isolated fungi were purified using single spore culture technique. Developed fungus was identified as Cercospora sp. Fresen based on cultural and morphological characteristics after light microscope examination. Also, Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus niger were isolated as associated fungi. Pathoginicity test confirmed efficiency of Cercospora sp. to induce typical symptoms on okra plants compared with other fungi. Foliar application using different concentrations of Topsin M-70WP and lemongrass oil was significantly reduced disease incidence compared with control. According to the available literature, this is the first record of CLS on okra in Egypt under natural infection in the field.

  11. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extract in psychiatric and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haja Sherief Sheik

    2014-10-01

    Results: In the open field test, AEAM (200 and 400 mg/kg increased the numbers of rearing. However, the number of central motor and ambulation were reduced. The number of entries and the time spent in the open arm were increased, whereas the number of locomotion was decreased (pA. moschatus is an alternative source for CNS drug development. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 845-853

  12. Responses of growth of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus [/i]L. to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ibrahim Al-Dulaimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus[/i] L.. Materials and methods. A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady’s fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The plants were watered using (WW raw dairy wastewater, (T1 chemicals treatment, (T2 physical treatment, (T3 dilution method treatment and tap water (TW in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter pos-tharvest. Results. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with other treatments. Chemical treatment (TC2 at 20 mg/L Al2(SO43 and pH 6.5 improved all growth characteristics, compared with WW, and TW reached 85%, 70.8 cm, 28.6 cm, 99.4 cm, 65.36%, 15.86% and 3.543 Mgg FW for seed germination, shoot length, root length, seedling length, shoot dry matter, root dry matter and chlorophyll, respectively. Also, 25% concentration and 6.5 pH from the dilution method treatment improved all the qualities, but at a lower level. A maximum favourable effect was also observed in the (T2 physical treatment, and ranged from average to moderate in terms of impact. Conclusions. Thus, dairy effluent, after chemical treatment and proper dilution, can be used as a potential source of water for seed germination and plant growth in agricultural practices.

  13. Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jurial Baloch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 ?m. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 ?m pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

  14. Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Zaki

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05 reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lilacinus alone.

  15. Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, M. J.; Maqbool, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05) reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lil...

  16. Genetics of the radiation-induced yellow vein mosaic disease resistance mutation in okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. AFLP and MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 population revealed DNA fragments that are potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

  17. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  18. Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah M. I. El Naggar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.. Seed shape, size and colour as well as outer epidermal cell patterns as seen by SEM, anticlinal cell boundaries and periclinal cell walls sculpture allow the recognition of two distinct groups among studied taxa. Seed coat features indicated both intra-group and inter-group relationships. Recognized groupings do not correspond well with the classical treatments of the Malvaceae, rather they suggest restructuring of tribal and generic taxonomy in the family. One important conclusion of this study is the inclusion of Lavatera cretica L. in the genus Malva as M. linnaei, M. F. Ray.

  19. Pomegranate seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter N/A (None; )

    2005-01-01

    This pomegranate has many seeds inside. These seeds are surrounded individually by red fruit. Some fruits also have many seeds, but all of the seeds are surrounded by the fruit instead of individually, like in an apple.

  20. Effect of okra gum on the pasting, thermal, and viscous properties of rice and sorghum starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Mohammed S; Mohamed, Abdellatif A; Hussain, Shahzad

    2012-06-01

    The effect of okra gum (OE) on the physical properties of rice and sorghum starches was investigated using rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), Brookfield viscometer, differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and light microscopy. Starch was replaced with 5, 10, 15% OE weight basis (g/100 g). In the presence of OE, the peak and final viscosity as well as the setback of both starches were reduced. However, the difference between the theoretical and the measured setback was more than just can be attributed to the omitted starch. The DSC data of the blends showed higher peak temperature compared to the control, indicating slower starch gelatinization in the presence of OE. Brookfield profiles demonstrated increase in shear stress at higher shear rate confirming pseudoplasticity of the system (nstarches, particularly, by decreasing viscosity, setback, and pseudoplasticity of the starch gels. PMID:24750624

  1. Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD / Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar E., Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T. do, Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de a [...] grupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado. Abstract in english RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods [...] to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

  2. Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar E. Martinello

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado.RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

  3. Residue analysis of fipronil and difenoconazole in okra by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their food safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Utture, Sagar C; Ahammed Shabeer, T P; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2015-06-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based method is reported for simultaneous analysis of fipronil (plus its metabolites) and difenoconazole residues in okra. The sample preparation method involving extraction with ethyl acetate provided 80-107% recoveries for both the pesticides with precision RSD within 4-17% estimated at the limits of quantification (LOQ, fipronil=1ngg(-1), difenoconazole=5ngg(-1)) and higher fortification levels. In field, both the pesticides dissipated with half-life of 2.5days. The estimated pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for fipronil and difenoconazole were 15 and 19.5days, and 4 and 6.5days at single and double dose of field applications, respectively. Decontamination of incurred residues by washing and different cooking treatments was quite efficient in minimizing the residue load of both the chemicals. Okra samples harvested after the estimated PHIs were found safe for human consumption. PMID:25624217

  4. Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlei Rosa dos Santos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo, sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líquido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas.Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was sown in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hybrid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

  5. Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente / Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marlei Rosa dos, Santos; Maria Aparecida Nogueira, Sediyama; Izabel Cristina dos, Santos; Luís Tarcísio, Salgado; Sanzio Mollica, Vidigal.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo [...] , sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líquido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas. Abstract in english Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was so [...] wn in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hybrid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

  6. Identification of DNA Fragments that Showed Linkage to the Radiation-induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease resistant mutant of okra was crossed to Pichit 03, a susceptible variety. Their progeny showed prolonged resistance when compared with Pichit 03. DNA fingerprints of F2 and BC1F1 individuals from the cross indicated that most DNA bands did not segregate with either the resistance or the susceptible characteristics. Nonetheless, polymorphic DNA bands could be identified between the mutant and Okura, the parental variety

  7. Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer-Zareen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

  8. Application of the exploratory analysis of data in the geographical discrimination of okra of Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santos Panero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The contents of Cu, Zn, Na, Fe, K, Ca, Mn, Mg, PO43-, Cl- and SO42- were determined in samples of okra of the municipal districts of Caruaru and Vitória de Santo Antão, in Pernambuco, as well as in the municipal districts of Ceará-Mirim, Macaíba and Extremoz in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. The objective of this work is the application of two methods of  exploratory analysis of data: Principal Component Analysis - PCA and Hierarquical Cluster Analysis - HCA in the geographical discrimination of okra originating in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco. The results showed that Cl- and Na were the main elements for the differentiation of the samples of Rio Grande do Norte and, the samples of Pernambuco presented the largest amount of Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ca, Zn, K, PO43-, and SO42-. Boths the methods of exploratory analysis of data investigated are efficient for geographical discrimination of okra originating in Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco.

  9. Comparative Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench (Okro) and Corchorus olitorius L (Jew Mallow) on Soil Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum Products

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku, Kelechi L.; Oboh, Bola O.; Akinola, Modupe O.; Ajasa, Arinola O.

    2012-01-01

    The comparative effects of Abelmoschus esculentus and Corchorus olitorius on soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum products were evaluated in this study. The pH, moisture, organic matter, microbial population and total petroleum hydrocarbon of the soils at the beginning and the end of the study were evaluated. Growth of A. esculentus led to loss of more TPH from the soil than the growth of C. olitorius. The growth of A. esculentus increased soil alkalinity and the soil moisture content ...

  10. Field Efficacy of CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis Biopesticide to Control Helicoverpa armigera (H?bner and Earias vitella (Fabricius in Okra Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Karim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis formulation and two other commercial Bt formulations (Agree and Larvo Bt were tested on Okra fields to control two lepidopteran pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vitella. CAMB Bt formulation was tested from 250-g/h dose to 1500 g/h dose to see the efficacy against target insect pests. Commercial Bt formulations, Agree and Larvo Bt were used as standard with one dose of 1000 g/h. All microbial insecticides successfully controlled H. armigera and E. vitella larvae in okra field. The efficacy of locally developed Bt formulation was promising in comparison to Agree and Larvo BT.

  11. Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

  12. Degradation dynamics and persistence of Quinolphos and Methomyl in/on Okra (Ablemoschus esculentus) fruits and cropped soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Md Wasim; Sengupta, Dwaipayan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2008-01-01

    Dissipation of Quinalphos (Ekalux 20 AF) and Methomyl (Lannate 12.5 L) residues were studied in/on Okra (var. Pusa Sawani) fruits and cropped soil at Baruipur, West Bengal, India. The insecticides were applied at 21 days after sowing by foliar spray at the recommended and double the recommended dose (i.e. 500 and 1,000 g a.i. ha(-1) in both the cases). Four sprays were given at 15 days interval in all the cases. The initial build-up residue on Okra fruits was to the magnitude of 3.20 and 7.50 microg g(-1) for Quinalphos, 5.61 and 8.42 microg g(-1) for Methomyl at lower and higher doses respectively. The half-lives (t(1/2)) in Okra fruit were found to be 1.25-1.43 days for Quinalphos and 0.88-0.94 days for Methomyl. The safe waiting period (T(MRL)) determined were 6.7 and 5.3 days at the lower dose of Quinalphos. The corresponding waiting period for Methomyl were 5.7 and 4.9 days. Decontamination process like washing and cooking dislodged 25.50%-81.50% residue depending on insecticides and doses, whereas 20.00%-69.60% surface residue was removed by washing alone. The residues of both insecticides in soil persisted for 6-8 days depending on dose. The half-lives in soil were found to be 1.07-1.20 days for Quinalphos and 0.97-1.25 days for Methomyl. PMID:18058046

  13. Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L in a Sub-tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Masarirambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD where 2.3.2 (22 an inorganic fertilizer was used as a control, and was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level of kraal manure there were significant (p<0.05 increases in all the growth parameters that were measured. There were also significant (p<0.05 differences of fresh mass and dry mass yield of wild okra. There was an increase in fresh and dry mass yield with every increase in application level of kraal manure while the least fresh and dry mass was recorded in plants provided with 2.3.2 (22. Kraal manure applied at 60 ton/ha gave the highest yield of wild okra under the conditions of this experiment.

  14. Seed Proteomics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  15. Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo

    OpenAIRE

    Edilson Costa; Taynara G de Souza; Gleciane de L Benteo; Katiane SS Benett; Cleiton GS Benett

    2013-01-01

    The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tested substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite a...

  16. Organic cultivation of okra with ground cover of perennial herbaceous legumes / Cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Mathias N da, Silva; Fábio Luiz, Oliveira; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Claudenir, Fávero; Mateus Augusto L, Quaresma.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da adubação verde com leguminosas herbáceas perenes tem se apresentado como prática interessante à produção de hortaliças, proporcionando melhorias no ambiente de cultivo e aumentando a produtividade das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro [...] em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo cultivo do quiabeiro em solo descoberto (controle) ou coberto com cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides), soja perene (Glycine wightii), calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides), amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi) e estilosantes campo grande (Stylosanthes capitata e Stylosanthes macrocephala). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A roçada das leguminosas, realizada na véspera da semeadura do quiabeiro, possibilitou a adição de quantidades de massa seca às áreas de cultivo, destacando-se o potencial do cudzu tropical (3,74 t ha-1), soja perene (1,55 t ha-1) e amendoim forrageiro (1,30 t ha-1). Nos cultivos de quiabeiro em solo coberto com cudzu tropical e com soja perene foram observados os menores acúmulos de massa seca de plantas espontâneas, até os 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro. Aos 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro, somente as áreas cobertas com amendoim forrageiro e com calopogônio apresentaram maiores volumes de água no solo em relação ao controle. Do início ao fim da colheita, as plantas de quiabeiro cultivadas em solo coberto com soja perene e com cudzu tropical apresentaram as maiores alturas. A produtividade máxima alcançada de frutos de quiabeiro (16,23 t ha-1), foi obtida no cultivo de quiabeiro em solo coberto com soja perene. Abstract in english The management of green manure with perennial herbaceous legumes has emerged as an interesting practice for vegetable production, improving the cultivation environment and increasing crop yields. In the present study we evaluated the organic okra cultivation in soil covered with perennial herbaceous [...] legumes. The treatments consisted of okra grown in bare soil (control) or covered with tropical kudzo (Pueraria phaseoloides), perennial soybean (Glycine wightii), calopogonium (Calopogonium muconoides), Pinto peanut (Arachis pintoi) and Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The weeding of legumes was realized before the okra was sown and this allowed the addition of quantities of dry matter, highlighting the potential of tropical kudzo (3.74 t ha-1), perennial soybean (1.55 t ha-1) and peanut (1.30 t ha-1). Okra cropped in soil covered with tropical kudzo and perennial soybean had the weed lowest dry matter accumulation until 150 days after sowing the okra. At 150 days after sowing the okra, only the areas covered with peanut and calopogonium had higher volumes of water in the soil compared to the control. Throughout the harvest, the okra plants grown in soil covered with perennial soybean and tropical kudzo showed the greatest heights. The maximum okra fruit yield (16.23 t ha-1) was obtained by growing okra in soil covered with perennial soybean.

  17. Efeito de alguns herbicidas na cultura do quiabeiro, em testes efetuados em casa de vegetação / Effect of some herbicides on okra crop in trials performed in the greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aldo, Alves; Reinaldo, Forster.

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas variedades de quiabeiro foram testadas, em condições de casa de vegetação, com solo de textura areno-barrenta, na sua tolerância para 16 herbicidas, cada qual aplicado em uma única dose. Dentre os herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado o triflu-ralin destacou-se no combate às ervas dan [...] inhas gramíneas e não causou nenhum dano para a planta do quiabeiro. Os herbicidas cloroxuron, linuron, norea e propachlor mostraram ótimos resultados no cambate às ervas más e quanto à tolerância dessa malvácea. Do grupo das triazinas, todos os herbicidas usados nas condições do teste provocaram danos para o quiabeiro. Abstract in english Two okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) varieties were tested for their tolerance to sixteen herbicides at one rate each, as a pre-planting and as a pre-emergence applications in greenhouse trials. The results with the incorporated herbicides showed that only tri-fluralin at 0,75 kg/ha active ingredient w [...] as promising to this crop. Different results were obtained with the pre-emergence applications of the group of urea and anilide herbicides. While no symptoms of injury were observed with chloroxuron, norea, linuron, and propachlor, injury symptoms were evident with diuron, fluometuron, metobromuron and siduron. The four triazine herbicides were very damaging to the okra plants. Under the conditions of these tests, only the herbicides trifluralin, chloroxuron, norea, and linuron were promising to the okra crop.

  18. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que apresentou reduções em torno de 76,42%, Carbono Orgânico Total (COT 67,88%, fenóis totais 77,13% e nitrogênio amoniacal 34,63%. A metodologia de tratamento empregando Filtração Lenta e Fotocatálise demonstrou ser uma excelente opção de remediação de chorume.

  19. International Seed Saving Institute: Basic Seed Saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    This straightforward site from the International Seed Saving Institute on Basic Seed Saving will be of use to any growers interested in learning how to save seeds from season to season. The site provides links "to specific seed saving instructions for 27 common vegetables" including many favorites like corn, carrots, broccoli, and lettuce. The site also links to a glossary of seed saving terms and a six-step Seed Saving Tutorial.

  20. Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil) / Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogéria Inês Rosa, Lara; Bruno Rafael, Spera; Danielle Roberta, Versuti; Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues, Fernandes; Terezinha Monteiro, Santos-Cividanes; Nelson Wanderley, Perioto.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar lepidópteros desfolhadores e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. As lagartas foram coletadas através de catação manual entre março e abril de 2009, individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido contendo ped [...] aços de folhas de quiabo e mantidas sob condições controladas (25±1°C, 12 horas de fotofase, 70±10% de UR) até a obtenção dos adultos de lepidópteros e/ou de seus parasitoides. Foram obtidos 63 adultos de lepidópteros: três espécies de Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), uma de Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) e uma de Tortricidae não identificada. Uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo (Diptera) e os Hymenoptera parasitoides Copidosoma floridanum Westwood (Encyrtidae), Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae) emergiram de A. flava e, C. floridanum e uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo, de P. includens. Este é o primeiro relato da associação entre S. frugiperda, P. includens e A. monuste orceis e seus parasitoides C. floridanum e Euplectrus sp. em plantas de quiabo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil). Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Pe [...] tri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10%) until the emergence of lepidopterans and/or parasitoids. In all, 63 lepidopterans were obtained: three species of Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker); one of Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart), and an unidentified species of Tortricidae. One unidentified tachinid fly (Diptera) and the Hymenoptera parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead) (Encyrtidae) and Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae) emerged from A. flava, while C. floridanum and an unidentified tachinid, from P. includens. This is the first report of an association between the herbivores S. frugiperda, P. includens and A. monuste orceis, the parasitoids C. floridanum and Euplectrus sp. on okra plants.

  1. Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the most popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de injúria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10 e 25ºC. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial, com comprimento entre 8 e 12 cm, sendo então envoltos por uma camada de filme de PVC em bandeja de poliestireno expandido, seguido do armazenamento até o aparecimento de sintomas de deterioração ou murcha. A redução da temperatura de armazenamento de 25 para 10 ou 5ºC diminuiu a perda de massa nos frutos envoltos com PVC e dos frutos controle, com menor taxa a 5ºC. Ao reduzir a temperatura para 5 ou 10ºC e cobrir com filme de PVC, o conteúdo relativo de água foi mantido durante o armazenamento, porém a 25ºC a elevada perda de massa esteve associada a significante redução do conteúdo de água do pericarpo do fruto. O aparecimento de sintomas de injúria por frio foi retardado pela presença de filme de PVC nos frutos armazenados a 5ºC. No entanto a 10ºC, não foram detectados sintomas de degeneração associados à injúria por frio nos frutos envoltos com PVC ou controle até o décimo dia de armazenamento. A taxa de degradação de clorofila durante o armazenamento foi menor nos frutos mantidos nas temperaturas mais baixas e com filme PVC. O aparecimento de sintomas severos de injúria por frio a 5ºC relacionou-se com o menor conteúdo de clorofila dos frutos controle, quando comparado àqueles envoltos em filme de PVC.

  2. Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

  3. Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra / Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Luiz, Finger; Maria Edith, Della-Justina; Vicente Wagner Dias, Casali; Mário, Puiatti.

    Full Text Available Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus) há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de inj [...] úria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10 e 25ºC. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial, com comprimento entre 8 e 12 cm, sendo então envoltos por uma camada de filme de PVC em bandeja de poliestireno expandido, seguido do armazenamento até o aparecimento de sintomas de deterioração ou murcha. A redução da temperatura de armazenamento de 25 para 10 ou 5ºC diminuiu a perda de massa nos frutos envoltos com PVC e dos frutos controle, com menor taxa a 5ºC. Ao reduzir a temperatura para 5 ou 10ºC e cobrir com filme de PVC, o conteúdo relativo de água foi mantido durante o armazenamento, porém a 25ºC a elevada perda de massa esteve associada a significante redução do conteúdo de água do pericarpo do fruto. O aparecimento de sintomas de injúria por frio foi retardado pela presença de filme de PVC nos frutos armazenados a 5ºC. No entanto a 10ºC, não foram detectados sintomas de degeneração associados à injúria por frio nos frutos envoltos com PVC ou controle até o décimo dia de armazenamento. A taxa de degradação de clorofila durante o armazenamento foi menor nos frutos mantidos nas temperaturas mais baixas e com filme PVC. O aparecimento de sintomas severos de injúria por frio a 5ºC relacionou-se com o menor conteúdo de clorofila dos frutos controle, quando comparado àqueles envoltos em filme de PVC. Abstract in english Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus) for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the mo [...] st popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.

  4. Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam S. Jain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle.

  5. Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats / Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pritam S., Jain; Sanjay B., Bari.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi [...] realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle. Abstract in english In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was [...] undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.

  6. Isolating, screening and applying chromium reducing bacteria to promote growth and yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in chromium contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Asghar, Hafiz Naeem; Shahzad, Tanvir; Hussain, Sabir; Riaz, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Maqsood, Marium

    2015-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)], extensively used in different industries, is one of the most toxic heavy metals. The Cr (VI) reducing bacteria could be helpful in decreasing its toxic effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Cr (VI) reducing bacteria to improve growth and yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Cr-contaminated soils. Most of the selected bacterial isolates significantly increased the growth and yield of okra. Maximum response was observed in the plants inoculated with the isolate K12 where plant height, root length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant increased up to 77.5 percent, 72.6 percent, 1.4 fold and 2.9 fold, respectively. Moreover, inoculation with bacteria caused significant decrease in Cr (VI) concentration in soil and plant parts across all treatments. The maximum decrease of 69.6, 56.1 and 40.0 percent in Cr (VI) concentrations in soil, plant vegetative parts and plant reproductive parts, respectively, was observed in the treatment inoculated with the strain K12. Based on amplification, sequencing and analysis of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain K12 was found belonging to genus Brucella and was designated as Brucella sp. K12. These findings suggest that the strain K12 may serve as a potential bioresource to improve crop production in Cr-contaminated soils. PMID:25066609

  7. Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce > soybean > watermelon > corn> okra?millet >sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

  8. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2 prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3 and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2. The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2, malate dehydrogenase (N3, superoxide dismutase (N2 and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3. This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

  9. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais / The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosângela D' Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Marcelo Barreto da, Silva; Naylor Daniel da Costa, Aguiar; Fábio LK, Bérgamo; Alexandre Sylvio Vieira da, Costa; Lusinério, Prezotti.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG) e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorre [...] ntes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.). As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s) espécie(s) e, ou da(s) raça(s) de Meloidogyne presente(s) nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2), seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3) e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2). A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp. Abstract in english Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG), and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematode [...] s (Meloidogyne spp.). The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2) prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3) and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2). The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2), malate dehydrogenase (N3), superoxide dismutase (N2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3). This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

  10. Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11, catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6, glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1 which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied and concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively applied to plant in the soil shows a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the respective metal accumulation. It reveals a mechanism for constant detoxification of H2O2 that have to be associated with adaptations and ultimate survival of this plant species during stress conditions. A reduction of catalase activities was observed on exposure to these metals, which is supposedly due to the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Root length, shoot length, number of leaves showed an enhancement with 0.05 mM CdCl2 dose then a gradual decline with the increase in concentrations. The results indicate that A. esculentus is tolerant to high concentrations of these metals, a property related to a differential activation of its enzymatic antioxidant system, and also reveal that this species has a higher capacity of Cd absorption.

  11. Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Asiya, Hameed; Tabasum N., Qadri; , Mahmooduzzafar; T.O., Siddiqi; M., Iqbal.

    Full Text Available Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1) which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied a [...] nd concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively) applied to plant in the soil shows a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the respective metal accumulation. It reveals a mechanism for constant detoxification of H2O2 that have to be associated with adaptations and ultimate survival of this plant species during stress conditions. A reduction of catalase activities was observed on exposure to these metals, which is supposedly due to the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Root length, shoot length, number of leaves showed an enhancement with 0.05 mM CdCl2 dose then a gradual decline with the increase in concentrations. The results indicate that A. esculentus is tolerant to high concentrations of these metals, a property related to a differential activation of its enzymatic antioxidant system, and also reveal that this species has a higher capacity of Cd absorption.

  12. Comparative Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (Okro and Corchorus olitorius L (Jew Mallow on Soil Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelechi L. Njoku

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of Abelmoschus esculentus and Corchorus olitorius on soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum products were evaluated in this study. The pH, moisture, organic matter, microbial population and total petroleum hydrocarbon of the soils at the beginning and the end of the study were evaluated. Growth of A. esculentus led to loss of more TPH from the soil than the growth of C. olitorius. The growth of A. esculentus increased soil alkalinity and the soil moisture content more than that of C. olitorius. More bacteria and fungi were isolated from soil that had A. esculentus than from soil that had C. olitorius. Significant differences were noticed between the impacts of A. esculentus and that of C. olitorius on the soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. The findings in this study show that A. esculentus has better ability to remediate petroleum contaminated soils than C. olitorius. Since both crops are easily propagated and readily grow in most soils, they can be very useful in combating the problems associated with contamination of soil with petroleum products.

  13. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following treatments: 1. sprinkler irrigation with spread manure; 2. sprinkler irrigation with placed manure; 3. drip irrigation with placed manure and 4. drip irrigation with fertigation. Fertigation was done only two times (two weeks after emergence and immediately after flowering) during the first experiment while weekly fertigation (8 times from two weeks after emergence) was done during the second experiment. The treatment effects on growth, yield, biomass, water use efficiency of the economical fresh pod yield (WUEy), and on the total above ground biomass (WUEtbm) were studied. The results showed that the okra crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice; however, the second experiment in the major dry season, the 2012 season, showed a marked improvement in the fertigated treatment compared to the others when fertigation was done weekly. In the second experiment despite the application of the same amount of nitrogen (89 kg N/ha), there were significant differences (P?0.05) between yield obtained with sprinkler spread manure (11.2 t ha-1), sprinkler placed manure (13.7 t ha-1), and drip fertigated (17.5 t ha-1); however, the yield difference between sprinkler placed manure (13.7 t ha-1) and drip placed manure (13.9 t ha-1) was insignificant (P?0.05) and WUEy and WUEtbm in the drip fertigated treatment was significantly (P?0.05) higher than in other treatments. Seasonal crop water use (ETc) for drip irrigation was 236 mm compared to 339 mm for sprinkler in the 2011 season. In the 2012 season, ETc for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted in significant water savings and yield increase compared with sprinkler irrigation.

  14. How Seeds Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs Liston

    2009-11-09

    Students will rotate around to 7 different stations to identify how the 7 presented seeds travel, whether it be by wind, water, or animal. They will then record it in their plant journals by illustrating the seed, listing its characteristics, and identifying the way in which it travels. Designer Seeds 7 Stations Coconut-Water Maple Seed- Wind Burdock (burrs) - Animals ...

  15. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality

  16. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality.

  17. Effect of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Germination and Growth Performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench—A Widely Cultivated Vegetable Crop in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oyedeji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of crude oil-contaminated soil on the germination and growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus, a widely cultivated vegetable crop in Nigeria. The experiment was conducted in the Screen House, under controlled environmental conditions. The seedling emergence percentage, heights and girths were studied to determine the growth performance of the crop in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the investigation revealed that the crude oil-contaminated soil affects the growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. as hindered germination, reduced heights and girths were observed in the crop planted in treated soil and this adversely and severely affects the crop agronomic growth and development and probably its yield. Therefore, contamination of agricultural soils with crude oil should be avoided and public awareness should be created on the detrimental effects of crude oil pollution in our terrestrial ecosystem. Innovative and environmental-friendly remediation strategies should be carried out on our agricultural soils that have been grossly polluted by crude oil exploitation and exploration.

  18. The seed nuclear proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate...

  19. Modeling the Time Elapsing from Seed Sowing to Emergence in Some Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Uzun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple regression model based on mean temperature was developed to be used for predicting the time elapsing from seed sowing to seedling emergence for some vegetable crops, namely tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., pepper (Capsicum annum, L., aubergine (Solanum melongena, L., pea (Pisum sativum, L., carrot (Daucus carota, L., sweat corn (Zea mays, cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.var. capitata (L Alef, cauliflower Brassica oleraceae L.var. botrytis L, onion (Allium cepa, L., celery (Apium graviolens, L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L., parsley (Petroselinum hortense , garden beet (Beta vulgaris, L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L., melon (Cucumis melo, L., runner bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Thunb., okra (Hibiscus esculentus, L., asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L., spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L., radish (Rhaphanus sativus, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The prediction performance of the model with respect to the data used was highly acceptable. R2 values of regression co-efficients for each crop varied from 0.94 to 0.99 depending on the species. Plotting the actual days from seed sowing to emergence for all the crops against the predicted ones showed that the prediction performance of the model was good explaining 98% of the variation for combined data from all the crops. The present model also predicted optimum temperatures (To for tried vegetables in the limits of acceptability.

  20. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Adesemoye, A. O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E. O.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spin...

  1. SEED DORMANCY, GENETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Seed dormancy is defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artifical conditions. Seed dor...

  2. A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil / Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar P., Henz; Carlos A., Lopes; Ailton, Reis.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch) e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência [...] da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR). A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil. Abstract in english Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani b [...] ased on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH). The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.

  3. A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P. Henz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH. The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR. A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil.

  4. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed...transported and shall include noxious weed seeds. [5 FR 31, Jan. 4,...

  5. EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

  6. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local Tc suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  7. Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field / Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edilson, Costa; Taynara G de, Souza; Gleciane de L, Benteo; Katiane SS, Benett; Cleiton GS, Benett.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O quiabeiro é hortaliça de clima quente, encontrando condições favoráveis de desenvolvimento no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de mudas e a produtividade de quiabeiro. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul e [...] m Aquidauana. Na fase de mudas, foram testados substratos (100% ramas de mandioca triturada; 75% ramas de mandioca triturada + 25% de vermiculita; 50% ramas de mandioca triturada + 50% de vermiculita; 25% ramas de mandioca triturada + 75% vermiculita e 100% vermiculita). Estes substratos foram dispostos em dois ambientes protegidos (viveiro agrícola de tela de monofilamento de 50% de sombreamento e viveiro agrícola de tela aluminizada de 50% de sombreamento). Cada ambiente foi considerado um experimento, conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições. Em seguida, realizou-se a análise conjunta. No campo, foram distribuídos os 10 tratamentos gerados a partir das combinações entre ambientes e substratos (2 ambientes x 5 substratos), no delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As proporções médias de ramas de mandioca e vermiculita podem ser indicadas para a formação de mudas de quiabeiro. Pelas fitomassas seca aérea e total o ambiente com tela aluminizada pode ser indicado para produção de mudas de quiabeiro com a utilização do substrato na proporção 1:1. Mudas provenientes de maiores porcentagens de vermiculita antecipam a produção, enquanto que mudas oriundas apenas de ramas tendem a retardar essa fase. Mudas oriundas do ambiente aluminizado tendem a incrementar a produção de frutos de quiabeiro. Proporções médias de vermiculita e ramas, para mudas produzidas na tela aluminizada, propiciam maior número de frutos e produtividade do quiabeiro em Aquidauana. Abstract in english The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tes [...] ted substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite and 100% vermiculite). These substrates were placed in two protected environments (nursery with black screen, 50% of shading, and aluminized screen, 50% of shading). Each environment was considered an experiment conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications. After that we realized joint analysis. In the field, a total of 10 treatments generated from combinations of environments and substrates (2 environments x 5 substrates) were distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The average proportions of cassava stems and vermiculite may be suitable for okra seedlings. The results of shoot and total dry phytomass indicate that the aluminized screen can be recommended for okra seedlings production when the substrate with a 1:1 ratio is used. Seedlings grown on higher percentages of vermiculite anticipate production, while seedlings produced only in cassava stems tend to slow it down. The aluminized screen tends to increase the yield of okra seedlings. Average proportions of vermiculite and cassava stems for seedling production under aluminized screen, provide more fruits and yield of okra in Aquidauana.

  8. Subset seed automaton

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noe?, Laurent; Roytberg, Mihkail

    2014-01-01

    We study the pattern matching automaton introduced in (A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds) for the purpose of seed-based similarity search. We show that our definition provides a compact automaton, much smaller than the one obtained by applying the Aho-Corasick construction. We study properties of this automaton and present an efficient implementation of the automaton construction. We also present some experimental results and show ...

  9. MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

  10. Field Efficacy of CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis Biopesticide to Control Helicoverpa armigera (H?bner) and Earias vitella (Fabricius) in Okra Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Karim; Ahmad Usman Zafar; Idrees Ahmad Nasir; Sheikh Riazuddin

    2000-01-01

    CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis formulation and two other commercial Bt formulations (Agree and Larvo Bt) were tested on Okra fields to control two lepidopteran pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vitella. CAMB Bt formulation was tested from 250-g/h dose to 1500 g/h dose to see the efficacy against target insect pests. Commercial Bt formulations, Agree and Larvo Bt were used as standard with one dose of 1000 g/h. All microbial insecticides successfully controlled H. armigera and E. vitella lar...

  11. UTILIZATION OF VERMIWASH POTENTIAL ON CERTAIN SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAKH NATH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of vermiwash on the growth, flowering and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus, lobia (Vigna unguiculata and radish (Raphnus sativus. Vermiwash was extracted from different vermicompost which was composted from different animal agro and kitchen wastes through earthworm Eisenia foetida. It was observed that treatment of vermiwash shows significantly increased in growth and productivity and decreased flowering period. The maximum significant growth was observed in 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with rice bran 38.0±1.3 cm. in case of okra, 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with gram bran (seed of Cicer arientinum 215.5±5.2 cm., in lobia crops and 30 mg/m2 concentration of buffalo dung with gram bran 20.4±1.4 cm. The significant early starting of flowering and increased in productivity was found in all treated groups with respect to control.

  12. Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is a warm season annual fiber crop closely related to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvaceae) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, Malvaceae) that can be successfully produced in a large portion of the United States, particularly in the southern sta...

  13. SEED DORMANCY, AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Seed dormancy has been defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artificial conditions. S...

  14. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Seed coat ultrastructure of hard-seeded and soft-seeded varieties of Vicia sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?yu?kkartal, Hatice Nurhan; C?o?lgec?en, Hatice; Pinar, Nur Mu?nevver; Erdog?an, Neslihan

    2013-01-01

    The mature seed coat structure in hard-seeded and soft-seeded varieties of Vicia sativa L. was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate differentiation in cytological and morphological features between these varieties. The outer layer of the seed coats was composed of macrosclereid (Malpighian) cells in the hard-seeded and soft-seeded varieties of Vicia sativa. The walls of the macrosclereid cells were thickened, and the cell vacuoles were filled with tannin. T...

  16. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  17. Seed recovery and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetohydrodynamic's (MHD) electric power generation capability depends on Faraday's law of induction. An ionized gas, called plasma, passes through a fixed magnetic field. The plasma is produced by seeding flue gases at a temperature of around 2500 deg C with potassium carbonate or formate. In a coal-fired open cycle MHD power plant the potassium seed material is in direct contact with the polluted flue gas from coal combustion. The molten slag droplets will capture a certain amount of potassium. The sulphur dioxide in the flue gases will react with potassium to potassium sulphate. The spent seed material has to be recovered and reprocessed so that the potassium can be reused as seed material. We can distinguish a preprocessing and a regeneration step. Seed preprocessing removes the minerals and volatile coal constituents from the potassium salts. Seed regeneration transforms the purified potassium sulphate into potassium carbonate or formate. Eight regeneration processes have been evaluated. The processes that convert the sulphur of the coal into saleable sulphur or sulphuric acid are still at an early stage of development. Considering all pros and cons, the Formate/Econoseed process appears most suited for seed regeneration purposes in coal-fired MHD systems. For an advanced MHD power plant the mass flow rates of the flue gas and of the potassium containing off-product streams will be calculated. It will be shown that the sulphur content of coal will influence thesulphur content of coal will influence the economical efficiency of the power plant

  18. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  19. Pollination, seed set and seed predation on a landscape scale.

    OpenAIRE

    I. Steffan-Dewenter; Münzenberg, U.; Tscharntke, T.

    2001-01-01

    We analysed the combined effects of pollination and seed predation on seed set of Centaurea jacea in 15 landscapes differing in structural complexity. In the centre of each landscape, a patch of Centaurea plants was established for standardized measurements of flower visitation, seed predation and seed set. Both the number of flower-visiting bees and the proportion of flower heads damaged by seed predators increased with landscape complexity, which was measured as the proportion of semi-natur...

  20. Seed output and the seed bank in Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokker, C; Lovett-Doust, L; Lovett-Doust, J

    1997-10-01

    Seed banks and sexual reproduction are known to be significant in colonization and re-establishment of some aquatic macrophyte communities. For highly clonal aquatic macrophytes, however, there is a lack of information on seed production and seed fate as compared with annual sexual species. The seed bank for three populations of Vallisneria americana in the Huron-Erie corridor of the Great Lakes was sampled and quantified in the spring of 1994, and related to seed production in the previous season at these sites. Seed deposition rates during 1994 were also assessed. Sites varied in the proportion of plants flowering and in their tertiary sex ratios, but did not differ in seed numbers produced per unit area. The size of the seed bank was not significantly related to the previous season's seed output, and estimates of seed deposition in the following year tended to be approximately tenfold greater than seed densities found in the seed bank. The stages between seed production and subsequent seed germination are generally very dynamic, with dispersal, mortality, and predation as likely regulating factors. The potential for seedling establishment in V. americana needs to be assessed more fully before the role of seeds in population processes can be determined. PMID:21708549

  1. Anaphylaxis to sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, J H; Boyd, G K; Settipane, G A

    1979-04-01

    The clinical and immunological investigation of three patients with an acute anaphylaxis after ingesting commercial varieties of sunflower seeds is presented. Specific IgE-mediated hypersensitivity has been demonstrated in all three patients to sunflower seed extract by history, direct skin tests, and positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) titers. RAST inhibition was positive in two patients tested. Similar tests on controls were negative. PMID:429702

  2. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  3. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Luiza, Wain-Tassi; Juliana Faria dos, Santos; Rita de Cássia, Panizzi; Roberval Daiton, Vieira.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dem [...] atium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa) and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity), and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm) and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum) were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds) and six (6.5 mm large seeds) replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  4. Conservação e qualidade pós-colheita de quiabo sob diferentes temperaturas e formas de armazenamento Postharvest conservation and quality of okra submitted to different temperatures and storage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F da Mota

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do filme plástico de PVC e da temperatura de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de frutos de cultivares de quiabo. O experimento foi organizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo nas parcelas as duas temperaturas (5 e 10 ºC, nas subparcelas um fatorial 2 (sem e com PVC x 4 (cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless e nas subsubparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem, com quatro blocos. A temperatura de 10ºC e o uso do filme de PVC foram mais eficientes no controle da perda de massa da matéria fresca. O filme foi mais eficiente na manutenção de maior teor relativo de água no pericarpo dos frutos armazenados a 5 e 10ºC. A cv. Amarelinho perdeu menos massa da matéria fresca e manteve maior teor relativo de água. Os frutos armazenados a 5ºC apresentaram maiores teores de vitamina C, com menor perda de vitamina C nas cvs. Mammoth Spinless e Star of David. Observou-se maior incidência de injúria por frio e escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC e a 5ºC. A cv. Amarelinho apresentou melhor conservação pós-colheita com temperatura de 10ºC e o uso da embalagem de PVC.This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of PVC film and temperature on the postharvest storage life in four cultivars of okra. The treatments were displayed in randomized complete blocks, in split-split-plot design, where the parcels were the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC, and in the sub parcels a 2 (control and PVC wrapped fruits x 4 (cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless factorial, and in the sub-sub parcels six sampling moments, containing four blocks. Storage at 10ºC and wrapping the fruits with PVC film improved the control of fresh mass loss. The film was more efficient in maintaining higher water content in the fruit pericarp at 5 or 10ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho lost less fresh mass and maintained higher water content. Fruits stored at 5ºC had higher vitamin C content. The cultivars Mammoth Spinless and Star of David showed lower losses of vitamin C. Cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of chlorophyll and Amarelinho the lowest. In general the development of chilling and browning was higher in fruits without PVC film at 5ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho had better postharvest conservation at 10ºC and using PVC film.

  5. Conservação e qualidade pós-colheita de quiabo sob diferentes temperaturas e formas de armazenamento / Postharvest conservation and quality of okra submitted to different temperatures and storage forms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner F da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Paulo Roberto, Cecon; Derly José H da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia P, Firme; Gisele P, Mizobutsi.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do filme plástico de PVC e da temperatura de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de frutos de cultivares de quiabo. O experimento foi organizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo nas parcelas [...] as duas temperaturas (5 e 10 ºC), nas subparcelas um fatorial 2 (sem e com PVC) x 4 (cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless) e nas subsubparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem, com quatro blocos. A temperatura de 10ºC e o uso do filme de PVC foram mais eficientes no controle da perda de massa da matéria fresca. O filme foi mais eficiente na manutenção de maior teor relativo de água no pericarpo dos frutos armazenados a 5 e 10ºC. A cv. Amarelinho perdeu menos massa da matéria fresca e manteve maior teor relativo de água. Os frutos armazenados a 5ºC apresentaram maiores teores de vitamina C, com menor perda de vitamina C nas cvs. Mammoth Spinless e Star of David. Observou-se maior incidência de injúria por frio e escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC e a 5ºC. A cv. Amarelinho apresentou melhor conservação pós-colheita com temperatura de 10ºC e o uso da embalagem de PVC. Abstract in english This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of PVC film and temperature on the postharvest storage life in four cultivars of okra. The treatments were displayed in randomized complete blocks, in split-split-plot design, where the parcels were the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC, and in the sub parce [...] ls a 2 (control and PVC wrapped fruits) x 4 (cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless) factorial, and in the sub-sub parcels six sampling moments, containing four blocks. Storage at 10ºC and wrapping the fruits with PVC film improved the control of fresh mass loss. The film was more efficient in maintaining higher water content in the fruit pericarp at 5 or 10ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho lost less fresh mass and maintained higher water content. Fruits stored at 5ºC had higher vitamin C content. The cultivars Mammoth Spinless and Star of David showed lower losses of vitamin C. Cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of chlorophyll and Amarelinho the lowest. In general the development of chilling and browning was higher in fruits without PVC film at 5ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho had better postharvest conservation at 10ºC and using PVC film.

  6. Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente / Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner F da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Paulo Roberto, Cecon; Derly José H da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia P, Firme; Ludmila L de M, Neves.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdividida [...] s, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless), e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet. Abstract in english The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red [...] Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual browning. The PVC was efficient in controlling the weight loss and retained the water content through storage. The lowest losses were observed for the cvs. Amarelinho and Star of David, without and with PVC, respectively. There was higher retention of vitamin C in the fruits wrapped with PVC and the cvs. Red Velvet and Star of David kept higher content of it. In general, the cv. Mammoth Spinless kept higher content of chlorophyll. The higher incidence of browning was in fruits stored without PVC. The Red Velvet had better shelf life due to lower browning.

  7. Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F da Mota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless, e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet.The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual browning. The PVC was efficient in controlling the weight loss and retained the water content through storage. The lowest losses were observed for the cvs. Amarelinho and Star of David, without and with PVC, respectively. There was higher retention of vitamin C in the fruits wrapped with PVC and the cvs. Red Velvet and Star of David kept higher content of it. In general, the cv. Mammoth Spinless kept higher content of chlorophyll. The higher incidence of browning was in fruits stored without PVC. The Red Velvet had better shelf life due to lower browning.

  8. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57 Customs...General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed...

  9. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos A. S., Franca; Sergio L., Vieira; Antonio C. P., Carvalho; Antonio J. S., Bernabe; Antonio B. R., Penna.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Material and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, [...] PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85). Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8%) patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4%) treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%): 88.7/82, D90(Gy): 149.2/140.3, D90(%): 104.2/93.8, V150 (%): 53.8/47, respectively). No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33), PSA (p = 0.391), prostate volume (p = 0.397), activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109), number of seeds (p = 0.338), V100 (p = 0.332), although significant differences were measured in the values of D90(% and Gy) (p = 0.022 and 0.011) and V150 (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry.

  10. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. S. Franca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Material and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85. Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8% patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4% treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%: 88.7/82, D90(Gy: 149.2/140.3, D90(%: 104.2/93.8, V150 (%: 53.8/47, respectively. No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33, PSA (p = 0.391, prostate volume (p = 0.397, activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109, number of seeds (p = 0.338, V100 (p = 0.332, although significant differences were measured in the values of D90(% and Gy (p = 0.022 and 0.011 and V150 (p = 0.023. Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry.

  11. Nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization / Nitrogênio aplicado à cultura do quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marinice O, Cardoso; Rodrigo F, Berni.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar, no período chuvoso amazônico, o efeito do nitrogênio aplicado ao quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual. O ensaio foi conduzido na Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, em Iranduba-AM, entre outubro/2010 e fevereiro//2011, em Argissolo Amarelo distrófico, textura média, u [...] tilizando-se covas com níveis residuais de fertilidade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições (duas linhas com quatro plantas, espaçadas de 1,5x1,0 m) e quatro tratamentos principais (ureia, em cobertura: 0,0; 20,0; 40,0 e 60 g planta-1 correspondendo a 0,0; 60,0; 120,0 e 180,0 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, em duas parcelas), com a cv Dardo. Além de dois tratamentos adicionais, representados pelo esterco de galinha (1,0 L por cova, com a cv Dardo) e pela cv Santa Cruz-47 (com 40 g planta-1 de ureia). As covas receberam micronutrientes e irrigação por gotejamento. As características avaliadas mostraram incrementos quadráticos com as doses de ureia. Os maiores valores da altura de planta (39,7 cm), do diâmetro de copa (86,2 cm), do número de frutos (36 unidades planta-1), da massa média de fruto (17,3 g), do número de colheitas no ciclo produtivo (26,4 unidades ciclo-1) e da produtividade (4051 kg ha-1) ocorreram com (g planta-1 de ureia): 48,3; 43,5; 38,5 g; 49,7; 32,7; e 40,5, respectivamente. As características originais concorreram com razoável equilíbrio para o desempenho geral da planta (CP1), evidenciando-se, secundariamente, antagonismo entre colheitas por ciclo e frutos por planta contra a massa média de fruto e o diâmetro de copa (CP2). O esterco de galinha proporcionou desempenho idêntico ao da ureia e sobressaiu ao tratamento sem ureia, para todas as características. A cv Santa Cruz-47 superou a cv Dardo somente para o diâmetro de copa e número de colheitas. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi 40,2 g de ureia planta-1 (120,6 kg ha-1 de N), com renda líquida por hectare de 2,09 toneladas de quiabo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the Amazonian rainy season, the effect of nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization. The trial was carried out in the Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, in Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil, between October/2010 and February/2011, [...] in dystrophic Yellow Argisoil, medium texture, using pits with residual fertility. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four repetitions (two lines with four plants, spacing of 1.5x1.0 m) and four main treatments (urea: 0.0; 20.0; 40.0 and 60.0 g plant-1 corresponding to 0.0; 60.0; 120.0 and 180.0 kg ha-1 of N, respectively, in two portions) using cv Dardo. Besides two additional treatments: chicken manure (1.0 L pit-1, with the cv Dardo) and cv Santa Cruz-47 (with urea rate of 40.0 g plant-1). Micronutrients in pits and dripping system irrigation were applied. All the studied traits had significant quadratic response with the increase of the urea rates. The highest estimated value for the plant height (39.7 cm), canopy diameter (86.2 cm), fruit number (36.0 un plant-1), fruit average mass (17.3 g), harvest number within production cycle (26.4 un cycle-1) and of the yield (4051 kg ha-1) were observed with (g plant-1 of urea): 48.3; 43.5; 38.5; 49.7; 32.7; and 40.5, respectively. Those original traits contributed reasonably poised for plant overall performance (PC1), but subordinate there was antagonism between harvest number and fruit number versus fruit average mass and canopy diameter (PC2). The chicken manure showed positive response compared to the control treatment, but didn't differ from urea rates for all these characteristics. When compared to cv Dardo, the cv Santa Cruz-47 only presented higher values to canopy diameter and number of harvests. The economical efficiency maximum dose was 40.2 g plant-1 of urea (120.6 kg ha-1 of N), with net income per hectare equal to 2.09 tons of okra fruits.

  12. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N. P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on diffe...

  13. Farmers, seeds and varieties : supporting informal seed supply in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Thijssen, M.H.; Bishaw, Z.; Beshir, A.; Boef, W.S., de

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia is characterized by an enormous diversity in agro-ecosystems, crops and varieties, with the informal seed systems dominant in seed supply for almost all crops. The book addresses strategies and approaches through which professionals can support informal seed supply, and links these with the conservation and use of the huge genetic resource base of crops and local varieties. The book looks at informal seed supply from a number of different angles, introduces key concepts and strategie...

  14. Seeding experiments at SPARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the DS4 EUROFEL collaboration, a research work plan at the SPARC free-electron laser (FEL) test facility aiming at the investigation of seeded and cascaded FEL configurations is under implementation. The main goal of the collaboration is to study and test the amplification and the FEL harmonic generation process of an input seed signal obtained as higher-order harmonics generated both in crystals (400 and 266 nm) and in gases (266, 160, 114 nm). The SPARC FEL can be configured to test several cascaded FEL configurations. In this paper we introduce SPARC and its main parameters and we analyze the superradiant cascade and the harmonic cascade seeded with a signal with the typical time structure of the harmonics generated in gas

  15. Ethylene and lettuce seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene can stimulate seed germination and overcome dormancy in many species. For instance, the inhibitory effect of high temperature on lettuce seed germination can be overcome by exogenous ethylene. Involvement of ethylene in seed germination is a widely accepted fact, but the mechanistic details are poorly understood. A critical factor in ethylene studies is the response of seed germination properties to various ethylene inhibitors. Lettuce seed has been used as a model to study the role of ethylene in seed germination at high temperature. The role of ethylene in germination is not known but either ethylene evolution or addition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid (ACC have been associated with increased activity of endo-beta-mannanase, a cell-wall enzyme that weakens the endosperm and allows lettuce seed to germinate at high temperature. This review describes some results on seed germination studies in response to ethylene and its possible role in promoting germination at high temperature.

  16. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    OpenAIRE

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after c...

  17. Phomopsis seed decay of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. Infected seed range from symptomless to shriveled, elongated, ...

  18. SEED DORMANCY IN LEAFY SPURGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge reproduces asexually via crown and root buds and sexually by seeds. Our unit has largely focused on dormancy in buds and vegetative reproduction. However, dormant seeds in the soil play a key role in the persistence of weeds. For example, leafy spurge seeds can remain dormant and viable...

  19. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN L. ORROCk; ELLEN I. DAMSCHEN

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds? primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  20. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  1. IMPACT OF IMPROVED SEEDS ON SMALL FARMERS' PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF BARA LOCALITY IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of small farmers in Bara locality.

  2. First direct seeding at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct seeding with a high-harmonic generation source can improve the spectral, temporal, and coherence properties of a free-electron-laser (FEL) and reduces intensity- and arrival-time fluctuations. In the seeding experiment at the XUV-FEL in Hamburg, FLASH, which is normally operated in the self-amplified spontaneous emission mode, the 21st harmonic of an 800 nm laser is focused into a dedicated seeding undulator. The interaction with the relativistic electrons acts as an amplifier for the seed radiation. We present the setup of the seeding section of FLASH and first experimental results.

  3. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  4. Seeds for effective oligonucleotide design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshraftar Shima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA oligonucleotides are a very useful tool in biology. The best algorithms for designing good DNA oligonucleotides are filtering out unsuitable regions using a seeding approach. Determining the quality of the seeds is crucial for the performance of these algorithms. Results We present a sound framework for evaluating the quality of seeds for oligonucleotide design. The F - score is used to measure the accuracy of each seed. A number of natural candidates are tested: contiguous (BLAST-like, spaced, transitions-constrained, and multiple spaced seeds. Multiple spaced seeds are the best, with more seeds providing better accuracy. Single spaced and transition seeds are very close whereas, as expected, contiguous seeds come last. Increased accuracy comes at the price of reduced efficiency. An exception is that single spaced and transitions-constrained seeds are both more accurate and more efficient than contiguous ones. Conclusions Our work confirms another application where multiple spaced seeds perform the best. It will be useful in improving the algorithms for oligonucleotide design.

  5. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

  6. Effect of Intercropping Okra (Hibiscus esclentus with Pumpkin (Curcubita maxima Dutch ex Lam on Some Growth Parameters and Economic Yield of Maize (Zea mays and Maximization of Land Use in a Fadama Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to harness fadama lands in Niger-delta as a result of dearth of fertile arable land due to soil infertility from little or no fallow period. This study was carried out, to determine the compatibility of okra, pumpkin and maize in a fadama soil. Oba super2 variety of maize, NHae 47-4 variety of okra and locally sourced pumpkin were sown in October, 2003 and repeated in October 2004, in a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates. Maize and okra were monitored weekly for 8 and 10 weeks respectively for plant height and number of leaves while pumpkin were accessed for % vine coverage. Observation were carried for weed biomass, economic yield, aggregate yield and land equivalent ratio were calculated from the economic yield. The result of the 2 year study showed, that growth parameters did not all follow a consistend trend, although sole crops performed better than in their crop associations. The presence of pumpkin significantly reduced weeds growth in the crop associations. The economic or relative economic yield was significantly higher (p<0.05 in sole crops than in the individual crops of the association, but the aggregate yield was higher in the crop association than in their sole crops plot. The land equivalent ratio was highest in 3 crop association (1.97 than 2 crop association and least in sole crops of 1.00.

  7. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Carlos A.S.; Vieira, Sergio L.; Bernabe, Antonio J.S.; Penna, Antonio B.R. [Brazilian Institute of Oncology, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Radioterapia Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosfranca@cremerj.org.br; Carvalho, Antonio C.P. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital

    2009-09-15

    Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V{sub 100}, V{sub 150} and D{sub 90} were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85). Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8%) patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4%) treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V{sub 100}(%): 88.7/82, D{sub 90}(Gy): 149.2/140.3, D{sub 90}(%): 104.2/93.8, V{sub 150} (%): 53.8/47, respectively). No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33), PSA (p = 0.391), prostate volume (p 0.397), activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109), number of seeds (p 0.338), V{sub 100} (p = 0.332), although significant differences were measured in the values of D{sub 90} (% and Gy) (p = 0.022 and 0.011) and V{sub 150} (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry. (author)

  8. Seed dormancy and germination

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M; Bentsink, L.; Hilhorst, H.

    2002-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are complex adaptive traits of higher plants that are influenced by a large number of genes and environmental factors. Studies of genetics and physiology have shown the important roles of the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in the regulation of dormancy and germination. More recently, the use of quantitative genetics and mutant approaches has allowed the further genetic dissection of these traits and the identification of previously unknown component...

  9. Seed Dormancy and Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M.; Karssen, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are complex adaptive traits of higher plants that are influenced by a large number of genes and environmental factors. Studies of genetics and physiology have shown the important roles of the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in the regulation of dormancy and germination. More recently, the use of quantitative genetics and mutant approaches has allowed the further genetic dissection of these traits and the identification of previously unknown component...

  10. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed fate, and may be helpful in developing models to predict seed shadows and recruitment patterns of large-seeded trees.

  11. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat but low levels of chlorophyll were also detected in the embryo, mainly in the radicle tip. Seed chlorophyll fluorescence appeared to be a sensitive indicator of physiological maturity of tomato see...

  12. Seed storage behavior of forest tree species seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of five forest species were classified according to their physiological storage behavior. Seeds of Casearia sylvestris Swart (Salicaceae, Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae, Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. (Meliaceae, Eremanthus incanus Less. (Asteraceae, Protium heptaphyllum March. (Burseraceae were collected and taken to the laboratory, where they were processed and submitted to both rapid and slow drying, storage and assayed for viability. After physiological classification regarding storage behavior, it was observed that seeds of C. sylvestris and E. incanus presented orthodox behavior. Seeds of G. kunthiana and P. heptaphyllum were classified as recalcitrant and Q. grandiflora as an intermediate, which did not tolerate low moisture content.

  13. Magnetic biostimulation of wheat seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornarzyński K.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation carried out at the Department of Physics, University of Agriculture in Lublin consisted in the application of an alternating magnetic field (50 Hz, harmonic vibration for the biostimulation of wheat seeds.The purpose of research was to define the effect of the magnetic biostimulation on the germination of seeds. The wheat seeds were subjected to 18 different magnetic ex- posure doses. For the next investigation two magnetic exposure doses were selected. On the basis of the research, it can be said that germination capacity of wheat seeds de- pends on the magnetic exposure dose. The speed of germi- nation of the treated seeds was higher than in the case of untreated ones. The seeds with the highest moisture content and subjected to a higher magnetic exposure dose had the highest speed of germination. Maximum speed of germi- nation for all the studied combinations was observed 35 h after magnetic biostimulation.

  14. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  15. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  16. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Franca, Carlos A. S.; Vieira, Sergio L.; Carvalho, Antonio C. P.; Bernabe, Antonio J. S.; Penna, Antonio B. R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Material and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 m...

  17. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, A.J.G., van

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the functioning of the wheat seed system in four major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. A total of 304 wheat growers were interviewed in Arsi, West Shoa, North Shoa, and East Gojam zones. Most wheat growers w...

  18. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: farmers' varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, A.J.G., van

    2011-01-01

    A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides (93%), seed treatment (90%) or insecticides (41%). In contrast barley growers had low awareness (36%) and use (0.5%) of modern varieties, herbicides (4%), insecticides (3%) and fertilizers (56%). Gra...

  19. Nutrição mineral de hortaliças: XIX - absorção de macro e micronutrientes pela cultura do quiabeiro (Hibiscus esculentum L.) / Mineral nutrition of vegetable crops: XIX. absorption of macro and micronutrientes by okra plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. C. B., Costa; H. P., Haag; J. R., Sarruge.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar aspectos da nutrição mineral do quiabeiro (Hibiscus esculentus L.), no que concerne a: quantidades de macro e micronutrientes extraídos nas diversas fases do desenvolvimento, em duas variedades (Campinas 1 e Green Velvet). Sementes de ambas variedades f [...] oram postas a germinar em vasos contendo silica e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa. Plantas foram coletadas em períodos de 10 dias até aos 70 dias de idade, separadas em caule, folhas, flores e frutos. No material coletado foi determinado o peso da matéria seca e analizado quantitativamente para macro e micronutrientes, com excessão do cloro. Observou-se que o desenvolvimento em altura é idêntico em ambas as variedades; variedade Campinas 1 apresenta maior peso de matéria seca no final do ciclo; a extração dos nutrientes é lenta até aos 20 dias, acentuando-se após este período até o final do ciclo, em ambas as variedades; a extração de potássio pela var. Green Velvet é aproximadamente o dobro da var. Campinas 1; a var. Campinas 1 extrai maiores quantidades de micronutrientes. Abstract in english Plants of the varieties. - Campinas 1 and Green Velvet, were cultivated under nutrition solution conditions (SARRUGE, 1970). Periodically, every 10 days, from the 10th day up plants were harvested, divided into stalks, leaves, flowers, fruits and analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn an [...] d Mb. Conclusions: Okra plants of the variety Campinas 1 showed a higher dry matter production in confront with the variety Green Velvet at the final stage of growth; The extraction of nutrients by plants of both varieties was rather small until the age of 20 days; The extraction on K by the variety Green Velvet was superior in 100% when compared to the variety Campinas 1. The variety Green Velvet has a greater demand in macronutrients than the variety Campinas ¹; In contrast the variety Campinas 1 extracted superior quantities of the micronutrientes than the variety Green Velvet. On ha of okra plants (20,000) removed the following quantities in nutrients:

  20. Seed production and quality of pinus durangensis mart., from seed areas and a seed stand in durango, mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development. (author)

  1. Teaching Through Trade Books: Secrets of Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Morgan

    2009-02-01

    From a tiny radish seed to a giant coconut, seeds come in a multitude of shapes and sizes. They all share one amazing secret: the potential to grow into a new plant when conditions are right. In this month's column, students observe a variety of seeds, match seeds to the plants they grow into, explore what seeds need to germinate and grow, and design investigations with seeds.

  2. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  3. Two light yellow seed embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2007-06-19

    The style of the carpel of a flower (female reproductive structure) leads to the ovary. The ovary holds eggs, which become seeds once fertilized. Seeds hold embryos. The embryo becomes a new plant. In animals, the embryo becomes a new animal.

  4. Differential predation of forage seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

  5. Tetrazolium test in timbaúba seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjara Walessa Nogueira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tetrazolium test has shown itself to be a promising alternative in determining the viability and vigor of seeds of forest species by the quality and speed of data collection. Thus, this paper was developed with the goal of standardizing the methodology for conducting the tetrazolium test for assessing the physiological quality of seed lots Timbaúba. To evaluate the physiological quality of seeds the four lots were subjected to the following determinations: water content, germination, first count and speed germination. Four replicates of 25 seeds from each batch were submerged in tetrazolium solution and kept in the dark at 35 °C for periods of 1, 3 and 6 hours under concentrations of 0.1, 0.075 and 0.050%. After the staining periods, the seeds were washed, split lengthwise between the cotyledon and ranked in viable and not viable. Seed exposure for periods of one hour and six hours has proved inadequate for driving the tetrazolium test since not promoted the proper interpretation of staining results. The tetrazolium test is a viable alternative for the evaluation of existing lots of Timbaúba. To conduct the test recommended scarification followed by soaking the seeds in water for 24 hours and coat removal, with subsequent soaking of seeds for three hours in tetrazolium solution of 0.075 % at 35 ºC.

  6. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  7. Effect of seed maturity on sensitiviy of seed towards physical sanitation treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, S. P. C.; Birnbaum, Y. E.; Rop, N.; Jalink, H.; Forsberg, G.; Kromphardt, C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2006-01-01

    Physical sanitation methods are used by the seed industry to prevent transmission of seed-borne diseases, but sensitivity varies between seed lots. The effect of seed maturity on the sensitivity to hot water, aerated steam and electron treatments was studied. Two Brassica oleracea L. and two Daucus carota L. seed lots from commercial production were selected for containing relatively large amounts of less mature seeds. Each seed lot was sorted into three maturity fractions based on the levels...

  8. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mcguire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social relationships influence access to off-farm seed for a major crop. Seed shortfalls are common, and farmer¿farmer exchange is important for providing locally-adapted seed to fill this gap, but access varies...

  9. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  10. On subset seeds for protein alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roytberg, Mikhail; Gambin, Anna; Noé, Laurent; Lasota, Slawomir; Furletova, Eugenia; Szczurek, Ewa; Kucherov, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    We apply the concept of subset seeds to similarity search in protein sequences. The main question studied is the design of efficient seed alphabets to construct seeds with optimal sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs. We propose several different design methods and use them to construct several alphabets. We then perform a comparative analysis of seeds built over those alphabets and compare them with the standard Blastp seeding method, as well as with the family of vector seeds. While the formalism of subset seeds is less expressive (but less costly to implement) than the cumulative principle used in Blastp and vector seeds, our seeds show a similar or even better performance than Blastp on Bernoulli models of proteins compatible with the common BLOSUM62 matrix. Finally, we perform a large-scale benchmarking of our seeds against several main databases of protein alignments. Here again, the results show a comparable or better performance of our seeds versus Blastp. PMID:19644175

  11. Seed biology and in vitro seed germination of Cypripedium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Songjun; Zhang, Yu; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; Duan, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Cypripedium orchids have high horticultural value. The populations of most species are very geographically restricted and they are becoming increasingly rare due to the destruction of native habitats and illegal collection. Reduction of the commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is a preferable option to reduce pressure from illegal collection. Cypripedium species are commercially propagated via seed germination in vitro. This review focuses on in vitro seed germination and provides an in-depth analysis of the seed biology of this genus. PMID:24191720

  12. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimi?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g, intergrowth energy (18-37 % and seed germination (39-52 %. In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g, intergrowth energy (84-85 % and seed germination (87-89 % were after application of the method of seed processing T-4 and aft er the fungicides application TF-4. The results showed that unfavorable weather conditions over the production year result with low quality seeds. However, by applying the target methods of seed processing and optimal combination of fungicide doses we can produce the sunflower seeds with regular legislation quality for the market.

  13. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  14. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 ...Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed...

  15. Seed pathology progress in academia and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2009-01-01

    Seed pathology involves the study and management of diseases affecting seed production and utilization, as well as disease management practices applied to seeds. In this paper, three aspects of seed pathology are discussed: research innovations in detection of seedborne pathogens and elucidation of their epidemiology; advances in development and use of seed treatments; and progress toward standardization of phytosanitary regulations and seed health testing methods. The application of nucleic-acid based detection methods in seed health testing has been facilitated by integrating conventional or real-time PCR with other technologies (e.g., BIO-PCR, IMS-PCR, MCH-PCR). PCR-based methods and pathogen marker technologies are being applied to epidemiological research on seedborne pathogens, e.g., seed transmission mechanisms, the influence of external biotic and abiotic factors on seed transmission, and tracking progress of seed-transmitted pathogens. Seed treatment use is discussed in terms of the revolutionary expansion in seed-applied insecticide use, impacts of new fungicide active ingredients, and the effects of some seed treatments on crop physiology. International seed trade has been affected significantly by changing phytosanitary regulations, not always based on science. Efforts are underway to revise phytosanitary regulations to reflect pest risk analysis outcomes and to develop standards for seed health testing methods that facilitate safe and efficient international trade in seeds. PMID:19400648

  16. DILL (ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L.) SEED STALK ARCHITECTURE AND SEEDS INFESTATION WITH FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota, Szopinska; Bralewski, Tomasz W.

    2006-01-01

    In the years 2002-2004 seeds of dill 'Amat' harvested from four different umbel position were evaluated for their infestation with fungi. On the tested seeds Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp., Epicoccum purpurascens, Gonatobotrys simplex and Trichothecium roseum were occurring the most frequently. The seed stalk architecture influenced infestation of disinfected seeds with A. alternata and non-disinfected seeds with Cladosporium spp.

  17. Early diversification of seeds and seed-like structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestianni Cyrille

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The seed habit is one of the most important evolutionary acquisition in plant evolution. It allowed colonisation of new ecological niches, leading to a level of diversification never observed before. The seed habit involves occurrence of a single functional megaspore within an indehiscent megasporangium (nucellus, development of an endosporic megagametophyte, enclosure of the nucellus by an integument, and capture of pollen before dispersal from the sporophyte.

  18. On subset seeds for protein alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Roytberg, Mikhail; Gambin, Anna; Noe?, Laurent; Lasota, Slawomir; Furletova, Eugenia; Szczurek, Ewa; Kucherov, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    We apply the concept of subset seeds proposed in [1] to similarity search in protein sequences. The main question studied is the design of efficient seed alphabets to construct seeds with optimal sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs. We propose several different design methods and use them to construct several alphabets. We then perform a comparative analysis of seeds built over those alphabets and compare them with the standard BLASTP seeding method [2], [3], as well as with ...

  19. Efficient seeding techniques for protein similarity search

    OpenAIRE

    Roytberg, Mihkail; Gambin, Anna; Noe?, Laurent; Lasota, Slawomir; Furletova, Eugenia; Szczurek, Ewa; Kucherov, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    We apply the concept of subset seeds proposed in [1] to similarity search in protein sequences. The main question studied is the design of efficient seed alphabets to construct seeds with optimal sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs. We propose several different design methods and use them to construct several alphabets.We then perform an analysis of seeds built over those alphabet and compare them with the standard Blastp seeding method [2,3], as well as with the family of ve...

  20. Aerodynamic and geometric properties of amaranth seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Szot B.; Kram B.

    1999-01-01

    Geometrical properties (thickness, width and length) of individual amaranth seeds were measured by means of an optic device. The measurements allowed us to be calculated the values of seeds bearing surface for esti- mating aerodynamic properties. The determination of aero- dynamic properties was performed using prototype ap- paratus adapted to suit the size of amaranth seeds. With such parameters as: dynamic pressure, seed mass and seed bear- ing surface basic aerodynamic properties: critical...

  1. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Conrad; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms that are designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes increasingly important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  2. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  3. Seed storage proteins in coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bau? Sandra, M. T.; MAZZAFERA PAULO; Santoro Luiz, G.

    2001-01-01

    It has been reported that Coffea arabica seeds contain as the main reserve protein, a legumin-like protein, constituted of two subunits, alpha and beta, of approximately 35 and 20 kDa. In this work the seed proteins of several coffee species and varieties were investigated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. No differences were observed in the electrophoretic profiles among varieties of C. arabica, however, marked differences were observed among species, or even among individuals of some species....

  4. Nematicide Treatments of Turfgrass Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J. T.; Melin, J.

    1981-01-01

    Seed treatments of improved Kentucky bluegrass and fescue cultivars with carbofuran, oxamyl, and phenamiphos dissolved in acetone reduced seedling emergence, but treatments were not extremely phytotoxic. Phenamiphos was the most toxic, particularly at the 5,000 ?g/ml concentration. Fresh weight of grass clippings 35 d following planting generally was greater in treatments than in controls except for the 5,000 ?g/ml phenamiphos treatments on certain cultivars. All nematicide seed treatments ...

  5. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  6. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombir Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  7. Produtividade e estado nutricional do quiabeiro em função da densidade populacional e do biofertilizante suíno Effects of plant population and swine biofertilizer application on yield and nutrient content of okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Nogueira Sediyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e o estado nutricional do quiabeiro 'Santa Cruz', cultivado em sistema orgânico, em função de populações de plantas e doses de biofertilizante suíno. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Oratórios (MG, no período de 16/10/2007 a 22/2/2008. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo duas populações de plantas e cinco doses de biofertilizante, obtido pela fermentação anaeróbica de dejeto líquido de suíno. As populações foram 23.809 e 35.714 plantas ha-1, obtidas no espaçamento de 1,4 x 0,30 m com uma planta por cova e 1,4 x 0,40 m com duas plantas por cova. As doses de biofertilizante foram: 0; 6; 12; 24 e 48 m³ ha-1, sendo 80% aplicado no sulco de plantio, 15 dias antes do transplante, e 20% em cobertura, aos 30 dias após o transplante das mudas. Avaliaram-se teor foliar de nutrientes, índice SPAD, altura de plantas, número de hastes e produção de frutos comerciais e não comerciais. A aplicação do biofertilizante suíno proporcionou plantas com bom estado nutricional. O índice SPAD correlacionou positivamente com teores foliares de N, sendo as maiores concentrações obtidas nas maiores doses de biofertilizante, especialmente na menor população de plantas. O número e a produção de frutos comerciais por planta foram maiores quando se utilizou menor população de plantas. A maior produtividade obtida na população de 35.714 plantas ha-1 foi 31,23 t ha-1 e na população de 23.809 plantas ha-1 foi 21,90 t ha-1, ambas alcançadas com a maior dose de biofertilizante aplicada. A maior produtividade comercial de frutos de quiabo foi obtida na maior população de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and nutritional status of organically cultivated Santa Cruz okra as a function of planting densities and doses of swine biofertilizer. The experiment was carried out at the EPAMIG Experimental Farm, in Oratorios-MG, Brazil, from 16/10/2007 to 22/02/2008. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with four replications, in a 2 x 5 factorial, with two plant populations and five doses of biofertilizer obtained by the fermentation of liquid swine waste. The two populations were 23809 and 35714 plants.ha-1, obtained in the 1.4 x 0.30 m spacing with a plant per hole and 1.4 x 0.40 m with two plants per hole. Biofertilizer doses were: 0; 6; 12; 24 and 48 m3.ha-1, with 80% applied in furrow 15 days before transplantation and 20% top-dressing at 30 days after seedling transplantation. The characteristics evaluated included nutrient leaf content, SPAD index, plant height, number of stems and production of commercial and non-commercial fruits. The use o the swine biofertilizer gave plants with a good nutritional status. The SPAD index correlated positively with N leaf content, with the highest concentrations at the highest doses of the swine biofertilizer, mainly in the smallest plant population. The number and commercial fruit production per plant were larger when a smaller plant population was used. The highest yield achieved in the population of 35714 plants ha-1 was 31.23 ton ha-1, and in the population of 23809 plant.ha-1 was 21.9 ton ha-1, both at the highest dose of biofertilizer. The highest commercial yield of okra fruits was obtained with the largest plant population.

  8. Chemometric characterization of sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monferrere, Gastón Lancelle; Azcarate, Silvana Mariela; Cantarelli, Miguel Ángel; Funes, Israel German; Camiña, José Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The spectroscopic characterization of different varieties of sunflower seeds based on their oleic acid content is proposed. One hundred fifty samples of sunflower seeds from different places of Argentina were analyzed by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS). Seed samples were grounded and sieved without chemical treatment previous to the analysis. For the characterization, the used multivariate methods were: principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). By using PCA, CA, and LDA, and from the point of view of varieties of sunflower seeds, 2 groups were differentiated, based on the concentration of oleic acid: a low oleic group, which ranged from 15% to 25% w/w oleic acid; and the other one (mid-high oleic varieties) which ranged from 26% to 90% w/w oleic acid. However, by using the PLS-DA, 3 groups were correctly differentiated based on the concentration of oleic acid: low oleic (from 15% to 25% w/w oleic acid); mid oleic (26% to 76% w/w oleic acid); and high oleic (? than 77% w/w oleic acid), demonstrating the high classification ability of this method. This multivariate characterization of sunflower seed varieties did not require chromatographic analysis to generate the matrix of concentrations, and only direct measures of NIRDRS spectra were required. This characterization can be useful to quickly know the variety of sunflower seed in the grain market. Practical Applications: This manuscript describes a method to determine 3 varieties of sunflower seeds (high, mid, and low oleic) The advantage of this method is to avoid the use of techniques that require long-time analysis. PMID:22897646

  9. New approaches to seed vigor testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the principles used for the evaluation of seed vigor, two approaches are predominant: seed resistance to stresses and the direct or indirect identification of the "current" state of the seeds, e.g., enzymatic activity, integrity of the cellular membranes, growth parameters. In this presentation recent innovations are discussed in procedures for seed vigor evaluation emphasizing the methodologies of accelerated aging with salt saturated solutions, controlled deterioration and potassium leachate tests. These tests, performed at seed the laboratory of ESALQ/USP, in function of their simplicity and efficiency, deserve the attention of seed technologists.

  10. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  11. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Selection for contrasting seed tocopherol content in sunflower seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Varo, Leonardo; Moral, Lidia Del; Pe?rez-vich, Begon?a; Ferna?ndez Marti?nez, Jose? Mari?a

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower oil, with more than 09 of tocopherols in the alpha-tocopherol form, supplies more vitamin E than any other vegetable oil. Thus far, no breeding to increase vitamin E levels in sunflower seeds has been conducted. The objective of the present research was to develop sunflower lines with high and low total seed tocopherol content through evaluation and subsequent selection of a large germplasm collection (952 sunflower entries). A range of variation from 119 to 491 mg/kg was found. Sel...

  13. Iodin 125 seed lost after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution induced by lost radioactive seeds is an important social problem. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the time and place where lost seeds were found and to develop a method to prevent the loss of seeds from the time of insertion to the discharge of the patient from the hospital. A total of 121 cases (7718 seeds) who received permanent insertion treatment from July 2006 to Dec 2007 were evaluated. During this period, the time and place of lost seeds was estimated from the place where the seeds were found. A total of 43 seeds were found before discharge for a rate of 0.56% (43/7718). Four seeds were found in the operating room. Two seeds were found in the in-patient room before the balloon catheter was removed. Five seeds were removed from the bladder by surgery using cystoscopy. In addition, 32 seeds were found in the room when surveying the room for patient discharge. Five seeds were brought from the patient's house after discharge. To prevent the loss of seeds from the patients' room, which is the best way prevent environmental pollution, careful monitoring and careful surveys of the room are needed. (author)

  14. 7 CFR 201.58a - Indistinguishable seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...kind, variety, or type of seed or determination that seed is hybrid is not possible by seed characteristics, identification...sweetclover from the percentage of Melilotus spp. pure seed. (c) Wheat. In determining varietal purity, the phenol test may...

  15. Effect of Seed Fortification with Pulse Sprout Extract on Crop Growth and Seed Yield in Rice Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    V.VIJAYALAKSHMI; R.Umarani; JAYANTHI, M

    2013-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half of the Indian population, main emphasis has to be laid on ways and means to fortify seeds organically for better seed vigour. Seed fortification is one of the important seed invigouration treatment. Germinated grains are good sources of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, choline, thiamine, tocopherols and pantothenic acid which increases the nutritional quality. Extract has prepared from the sprouted pulses. With these background, an experiment was conducte...

  16. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture,...

  17. Potassium Fertilization and Physiological Soybean Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Vinicius Zambiazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of increased application rates of potassium on the physiological quality of seeds from different soybean cultivars. Seeds from two locations (São Gotardo, MG and Lavras, MG, Brazil were used. After harvest, the seeds were sent to the Central Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras. We used a randomized design in a 4 × 6 factorial arrangement of four cultivars and six doses of potassium. All tests were performed with two replicates of 50 seeds (300 seeds per treatment. Germination, emergence under controlled conditions, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests were performed. Data were subjected to analysis of variance. In soybean seed production fields with high potassium content in the soil, higher application rates of potassium do not increase the physiological quality of seeds.

  18. Determination of germination capability of coated seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Domoradzki M.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work problems associated with germination of coated seeds in the absorbent paper are described. Determination methods for the estimations of coated seed germination capability which allow to obtain very accurate results were proposed and tested.

  19. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  20. Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farooq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutrient seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.

  1. Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Farooq; A, Wahid; Kadambot H. M, Siddique.

    Full Text Available Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutri [...] ent seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.

  2. Thermal properties of guna seed

    OpenAIRE

    L.A.O. Ogunjimi; Haque, M. A.; N.A. Aviara

    2008-01-01

    The specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of whole and ground guna seed and kernel were evaluated and their change with moisture content and temperature investigated. The specific heat of whole and ground seed increased from 1391.1 to 3020.13 and from 1459.14 to 3058.15 J kg-1 K-1, respectively, as the moisture content and temperature increased from 4.7 to 25.35% (d.b.) and 307.12 to 368 K. The specific heat of whole and ground kernel also increased from 2135.15 to 4275....

  3. Internal damage identification of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray method to determine internal damage of seed, mainly its endosperm, was used. A roentgenogram obtained by this method was analysed manually only (at present time). Number of cracks, size and location was assessed for each kernel of sample. Kernels of wheat, barley and malt were used. An algorithm for analysis of biological damage of barley was used. In this case the surface of kernels of barley was damage. For quantification of the internal damage of seeds it is very important to obtain the clear roentgenograms for next semi-automatic processing. Current works are undertaken to computerize the analysis of the roentgenograms. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  4. LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROLS SEED-BORNE CHALCIDS WITHOUT REDUCING GERMINATION IN CORIANDER SEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds are susceptible to infestation by chalcid (Systole) wasps which often render the seeds inviable. Control of chalcids in seeds is a prerequisite for supplying coriander germplasm to requestors throughout the world. Levels of chalcid infestation in coriander seed...

  5. PRESSURIZED FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUMPKIN SEED AND PUMPKIN SEED PRESSED CAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin seed oil is one of the top three nutritional oils (hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, pumpkin seed oil) that provide the highest essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) required for healthy mind/body functioning. It is known to prevent and alleviate bladder and prostate problems. The oil th...

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  7. Preliminary Studies on the Characterization of Orange Seed and Pawpaw Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Ihedioha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of seeds and oil extracted from both papaya and orange seeds. The seeds of papaya and orange are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of papaya and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. The seeds were collected from homes and the oils obtained by solvent extraction were analysed for pH, moisture content, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification value, free fatty acid, acid value, iodine value and peroxide value. The orange seed cake was analysed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, nitrogen and crude protein. Results showed that the oil content of the pawpaw seeds was 25.8% while that of the orange seeds was 34%. Crude protein of the orange seed was 43.72%, which was higher than that of established high protein seeds and nuts. The orange seeds had higher yield of oil than the pawpaw seeds and the nutritive content of the orange seeds makes it suitable as feed for animals. However, the acid value for pawpaw seed oil was 47.12 while that of orange seed oil was 51.40. With respect to the acid value, the oil from pawpaw seed might be better oil. However, both oils still need to be refined before they are utilized.

  8. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M. P. M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W. J. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...

  9. Multi-seed lossless filtration (Extended abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noe?, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

    2004-01-01

    We study a method of seed-based lossless filtration for approximate string matching and related applications. The method is based on a simultaneous use of several spaced seeds rather than a single seed as studied by Burkhardt and Karkkainen [1].We present algorithms to compute several important parameters of seed families, study their combinatorial properties, and describe several techniques to construct efficient families. We also report a large-scale application of the proposed technique to...

  10. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  11. Seed dormancy and germination: light and nitrate.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilhorst, H. W. M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable conditions, such as the wrong season, low light irradiance, or an unfavorable soil composition. Seeds of many species may remain in the soil, either in a dry state or fully imbibed, for hundreds of years without losing thei...

  12. A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noé, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

    2006-04-01

    We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem--a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model--that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds. PMID:16819802

  13. A Unifying Framework for Seed Sensitivity and Its Application to Subset Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Kucherov, G; Roytberg, M; Kucherov, Gregory; No\\'{e}, Laurent; Roytberg, Mihkail

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem -- a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model -- that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds.

  14. A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds (Extended abstract)

    CERN Document Server

    Kucherov, G; Roytberg, M; Kucherov, Gregory; Noe, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem - a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model - that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds.

  15. Study on the seed laser phase error multiplication in seeded free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) hold a great promise for generating high brilliant radiation with a narrow bandwidth. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser noise will be amplified in the harmonic up-conversion process, which may degrade the output radiation pulse quality of a seeded FEL. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies of seeded FEL schemes with seed laser imperfections are presented. It is found that the slippage effect in the modulator will slow down the multiplication process of the seed laser phase error, which may aid in the production of transform-limited short-wavelength pulses for seeded FELs

  16. Study on the seed laser phase error multiplication in seeded free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanglei, E-mail: wangguanglei@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Chao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Dong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Deng, Haixiao, E-mail: denghaixiao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-02-11

    Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) hold a great promise for generating high brilliant radiation with a narrow bandwidth. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser noise will be amplified in the harmonic up-conversion process, which may degrade the output radiation pulse quality of a seeded FEL. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies of seeded FEL schemes with seed laser imperfections are presented. It is found that the slippage effect in the modulator will slow down the multiplication process of the seed laser phase error, which may aid in the production of transform-limited short-wavelength pulses for seeded FELs.

  17. The effect of storage temperature storage period and seed moisture content on seed viability to soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Nasreen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of different seed moisture contents, temperatures and storage period on seed viability of soybean variety, NARC 2. Three factors were included in the experiment, which were storage temperature, storage period and seed moisture content. During storage, the interaction among the three above-mentioned factors was statically significant. In soybean, the maximum seed viability was observed in control with seed having low moisture content. There was a decline in germination percentage after two months of storage at all temperature in seed with high and medium moisture contents. High moisture content and high temperature decreases germ ability of seeds. Viability was zero at .37°C after two months storage in seeds with low, medium and high moisture contents. The storage life of soybean seed can be increased by lowering temperature and seed moisture content during storage.

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Moringa stenopetala (Haleko Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Seifu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical properties of Moringa stenopetala (Haleko seeds produced in Mella district of Gamo Gofa Zone in southern Ethiopia are reported here for the first time. The average weight of the whole intact seeds (g/100 seeds, the kernel (g/100 seeds and an individual seed (g seed-1 was 73.6, 59.6 and 0.6 g, respectively. The kernel accounted for 79.7% of the seed’s dry weight and the hull accounted for 20.3%. The M. stenopetala seeds analyzed had an average length, width and bulk density of 17.6 mm, 8.2 mm and 0.9 g cm3, respectively. The mean moisture, oil, protein, ash and crude fiber contents of the M. stenopetala seeds analyzed were 6.1, 41.4, 42.6, 4.6 and 5.1 (g/100 g, respectively. The residue that remained after oil extraction of the seeds had an average crude protein content of 55.6 (g/100 g. The results showed that M. stenopetala seed contains high oil and protein contents suggesting that it could be used as important source of oil and protein.

  19. Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, K.J.; D' Arch-Evans, C.

    1985-06-01

    Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ has produced methyl and ethyl esters in yields greater than 40% of the dry seed weight. This figure compares with a typical yield of ca. 30% when the esters were prepared in the conventional manner from preextracted seed oil. 14 references.

  20. Resistance to Phomopsis Seed Decay in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. This disease causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. Infected soybean seeds can be symptomless, but...

  1. LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA) SEED DORMANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces asexually through adventitious vegetative buds and sexually by seed. Seeds can remain viable in the soil for up to 8 yr. The objectives of this research were to identify seed components which restrict germination and to determine if afterri...

  2. A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noe?, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem -- a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model -- that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm tha...

  3. A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds (Extended abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noe?, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem - a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model - that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that ...

  4. DILL (ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L. SEED STALK ARCHITECTURE AND SEEDS INFESTATION WITH FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopinska DOROTA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2002-2004 seeds of dill 'Amat' harvested from four different umbel position were evaluated for their infestation with fungi. On the tested seeds Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp., Epicoccum purpurascens, Gonatobotrys simplex and Trichothecium roseum were occurring the most frequently. The seed stalk architecture influenced infestation of disinfected seeds with A. alternata and non-disinfected seeds with Cladosporium spp.

  5. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, A.J.G., van

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed samples from Ethiopia and 206 wheat and 200 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples from Syria were collected from major wheat and barley growing regions to investigate the quality of seed obtained from...

  6. Climate Kids: Make Seed Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycled paper produced from the instructions provided contains an additional component - wildflower seeds. The entire paper disc can be planted; the sprouting of the flowers can be observed and analyzed. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

  7. SEED BIOLOGY OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seed of Medicago truncatula have morphological features typical of dicotyledons, and are borne in a spine-covered spiral pod. The cotyledons are rich in protein (35-45%), the major storage molecule. They accumulate approximately 10% lipids and only traces of starch. The most abundant proteins a...

  8. Sowing the Seeds of Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Eric Chudler

    2014-04-04

    Sowing the Seeds of Neuroscience seeks to increase student interest and understanding of neuroscience through simple, safe lab investigations using plants. The site contains 8 laboratory investigations exploring properties of compounds found in plants and their effect on the behavior and growth of invertebrates. The site also provides general neuroscience and medicinal plant information.

  9. Molecular aspects of seed dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed dormancy provides a mechanism for plants to delay germination until conditions are optimal for survival of the next generation. Dormancy release is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and competing effects. Molecular studies of dormancy have ...

  10. Mutation breeding in seed spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed spice is one of the important groups of crops cultivated in India for their large domestic consumption and bright export potential. But while the yield potential of the crops covered under this group is generally low, these crops generally also suffer from lack of usable variation for important yield traits and disease resistance in the germplasm collection and even if present may not be used with ease on account of very small size of their flower, thus restricting the crop improvement programs. We have, therefore, applied mutation breeding using gamma irradiation and chemical mutagens (EMS and Sodium Azide) for creation of variability for improvement of yield of major seed spice crops like Cumin, Coriander, Fennel and Fenugreek. Both M1 and M2 generations resulting from treatment of the mutagens were studied in respect of yield and yield attributes and other phenotypic alterations (Chlorophyll and other macro mutations) in certain genotype of these crops. Fenugreek was found relatively most radio and chemo-resistant followed by cumin. Mutagenic efficiency also varied noticeably between crops and mutagens; gamma rays were relatively more potent on cumin as compared to chemical mutagens whereas on fennel it was just reverse. Efficient mutagens more often yielded superior M2 progenies, i.e. progenies with significantly higher yield than their parent in fenugreek, fennel and cumin. Seed yield per plant of M2 progenies vari per plant of M2 progenies varied to different extents e.g. the yield was as high as 289% in coriander, 269 % in cumin, 122% in fennel and least in fenugreek (83%). In coriander specifically, one of the advance generation mutant showed increase in essential oil content along with seed yield comparable to the parent. The usefulness of induced mutations for improvement of seed yield is discussed (author)

  11. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali K Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is concluded that seed characters can be used for the characterization of accessions in T. cordifolia germplasm and these characters can be used in   DUS descriptors of the species.

  12. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  13. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method. PMID:25775790

  14. Determination of oil in sunflower seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochlar, S.P.; Rossell, J.B.

    1987-06-01

    Oil content measurement in sunflower seeds on an ''as is'' basis by current official methods is often associated with poor reproducibility. This study shows that the main factor contributing to this poor agreement is the particle size to which seeds are ground. This invariably influences the homogeneity of the bulk ground sample from which subsequent subsamples are taken. It is therefore suggested that oil content determinations on sunflower seeds should be carried out on seed samples that have been evenly and finely ground, to a particle size not greater than 2.0 mm, in a mechanical mill such as the Ultra-Centrifugal mill. Other factors investigated were seed composition (free husk, empty husk, crude fiber and seed meats) and structural differences in the seeds by light microscopy. (Refs. 16).

  15. Seed germination, Dispersal and Seed Bank in Heracleum mantegazzianum.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Krinke, L.; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Thompson, K.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 74-91 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Germination * Dormancy * Seed Bank Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2013-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seed quality is important for subsequent establishment of baby leaf and other spinach products. The indeterminate flowering pattern in spinach produces seeds of different sizes, and consequently a non-uniform seed lot. Sorting seeds based on novel sorting methods might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest times 6 d apart were selected for further studies of seed development and germination counts. Analysis of mean germination time (MGT) of four germination counts (3, 7, 14 and 21 d) showed that smaller seed sizes ( 3.25 mm). A larger proportion of 2.5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide a useful tool for enhancing seed quality. Here our results demonstrate that a greater number of seeds with a low CF level had germinated on day 3 compared to the seeds with high CF levels. It is of relevance to develop a technology that could identify seeds that are sufficiently developed to germinate and successfully establish in the field regardless of seed size.

  17. Seed loss through the urinary tract and retrieval after prostate seed implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes our experience with seed loss and retrieval through the urinary tract following seed implants for prostate cancer, and offers Japanese guidelines for safety and management. Two hundred consecutive patients were analyzed. All patients were preplanned with a modified peripheral loading technique and implanted with a Mick applicator under ultrasound guidance. All patients were instructed to return excreted seeds, if any, to our center. Seed loss occurred in 6% of patients and 0.13% of seeds. Seed loss tended to occur in the early period through either urine or ejaculation. (author)

  18. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanovi? Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude protein content was so high as the 21.8% of the seeds. Standard procedures were applied to determine the fatty acids composition of the seed oil. The fatty acid profiles of the seed oil showed an unsaturated fatty acid content of 77.4% and the high content of 63.2% of PUFA. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic (18:2 acid in 62.2%. The presence of other fatty acids ranged in 10-14% for oleic (18:1 stearic (18:0 and palmitic (16:0 acids, respectively. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the seed oil was also determined as iodine, acid, saponification, peroxide values and specific gravity.

  19. Spaced seeds improve metagenomic classification

    OpenAIRE

    Brinda, Karel; Sykulski, Maciej; Kucherov, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics is a powerful approach to study genetic content of environmental samples that has been strongly promoted by NGS technologies. To cope with massive data involved in modern metagenomic projects, recent tools [4, 39] rely on the analysis of k-mers shared between the read to be classified and sampled reference genomes. Within this general framework, we show in this work that spaced seeds provide a significant improvement of classification capacity as opposed to trad...

  20. Does gypsum influence seed germination?

    OpenAIRE

    Can?adas, Eva M.; Ballesteros, Miguel; Valle, Francisco; Lorite, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Flora inhabiting gypsum outcrops in arid environments shows a high level of specialization. However, the processes involved are still unclear, specifically at the key stage of germination. Here, to assess whether gypsum could chemically influence seed germination, we tested the germination of species according to 3 functional groups: gypsophiles, gypsovags, and calcicoles. A total of 24 taxa were selected, all occurring in gypsum and limestone substrates, under a semiarid and dry Mediterranea...

  1. Peroxidase: Purification from Soybean Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Habib

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase, extracted from soybean seeds and was partially purified by precipitating with ammonium sulfate and 85 % saturation resulted in an increase in the activity of peroxidase up to 1.21 fold. Purification was carried out by diethyl amminoethyl cellulose chromatography and purification fold obtained was 2.62. Then, the enzyme was subjected to 10 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which resulted in a marked decrease in unwanted proteins.

  2. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  3. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  4. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the ...

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for prothioconazole in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, France, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance prothioconazole in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. In order to accommodate the intended uses of prothioconazole, France proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the value of 0.1 mg/kg for rape seed and 0.05 mg/kg for the other three oilseeds to 0.15 m...

  6. Diseases and Disease Management in Seed Garlic: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although garlic is occasionally propagated via true seed, routine planting of garlic uses seed cloves as vegetative propagules. The size of seed cloves (large relative to seed of most agronomic crops), their vegetative habit, and routine storage conditions for seed cloves (permissive for most fungi...

  7. Irradiation effect and preservation of Ginkgo seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo seeds were treated with various doses of 60Co ?-ray. When treated with 50 Gy, Ginkgo seeds could not sprout because of dealdembryos. But the endosperm was still vigorous in a relative long period when treated with 800 Gy and over 2 kGy, causing Ginkgo seeds to lose water more quickly, show higher conductivity and the endosperm softened and die. The respiration of Ginkgo seeds was restrained greatly after ?-irradiation. When Ginkgo seeds were treated with 50?200 Gy ? irradiation and preserved in normal atmospheric temperature after air tight wrapping with plastic film, the preservation period of the seeds was 2 to 3 months with water content of 40.25% and 4 to 6 months water content of 35.96%, respectively

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However, seed vigour can be reduced by high-temperature stress both before and after PM. High temperatures induce or increase the physiological deterioration of seeds. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality, particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The seed industry will need to consider management changes to minimize the risk of this occurring.

  9. Sowing seeds for the future: the need for establishing protocols for the study of seed dormancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Augusto Oliveira, Silveira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is a widely misunderstood plant trait. In several research areas, a lack of germination is wrongly assumed to result from seed dormancy. In an attempt to standardize seed dormancy research and improve communication among seed scientists, a straightforward protocol to address the occurr [...] ence and causes of seed dormancy is provided. Standardizing communication is not just a theoretical exercise but also has practical implications in agriculture and conservation. Standardization will make studies comparable and hence we will have a deeper understanding of the physiology, ecology and evolution of seed dormancy. A better understanding of the various aspects of seed dormancy will lead to greater appreciation of the biogeographical and phylogenetic distribution of seed dormancy among our flora.

  10. Enhancing seed germination in hybrid tea roses

    OpenAIRE

    Scariot, Valentina; PIPINO, LUCA

    2011-01-01

    Rose breeders need reliable and efficient germination protocols to exploit all viable embryos in their breeding programme. A combined physical restriction of the seed coat and a physiological dormancy are present in the achenes of hybrid tea roses resulting in variable and not uniform seed germination. In this study, different treatment combinations were assessed to overcome the mechanical resistence of the pericarp and enhance germination. Both chemical and microbial seed scarifi...

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S. M. T.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (Phemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (Phemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  12. Intellectual Property over Seeds versus Civil Liberties

    OpenAIRE

    Mu?ller, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This article draws attention to the fundamental contradiction between civil liberties and intellectual property rights attributed to and transported by living self-reproducing organisms. Intellectual property over seeds establishes fields of ownership that crosscut and contradict property over land and labour that John Locke regarded as the basis for civil liberties. With the seed whose cells carry a patented transgenic seed a new bundle of power is introduced into the field. It determines wh...

  13. The evolution of massive black hole seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, M; Lodato, G.; Natarajan, P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of high redshift seed black hole masses at late times and their observational signatures. The massive black hole seeds studied here form at extremely high redshifts from the direct collapse of pre-galactic gas discs. Populating dark matter halos with seeds formed in this way, we follow the mass assembly of these black holes to the present time using a Monte-Carlo merger tree. Using this machinery we predict the black hole mass function at high re...

  14. Mycoflora of Viola wittrockiana Games seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Pi?ta

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seed speciments of Viola wittrockiana harvested in the years 1985-1987 were investigated. As a result of mycological analysis, 1808 fungi isolates belonging to 19 species were obtained. Most frequently isolated species was Alternaria alternata whose isolates made 26 % of isolations of all the fungi. Among the fungi isolated particularly from undisinfected seeds the species from the Penicillium kind were dominant. Pathogenic fungi like Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium culmorum were also isolated from the investigated seeds.

  15. MRI-BASED PROSTATE BRACHYTHERAPY SEED LOCALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Nathanael; Lee, Junghoon; Tempany, Clare; Stuber, Matthias; Prince, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pulse sequence and a corresponding image processing algorithm to localize prostate brachytherapy seeds during or after therapy are presented. Inversion-Recovery with ON-resonant water suppression (IRON) is an MRI methodology that generates positive contrast in regions of magnetic field susceptibility, as created by prostate brachytherapy seeds. Phantoms comprising of several materials found in brachytherapy seeds were created to assess the usability of the I...

  16. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SEED SELECTION NOWADAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s insight into the theoretical foundations of plant breeding for self-pollinators and cross-pollinators. From the author’s point of view, plant breeding techniques depend on a type of pollination, population propagation and isolation from other variety pollen. Adaptive properties of crops are described as ones depending on a genetic type (genetically pure lines, populations, hybrids, pure varieties and clones. The key role of seeds in preserving a plant variety, or a cultivar, is emphasized. In the article, cultivar and yield qualities of seeds are characterized. The reasons for seed deterioration and yield decrease have been looked into. Improvement of main crops such as wheat, barley, rye, rice, soybeans, maize, triticale, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets is characterized in detail. The author shares the traditional point of view on the seed breeding program. It includes following steps: development phase (breeder’s seed, maintenance phase (in which a quantity of seed is maintained under high standards and the distribution phase (production of commercial seed for distribution to the public. The difference between primary and secondary seed selection is explained. The best periods for crop rotation and crop renovation are also described. The legally enforceable standards of quality and genetic purity for different crops are presented in the article. It is pointed out that it is vital to maintain high cultivar qualities after multiplication and distribution of the new variety. Only large-scale pedigree system for seed production promotes it

  17. Proteopathic tau seeding predicts tauopathy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Brandon B; Furman, Jennifer L; Mahan, Thomas E; Yamasaki, Tritia R; Mirbaha, Hilda; Eades, William C; Belaygorod, Larisa; Cairns, Nigel J; Holtzman, David M; Diamond, Marc I

    2014-10-14

    Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell-cell transfer in neural networks. The critical role of tau seeding activity is untested, however. It is unknown whether seeding anticipates and correlates with subsequent development of pathology as predicted for a causal agent. One major limitation has been the lack of a robust assay to measure proteopathic seeding activity in biological specimens. We engineered an ultrasensitive, specific, and facile FRET-based flow cytometry biosensor assay based on expression of tau or synuclein fusions to CFP and YFP, and confirmed its sensitivity and specificity to tau (? 300 fM) and synuclein (? 300 pM) fibrils. This assay readily discriminates Alzheimer's disease vs. Huntington's disease and aged control brains. We then carried out a detailed time-course study in P301S tauopathy mice, comparing seeding activity versus histological markers of tau pathology, including MC1, AT8, PG5, and Thioflavin S. We detected robust seeding activity at 1.5 mo, >1 mo before the earliest histopathological stain. Proteopathic tau seeding is thus an early and robust marker of tauopathy, suggesting a proximal role for tau seeds in neurodegeneration. PMID:25261551

  18. Storage crambe seed treated with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cabral e Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of low quality seeds with a lower physiological reflects one of the major causes of low productivity. Thus the storage conditions of seed must be taken into consideration. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of natural and synthetic insecticides on emergence and seed storage of crambe, as these substances are essential to prevent infestation of seeds of other species by harmful organisms. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 3 x 8 ( 8 substances and 3 storage times with 4 replications. We assessed the following natural insecticides: saffron, lime, ash, neem, diatomaceous earth, and synthetic: chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin; besides the control consisting of seeds without any treatment. We evaluated the percentage of emergence, speed of emergence index and time to reach 50 % of emergency. In all characteristics, it was found that no influence of neem on seed vigor. There are disadvantages in the application of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diatomaceous earth, which interfered with the emergence rate of seeds of crambe. The seeds treated with other insecticides had different behavior of untreated seeds after 120 days of storage to assess the time that they take to reach 50 % germination.

  19. Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

  20. Bulk YBCO seeded with 45°–45° bridge-seeds of different lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single grain, (RE)BCO (rare earth–barium–copper oxide) bulk superconductors in large or complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as in motors and generators and magnetic shielding devices. As a result, top, multi-seeded, melt growth has been investigated over the past 15 years in an attempt to enlarge the size of (RE)BCO single grains specifically for such applications. Of these multi-seeding techniques, so-called bridge-seeding provides the best alignment of two seeds in a single grain growth process. Here we report, for the first time, the successful growth of YBCO (yttrium–barium–copper oxide) using a special, 45°–45°, arrangement of bridge-seeds. The superconducting properties, including trapped field, of the multi-seeded YBCO grains have been measured for different bridge lengths of the 45°–45° bridge-seeds. The boundaries at the impinging growth front and the growth features of the top, multi-seeded surface and cross-section of the multi-seeded, samples have been analysed using optical microscopy. The results suggest that an impurity-free boundary between the two seeds of each leg of the bridge-seed can form when 45°–45° bridge-seeds are used to enlarge the size of YBCO grains. (paper)

  1. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton....

  2. Recovery and Germination of Grass Seeds Ingested by Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Gökbulak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of bluebunch wheatgrass [Psuedoroegneria spicata (Pursh A. Love] and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda Presl. were fed to Holstein heifers in different amounts to investigate the effects of seed feeding level and seed size on the recovery and germinability of passed seed. Animals were fed 60,000, 30,000,15,000, and 7,500 seeds of each species. Passed seeds were recovered from dungcollected daily over a 4-day period and tested for germinability. In general, recovery of the larger-seeded bluebunch wheatgrass and the smaller-seeded Sandberg bluegrass declined as seed feeding levels decreased from 60,000 to 7,500 seeds per animal, and as time after seed ingestion increased from 1 to 4 days. Total seed recovery over the 4-day period was greater for bluebunch wheatgrass at the 60,000 seed feeding level, similar for both species at the 30,000 seed feeding level, and greater for Sandberg bluegrass at the 15,000 and 7,500 seed feeding levels.Germinability of bluebunch wheatgrass seeds decreased with each additional day in the digestive tract, while germinability of Sandberg bluegrass seeds remained constant or increased with time. Germinability of both species tended to increase as seed feeding levels decreased from 60,000 to 15,000 seeds per animal. Sandberg bluegrass seeds had greater germinability than bluebunch wheatgrass at all seed feeding levels and collection dates. Recovered seeds had significantly lower germinability than noningested seeds for both species. Results showed that livestock have the potential for dispersing enough germinable seeds on degraded rangelands.

  3. Study of Seed Dormancy Mechanisms; Causes and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Nasreen; Yousaf, M.; Mohmand, Akbar S.; Ashraf Mailk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Dormancy mechanisms in cereals and oilseed crops were reviewed. Objective was to determine the causes of seed dormancy. The methods of control of seed dormancy were also reviewed and the following results were obtained. During seed dormancy, a mature embryo remains inactive but viable. An understanding of seed dormancy mechanisms can be helpful in optimizing the distribution of seed germination in time or space. Seed coats, cotyledons and growth hormones play an important role in maintaining ...

  4. Field appraisal of seed priming to improve the growth, yield, and quality of direct seeded rice

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Basra, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed; Farooq, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Poor crop stand and high weed infestation are the major constraints of direct seeded rice. Seed priming has the potential to improve the seedling emergence and crop stand. This study was conducted to evaluate the on-farm assessment of direct seeded rice by employing different priming techniques such as on-farm priming, hydropriming, hardening, and osmohardening with CaCl2 and KCl. Untreated seeds were taken as control. Among all the seed priming techniques, osmohardening with CaCl2 improved t...

  5. Preliminary Studies on the Characterization of Orange Seed and Pawpaw Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ihedioha, J. N.; Ibeto, C. N.; Okoye, C. O. B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of seeds and oil extracted from both papaya and orange seeds. The seeds of papaya and orange are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of papaya and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. The seeds were collected from homes and the oils obtained by solvent extraction were analysed for pH, moisture content, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification v...

  6. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  7. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  8. EFFECTS OF FUNGICIDES ON ALFALFA SEED YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetislav Popovi?

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most seeded forage crop in the Republic of Croatia.The seed requirements are estimated at 250-300 thousand kg each year. Despite the relatively suitable management, favourable environmental conditions and numerously recognized national cultivars the state seed production is insufficient and more than 70% of seed requirements are compensated by import. The research of a fungicides efficiency on alfalfa seed yield components (plant height, branch number, number of seeds per pod, number and weight of pods per stem, number and weight of seeds per stem, weight of 1000 seeds has been carried out during 1994 and 1995 in Osijek. It involved application of two fungicides (both of them without a state alfalfa application licence: Impact C (flutriafol+carbendazim and Tilt 250 EC (propiconazol on alfalfa second growth seed stands in a different phenological stages of alfalfa development. The experiment was established at two three year old alfalfa stands of cultivar Osje?ka 66 sown in thick rows (0.12 m row spacing and wide rows (0.5m row spacing. The experimental design was split-plot with four replicates. The plot size was 25 m2. The fungicide application variants were as follows: 1.non treated; 2. at the beginning of a flowering stage; 3. in a full flowering stage; 4.at the end of a flowering stage; 5. as a combination of 2+4; and 6.as a combination 3+4 in a dose: Impact C 0.5 l/ha / 400 l of water and Tilt 250 EC 1 l/ha / 400 l of water. A control of the seed stands health during the vegetation confirmed the presence of disease agents: Phoma medicaginis, Stemphylium botryosum, Pseudopeziza medicaginis and Uromyces striatus. The results of the investigation indicate that applied fungicides did not significantly affect alfalfa seed yield. The total average seed yield in 1994 was 323 kg/ha and in 1995 213 kg/ha. In 1994 the seed yield on fungicide application variant 2 was 381.88 kg/ha and it was by 35% higher than on variant 3 and by 23% higher than on variant 4. In that year of the investigation the highest seed yielding variant was variant 2 in a wide row sown stand (456.3 kg/ha. It was by 48.4% higher than the same variant in a thick row sown stand (307.5 kg/ha and by 27,5% higher than variant 1 (357.85 kg/ha. Also variant 2 had the highest number of seeds per pod and lowest height of plants in 1994 and the highest number and weight of pods in 1995. Both fungicides had significant effect (P<0.01 on weight of 1000 seeds in 1995. Row space didn't significantly influence seed yield in 1994, but it significantly affecteded it in 1995 (P<0.05. The higher yield had a thick row sown stand. During the two year sinvestigations wide rows sown stand had by 13.8% grater height of plants, by 31.2% larger number of branches, by 15.1% higher weight of seeds and by 7% larger number of pods and seeds per stem, but it hadn't higher seed yield mostly because unfavourable environmental conditions. Concerning results and new knowledge it is recommendable to continue the investigations and to check up an economic return of fungicides application in alfalfa seed stands.

  9. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL from 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.07 mg/kg for the proposed use on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. An adequate analytical enforcement method is available to control the residues of bixafen in oilseeds. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bixafen on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk. This risk assessment has to be regarded as provisional since the residue definition for enforcement and risk assessment in oilseeds are provisional and pending the need for MRLs in rotational crops and the definitive MRLs in animal origin commodities.

  10. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

    In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated with yield loss during the harvest and post-harvest processes.

  11. Water restriction and seed coating in the microbiolization of maize seeds with Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Junges

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seed microbiolization with Trichoderma spp. techniques associated with water restriction and film coating on the physiological performance of maize seed. The treatments were: T1 - Spore suspension: we used the commercial product Agrotrich ® plus (0.1 g in 1 ml water/100 seeds, T2 - Water restriction: it was performed on PDA + mannitol (- 0, 7 MPa on which was grown and sporulated Trichoderma spp. disinfected seeds were distributed 100 on each plate. When was the first seed root protrusion, the others were removed and dried in a laboratory environment for 48 h, T3 - Pelliculation: performed with the addition of the polymer Color Seed (50 mL kg-1 to the pesticide treatment containing Trichoderma spp. The seeds were dried for 48 h in a laboratory environment. T4 - Water restriction and film coating: after the seeds were primed in the presence of the fungus was made with polymer coverage; T5 - Untreated seeds. The use of water restriction provided efficient microbiolization seeds with richoderma spp. with increased control of fungi. The association of water restriction and film coating provided control of fungi and kept the vigor of maize seedlings. The use of Trichoderma spp. promoted an increase in seedling vigor of maize, regardless of technique used microbiolization, demonstrating the benefits of this fungus when applied to corn seeds.

  12. Polysaccharides from seeds of Strychnos species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, M M; Giudicianni, I; Lanzetta, R; Marciano, C E; Monaco, P; Parrilli, M

    1995-08-01

    The chemical composition of polysaccharide fractions from Strychnos nux-vomica and S. innocua seeds and comparison with those from S. potatorum seeds are reported. The structural features of the galactomannans from the three Strychnos species are also discussed. PMID:7669279

  13. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  14. Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

  15. Convective Drying of Rapeseed Hybrids’ Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Juki?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water release from seeds of three rape hybrids, (‘Artus’, ‘Baldur’ and ‘Titan’, during the convection drying of the seeds at three different drying temperature (40, 60 and 80 °C. The drying was conducted in laboratory scale drier which can simulate the conditions of large drier. The air velocity in the drier was maintained at 1.0 m/s. Activation energy needed for starting the process of water release during the convective drying of oil seed rape seeds was also studied. According to the obtained values, the mathematical models (equations and curves of kinematic drying were determined. By comparing the exponential equations and the constants of water release from seeds it was observed that drying of hybrid Artus was the slowest and the one of hybrid Titan the fastest. Results showed that there was a significant difference between all investigated hybrids in water release rate and that within the same drying conditions, hybrids showed different behaviour. Moreover, air temperature increase caused significant increase in water release from the seeds. The highest activation energy needed for starting the process of water release from the seeds had the hybrid Artus and the lowest one hybrid Titan. Due to this, it can be concluded that the activation energy was reversely proportional to the water release rate from the seeds.

  16. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  17. GERMINATION OF SEEDS OF DIFFUSE KNAPWEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to further define the environmental requirements for safesites for germination of seeds (achenes) of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.). Germination temperature profiles were developed for diffuse knapweed seeds collected from sites in the Great Basin and Colo...

  18. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  19. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  20. Survey on Seed Decay during their Germination of Some Forages from their Aged Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Won

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to know the viability of several forage crops of aged seeds. The period of the present experiment was long and it ranged around 50 days (45, 36, 55 days; nearly 1.5, 1 and 2 months, respectively, for 1983, 1991 and 1997 produced seeds in the autumn of 2006. Except for two species of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea and sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench, the seeds produced in 1983 decayed above the level of (1/2 of seeds decay. Their tolerance of the seeds produced in 1991 to decay seemed to be strong as follows; reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea = Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis>sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor>white clover (Trifolium repense. In the seeds produced in 1997 white clover, one of leguminous forages, decayed at a level of (2/3 of seeds, so the leguminous species decayed more than all other gramineous species.

  1. Seed concentration control of metal nanowire diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azulai, Daniel; Cohen, Elad; Markovich, Gil

    2012-11-14

    Gold/silver nanowires (NWs) of controlled diameters were synthesized from catalytic metal seed particles at the substrate/solution interface. Small seed nanoparticles of three different sizes: ~1 nm (11 gold atoms), ~1.4 nm (~55 gold atoms), and homemade nanoparticles of ~2 nm were used. By varying a single type of seed particle concentration in the growth solution, the NW diameters and morphology could be controlled, between bundles of ultrathin NWs of ~2-3 nm diameter to thicker isolated single NWs with a mean diameter of ~16 nm. In addition, the catalytic reduction rate leading to NW growth was found to be seed size dependent at small seed sizes (<2 nm). The two types of metallic NW films were tested for their performance as transparent electrodes after additional metal deposition for their stabilization and conductivity enhancement. The thin NW bundles exhibit superior transparent conductor properties. PMID:23030846

  2. Protein profile of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yanhua, Yang; Li, Dai; Hengchuan, Xia; Keming, Zhu; Haijun, Liu; Keping, Chen.

    Full Text Available Seeds are the most important plant storage organ and play a central role in the life cycle of plants. Since little is known about the protein composition of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds, in this work we used proteomic methods to obtain a reference map of rice seed proteins and identify important molecu [...] les. Overall, 480 reproducible protein spots were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis on pH 4-7 gels and 302 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and database searches. Together, these proteins represented 252 gene products and were classified into 12 functional categories, most of which were involved in metabolic pathways. Database searches combined with hydropathy plots and gene ontology analysis showed that most rice seed proteins were hydrophilic and were related to binding, catalytic, cellular or metabolic processes. These results expand our knowledge of the rice proteome and improve our understanding of the cellular biology of rice seeds.

  3. Isothermal seed germination of Adenanthera pavonina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Antonio, Zpevak; Sônia Cristina Juliano Güaltieri de Andrade, Perez; Marcos Silveira, Buckeridge.

    Full Text Available This work reports aspects of seed germination at different temperatures of Adenanthera pavonina L., a woody Southeast Asian Leguminosae. Germination was studied by measuring the final percentages, the rate, the rate variance and the synchronisation of the individual seeds calculated by the minimal i [...] nformational entropy of frequencies distribution of seed germination. Overlapping the germinability range with the range for the highest values of germination rates and the minimal informational entropy of frequencies distribution of seed germination, we found that the best temperature for the germination of A. pavonina seeds is 35 ºC. The slope µ of the Arrhenius plot of the germination rates is positive for T 35 ºC. The activation enthalpies, estimated from closely-spaced points, shows that |?H-|

  4. Efficiency of different methods for seeding grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna O?i?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the economic effects of different grassland sowing methods are still insufficiently explored. In order to detect the difference between grassland sowing methods a three-year field trialswere performed to determine the production and economic value of grasslands sown by: direct seeding into corn stubble field with row distance of 18 cm (DSK18 or ii 9 cm (DSK9, iii conventional seeding (KS, iv sod-seeding in existing grassland (RPTDS and v natural grassland as control (KPT. In the whole research period the highest average green mass productivity was achieved by conventional seeding (38.84 t/ha, while the lowest green mass yield had natural grassland and sod-seeded natural grassland (10.92 and 11.63 t/ha of green mass. Observed per unit of area, difference in production values ranged from 3276 kn, which was achieved with natural grass to 17.478 kn/ha, which was achieved by conventional seeding. Looking at the production efficiency, direct seeding into corn stubble field with row distance of 9 cm (3.17 has the largest coefficient, while natural grassland is on the economy border with coefficient 1.00. Relations between invested and obtained, which was measured with value of Gross Margin, is in range from 6 kn/ha (natural grassland to 11.420 kn/ha, which was achieved by conventional seeding. Looking at the production of hay, conventional seeding with 7.11 t/ha of hay had the maximum productivity, while the natural grassland and sod-seeded natural grassland had the lowest production (2.87 and 2.86 t/ha.

  5. The effect of vegetation area size on grass seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?kovi? Savo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys sowing norms (row spacing and seed rate in both our country and the world, as well as the optimal seed rates in grass seed production. It gives a short overview of row spacings and seed rates applied in our and some other countries. Earlier, grass cultivated for the purpose of seed production was grown on small vegetation area. According to some researches, high seed yields can be achieved by cultivating grass on large vegetation area. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the highest cocksfoot, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 50 cm spaced rows employing lower seed rates (8 and 4 kg/ha of seeds. The highest Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 20 cm spaced rows employing 20 kg/ha of seeds.

  6. Physical dormancy in seeds: a game of hide and seek?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Torbjørn Rage; Colville, Louise; Kranner, Ilse; Daws, Matthew I; Högstedt, Göran; Vandvik, Vigdis; Thompson, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Historically, 'physical dormancy', or 'hard seededness', where seeds are prevented from germinating by a water-impermeable seed coat, is viewed as a dormancy mechanism. However, upon water uptake, resumption of metabolism leads to the unavoidable release of volatile by-products, olfactory cues that are perceived by seed predators. Here, we examine the hypothesis that hard seeds are an anti-predator trait that evolved in response to powerful selection by small mammal seed predators. Seeds of two legume species with dimorphic seeds ('hard' and 'soft'), Robinia pseudoacacia and Vicia sativa, were offered to desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) in a series of seed removal studies examining the differences in seed harvest between hard and soft seeds. Volatile compounds emitted by dry and imbibed soft seeds were identified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen main volatile compounds were identified, and hamsters readily detected both buried imbibed seeds and an artificial 'volatile cocktail' that mimicked the scent of imbibed seeds, but could not detect buried hard or dry soft seeds. We argue that physical dormancy has evolved to hide seeds from mammalian predators. This hypothesis also helps to explain some otherwise puzzling features of hard seeds and has implications for seed dispersal. PMID:23421728

  7. Computer calculations in interstitial seed therapy: II. Dose control after seed implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After seed implantation exact dose control is desirable. In clinical practice a measurement of dose in a depth of tissue is hardly possible. A measurement may be possible by the method of three-dimensional reconstruction of the seed arrangement in water. To reconstruct an identical seed arrangement one must know the co-ordinates of the seeds. How can one measure the co-ordinates of the seeds in tissue? Several methods are given in the literature (Adams and Meurk, 1964; Nuttall and Spiers, 1946; Pierquin et al, 1960) but all seem to be somehow imperfect, because of the difficulties in correcting faults of projection and identifying individual seeds. The laborious procedure of correcting manually for projection enlargement, identifying of seeds and correcting for adjustment faults in making radiographs may be the reason for such methods not being used in routine practice. A computer programme has been written to correct central projection, to correct the two most important adjustment faults and to identify seeds in perpendicular radiographs. The method of determining the dose distribution after seed implantation consists of two parts, a manual part and a computer part. The manual part has three working steps: (1) Making radiograms in perpendicular planes of the subject, (2) Measuring co-ordinates of seed pictures in the radiographs, (3) Feeding the measured and other data into the computer

  8. Determination Testing of Seed Hardness of Staple Breeding Wheat Seed in Gansu Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed hardness is one of the important indexes of grain classification. It has close relationship with grain powder, flour quality, seed storage and processing, resist insect pest and so on. In this study, which applied based on the grain hardness indentation loading curve method and chose 3 kind of staple breeding wheat seed to determine the seed hardness in Gansu province. The experimental results showed that the average hardness value of staple breeding wheat seed was 22.42 MPa~57.85 MPa and the dispersion of the hardness value was small, which also between 3~12%. The seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.1 was maximum (52.36~61.36MPa and the seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.3 between two parties of the other breeding wheat, which was 42.12~50.20MPa. The seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.2 was minimum, which were 58.10~62.91% and 47.91~54.66% lower than the rest of the two breeding wheat seed hardness respectively. The findings will provide theoretical basis for seed production and processing and the stimulation analysis by EDEM.

  9. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

    Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass-type festulolium, Paulita, and in a fescue-type festulolium, Hykor. The objectives were to examine the influence of row spacing (12, 24, and 36 cm) and seed rate (8, 12, or 16 kg ha-1) on plant establishment, development, and seed yield. Observations of autumn and spring in-row plant densities indicated satisfactory plant establishment in all combinations of seed rate and row spacing. The number of reproductive tillers was in the range from 800 to 2200 m-2 in Paulita and from 500 to 1300 m-2 in Hykor. Row spacing had an effect on the number of reproductive tillers and in both cultivars the highest number was achieved at 12-cm row spacing. Seed yields in the Italian ryegrass type averaged from 1050 to 1150 kg ha-1 and in the tall fescue type from 650 to 800 kg ha-1. Doubling row spacing from 12 to 24 cm had no effect on seed yield in Hykor, while a further increase of row spacing to 36 cm showed a decrease in seed yield. No effect of row spacing on seed yield was observed in Paulita. Neither of the two types was affected in seed yield by seed rate. The fact that row spacing in both types can be increased to 24 cm without having a concomitant negative effect on seed yield implies that mechanical weed control is an optional management technique. Therefore our results have important implications in/for organic grass-seed production. Udgivelsesdato: March

  10. Early planting and hand sorting effectively controls seed-borne fungi in farm-retained bean seed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernest, Dube; Julia, Sibiya; Morris, Fanadzo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Home-saved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed can be hand-sorted to remove discoloured seed, thereby reducing the level of contamination by certain seed-borne fungi and improving seed germination. In this study, the effect of planting date on the infection and discolouration of bean seed by seed-born [...] e fungi was investigated in order to improve the quality of hand-sorted, farm-retained bean seeds used by resource poor smallholder farmers. The germination quality and level of seed-borne fungi in hand-sorted first-generation bean seed harvested from an early-, mid- and late-summer season planted crop was therefore assessed. The highest percentage of discoloured seed (68%) was obtained from the mid-summer season planting. Non-discoloured seed from early- and late-season plantings had significantly (o

  11. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Seed ecology of Bromus sterilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž?árková, Veronika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus sterilis L. (barren brome has become a troublesome weed of winter cereals in reduced tillage systems, mainly in South and North America, middle and Western Europe. In the Czech Republic, its importance has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Barren brome is reported as a problem weed in other winter crops such as oil seed rape, in vineyards and in other cultivated places. In this study, the dormancy and germination under different temperatures, water and light regimes were investigated. Emergence from different depths and persistence in the soil profile were investigated under field conditions. The seeds of Bromus sterilis showed broad ecological valence to hydrothermal factors germinating in the wide range of 5 to 35 °C. Similarly, no strong effect on the germination in an environment with low water potential was observed. The response to light at various temperatures showed that seeds germinated better in darkness. The emergence declined significantly with burial depth (under 40 mm. The loss of primary dormancy was rapid in time and only 50% of the seeds germinated within 8 weeks after collecting from maternal plants. The seeds were not able to survive in the soil seed bank for a longer time and fall seeds lost viability 1 year after burial in a soil profile.

  13. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  14. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  15. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

  16. Effect of Seeding Date on Seed Yield and Yield Components in Edible- oil Genotypes of Flax in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saeidi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Edible-oil flax (Linum usitatissimum L. can be an alternate oil-seed crop in Isfahan region. Seeding date is very important in obtaining higher grain yields and a successful flax production. The present study was conducted at the research farm, Isfahan University of Technology in the year 2000 to determine the effect of seeding date and genotype on yield, yield components and maturity of edible-oil flax. In this study, a RCBD with three replications, in which the treatments were organized as a split-plot experiment, was used. Seeding dates (Oct. 17, Nov. 16, March 15, April 13, May 14, June 13, July 15 and genotypes (four breeding lines of edible-oil flax were considered as the main and the subfactor, respectively. The number of capsules per plant, seeds per capsule, 100-seed weight and seed yield were highest for all genotypes in the first seeding date. Average seed yield in the first seeding date was almost twice, triple and eight times as much as the second, third and the last three seeding dates, respectively. In the second seeding date there was no emergence because of low temperature. The genotype and seeding date interaction on seed yield and maturity was significant. In general, delayed seeding was accompanied by reduction of emergence, number of days to maturity, yield and yield components in all genotypes, with the exception that the last seeding date led to increased number of days to maturity and seeds per capsule. Based on regression analysis, seed weight, number of seeds per capsule and number of seedlings/m2 were the most important components that contributed in seed yield variation, respectively. But, most of the variations in seed yield per plant was affected by number of copsules per plant and number of seeds per capsule, and in that order.

  17. Weed Seed Labelling with Rare Earth Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dormancy period of weed seed under field conditions so far could not be determined with reliability because of the lack of a suitable method for labelling seed. Rademacher and co-workers labelled weed seed with 35S for studying germination in relation to different methods of soil cultivation. Since 35S has a half-period of 87.1 d only, labelling is practically ineffective after one year. The authors of this paper therefore tried to label weed seed with lanthanum, europium and dysprosium. Since these elements (1) do not occur in the standard soils in interfering quantities, and (2) can easily be determined by neutron activation analysis, they are useful for non-radioactive labelling. In pot experiments they were added like fertilizers before the soil was seeded with Sinapsis alba or Vicia villosa. After harvesting, samples of the plants' roots, stems, leaves, and seed were irradiated in the reactor and the rare earth elements determined by neutron-activation analysis. Evaluation of the results disclosed that traceable quantities of lanthanum, europium, and dysprosium were present in roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the grains of seed. It is the intention, in further experiments, to increase the concentration of the applied elements up to the limit of compatibility, and to find out whether a more concentrated supply will increase the incorporation in seeds. If one of these elements is present in a reasonable concentration, experiments with easonable concentration, experiments with labelled weed seed will be possible for periods of several years. (author)

  18. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed quality evaluation using seed physical attributes, saturated salt accelerated aging and the seed vigour imaging system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Peñaloza; Gerardo, Ramirez-Rosales; Miller B, McDonald; Mark A., Bennett.

    2005-12-15

    Full Text Available High seed quality is essential for optimum stand establishment in lettuce. As a result, it is necessary to have seed vigour tests that permit rapid, objective and accurate evaluation of seed quality. This study evaluated physical and physiological seed quality components of four seed lots of six let [...] tuce varieties obtained from a commercial company. Seeds were evaluated for seedling emergence under greenhouse conditions, standard germination, seed physical aspects, the Saturated Salt Accelerated Aging (SSAA) test and the Seed Vigour Imaging System (SVIS). Results indicated that large-seeded lettuce varieties had higher percentage germination, higher SSAA values, higher SVIS index and more rapid and uniform greenhouse emergence. Black-seeded lettuce varieties possessed higher seed quality and less fungal invasion when evaluated by the SSAA test. The SVIS index significantly correlated with SSAA values and seedling emergence under greenhouse conditions suggesting it can be used as a measure of seed vigour. It is concluded that the SSAA and SVIS tests are practical and accurate determinants of lettuce seed quality and distinguish between high and poor quality lettuce seed lots

  19. A reusable iodine-125 seed ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable iodine-125 seed ophthalmic applicator has been manufactured to treat intraocular tumours. It is made up of a stainless steel cap which houses a perspex insert; the perspex insert is used to contain four I-125 seeds. This applicator will treat a tumour with a surface diameter of 10mm and when loaded with four seeds each of activity 150MBq a dose of 60Gy may be delivered to a depth of 5mm in the eye in 5 to 6 days. The resultant dose to the sclera is of the order of 220Gy

  20. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8 · 4H2O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn2+, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spect amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band (? 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe3+ present in the goethite at g ? 2, and in the seeds exist free radicals at g = 2:004, at room temperature. Ranging the temperature from 298 K until 77 K, the line width broadens, the cubic symmetry (g ? 2) disappears, and orthorhombic (g ? 9) and axial (g ? 4) symmetry appears in seeds spectra as well as in goethite spectra. Then, these results ratify the presence of goethite in all the seeds analyzed. Moreover, both the seed peel as the seed core has goethite, indicating that it is not a soil contamination, but actually goethite is absorbed by the seeds

  1. Seed gum of Stryphnodendron barbatiman (Barbatimao)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reicher, F.; Leitner, S.C.S.; Fontana, J.D.; Correa, J.B.C.; Sierakowski, M.R. [UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    Stryphnodendron barbatiman (barbatimao) is a native tree that is found throughout the {open_quotes}Cerrados,{close_quotes} a region of Central Brazil. Plant seeds, on water extraction, furnished 28 g% galactomannan (dry-weight basis), the monosaccharide composition of which (galactose to mannose ratio, 1.0:1.5) fits in the legume heteromannan group. This seed gum, after Sevag deproteinization, still retained 6 g% of associated protein and had a molecular weight of about 1.8 MD on gel filtration. A high intrinsic viscosity (1300 cP) was observed for the polysaccharide sample obtained after reflux of the crushed seeds in 80% aqueous methanol.

  2. Improving Tree Seed Germination by Electrostatic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Zhi-bin Gui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree species with shallow dormancy are used for reforestation by airplane sowing in order to establish forest in mountain areas. To enhance germination, the quality of young seedling, an electrostatic field is used to treat pine seeds. Experiments found that treatment effect depended on the dosage, process and vigor index of seeds, and the optimal dosage was 500 kV/m 10 minutes for dry or wet seeds to improve germination, seedling height and root length during initial germination and middle and later stages of seedling development.

  3. Dormancy and growth vigour of seed potatoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Ittersum, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    Dormancy is an important property of seed potatoes. Seed tubers planted too soon after their harvest do not produce plants because of dormancy, or produce low yields because of poor growth vigour. Potato tubers from the same cultivar vary in their duration of dormancy. The first aim of the research reported in this thesis was to predict the end of seed tuber dormancy, and to explain the variation in the duration of dormancy. The second aim was to investigate ways of curtailing the dormancy an...

  4. Electrophoretic studies on rape seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrophoresis is a technique which separates biological molecules on the basis of charge and mass properties. The technique is used for separation, purification, characterization and identification of molecules/ compounds. Two major objectives for applications of electrophoresis have been studied in this report i.e. characterization of rape seed proteins and enzymes and identification of rape seed cultivars by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Gamma irradiation is being successfully used to create genetic variability and germination which brought about definite changes in the rape seed proteins reflected in different bands. These differences could be used to study variability in crop plants. (A.B.)

  5. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce 11C and 13N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm2. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center. (orig.)

  6. Mustard Seed Meal suppresses Weeds in Potato and Peppermint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed meal is a co-product remaining after pressing mustard seed to remove the oil. Seed meals containing high glucosinolates have been reported to have herbicidal activity. Weed suppression with seed meal of Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold was evaluated in field trials on potatoes and peppermint in ...

  7. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  8. Wheat seed enhancement by vitamin and hormonal priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming has proven beneficial in many important agricultural crops. The present study was conducted to explore the role (if any) of hormonal and vitamin seed priming to improve the germination, seedling emergence, early seedling establishment, electrolyte leakage and nutrients uptake in wheat seedlings. The wheat seeds were soaked for 48 hours in aerated solution of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, kinetin and GA3 with 20 ppm concentration of each solution, whereas untreated seeds were taken as control. Seed priming with ascorbic acid resulted in maximum final germination and emergence percentage (FGP and FEP), radical and plumule length, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots, root shoot ratio, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and seedling dry weight compared to control (untreated seeds). Minimum mean germination and emergence time (MGT and MET) was recorded in seeds primed with kinetin and GA3. While in case of biochemical attributes, seedling potassium contents were decreased by hormonal seed priming while total soluble sugars were increased by salicylic acid and ascorbic acid seed priming. Hormonal seed priming had non-significant effect on phosphorus seedling contents. Untreated (Control) seeds showed maximum electrical conductivity at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after inbibition than primed seeds against the minimum electrical conductivity that was recorded in seeds primed with salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the wheat seeds primed wd. In conclusion, the wheat seeds primed with 20 ppm solution of ascorbic acid may be used for wheat seed invigoration. (author)

  9. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  10. Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

    2006-07-01

    Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

  11. Seed Treatments for Enhancing Germination of Colophospermum mopane Seeds: A Multipurpose Tree in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mojeremane

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of concentrated sulphuric acid (98%, mechanical scarification, hot water, cold water and dry heat on the germination capacity of five-years-old Colophospermum mopane seeds. The results showed that treating five-years-old C. mopane seeds with concentrated sulphuric acid (98%, mechanical scarification, cold water and dry heat had no effect on the germination capacity of mopane seeds. Simmering hot water significantly decreased germination capacity. The results showed that Colophospermum mopane seeds stored for five years still attain germination percentage above seventy. It is concluded that C. mopane in Botswana have no hard seed coat or impervious seed coat and physiological dormancy as an adaptation to arid and desert conditions.

  12. Radiological response of lanthanum guiding seeds in brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic seeds with La-139 incorporated were synthesized to be used as radiological guides in brachytherapy implants. The synthesis was performed based on the sol-gel method. The seeds were subjected to characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the contrast from a radiographic film was evaluated to lanthanum, samarium and holmium seeds. Radiological response on a phantom at different depths with lanthanum seeds and metal seeds was also investigated. Based on the values of contrast, the synthesized lanthanum seeds can be considered efficient as radiological guides when implanted together with pure Ho-165 and Sm-152 seeds. (author)

  13. Serotinous cones of Cupressus sempervirens provide viable seeds in spite of high seed predation

    OpenAIRE

    Battisti, Andrea; Cantini, Raffaella; Rouault, Gaelle; Roques, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Five half-sib families in an 18-year old family test of Cupressus sempervirens in Italy were compared for cone crop size, cone serotiny, and seed damage. The mean number of serotinous cones per tree was significantly different among families although families did not differ by the total number of cones produced during tree's lifetime. More than 60% of the cones were colonised either by a seed chalcid, Megastigmus wachtli, or by a seed bug, Orsillus maculatus, whereas pathogenic fungi (Seiridi...

  14. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Krizmani?

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  15. Modelling Seed System Networks in Mali to Improve Farmers Seed Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harouna Coulibaly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food security remains a constant source of concern in Mali, where over 75% of the population derives their living from agriculture. Despite the huge theoretical need, the production and use of improved seeds remain very limited. Concurrently, genetic erosion and the disappearance of certain local varieties have been observed. The dual need to preserve agricultural biodiversity as a factor of resilience for production systems while disseminating improved varieties as a means to increase production raises questions regarding what type or types of organization could best respond to these agricultural challenges. The farmer seed network in Mali is based on the self-production of pearl millet and sorghum seeds and operates through non-commercial, community-based exchanges. The formal seed sector distributes certified seeds through cooperatives, with cost-effectiveness the main priority. The joining of these two seed networks could allow agro-biodiversity to be considered in such a way that genetic diversity can be maintained. The various pearl millet and sorghum seed exchange networks often are considered to be in opposition, with the formal network pitted against the informal one. By highlighting points where the two systems could come together, the proposed model allows a new perspective on seed flows and agro-biodiversity management. The global seed network that could emerge from this would, on one hand, remedy the failure of the state seed system inspired by a Western model in which seed production and distribution is disconnected from agricultural production, and, on the other, compensate for shortcomings in the traditional farmer seed system to increase productivity and sustainably manage farmer pearl millet and sorghum varieties while continuously introducing new genetic resources.

  16. Synchrony between fruit maturation and effective dispersers' foraging activity increases seed protection against seed predators

    OpenAIRE

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C.; Cerdá, Xim

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms is conditioned by the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of animals and plants. In the present study we explore the timing of seed release of a myrmecochorous plant (Helleborus foetidus) and ant activity in two populations in southern Spain during 2 consecutive years. The results indicate that fruit dehiscence and seed shedding occur mostly in the morning and correspond to the period of maximum foraging activity of the most effective ...

  17. Potential of endozoochorous seed dispersal by sheep in calcareous grasslands: correlations with seed traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiters, A. T.; Huiskes, H. P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What is the potential of sheep to serve as seed dispersers via ingestion and defecation in calcareous grasslands? Is the presence of viable seeds from dung correlated with specific seed traits? Location: Calcareous grasslands, South Limburg, the Netherlands/Belgium. Methods: Dung samples (n=24) from sheep were collected between September 2006 and November 2007 from five sites with Mesobromion plant communities, and communities of Nardo-Galion saxatilis. Germinability and identity...

  18. YBCO single grains seeded by 45{\\deg} - 45{\\deg} bridge-seeds of different lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yunhua; Durrell, John H.; Dennis, Anthony R.; Cardwell, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Single grain, (RE)BCO bulk superconductors in large or complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as motors and generators and magnetic shielding devices. As a result, top, multi-seeded, melt growth (TMSMG) has been investigated over the past two years in an attempt to enlarge the size of (RE)BCO single grains specifically for such applications. Of these multi-seeding techniques, so-called bridge seeding provides the best alignment of t...

  19. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to transplanting. Dry seeding was considered the best rice cultivation method on heavy clay soils.

  20. Alkaline Seed-Bed: An Innovative Technique for Manifesting Verticillium dahliae on Fennel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Ghoneem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae attacks a wide range of plants including fennel causing a wilt disease. The fungus grows slowly on seeds when tested at the seed health laboratories. This habit character allows saprophytes to impair the fungal growth and interfere the identification on both Moist Blotters (MB and the Deep-Freezing Blotters (DFB. Since, these two techniques are not efficient enough to detect this fungus, the researchers planned to search for an alternative technique for detecting this fungus. Soaking three layers of blotters used as seed-beds in water solutions alkalined with KOH or NaOH at pH 10 presents the optimum seed-bed condition for manifesting the fungus on seed. This seed-bed condition also suppress the growth of saprophytes, so as the fungus was transparently shown on seeds. The in vitro study presents pH 9.5 as the optimum condition for the growth, sporulation and maximum glucose coefficient of the fungus. So far, it is recommended to use the alkalined seed-bed when searching for V. dahliae on fennel seed.

  1. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  2. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Xiai Chen; Ling Wang; Wenquan Chen; Yanfeng Gao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid...

  3. Seed dormancy and germination—emerging mechanisms and new hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy has played a significant role in adaptation and evolution of seed plants. While its biological significance is clear, molecular mechanisms underlying seed dormancy induction, maintenance and alleviation still remain elusive. Intensive efforts have been made to investigate gibberellin and abscisic acid metabolism in seeds, which greatly contributed to the current understanding of seed dormancy mechanisms. Other mechanisms, which might be independent of hormones, or specific to th...

  4. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  5. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  6. Compression ignition performance using sunflower seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, C.M.; LePori, W.A.; Engler, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil subjected to various levels of processing and blends with diesel fuel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. Results from short duration performance tests and longer duration load tests are reported. 8 refs.

  7. Quantized Matrix Algebras and Quantum Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Plesner; Pagani, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees.

  8. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  9. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  10. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  11. Regulation of the globulins of lupin seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Lupinus angustifolius contain three globulins, conglutins ?, ?, ? with methionine contents of 0.2, 0.0 and 1.3%, which can be resolved and estimated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. It is suggested that a significant improvement in sulphur-amino acid content of lupin seed could be achieved by selecting varieties rich in conglutins ? and ?. This lupin, grown in the virtual absence of sulphate and visibly sulphur deficients, produces viable seeds with about the normal protein content but with most of the usual conglutins ? and ? replaced by conglutin ?. As would be expected, these seeds are very low in methionine because they contain mostly conglutin ?. This appears to be the first report of a dramatic change in the proportions of individual legume globulins following manipulation of plant nutrition. (author)

  12. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data from each site, as well as several environmental variables, were used to evaluate seed viability within the context of habitat variation. Initial viability of seeds used in the seed retrieval experiment was 81 and 92 percent for mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush, respectively. After remaining in the field for 24 months, buried Wyoming big sagebrush seeds retained 28-58 percent viability,11-23 percent of seeds under litter remained viable, and no seeds remained viable on the surface (estimates are 95-percent confidence intervals). The odds of remaining viable did not change from 12 to 24 months. However, after 24 months the odds of seeds beneath litter being viable decreased to 75 percent of the odds of viability at 12 months. Similar to Wyoming big sagebrush, buried seeds of mountain big sagebrush were 31-68 percent viable, seeds under litter retained 10-22 percent of their viability, and no surface seeds were viable after 24 months. Both subspecies of big sagebrush had some portion of seed that remained viable for more than one growing season provided they were buried or under litter. Although seeds beneath litter may remain viable in intact communities, seeds are susceptible to incineration during fires. Nine months after seed dispersal, seed bank estimates for Wyoming big sagebrush ranged from 19 to 49 viable seeds/m2 in litter samples and 19-57 viable seeds/m2 in soil samples (95-percent confidence interval). For mountain big sagebrush, estimates were 27-75 viable seeds/m2 in litter samples and 54-139 viable seeds/m2 in soil (95-percent confidence interval). The number of viable seeds present in the seed bank 9 months after seed dispersal was not significantly different from the number present immediately after seed dispersal. Seed viability was highest in mountain big sagebrush sites for seeds on the surface and beneath litter, but decreased after one season. Buried seeds of both subspecies were in equal abundances and may be insulated from the effect

  13. Stress, storage & survival of neem seed

    OpenAIRE

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display intermediate or recalcitrant storage behaviour. This thesis describes the results of our investigations concerning factors involved in the rapid loss of germinability of neem seeds. Stress and survival under different condition...

  14. TGA Analysis of Rubber Seed Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Noorfidza Yub Harun; M.T. Afzal; Mohd Tazli Azizan

    2010-01-01

    This project investigated the possibility of converting biomass wastes into solidfuels by undergoing torrefaction process. Rubber seed kernel was used toproduce torrefied material and the factors affecting torrefaction were investigated.Samples of rubber seed kernel were dried, ground, sieved, heated and cooled toobtain the torrefied material. It was found that minimum 30% of the moisturecontent was removed from its original value during torrefaction process. Almost100% of the calorific value...

  15. Estimating seed sensitivity on homogeneous alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noe?, Laurent; Ponty, Yann

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of estimating the sensitivity of seed-based similarity search algorithms. In contrast to approaches based on Markov models [18, 6, 3, 4, 10], we study the estimation based on homogeneous alignments. We describe an algorithm for counting and random generation of those alignments and an algorithm for exact computation of the sensitivity for a broad class of seed strategies. We provide experimental results demonstrating a bias introduced by ignoring the h...

  16. Secondary Metabolites in Durian Seeds: Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins

    OpenAIRE

    Yuancai Liu; Shengbao Feng; Lixia Song; Guangyuan He; Mingjie Chen; Dejian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of durian seeds was fractionated by reverse phase flash column chromatography and the fractions characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Among a few unknown compounds collected, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) were found to be one of the main compounds. Based on this result, the OPCs were purified the first time from the durian seeds using standard procedures and gave a yield of 1.8 mg/g dry matter after fractionation by Sephadex LH-20 column. Structur...

  17. Calibration procedures for seeds preloaded in cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive seeds preloaded in sterilized cartridges or needles are commonly obtainable from manufacturers. Under the US regulations for control of radioactive materials, seed users are required to account for all seeds and independently verify their air kerma strength (SK). As a result, the viability of inspection schemes that rely on measurement of aggregate seeds is of interest. In this paper we consider the conditions (if any) under which cartridge inspection can satisfy regulatory requirements and still provide practical benefit (i.e., time savings) against the regular single-seed assay. The standards for comparison are the recommendations of AAPM TG40, AAPM TG56, and ACR's 'Standard for the Performance of Manually Loaded Brachytherapy Sources'. The practical benefit is judged in comparison to the effort required to apply the 10% assay recommendation of TG40 to seeds in cartridges. Two specific cartridge inspection schemes are considered: (a) measuring the SK of each cartridge in a batch; (b) measuring a single cartridge sampled at random from the batch. Unlike the 10% assay, which is defined (imperfectly, in our view) without reference to the prevalence of in-calibration seeds, the estimation of the relative merits of cartridge inspection methods must necessarily include such information and, as such, is manufacturer specific. In this paper results are provided for Oncura model 6711 125I seeds in shielded and unshielded Mick cartseeds in shielded and unshielded Mick cartridges. We show that the only practically useful cartridge inspection scheme is the batch scheme applied to unshielded cartridges. The false positive rates associated with the other schemes are such that we expect to open a cartridge (and perform the 10% assay) at least 80% of the time. While anything less than 100% of the time is theoretically an improvement, this neglects the additional effort required to assay the cartridges

  18. Estimating seed sensitivity on homogeneous alignments

    CERN Document Server

    Kucherov, G; Ponty, Y; Kucherov, Gregory; Noe, Laurent; Ponty, Yann

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of estimating the sensitivity of seed-based similarity search algorithms. In contrast to approaches based on Markov models [18, 6, 3, 4, 10], we study the estimation based on homogeneous alignments. We describe an algorithm for counting and random generation of those alignments and an algorithm for exact computation of the sensitivity for a broad class of seed strategies. We provide experimental results demonstrating a bias introduced by ignoring the homogeneousness condition.

  19. Laser Heater and seeded Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, G; Sabia, E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the effect of laser heater on a seeded Free Electron Laser. We develop a model embedding the effect of the energy modulation induced by the heater with those due to the seeding. The present analysis is compatible with the experimental results obtained at FERMI displaying secondary maxima with increasing heater intensity. The treatment developed in the paper confirms and extends previous analyses and put in evidence further effects which can be tested in future experiments.

  20. sFLASH: Seeding at 38 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many free-electron lasers (FEL) producing light in the UV and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelength ranges start up from noise, operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode and therefore have poor longitudinal coherence. It has recently been demonstrated that using so-called 'seeding' techniques, it is possible to generate almost fully coherent photon pulses. The sFLASH experiment at DESY has been built to study seeding using a source based on a high-harmonic generation (HHG) process. In contrast to SASE, the seeded FEL is operated as an amplifier of the HHG seed. Critical for successful seeding is the precise 6D overlap between the electron bunch and the HHG radiation in the undulator. As a result, one expects greatly improved longitudinal coherence and higher shot-to-shot stability of the pulse spectra and energy. In addition, the output of the seeded FEL is intrinsically synchronized to the HHG drive laser, thus enabling pump-probe experiments with a resolution in the order of 10 fs. In this contribution, the sFLASH layout as well as recent experimental results are presented.

  1. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections. PMID:25196170

  2. Plants grow better if seeds see green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andrei P.; Franke, Ralf-Peter

    2006-07-01

    We report on the response of dry plant seeds to their irradiation with intense green light applied at biostimulatory doses. Red and near-infrared light delivered by lasers or arrays of light emitting diodes applied at such doses have been shown previously by us to have effects on mammalian cells. Effects include cell proliferation and elevation of cell vitality, and have practical applications in various biomedical fields. Growth processes induced by photoreceptor stimulation (phytochromes and cryptochromes) in plant seeds with green light were described so far only for imbibed seeds. In this paper, we show that irradiation of dry cress, radish and carrot seeds with intense green light (laser or arrays of light emitting diodes), applied at biostimulatory doses, resulted in a significant increase in biomass—14, 26, and 71 days after seeding, respectively. In the case of radish and carrot, the irradiation led to important changes in the root-to-foliage surface ratio. Seeds with a potential to grant growth acceleration could be of special interest in agricultural applications, and could even compensate for shorter growth seasons caused by climate change.

  3. Comparative Effects of Organic and Inorganic Seed Treatments on the Viability and Vigour of Sesame Seeds in Storage

    OpenAIRE

    K. O. Oyekale; C. C. Nwangburuka; O. A. Denton; D. S. Daramola; J. A. Adeyeye; A. O. Akinkuotu

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the storability of pre-treated sesame seeds and to compare the effects of inorganic and organic seed treatments on the viability and vigour of sesame seeds during storage. Two hundred grammes of sesame seeds were treated separately with recommended dosages of Neem leaf powder (NLP), Dress force powder (DFP), Dry pepper powder (DPP) and untreated seeds being the control; each treatment placed in air-tight container and stored in a wooden cabinet at averag...

  4. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, S.P.C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds w...

  5. Restoration of calcareous grasslands: the role of the soil seed bank and seed dispersal for recolonisation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Poschlod P.; von Blanckenhagen B.

    2005-01-01

    Seed bank is a central topic for plant communities restoration. We review the methods to measure seed persistence and the different seed bank types. Floristic composition and seed bank were compared among 18 sites representing various stages of succession or afforestation in West Germany. Species richness decreased in the vegetation after abandonment while about 25% of the species survived in the seed bank. After clear cutting, species richness was restored rapidly in the vegetation and f...

  6. Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraishi Yutaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine the incidence of seed migration not only to the chest, but also to the abdomen and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 267 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. After seed implantation, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to document the occurrence and sites of seed migration. The incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was calculated. All patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis subsequently underwent a computed tomography scan to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Postimplant dosimetric analysis was undertaken, and dosimetric results were compared between patients with and without seed migration. Results A total of 19,236 seeds were implanted in 267 patients. Overall, 91 of 19,236 (0.47% seeds migrated in 66 of 267 (24.7% patients. Sixty-nine (0.36% seeds migrated to the chest in 54 (20.2% patients. Seven (0.036% seeds migrated to the abdomen in six (2.2% patients. Fifteen (0.078% seeds migrated to the pelvis in 15 (5.6% patients. Seed migration occurred predominantly within two weeks after seed implantation. None of the 66 patients had symptoms related to the migrated seeds. Postimplant prostate D90 was not significantly different between patients with and without seed migration. Conclusion We showed the incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Seed migration did not have a significant effect on postimplant prostate D90.

  7. Global analysis of gene activity during Arabidopsis seed development and identification of seed-specific transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brandon H.; Cheng, Chen; Bui, Anhthu Q.; Wagmaister, Javier A.; Henry, Kelli F.; Pelletier, Julie; Kwong, Linda; Belmonte, Mark; Kirkbride, Ryan; Horvath, Steve; Drews, Gary N.; Fischer, Robert L.; Okamuro, Jack K.; Harada, John J.; Goldberg, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for controlling seed development are not yet known. To identify TF genes expressed at specific stages of seed development, including those unique to seeds, we used Affymetrix GeneChips to profile Arabidopsis genes active in seeds from fertilization through maturation and at other times of the plant life cycle. Seed gene sets were compared with those expressed in prefertilization ovules, germinating seedlings, and leaves, roots, stems, and fl...

  8. Study of dose deposition for different configurations of OncoSeed 6711 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. Iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds are presented as a form of treatment. In prostate cancer therapy 80-120 iodine-125 seeds are implanted in the organ following a previous planning. During positioning and after it, the implanted seeds can undergo slight displacements relative to the original position. These deviations may cause changes in dose distribution in the tumor volume. This work has made a dosimetry study for iodine-125 seeds used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the first stage, we performed a one seed dosimetric parameters study following the TG-43 protocol recommendations with the objective of validating our methodology. Then a quantitative study of the variation in dose distribution for three configurations of four seeds OncoSeed 6711 was conducted with two configurations using the seeds in symmetrical positions and the other presenting small displacements. A soft tissue phantom and TLD dosimeters were used. Then a qualitative study of isodose curves of the configurations was performed using radiochromic film, Gafchromic model. This method was used to complement the study of the crystals. The seed´s dosimetric parameters obtained in this work showed excellent agreement with the TG-43 consensual values, thus validating the methodology used in this work. The results obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters have shown that there is a significant difference in dose distribution when there is a change in the positioning of the seeds. The use of these two methods simultaneously is efficient since the crystals bring a point view and the film has a global view of the dose distribution. (author)

  9. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2007-01-01

    To obtain information on possible sources of contamination of the seed harvest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., spp. napus) by other varieties (adventitious presence), we investigated the purity of certified seed lots; the abundance and origin of volunteers; and longevity and origin of seeds in the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with ISSR profiles from an assortment of 14 of the most commonly cultivated oilseed rape varieties from 1985 to 2004. This comparison was performed using the assignment program, AFLPOP. The age of the seed bank germinating to become volunteers was assumed from information on previously cultivated oilseed rape varieties at the site and the year of cultivation. The results showed that plants or seeds belonged to varieties cultivated at the site 4-17 years earlier, suggesting a long persistence of volunteer populations. High volunteer frequencies (6%, 29% and 32%) were found in the three oilseed rape fields analysed and, from soil cores, their soil seed-bank was estimated to be 50-100 seeds m(-2). The ISSR analysis of the 14 reference varieties showed that three of the certified seed lots contained other varieties above the allowed threshold. Our findings are discussed in the context of the coexistence between GM (genetically modified) and non-GM oilseed rape, and future levels of seed purity.

  10. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  11. Improving the sludge conditioning potential of moringa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Joel O.; Eze, Romanus M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a cheaper material to effectively condition sludge, oil-free moringa seed was prepared and tested. A Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract the oil from moringa seed ( Moringa oleifera). The oil-free seed (marc) has been found to have higher conditioning potential than the ordinary moringa seed. However, the traditional ferric chloride is still a better sludge conditioner than moringa seed marc. For the digested domestic sludge used, optimum conditioning dosages were found to be 0.6, 0.80, and 1.10% of the total solids for ferric chloride, marc of the moringa seed, and ordinary moringa seed, respectively. Since little or no operational material is lost in the extraction process, the moringa seed marc is a promising conditioner in place of the ordinary seed.

  12. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cibele C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrical conductivity and moisture were measured. The seeds of A. alexandrae are recalcitrant, with high germination percentage (over 67% when undried (47% seed moisture. Lowering seed moisture below 31.5% reduced the germination rate significantly (<52.5%. Total germination failure was observed when seed moisture reached 15.1%. The electrical conductivity was the most sensitive vigor test to identify seed deterioration.

  13. Determining Relationships Between Seed Yield and Yield Components in Alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Sengul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Path analysis was performed on plant characters in spaced plants of land races alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. to determine: seed yield per plant, stem number, internodes number, plant height, blooming periods, leaf length, raceme length, number of pods per raceme, number of seeds per raceme, number of seeds per pod, 00-seed weight. Positive relationships existed between seed yield and all its components with the exceptions of the internodes numbers, blooming periods and 1000-seeds weight. Significant correlation with seed yield was found for plant height, number of pods per raceme and the number of seed per raceme. Raceme length coefficient was highly significant (R = 0.786**, very high negative correlation found with the blooming periods (R = -0.625. Plant height, seeds per raceme, seeds per pods and 1000-seed weight had strong direct effects, while other components had strongly negative or negligible direct effects. The indirect effects via leaf length and blooming period were major determinants of the main effects of all components for the seed yield of the alfalfa. Positive direct effect of plant height, raceme length, number of pods per raceme and number of seed per raceme suggested that these yield components may be good selection criteria to improve seed yield of alfalfa cultivars.

  14. Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jev?ovi? Radosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on major indices of the quality was analyzed. Seed collected in 1996 and stored for 30 days (analyzed in 1996, seed stored for one year (analyzed in 1997, seed stored for two years (analyzed in 1998, seed stored for three years (analyzed in 1999 seed stored for four years (analyzed in 2000, seed stored for five years (analyzed in 2001 and seed stored for six years (analyzed in 2002 were investigated. The results of investigation have shown that seed stored up to two years had preserved its good production traits. Seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality traits, and seed stored over three years could not be used - its production traits (germination energy and total germination confirmed that such seed could not be used for planting. Seed stored over five years, regardless of storage conditions, had no qualitative traits, and therefore no value. It was also observed that longer storage duration induced decrease of seed mass. In regard to fractions, it was observed that smaller fractions lost their quality more quickly than medium fractions.

  15. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Celina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate over the dependent variables: seeds germination, seeds accelerated aging and the speed of seeds germination in soil, were investigated in a factorial scheme trial. The maximum processing time was 120 min. A totally randomized experiment evaluated and compared seeds germination and vigor of the coated and non-coated seeds. There was no identifiable, pronounced difference on germination of coated and non-coated seeds, accelerated aging of seeds, and speed of seeds germination in the soil. Coating with hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose in the spouted bed did not alter broccoli seeds physiologic quality. The surface of coated seeds presented satisfactory distribution and spreading of the polymer film, uniform and individual coating and homogeneous aspect.

  16. Peasant seeds in Europe: stakes and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bocci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The myth of technological progress in agriculture and then modern plant breeding have resulted in a separation of farming from breeding activities. Seed laws have also contributed to this outcome (e.g. by imposing strict rules for the entry of varieties in the official catalogue. Nowadays, some pioneers, among them farmers rejecting industrialized agriculture and more often practising organic agriculture, are proposing a different option. In Europe, since the beginning of this century, they have been organizing themselves in networks: the Réseau Semences Paysannes in France, the Red de Semillas in Spain and the Rete Semi Rurali in Italy. Their members are farmers, consumers and scientists working together in order to reconsider the scientific, technical and legal aspects of seed production. These new varieties are designated ‘peasant varieties’, a concept that encompasses two main aspects: the seed, the reproductive part of the plant linked to its terroir, and the variety, shaped by history and coevolved with farmers. Scientists working with these networks are developing participatory plant breeding projects, which aim to broaden agrobiodiversity by creating so called new peasant varieties. The basis of these projects comes from old local varieties and landraces conserved in seed banks. In Europe, the legal framework has evolved since the establishment of ‘conservation varieties’ by directive 98/95. The European research project Farm Seed Opportunities is under way to support new seed policies, in the light also of the different national contexts. The debate in Europe now offers a range of seed systems models. It is time to enlarge this debate to southern countries through the sharing of knowledge between farmers of the North and the South, aiming at conserving agrobiodiversity and promoting rural innovation.

  17. Monitoring of GM Soybean in High Categories of Seed on the Croatian Seed Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Hanzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has a long tradition in seed production for domestic use and for export. As an EU candidate country Croatia has harmonized its legislation with EU directives and therefore no GM soybean is authorized for cultivation. So far there is no record of introduction of GM soybean into Croatian environment; however there are earlier records of growing genetically modified soybean in the region. Aim of this study is to monitor current position in domestic seed market regarding genetically modified soybeans through substantial PCR screening for three lines: GTS 40-3-2 (Roundup Ready, RRS, A2704-12 (Liberty Link, LL and MON89788 soybean (RR2. Screening was performed on high category soybean seed that was certified for Croatian market in season 2010/2011. Total of 18 different varieties of soybean seed were tested and all resulted negative for the presence of the tested GM lines. This is the first such screening of Croatian seed market.

  18. Seed quality characteristics of Pinus halepensis – seed germination strategy and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Tsitsoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus halepensis is a Mediterranean tree species occupying areas of high tourist interest, where it forms aesthetic and recreational forests. However, intense human pressure, adverse climatic conditions and overgrazing degrade Aleppo pine forest ecosystems and render the natural regeneration of this species difficult. The ecological, landscape, recreational and soil conservation uses of P. halepensis along with its aesthetic value, make this species important for landscape planning and multi-purpose forestry. For these reasons, artificial regeneration may be required in order to render ecosystem restoration faster. Although P. halepensis is characterized by a high germination capacity and a constant temperature of 20 °C is considered optimal for germination, no research has dealt with the germination behaviour and early growth of seedlings under alternative temperature conditions similar to those dominating outdoors. Moreover, little research was conducted on seed quality characteristics of this species. Thus, in this study seed quality of P. halepensis was estimated by measuring purity, number of seeds per kg, weight of 1000 seeds, average seed weight, seed moisture content and percentage of empty seeds. Also, seed germination capacity, germination rate, percentage of infected and not germinated viable seeds, abnormal seedlings as well as the total seedling length were studied under laboratory (alternative temperature and chamber (constant temperature conditions with the same photoperiod. Results showed that the percentage of empty seeds and abnormal seedlings was extremely low and the total germination percentage was very high (87–90% in both environments. Germination capacity, germination rate and the total length of seedlings did not show any differences among the two growth environments.

  19. Study of dose deposition for different configurations of seeds OncoSeed 6711

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. lodine-125 brachytherapy seeds are presented as a form of treatment. In prostate cancer therapy 80-120 iodine-125 seeds are implanted in the organ following a previous planning. During positioning and after it, the implanted seeds can undergo slight displacements relative to the original position. These deviations may cause changes in dose distribution in the tumor volume. This work has made a dosimetry study for iodine-125 seeds used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the first stage, we performed a one seed dosimetric parameters study following the TG-43 protocol recommendations with the objective of validating our methodology. Then a quantitative study of the variation in dose distribution for three configurations of four seeds OncoSeed 6711 was conducted with two configurations using the seeds in symmetrical positions and the other presenting small displacements. A soft tissue phantom and TLD dosimeters were used. Then a qualitative study of isodose curves of the configurations was performed using radiochromic film, Gafchromic model. This method was used to complement the study of the crystals. The seed's dosimetric parameters obtained in this work showed excellent agreement with the TG-43 consensual values, thus validating the methodology used in this work. The results obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters have shown that there is a significant difference in dose distribution when there is a change in the positioning of the seeds. The use of these two methods simultaneously is efficient since the crystals bring a point view and the film has a global view of the dose distribution. (author)

  20. Characteristics of the Falling Speed of Japanese Orchid Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Syunsuke Kiyohara; Hirokazu Fukunaga; Shinichiro Sawa

    2012-01-01

    Orchid seeds, which are produced in abundance, are particularly small and light. Some orchid species are anemochorous, i.e., bear seeds that are dispersed by wind. To characterize the seeds of Japanese orchids, we measured the size of seeds and embryos of 68 Japanese orchid species. Most orchid seeds had a length of 0.3 to 2 mm and a width of 0.07 to 0.2 mm. Embryo length and width were 0.1 to 0.3 mm and 0.04 to 0.2 mm, respectively. Twenty-seven orchid species produced 1000 to 350000 seeds p...

  1. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-04-17

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention as a method for producing transform-limited pulses in the soft x-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality and impede production of transform-limited pulses. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  2. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S.; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L.; Bonnett, Graham D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1?months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  3. Relaxation and transport phenomena in corn seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudat, J.; Pissis, Polycarpos; Konsta, A. A.

    1997-06-01

    The low-frequency dynamics in cereal seeds has been studied by measurements of d.c. conductivity, thermally stimulated depolarization current techniques and by broadband a.c. dielectric spectroscopy with the aim to understand its relation to their biological behavior. Such a broad overall frequency and temperature range allows to investigate simultaneously the mobility of water molecules in seeds, influence of water on molecular mobility of seeds constituents and change mobility. Our results indicate, that water in seeds freeze for concentration higher than critical hydration, whereas for lower hydration it undergoes a glass- like transition. Temperature of this transition strongly depends on water content in the sample and shifts by seeds drying from 180 K up to room temperature. D.c. protonic conductivity increases sharply above glass transition temperature. Its dependence on water content indicates percolative transport of protons along threads of hydrogen- bonded water molecules with a percolation thresholding the range of 0.15-0.30 g water/g dry material. The biological implications of these findings will be discussed.

  4. Crystallization of seed globulins from legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, M; Schlesier, B

    1994-07-01

    Seeds contain large quantities of proteins and are therefore main food sources. In the last century, protein extracts of legume seeds were dialysed against distilled water and in some cases small crystals of pure protein appeared. However, those crystals were generally of poor quality with respect to X-ray diffraction. Recently, the crystallization of some of them was improved and the structures of two 7S globulins, phaseolin from Phaseolus vulgaris and canavalin from Canavalia ensiformis, have been determined at 3.0 and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. Efforts to improve the quality of the phaseolin crystals resulted in three new crystal forms which will be discussed in this paper. The only high-resolution X-ray analysis of a seed globulin from legumes is that of narbonin, a 2S protein from Vicia narbonensis. The crystal structure at 1.8 A shows a very compact packing in layers of molecules. The intermolecular contacts include salt bridges and hydrophobic clusters that might facilitate both the aggregation of the molecules and their crystallization. Because the seed globulins appear in large quantities in the protein bodies of the seeds, efficient packing of the molecules similar to the crystal packing can be assumed. PMID:15299427

  5. Possibility of Sweet Corn Synthetic Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thobunluepop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis in sweet corn has been reported by a number of workers. However, the knowledge maintaining storage life, vigor and viability of these somatic embryos are limited. A model system of synchronous somatic embryos production combined with encapsulation to synthetic seed was studied in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata. In this study immature zygotic embryo cultured on N6 medium, contained 2, 4-D 2 mg L-1 and sucrose 60 g L-1 form the embryogenic callus. Higher 2, 4-D levels did not show increasing in inducing embryogenic callus. If the concentration of 2, 4-D decreased globular-stage, somatic zygote form the roots. Somatic embryo develop without surrounding nutritive tissues and protective seed coat has been devoted to causing somatic embryos to functionally mimic embryo, then was encapsulated by 3% (w/v sodium alginate with 4-6 mm in diameter. It was found that when synthetic seed were treated with 60 g L-1 sucrose and stored at 15±2 degree Celsius for 2 weeks, the survival rate of synthetic seed were 44%, after 8 days of germination test, it was found that there were 91% of which were normal seedling and 9% were abnormal seedling. This result indicated that there is a possibility in sweet corn synthetic seed production. Anyhow, more research for better technique are further required.

  6. Scatter Hoarding of Seeds Confers Survival Advantages and Disadvantages to Large-Seeded Tropical Plants at Different Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprewicz, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate) enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis) and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although tradeoffs in seed survival do exist. PMID:25970832

  7. Importance of Seed Quality for the Fresh-cut Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2011-01-01

    Seed is the most fundamental input in vegetable production on, which the effectiveness of other inputs and outputs depends. If the seed is of poor quality, the use of other inputs is less successful and will occasionally be irrelevant. A definition of seed quality will depend upon the use for, which the seed is intended. Viability, vigor, uniformity, purity and health of the seeds are quality parameters important for all production systems. The ideal situation for both fresh produce and fresh cut would be seeds, which germinate uniform at a high percentage and subsequently grow relatively fast to the desired size, thus, resulting in leaves of improved quality. It is likely that such leaves will be more able to withstand the rigorous processing that includes harvest, transportation, washing, sanitization, de-watering and packaging. This ideal situation would both be determined by the mentioned properties of the seeds and to a large extend the variety of the seeds. The quality of a vegetable product is defined by the interaction of these factors including environmental factors as well as by management and technology. Novel, fast and non-destructive technologies for seed testing allow for new sorting possibilities of a seed lot. At present new initiatives using multispectral imaging and single seed NIR spectroscopy is being developed at AU for description of seed lots. Preliminary results on investigations of Pak Choi seeds are presented.

  8. Image analysis of moving seeds in an indented cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole; JØrgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2010-01-01

    The indented cylinder is used for sorting seeds. The seeds are physically manipulated in a way, such that sorting is based primarily on the length of individual seeds. Seeds are separated into at least two subsets: (1) seeds of a length a threshold (a scalar) and (2) seeds of a length the same threshold. The threshold is dependent on a number of different parameters. Besides the seed length, the rotation, general size, shape, and surface texture of each seed, are also known to influence the final sorting result. Such knowledge comes from previous experimentation with the indented cylinder. In our work we will seek to understand more about the internal dynamics of the indented cylinder. We will apply image analysis to observe the movement of seeds in the indented cylinder. This work is laying the groundwork for future studies into the application of image analysis as a tool for autonomous inspection in seed cleaning equipment. A prototype of an indented cylinder will be constructed. To make it more dynamic, the cylinder itself will be manufactured using 3D printing technology. The input will come either from 3D scans of existing cylinders or by defining their topology using parametric B-Spline surfaces. Using image analysis, the seeds will be tracked using a kalman filter and the 2D trajectory, length, velocity, weight, and rotation will be sampled. We expect a high correspondence between seed length and certain spatially optimal seed trajectories. This work is done in collaboration with Westrup A/S, Denmark.

  9. TGA Analysis of Rubber Seed Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorfidza Yub Harun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This project investigated the possibility of converting biomass wastes into solidfuels by undergoing torrefaction process. Rubber seed kernel was used toproduce torrefied material and the factors affecting torrefaction were investigated.Samples of rubber seed kernel were dried, ground, sieved, heated and cooled toobtain the torrefied material. It was found that minimum 30% of the moisturecontent was removed from its original value during torrefaction process. Almost100% of the calorific value in all the samples can be retained or increased by upto 10% from the original waste calorific value. The proximate analysis wascarried out using Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA where rubber seed kernelsexhibited high fixed carbon region at the respective temperature. At the optimumcondition of temperature 280°C and particle size of 0.025 mm, the torrefiedmaterial produced is viable to be promoted at a larger scale.

  10. Seeded hot dark matter models with inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratsias, John; Scherrer, Robert J.; Steigman, Gary; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We examine massive neutrino (hot dark matter) models for large-scale structure in which the density perturbations are produced by randomly distributed relic seeds and by inflation. Power spectra, streaming velocities, and the Sachs-Wolfe quadrupole fluctuation are derived for this model. We find that the pure seeded hot dark matter model without inflation produces Sachs-Wolfe fluctuations far smaller than those seen by COBE. With the addition of inflationary perturbations, fluctuations consistent with COBE can be produced. The COBE results set the normalization of the inflationary component, which determines the large-scale (about 50/h Mpc) streaming velocities. The normalization of the seed power spectrum is a free parameter, which can be adjusted to obtain the desired fluctuations on small scales. The power spectra produced are very similar to those seen in mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

  11. Mycoflora of commercial maize seed in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi?-Pap Sla?ana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear and kernel rots can reduce yield, quality and feed value of grain. Toxins produced by the fungi in corn can also have serious implications on the end use of the grain. Various fungi cause ear and kernel rots. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium are the most significant fungi which can cause corn ear and kernel rots. The aim of this paper is to test health of mercantile maize seed belonging to different hybrids. Seed health testing was done using filter paper and nutritive media (PDA method. Fungi from genera Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria were isolated from tested corn seed by both methods. Two species from the genus Fusarium were found in the tested corn samples F. graminearum and F. monilirome. Tested hybrids that belonged to different FAO maturity groups showed differences in susceptibility to ear and kernel rot.

  12. Laser treatment of greenhouse cucumber seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of laser irradiation of Sendra seed on growth and fruit bearing was ascertained in tests in 1984-1986. Helium-neon laser was used in seed irradiation. The variants was as follows: nil, 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. The trials were performed by the block method, 10 plants per recorded plot. Planting was effected in January. Theatment boosted total yield though negligibly. Sixfold irradiation resulted in 6.5% mean increase. February yields were low and almost equated by variants. The amount of fruit obtained from 4-fold seed irradiation went up in March. The yield was 10.3% higher compared with the check. This ratio persisted in the following months too. Sixfold irradiation yielded similar results

  13. Synchrony between fruit maturation and effective dispersers' foraging activity increases seed protection against seed predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C; Cerdá, Xim

    2007-10-22

    The evolution of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms is conditioned by the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of animals and plants. In the present study we explore the timing of seed release of a myrmecochorous plant (Helleborus foetidus) and ant activity in two populations in southern Spain during 2 consecutive years. The results indicate that fruit dehiscence and seed shedding occur mostly in the morning and correspond to the period of maximum foraging activity of the most effective ant dispersers. By contrast, ant species that do not transport seeds and/or that do not abound near the plants are active either before or after H. foetidus diaspores are released. Experimental analysis of diet preference for three kinds of food shows that effective ant dispersers are mostly scavengers that readily feed on insect corpses and sugars. Artificial seed depots suggest that seeds deposited on the ground out of the natural daily time window of diaspore releasing are not removed by ants and suffer strong predation by nocturnal rodents Apodemus sylvaticus. Nevertheless, important inter-annual variations in rodent populations cast doubts on their real importance as selection agents. We argue that traits allowing synchrony between seed presentation and effective partners may constitute a crucial pre-adaptation for the evolution of plant-animal mutualisms involving numerous animal partners. PMID:17698486

  14. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of the selectSeed 125I interstitial brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents experimental dosimetry results for the new selectSeed 125I prostate seed design for use with the seedSelectron afterloading device, in accordance with the AAPM advisory that all new low energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds should undergo one Monte Carlo (MC) and at least one experimental dosimetry characterization. TLD dosimetry was performed using 120 cylindrical LiF TLD type-100 rods calibrated using a 6 MV photon beam. They were irradiated in solid water phantoms for the experimental determination of the seed dose rate constant, radial dose functions and anisotropy functions. MC simulations were performed for the determination of the TLDs relative energy response that was found position independent and equal to 1.40±0.03, and for the calculation of the ratio of dose in liquid water to dose in solid water that was found to be well described by Dliquidwater/Dsolidwater=1.013*r+0.030 presenting only a minor dependence on polar angle. The selectSeed dose rate constant in liquid water was found equal to 0.938±0.065 cGy h-1 U-1, which agrees within experimental uncertainties with corresponding MC results of ?selectSeed=0.954±0.005 cGy h-1 U-1. The experimental radial dose and anisotropy function results were also found in good agreement with corresponding MC calculations

  15. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours). PMID:25590742

  16. The consequences of dioecy for seed dispersal: modeling the seed-shadow handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbuth, J C; Ilves, K L; Otto, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that clades of dioecious angiosperms have fewer extant species on average than those of cosexual (hermaphroditic and monoecious) relatives. Reasons for the decrease in speciation rates and/or increase in extinction rates are only beginning to be investigated. One possibility is that dioecious species suffer a competitive disadvantage with cosexuals because only half of the individuals in a dioecious population are seed bearing. When only females produce seed, offspring will be more spatially clumped and will experience more local resource competition than when every individual produces seed. We examine two spatially explicit models to determine the effect of a reduction in seed dispersers on the invasibility and persistence of dioecious populations. Even though dioecious females were allowed to produce twice as many seeds as cosexuals, our results show that a reduction in the number of seed dispersers causes a decrease in the ability of dioecious progeny to find uninhabited sites, thus reducing persistence times. These results suggest that the maintenance of dioecy in the presence of hermaphroditic competitors requires a substantial increase in relative fitness and/or a large dispersal advantage of dioecious seeds. PMID:11430648

  17. Evaluation of the Uptake and Accumulation of Metals by Some Commonly Irrigated Vegetables in Soils Treated with Different Concentrations of these Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haliru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of some trace elements namely, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead by some vegetables commonly irrigated were studied under glasshouse conditions. Experiments were conducted in plastic pots using some selected vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus and pepper (Capsicum annum grown on sandy loam soils treated with different concentrations of these metals. The treatments investigated include zero application (control, 10, 50 and 100 ?g dm-3 metal applications. In general, each plant showed similar growth responses and tolerance but different metal uptake patterns in the same metal contaminated media for eight weeks. The enrichment factor of each metal in the different parts of the vegetables was highly varied. However, the fruits of pepper were more enriched with these metals than the okra fruits. Despite the concentration of metals used, the plants were still capable of controlling the metal uptake, no matter the concentration of metal solution applied to the soil.

  18. Disentangling factors controlling fruit and seed removal by rodents in temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Garci?a-calvo, Ramo?n; San Miguel Ayanz, Alfonso; Gil Sanchez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Fleshy fruits fall on to the ground together with cleaned seeds previously ingested by primary dispersers, offering a wide range of fruits and seeds to the ground foragers. Although nutritional properties strongly differ between fruits and seeds, this different seed presentation (cleaned seeds versus seeds within the pulp) has not been addressed in seed removal studies. This study reports on the removal of fruits versus their seeds in five fleshy-fruited species in a temperate forest. We foun...

  19. Prolonged Seed Dormancy in Phyllanthus emblica L. Can Be Overturned by Seed Scarification and Gibberellin Pre Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. U. P. Mawalagedera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus emblica L. is an important constituent of Ayurvedic medicine and a fresh fruit species in the market in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it has a high potential to be established as a commercial fruit crop. The seeds of P. emblica are semi orthodox and exhibit a long dormancy period hindering the natural sexual propagation. Therefore, it still remains as an underutilized fruit crop in Sri Lanka due to its lack of quality planting material and poor propagation techniques. Long term dormancy also causes a big challenge in germinating seeds to create populations in breeding programs. In order to promote P. emblica from its underutilized status, what seems most feasible is to develop a method to break up the seed dormancy artificially. In order to do so, the methods of breaking the dormancy of P. emblica seeds have to be studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify a method to break up the seed dormancy of P. emblica. The seeds were extracted from 21 trees belonging to three different districts in Sri Lanka. The selected viable seeds were subjected to four different pre treatments: none treated seeds (i.e. control, seeds scarified, seeds scarified and treated with 1% gibberellin and seed coat removed and followed by seeds treated with 1% gibberellin. From the four treatments, seed dormancy was overturned with a germination percentage of 43% by the seed pre treatment where the seeds were scarified and treated with 1% gibberellin and no other pre treatment methods were successful in breaking the dormancy. This suggests that the natural germination potential of P. emblica seeds is very low and it can be overridden by seed scarification and gibberellin pre treatment.  

  20. Global analysis of gene activity during Arabidopsis seed development and identification of seed-specific transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Brandon H; Cheng, Chen; Bui, Anhthu Q; Wagmaister, Javier A; Henry, Kelli F; Pelletier, Julie; Kwong, Linda; Belmonte, Mark; Kirkbride, Ryan; Horvath, Steve; Drews, Gary N; Fischer, Robert L; Okamuro, Jack K; Harada, John J; Goldberg, Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Most of the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for controlling seed development are not yet known. To identify TF genes expressed at specific stages of seed development, including those unique to seeds, we used Affymetrix GeneChips to profile Arabidopsis genes active in seeds from fertilization through maturation and at other times of the plant life cycle. Seed gene sets were compared with those expressed in prefertilization ovules, germinating seedlings, and leaves, roots, stems, and floral buds of the mature plant. Most genes active in seeds are shared by all stages of seed development, although significant quantitative changes in gene activity occur. Each stage of seed development has a small gene set that is either specific at the level of the GeneChip or up-regulated with respect to genes active at other stages, including those that encode TFs. We identified 289 seed-specific genes, including 48 that encode TFs. Seven of the seed-specific TF genes are known regulators of seed development and include the LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC) genes LEC1, LEC1-LIKE, LEC2, and FUS3. The rest represent different classes of TFs with unknown roles in seed development. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion experiments and seed mRNA localization GeneChip datasets showed that the seed-specific TF genes are active in different compartments and tissues of the seed at unique times of development. Collectively, these seed-specific TF genes should facilitate the identification of regulatory networks that are important for programming seed development. PMID:20385809

  1. 7 CFR 201.47a - Seed unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...seed in planting practices and in commercial channels. The seed unit may consist of one or...

  2. 7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...taken from the separation of the kind, variety, or type considered pure seed and shall be counted without discrimination as to size or appearance. (b) When only a germination test is required and the pure seed is estimated or determined...

  3. Acclimatized Apparatus Enhanced Seed Germination in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji A. Abdullateef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana bertoni produces sweet glycosides with zero calorie and has strong health and dietary implications. With these properties, it has the potential to substitute sugar. However, poor seed germination in this plant constitute obstacle towards large scale propagation, thereby causing plant materials to be scarce and costly. High percent seed germination could be induced via simulation of favorable climatic environment. Thus, new protocols and prototype tagged ‘seed germination apparatus’, inclusive of conducive factors, were developed. Additionally, Seed viability level was also tested using 1 % tetrazolium chloride. ANOVA revealed significant differences between treatments at p < 0.05. The apparatus influenced high yield of about 67 % seed germination, while the viability test showed 69 % viable seeds. Acclimatized condition, owing to innovated seed germination apparatus, showed high impact on seed germination in stevia.

  4. Characteristics of the Falling Speed of Japanese Orchid Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syunsuke Kiyohara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Orchid seeds, which are produced in abundance, are particularly small and light. Some orchid species are anemochorous, i.e., bear seeds that are dispersed by wind. To characterize the seeds of Japanese orchids, we measured the size of seeds and embryos of 68 Japanese orchid species. Most orchid seeds had a length of 0.3 to 2 mm and a width of 0.07 to 0.2 mm. Embryo length and width were 0.1 to 0.3 mm and 0.04 to 0.2 mm, respectively. Twenty-seven orchid species produced 1000 to 350000 seeds per pod. Speeds of fall of 34 Japanese orchid species were examined in order to obtain insight into their seed dispersal ability. Falling speeds ranged from 4 to 30 cm/s. These results strongly suggest that seeds of Japanese orchids are also dispersed by wind and thus that most Japanese orchids are anemochorous species.

  5. Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh M. Moosa, Mamun Ur Rashid, A.Z.S. Asadi, Nazma Ara, M. Mojib Uddin and A. Ferdaus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenugraecum Linn on serum lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Administration of fenugreek seed powder of 25 gm orally twice daily for 3 weeks and 6 weeks produces significant (P<0.001 reduction of serum total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesteremic group but the change of serum HDL-cholesterol was not significant. On other hand, changes of lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients without fenugreek were not significant (P<0.001. The present study suggests that fenugreek seed powder would be considered as effective agent for lipid lowering purposes.

  6. Convective Drying of Rapeseed Hybrids’ Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Željko Juki?; Tajana Kri?ka; Milan Pospišil; Neven Vo?a; Bilandžija Nikola

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the water release from seeds of three rape hybrids, (‘Artus’, ‘Baldur’ and ‘Titan’), during the convection drying of the seeds at three different drying temperature (40, 60 and 80 °C). The drying was conducted in laboratory scale drier which can simulate the conditions of large drier. The air velocity in the drier was maintained at 1.0 m/s. Activation energy needed for starting the process of water release during the convective drying of o...

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF ADHESIVES IN SOYBEAN SEED INOCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Milakovi?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of soybean seed inoculation can be improved by application of substances increasing adhesion of inoculant to the seed. Higher initial inoculum in the soil is ensured in this way, which increases formation of higher number and mass of nodules and consequently produces higher yield. In this research effects of different adhesives on nodulation capacity and components of soybean yield has been investigated. The best result of the investigated parameters was obtained by sugar and honey application, while carboximethyl cellulose did not show similar influence

  8. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez, Javier; Andre?s, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultivar multolupa), dwarf chi...

  9. Breeding for Improved Seed Yield in Mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sadiq

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease resistant mungbean variety NIAB MUNG 92 showed tremendous impact for increasing the area and production of the country demonstrating genetic manipulation of economic traits. Large seed size and earliness had been introgressed into otherwise adapted genetic background. A series of high yielding elite lines having improved morpho-physiological characteristics had been developed. Out of these, NM 92 has been approved as NIAB MUNG 92 in November,1996 by the Punjab Seed Council for general cultivation in the province. The present paper reports the developmental history of NM 92 and its adoption by the growers to achieve sustainable mungbean production.

  10. Characterization of seed storage proteins and their synthesis during seed development in Olea europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Alche? Rami?rez, Juan Dios; Castro Lo?pez, Antonio Jesu?s; Rodri?guez Garci?a, Mari?a I.

    2001-01-01

    SDS-PAGE analysis showed that seed storage proteins (SSPs) in olive mainly consisted of two hydrogen-bonded subunits, Solea I (41 kDa) and Solea II (47.5 kDa). When reduced, Solea I and II yielded 3 and 2 disulfide-bonded polypeptides, respectively. N-terminal sequencing confirmed that both Solea I and II shared a high similarity with II S proteins. Additionally, time-course of protein synthesis in olive seeds was investigated from 25 days after anthesis (DAA) until seed ripening. Before 105 ...

  11. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded that amaranth seeds ,watermelon seeds and their flour can be incorporated in the preparation of different products as well as improve their nutritional composition.

  12. Seed morphology and anatomy of Hypericum elegans Steph. ex Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkudlarz Piotr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum elegans is a rare perennial distributed primarily in Central and Eastern Europe. Seed morphology and anatomy in H. elegans was studied on the basis of a seed sample from its only locality in Poland. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the seed coat of mature seeds is composed basically of 3 cell layers: epidermal, subepidermal and sclerenchymatic. They are documented graphically here.

  13. Evaluation of chicory seeds maturity by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ooms, David; Destain, Marie-france

    2011-01-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) seed production includes sorting to remove foreign materials and non-viable seeds. A machine vision system was developed to monitor the fluorescence in order to detect the immature chicory seeds. It comprised a monochromatic light source, a highpass filter and a monochromatic CCD camera sensitive to red and infrared. With this device, blue light reflected by the seeds was blocked whilst red fluorescence was measured by the camera. A segmentation a...

  14. Seed predation by nocturnal rodents in an African savanna ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Maxine F. Miller

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The small mammal community in Acacia savanna consists of three omnivorous nocturnal rodent species, Mastomys nataIensis, Saccostomus campestris and Aethomys chrysophilus, which eat varying proportions of seed in their diet. From a seed removal experiment, it was found that rodents preferentially selected Acacia tortilis seeds. The annual Acacia seed consumption by rodents in a South African savanna ecosystem was analysed by using estimates of rodent population densities, die...

  15. On the use of fungicides in ecological seed burial studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mitschunas, Nadine; Filser, Juliane; Wagner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for effects of saprophytic fungi on buried seed demography is usually obtained from studies involving the simultaneous burial of fungicide-treated seeds and of untreated seeds. However, any potential influence of fungicide treatment on seed dormancy levels is generally ignored in these studies. Also, some studies assume that a combination of several fungicidal compounds provides better protection against a broader range of fungi, ignoring chemical interactions that may potentially oc...

  16. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    OpenAIRE

    Neya, O.

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying and subsequent dry storage. Seeds col...

  17. Hares promote seed dispersal and seedling establishment after volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Nanae; Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

    2015-02-01

    Although seed dispersal through animal guts (endozoochory) is a process that determines plant establishment, the behaviour of carriers mean that the seeds are not always dispersed to suitable habitats for germination. The germinable seeds of Gaultheria miqueliana were stored in the pellets of a hare (Lepus timidus ainu) on Mount Koma in northern Japan. To clarify the roles of hares in seed dispersal and germination, field censuses and laboratory experiments were conducted. The field observations were conducted on pellets and seeds in four habitats (bare ground, G. miqueliana shrub patch, Salix reinii patch, and Larix kaempferi understory), and the laboratory experiments were conducted on seed germination with different light, water potential and cold stratification treatments. The laboratory experiments confirmed that seed germination began a few weeks after the sowing of seeds, independent of cold stratification, when light was sufficient and the water potential was low. The seeds did not germinate at high water potential. The pellets were gradually degraded in situ. More seeds germinated from crushed than from intact pellets. Therefore, over the long term, seeds germinated when exposed to light due to the degradation of pellets. The pellets were proportionally dispersed among the four studied habitats. More seeds sown in the field germinated more in shaded habitats, such as in the Gaultheria patch and the Larix understory, and seeds did not germinate on bare ground, where drought often occurred. Thus, the hares had two roles in the dispersal and germination of seeds: (1) the expansion of G. miqueliana populations through seed dispersal to various habitats and (2) the facilitation of delayed seed germination to avoid risks of hazards such as drought. The relationships between small mammals represented by the hare and the shrubs that produce berries are likely to be more mutually evolved than was previously thought.

  18. Weed seed predation in organic and conventional fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, S; Wratten, S D

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced biological control of weed seeds may improve sustainability of agricultural production. Biological control due to seed predation may be higher in organic fields because organic production generally supports more seed predators. To investigate such a difference, weed seed predation was studied in autumn in eight organic and eight conventional mixed cropping fields in New Zealand. Predation rates were estimated by observing removal rates of seeds of the annual weeds fathen or common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album) and Persian speedwell (Veronica persica). The seed losses were recorded at distances of 0, 3, 9 and 50 m from the field edge. The weed seeds were placed at the above distances on small dishes of finely sieved soil and sunk into the ground. Removal rates were recorded after 48 h. Seed predators were identified using video recording at an organically grown husbandry unit at Lincoln University and in two of the fields used for estimating seed predation. Recording of predators had therefore limited overlap with seed predation assays but was expected to give important information on key seed predators in the region. The mean seed removal rate was 17% in organic fields compared with 10% in conventional fields although variation was high. Significantly different removal rates between the two field types were found only 9 m from the field edge with approximately four times higher losses of fathen seeds in organic fields. There was also a strong tendency towards higher seed losses at organic field edges. Overall, there was no consistent effect of distance from the field edge. Vegetation had a significant influence on the predation rates, with maximum rates at a medium-dense plant cover. Based on the video images, birds were the most important seed predators. The higher weed seed predation rate in the organic fields indicates that there may be an economic advantage associated with the well-established trend that bird populations are generally higher in organic agricultural situations Udgivelsesdato: April

  19. The Effect of Osmo and Hormone Priming on Germination and Seed Reserve Utilization of Millet Seeds under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Asadi Aghbolaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed priming with osmo and hormone priming on growth and seed reserve utilization of millet seeds under drought stress. Treatments were combinations of 4 levels of drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar and 3 levels of seed priming and control with 3 replications. Results showed that with increase in drought stress, germination components such as germination percentage, germination index, mean time to germination, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed and seed reserve utilization efficiency decreased, but seed priming showed lower reduction. The highest germination characteristics and seed reserve utilization was obtained by priming in control conditions. It is concluded that priming results in improvement in germination components of millet in drought stress conditions.

  20. The Encyclopedia of Seeds: Science Technology and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed deteriorate during storage and the nature and kinetics of deteriorative reactions depend on seed traits and the relative humidity and temperature at which seeds are stored. Aging reactions are hypothesized to involve oxidations. The temperature-dependency of reactions are described by Arrheni...

  1. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) The...of individual noxious weeds present per unit weight...analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of...fruits of other noxious weeds that contain more than...the classification of weed seeds and inert...

  2. Changes in seed quality during fruit maturation of sweet pepper

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deborah de Souza, Vidigal; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos, Dias; Luiz Antônio dos Santos, Dias; Fernando Luiz, Finger.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding seed maturation are important to determine the ideal fruit development stage for harvesting in order to obtain high-quality seeds. Changes in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed quality were monitored during seed development in order to identify the stage of maximum quality of t [...] he seeds and the optimum harvest date. Fruits harvested from 20 to 75 days after anthesis (DAA) with step of five days were grouped according to maturity stage (green, yellow, red and intense red color outside). Before seed extraction, the fruit weigh, diameter and length were determined. Seed water content, seed dry weight, 1.000-seed weight, germination, first count, speed emergence index, seedling length, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests were performed. Mass maturity of the seeds was attained at 75 DAA, when seed water content was 47.3 % and the fruits were red. Sweet pepper seeds with high germination and vigour should be harvested when fruits are completely red outside, at 75 DAA.

  3. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427.174 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton...

  4. Spatial aspects of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in orchids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Malinová, T.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 176, ?. 2 (2007), s. 237-241. ISSN 0028-646X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : orchids * seed dispersal * seed germination * seed sowing technique * seedling recruitment * spatial analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.249, year: 2007

  5. Milkweed Seed Dispersal: A Means for Integrating Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbee, Gregory D.; Kaiser, Cheryl A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that integrates biology and physics concepts by experimenting with the seed dispersal of common milkweed or similar wind-dispersed seeds. Student teams collect seeds and measure several parameters, review principles of trajectory motion, perform experiments, and graph data. Students examine the ideas of…

  6. Computed tomography in the CSF seeding of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past three years nine cases of brain tumors with CSF seeding have been revealed by computed tomography (CT). We have been analyzing the CT pattern of CSF seeding, CSF cytology, and spinal metastasis. The brain tumors were classified as follows: five medulloblastomas, two glioblastomas, one germinoma, and one meningeal carcinomatosis. Their CT patterns were divided into three groups: 1) diffuse seeding of the basal cisterns. 2) invasion of the ventricular wall. 3) solitary metastasis in the ventricle. The subarachnoid seeding included four medulloblastomas and one meningeal carcinomatosis. The second type of seeding included two glioblastomas and one germinoma. One medulloblastoma had a single metastasis in the lateral ventricle. In the medulloblastomas, the diffuse seeding of the basal cisterns was more common than the invasion of the ventricular wall or solitary metastasis in the ventricle. Medulloblastomas were also accompanied by spinal metastasis. Because there were many cases of spinal metastasis in the first type of seeding, we concluded that there was a definite correlation between the CSF seeding of the basal cisterns and spinal metastasis. Needless to say, CT was the most important method for the diagnosis of the CSF seeding of brain tumors. However, because there was a case of CSF seeding which had not been demonstrated by CT, we also emphasized the importance of neurological examination and CSF cytology in the diagnosis of the CSF seeding of brain tue diagnosis of the CSF seeding of brain tumors. (author)

  7. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  8. Effects of maternal environment on cheatgrass seed dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the greatest advantages cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has is building large seed banks. Seed banks can persist during self dominance, post fire, post herbicidal control and healthy plant communities. There are numerous reasons a seed does not germinate, primarily being a lack of moisture. Howe...

  9. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Phoma valerianellae on lamb`s lettuce seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, A.; Koch, E; Stephan, D.; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Forsberg, G; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S. A. I.; Tinivella, F.; Wolf, J. M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify seed treatment methods for eradicating Phoma valerianellae from lamb`s lettuce seeds in organic vegetable production. Using seeds naturally infested with the pathogen, the effect of three physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and different agents of natural origin (micro-organisms, plant derived products, resistance inducers) was tested on moist filter paper, in seed trays under controlled conditions and in the field. In a...

  10. Assessment of seed quality parameters and effect of physical and chemical treatments on seed germination of Myriophyllum Spicatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Ahmad Wani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to understand the fruit and seed morphology, seed viability andeffect of various physical and chemical factors on seed germination allowing us to explore thespread potential and/or seedling recruitment mechanism in Myriophyllum spicatum L.. The fruit ofthe species is a schizocarp, while as seed is a nutlet. The seed set was recorded to be ranging from70.98-77.91% across the standing water populations, whereas no seed set was observed in runningwater populations due to the lack of an effective pollination system. The seed viability ranged from85-90%. For in-vitro seed germination studies, the seeds were subjected to different physical andchemical treatments under alternate light and dark as well as continuous dark conditions. Theseeds in control and those treated with different concentrations of GA3 and IAA and those whoseepicarp and mesocarp were removed did not show any signs of germination. However, it wasobserved that surgical exposure of the embryo (cutting of hard endocarp of seed has a promotereffect on germination and maximum percentage germination (76.66 ± 5.77 was recorded due tosurgical exposure of embryo plus different concentrations of GA3. Moreover, a good germinationpercentage was recorded in seeds subjected to chilling treatment. Further, it was observed thatseed germination of one-year-old seeds was less if compared to the current year seeds and overallpercentage germination was higher in alternate light and dark if compared to continuous darkconditions in all the treatments.Thus, we conclude that the dormancy of the seeds is due to thehard endocarp and that the light has a promoting effect on germination. With the increase in theage of the seeds, there is decrease in their viability and hence germination. The chilling wintertemperature of the Kashmir is responsible for breaking the hard endocarp of the seeds leading totheir germination and hence spread of the populations.

  11. The Novel Approach to Enhance Seed Security: Dual Anti-Counterfeiting Methods Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yajing; Wang, Jianchen; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Weimin; Zhu, Liwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR), rhodamine B (RB), and magnetic powder (MP) were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85)...

  12. SEED COTTON TRANSPORT ANALYSES USING GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin managers are under increasing pressure from state departments of transportation concerning seed cotton module transport. Module trucks are over height, width, and weight restrictions for most cotton producing states. Exceptions are allowed in many cases. Still, the module truck loaded with a mod...

  13. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-gl...

  14. A uterotonic substance from Annona cherimola seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X

    1980-01-01

    Water extract from seeds of Annona cherimola was tested in vitro on uterus strips of nongravid guinea-pigs. The extract resulted in possessing utero-constrictive properties due to the presence of a gluco-steroidal substance isolated from it. PMID:7211746

  15. INTERACTION OF SEEDS WITH VIBRATING SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petunina I. A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article we present the results of theoretical and experimental researches of physic-mechanical proper-ties of seeds of vegetable cultures and their interaction with vibrating surfaces of working bodies of sowing devices. The general view of the laboratory installation developed by the authors of the article has been presented

  16. Temperature control for seed cotton drying systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to validate the recommendations in ASABE standard S530.1, twenty tests were conducted during the ginning seasons of 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 to measure air temperature variation along various heated air seed cotton drying systems. The cooperating cotton gins were located in Texas, Arizona...

  17. Nitric oxide methods in seed biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous, free radical that is involved in many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Compelling evidence points to a central role for NO in the loss of seed dormancy. NO is highly reactive, toxic at high concentrations, and unstable. Methods f...

  18. Sequence characterized markers for flax seed authentication.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 37, ?. 1 (2009), s. 206-213. ISSN 0251-0952 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA521/03/0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : SCAR marker s * cultivar identification * flax seed Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.503, year: 2009

  19. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  20. Seed mutagenesis in Portulaca grandiflora (Hook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betalain pigments have been used as natural additives. Despite their importance, the biochemistry and genetics of betalain synthesis remain relatively undetermined. Portulaca grandiflora represents an ideal material for genetic analysis. In the present work, seed mutagenesis was examined with a view to enhance the chance of detection of new genetic markers in this species

  1. GENETICS OF SEED DORMANCY IN WEEDY RICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed weedy rice as an experimental system to investigate genetic and evolutionary mechanisms underlying seed dormancy, a key adaptive or domestication-related trait. Dormancy is very strong for most weedy accessions, strong for some traditional cultivars, and weak for modern cultivars, ...

  2. Influence of plasma treatment on seed germination.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Špatenka, P.; Šerý, M.; Hrušková, I.

    San Antonio : Drexel Plasma Institute, 2009, s. 46-46. ISSN N. [ICPM-II Second International Conference on Plasma Medicine. San Antonio (US), 16.03.2009-20.03.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : plasma * seed gernination * stimulation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  3. ?-Amylase from Starchless Seeds of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum and Its Localization in Germinating Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Garima; Kayastha, Arvind M.

    2014-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds do not contain starch as carbohydrate reserve. Synthesis of starch is initiated after germination. A ?-amylase from ungerminated fenugreek seeds was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 210 fold with specific activity of 732.59 units/mg. Mr of the denatured enzyme as determined from SDS-PAGE was 58 kD while that of native enzyme calculated from size exclusion chromatography was 56 kD. Furthermore, its identity w...

  4. Vacuum Seed Sowing Manifold: a novel device for high-throughput sowing of Arabidopsis seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Richard; Cox, Benjamin; Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Masson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The small size of Arabidopsis provides both opportunities and difficulties for laboratory research. Large numbers of plants can be grown in a relatively small area making it easy to observe and investigate interesting phenotypes. Conversely, their small size can also make it difficult to obtain large quantities of tissue for investigation using modern molecular techniques. Sowing large numbers of their seed can overcome this; however, their small seed size makes this difficult. Here we presen...

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN) SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA) SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta Rupa; Banik Jayanta

    2013-01-01

    The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya) seeds (CP) and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin) seeds (CM) were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P) and time for death (D) of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM) dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormi...

  6. Improving seed health and seed performance by positive selection in three Kenyan potato varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte-geldermann, E.; Gildemacher, P. R.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Selecting seed potatoes from healthy-looking mother plants (positive selection) was compared with common Kenyan farmer practice of selection from the harvested bulk of potatoes (farmer selection) in 23 farmer-managed trials. Positive selection assured lower incidences of PLRV (39%), PVY (35%) and PVX (35%). Positive selection out-yielded farmer selection irrespective of the agro-ecology, crop management, soil fertility, variety and quality of the starter seed, with an overall average of 30%. ...

  7. Differential Scanning Calorimetry as a Tool for Nondestructive Measurements of Seed Deterioration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, CV “Black Seeded Simpson”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to determine if changes in lipid phase behavior could be used to detect lost viability in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds. We used seeds from the cultivar ‘Black Seeded Simpson’ that were purchased every 2-3 years since 1989 and stored in resealable plastic bags at constan...

  8. Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi Pisa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control. During the second and third years the water content of the soil was monitored weekly, starting from just before the first treatment to harvest. These measurements indicate that the upper layers (0-20 cm, which are more subjected to evapotranspiration, are more affected by irrigations than the deeper layers (20-40. The effectiveness of irrigation treatments on seed yield was tightly dependent in the distribution of precipitations. The treatments applied in full or late flowering, both separately or together, determined significant increases in yield and in the percentage of seed balls with a diameter higher than 4.0 mm, whereas those at the beginning of flowering did not produced any improvements. No significant effects of the different treatments on 1000-seed weight and germinability were observed, except for a slightly negative influence of irrigations applied at the end of flowering.When all the traits were considered, an overall moderate correlation was detected between seed yield and quality.

  9. Chemical composition of selected edible nut seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2006-06-28

    Commercially important edible nut seeds were analyzed for chemical composition and moisture sorption. Moisture (1.47-9.51%), protein (7.50-21.56%), lipid (42.88-66.71%), ash (1.16-3.28%), total soluble sugars (0.55-3.96%), tannins (0.01-0.88%), and phytate (0.15-0.35%) contents varied considerably. Regardless of the seed type, lipids were mainly composed of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (>75% of the total lipids). Fatty acid composition analysis indicated that oleic acid (C18:1) was the main constituent of monounsaturated lipids in all seed samples. With the exception of macadamia, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the major polyunsaturated fatty acid. In the case of walnuts, in addition to linoleic acid (59.79%) linolenic acid (C18:3) also significantly contributed toward the total polyunsaturated lipids. Amino acid composition analyses indicated lysine (Brazil nut, cashew nut, hazelnut, pine nut, and walnut), sulfur amino acids methionine and cysteine (almond), tryptophan (macadamia, pecan), and threonine (peanut) to be the first limiting amino acid as compared to human (2-5 year old) amino acid requirements. The amino acid composition of the seeds was characterized by the dominance of hydrophobic (range = 37.16-44.54%) and acidic (27.95-33.17%) amino acids followed by basic (16.16-21.17%) and hydrophilic (8.48-11.74%) amino acids. Trypsin inhibitory activity, hemagglutinating activity, and proteolytic activity were not detected in the nut seed samples analyzed. Sorption isotherms (Aw range = 0.08-0.97) indicated a narrow range for monolayer water content (11-29 mg/g of dry matter). No visible mold growth was evident on any of the samples stored at Aw < 0.53 and 25 degrees C for 6 months. PMID:16787018

  10. Physical Properties of Hungarian and Common Vetch Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Taser, O.; Ebubekir Altuntas; Engin Ozgoz

    2005-01-01

    The physical properties of Hungarian and common vetch seeds were determined at moisture content of 11.57 and 10.3% d.b., respectively. The mean values of length, width, thickness and geometric mean diameter were 4.27, 4.03, 3.38, 3.86 mm, respectively for Hungarian vetch seed and were 5.11, 4.49, 3.83, 4.44 mm, respectively for common vetch seed. One hundred seed weights of Hungarian and common vetch seed were 4.33 and 5.88 g, respectively. The mean sphericity value was obtained as 0.91 for H...

  11. Picosecond supercontinuum generation seeded by a weak continuous wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally investigate the spectral details of a picosecond supercontinuum pumped at 1064 nm and seeded by a weak continuous wave (?20000 times weaker than the pulse peak power) at several power levels in photonic crystal fibers. Seeding at different wavelengths leads to different spectral details and the effects to the bandwidth of supercontinuum are also distinct. Spectra can be widened when seeded by a continuous wave at 1070 nm and narrowed by ? 100 nm when seeded at 1080 nm. The influence is enhanced by increasing the average seeded power

  12. Vigour evaluation of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata seeds of different age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard J. Górecki

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocksfoot seeds cv. Baza and Bepro, harvested in 1986, 1985, 1984, and 1983 and stored in a store-house were studied. Seed lots did not differ greatly in their viability. However, significant reduction in seed vigour due to natural ageing as measured by soil emergence, seedling growth rate, and ethanol and osmotic stress tests was noted. A conductivity test did not indicate vigour changes of ageing seeds, and its correlation with field emergence was poor. The methodical aspects of vigour evaluation of cocksfoot seeds are discussed.

  13. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Baydar, Nilgu?n Go?ktu?rk

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  14. Tracing of ant-dispersed seeds: A new technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for tracing the dispersal of seeds by ants is described. At a site in the Sierra Nevada Foothills, California, Cytisus scoparius seeds were hand-painted with coloured fluorescent paint, placed in seed depots and the place of relocation by ants was discovered at night using an UV lamp. The technique worked best in areas with sparse vegetation and little litter, whereas in dense vegetation it became too time-consuming. It is suggested that recovery of seeds would be much lower in habitats where vertebrate seed predation is common

  15. Czech Republic as an Important Producer of Poppy Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Smutka, L.; Procha?zka, P.

    2012-01-01

    Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum l.) is an important oilseed, whose cultivation has a long tradition in the Czech Republic. Poppy seed grown in the Czech Republic has good quality and, therefore, is preferred to poppy seeds in other parts of the world. The objective of this paper is to characterize the current position of the Czech poppy seed production and foreign trade in the world. Czech Republic is the main world producer of poppy seed and price maker of the European and world prices. With ...

  16. Condicionamento fisiológico de sementes de couve-flor / Priming seed treatment of cauliflower seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lúcia P, Kikuti; Julio, Marcos Filho.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos definir o procedimento para o condicionamento fisiológico de sementes de couve-flor e verificar a influência do potencial fisiológico das sementes sobre os resultados desse tratamento. Seis lotes de sementes, três da cultivar Sharon e três da cultivar Teresópolis Gi [...] gante, foram submetidos ao hidrocondicionamento entre camadas de duas, quatro e seis folhas de papel toalha e ao osmocondicionamento entre camadas de quatro folhas de papel toalha umedecidas com solução de polietilenoglicol 6000 (potenciais de -0,1 e -0,2 MPa). Em todos os procedimentos os teores de água foram ajustados para 32 e 38%, para a cultivar Sharon, e 34 e 41% para a cultivar Teresópolis Gigante. Os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a germinação e emergência das plântulas foram comparados à testemunha (sem condicionamento). O hidrocondicionamento entre quatro e seis folhas, até a obtenção dos teores de água mais elevados, beneficiou a velocidade de germinação (VG) e a de emergência de plântulas (VE), nas duas cultivares. Na cultivar Sharon a VG foi de 14,6 (testemunha) em comparação a 16,4 nas sementes hidrocondicionadas, para os lotes de maior e menor potencial fisiológico; paralelamente, os valores da VE aumentaram de 8,9 para 11,2 e de 7,8 para 11,6, nos lotes de menor potencial fisiológico. Para a cultivar Teresópolis Gigante, a VG e a VE foram favorecidas pelo hidrocondicionamento, independentemente do potencial fisiológico dos lotes (a VG aumentou de 16,4 para 21,4 e, a VE, de 9,5 para 13,5). Conclui-se que o hidrocondicionamento entre quatro e seis folhas de papel toalha, até a obtenção de teores de água próximos aos da emissão da raiz primária é favorável à velocidade de germinação e de emergência de plântulas em couve-flor e que o potencial fisológico inicial dos lotes pode influenciar a resposta ao condicionamento fisiológico, dependendo da cultivar ou histórico dos lotes. Abstract in english This research was conducted to define an adequate procedure for cauliflower seed priming and to verify whether the seed physiological potential affects priming results. Six seed lots, three of the cultivar Sharon and three of Teresópolis Gigante, were submitted to hydropriming between two, four and [...] six sheets of towel paper and to osmopriming between four sheets of towel paper moistened with polietilenoglycol 6000 solutions (-0,1 and -0,2 MPa potentials). In all priming procedures, the seed water content was adjusted to 32% or 38% for cv. Sharon and 34% or 41%, for cv. Teresópolis Gigante seeds. The effects of treatments on germination and seedling emergence were compared to unprimed control. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper was efficient to favor speed of germination (VG) and speed of seedling emergence (VE) in both cultivars when seeds attained 38% (cultivar Sharon) and 41% (cultivar Teresópolis Gigante). VG increased from 14,6 (control) to 16,4 (hydroprimed seeds) in cv. Sharon seed lots of higher and lower physiological potential; the same for VE that incresead from 8,9 to 11,3 and from 7,8 to 11,6 in seed lots of lower physiological potential. In seeds of cv. Teresópolis Gigante, hydropriming promoted increases in the VG and VE, independently of seed physiological potencial; VG values ranged from 16,4 to 21,4 and the VE from 9,5 to 13,5. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper, in which seeds attained moisture content close to the required for primary root protrusion is efficient to favor the speed of germination and seedling emergence of cauliflower seeds; the influence of vigor level on seed priming response is closely related to cultivar and seed lot management.

  17. Seed weight variation of wyoming sagebrush in Northern Nevada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos A., Busso; Barry L., Perryman.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed size is a crucial plant trait that may potentially affect not only immediate seedling success but also the subsequent generation. We examined variation in seed weight of Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young), an excellent candidate species for rangeland res [...] toration. The working hypothesis was that a major fraction of spatial and temporal variability in seed size (weight) of Wyoming sagebrush could be explained by variations in mean monthly temperatures and precipitation. Seed collection was conducted at Battle Mountain and Eden Valley sites in northern Nevada, USA, during November of 2002 and 2003. Frequency distributions of seed weight varied from leptokurtic to platykurtic, and from symmetry to skewness to the right for both sites and years. Mean seed weight varied by a factor of 1.4 between locations and years. Mean seed weight was greater (P0.05) in all study situations. Simple linear regression showed that monthly precipitation (March to November) explained 85% of the total variation in mean seed weight ( P=0.079). Since the relationship between mean monthly temperature (June-November) and mean seed weight was not significant (r²=0.00, P=0.431), this emphasizes the importance of precipitation as an important determinant of mean seed weight. Our results suggest that the precipitation regime to which the mother plant is exposed can have a significant effect on sizes of seeds produced. Hence, seasonal changes in water availability would tend to alter size distributions of produced offspring.

  18. Using population genetic analyses to understand seed dispersal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, J. L.; Trapnell, Dorset W.

    2011-11-01

    Neutral genetic markers have been employed in several ways to understand seed dispersal patterns in natural and human modified landscapes. Genetic differentiation among spatially separated populations, using biparentally and maternally inherited genetic markers, allows determination of the relative historical effectiveness of pollen and seed dispersal. Genetic relatedness among individuals, estimated as a function of spatial separation between pairs of individuals, has also been used to indirectly infer seed dispersal distances. Patterns of genetic relatedness among plants in recently colonized populations provide insights into the role of seed dispersal in population colonization and expansion. High genetic relatedness within expanding populations indicates original colonization by a few individuals and population expansion by the recruitment of the original colonists' progeny; low relatedness should occur if population growth results primarily from continuous seed immigration from multiple sources. Parentage analysis procedures can identify maternal parents of dispersed fruits, seeds, or seedlings providing detailed descriptions of contemporary seed dispersal patterns. With standard parent-pair analyses of seeds or seedlings, problems can arise in distinguishing the maternal parent. However, the use of maternal DNA from dispersed fruits or seed coats allows direct identification of maternal individuals and, as a consequence, the distance and patterns of seed dispersal and deposition. Application of combinations of these approaches provides additional insights into the role seed dispersal plays in the genetic connectivity between populations in natural and disturbed landscapes.

  19. Hydropriming Treatment of Rice Seeds With Microbubble Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Ikeura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In rice cultivation, seed emergence and seedling establishment tend to be unstable, and rice plants are likely to lodge during the ripening period in direct seeding, leading to an unsteady yield. Although the possibility of direct seeding in dry paddy fields is being re-examined from the viewpoint of reducing labor, unstable seed emergence and seedling establishment remain as challenges to be dealt with. Therefore, in order to improve unstable seed emergence and seedling establishment, we investigated the effects of hydropriming treatment of rice seeds with microbubble (MB-water which have effect on promoting plant growth, on emergence and early growth of seedlings. In soil with 50% moisture content, the emergence rate, seedling height, longest root length, aboveground dry weight, underground dry weight, chlorophyll content, and a-amylase activity in seeds primed with MB-water were remarkably higher than those in seeds primed with dechlorinated-water and non-primed seeds. However, no significant differences were observed among the seeds primed the same way in soil with 25% moisture content. These results demonstrate that the hydropriming treatment of rice seeds with MB-water promotes their emergence in soil with 50% moisture content. In near future, we need to investigate seedling emergence of other cultivars hydropriming treatment with MB-water.

  20. Biochemical changes associated to soybean seeds osmoconditioning during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRACCINI ALESSANDRO DE LUCCA E

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A work was carried out with the purpose of verifying the biochemical changes associated to soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill seeds osmoconditioning. Seeds of the UFV 10, IAC 8 and Doko RC cultivars harvested at R8 development stage and submitted to different treatments were used. The biochemical evaluations were performed during seed storage, after the hydration-dehydration process. Initially, seeds were osmoconditioned in a polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 solution, with the osmotic potential of -0.8 MPa and 20ºC, for a period of four days. After that, seeds were dried back until the initial moisture content (10-11% and stored in natural conditions for three and six months. Two controls were used: untreated seeds (dry seeds and water soaked seeds. Seed changes in protein and lipid, hexanal accumulation and fatty acids contents were evaluated. The results showed that seed storage under laboratory natural conditions caused reduction in protein, lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids content and promoted hexanal production. Storage periods reduced protein levels for all treatments, however the PEG 6000 treatment showed lower protein reduction. The soybean seed storage increased hexanal production, but hexanal levels were smaller with osmoconditioning comparing to the other imbibition treatments.