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Sample records for okra seed abelmoschus

  1. Nutritional evaluation of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proximate, functional properties, in-vitro multi enzyme protein digestibility and amino acid compositions of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds were evaluated. the ash, moisture, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate of the okra seeds were: 4.8%, 13.5%, 39.9%, 8.82%, 26.4% and 6.62%, respectively. the water and oil absorption capacities were: 220% and 200% which makes okra seeds exhibit a high water retention capacity. the least gelation concentration was 8% while, emulsion capacity was 45.5% and foaming capacity and stability were: 12% and 2%, respectively. the in vitro protein digestibility was 69.3%. glutamic acid was the most concentrated amino acid (121.1 mg/g crude protein) while, cystine (10.0 mg/g crude protein) was the least concentrated amino acid. the total amino acid was 706 mg/g crude protein. (author)

  2. Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

    2011-04-27

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (?23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ?30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus. PMID:21413797

  3. Micorrización de okra (abelmoschus esculentus l. en riego por goteo

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    Manuel Alvarado Carrillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA Glomus intraradices en la productividad de okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. var. ?Clemson Spineless? en condiciones semiáridas y bajo un sistema de riego por goteo. En 2002 y 2003 se comparó la altura de planta (AP, colonización micorrízica (CM y el rendimiento comercial de fruto (RCF, en plantas originadas de semillas, con o sin la inoculación micorrízica. En 2003 el riego fue con agua con alta concentración de sales (conductividad eléctrica de 3000 mS cm-1. En 2004 se evaluó el índice de clorofila (IC, la AP y el RFC, en plantas de okra de los tratamientos: semilla inoculada con el HMA, con fertilización química (120N-50P-00K, con la combinación del HMA en semilla más 50 % de la fertilización química y el testigo. En 2002 y 2003 se registraron incrementos significativos del HMA en CM y RFC, con relación al testigo. Con agua de riego salina en 2003, se observaron mayores valores de CM y RFC cuando se inoculó con G. intraradices. En 2004 los tratamientos no influyeron significativamente en IC ni en AP; no obstante, en RFC los tratamientos HMA, fertilización química y HMA más 50 % de fertilización, superaron al testigo. Los resultados muestran que G. intraradices aumentó el RFC de okra durante los tres años en el sistema de riego por goteo. El efecto benéfico de la simbiosis con el HMA como promotor del rendimiento de fruto de okra, combinado con el sistema de riego por goteo, pueden representar un manejo de producción eficiente para regiones semiáridas.

  4. Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. B, Adewole; A. O, Ilesanmi.

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from [...] the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p

  5. FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR DNA BETWEEN OKRA LANDRACES (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.

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    Naser M. Salameh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench, is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical as well as Mediterranean countries. The genome size of the Abelmoschus genus species is still rare. Ploidy determinations have traditionally been done by counting chromosomes of stained root tips, but this method is laborious and often difficult with species which have small chromosomes and high ploidy levels and can lead to misclassified. Flow cytometry has been widely used in various aspects of plant research, such as the determination of the DNA nuclear content. Nuclear DNA size of fifteen okra genotype was measured using flow cytometry. The data showed variation between Turkish genotype and Jordanian genotype. Genome size of okra ranged from 3.98 pg 2C-1 in Jordanian landrace to 17.67pg 2C-1 in Turkish landrace. The 2C genome size in Mbp ranged from 3897-17321 among Abelmoschus esculentus genotypes. Further studies is recommended to accurate chromosome count to be linked with the genome size.

  6. Association studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

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    Sateesh Adiger, G. Shanthkumar, P. I. Gangashetty* and P. M. Salimath

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken on 163 genotypes including 43 parents and 120 crosses of okra to determine the geneticvariability, nature of association among different yield attributes and their direct and indirect contribution towards yield. Fromthe analysis of variance, it was observed that mean squares due to genotypes were significant for all the traits, indicating thepresence of genetic variability in the experimental material. The values of PCV were higher than that of GCV values for all theten characters indicating influence of environmental effects in the expression of these characters. The GCV, heritability andgenetic advance as percentage of mean were higher for plant height, fruit yield per plant, fruit weight and days to 50 per centflowering which might be attributed to additive gene action of inheritance. The Fruit yield has significantly positive correlationwith plant height, number of branches per plant, inter nodal length, fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant at bothgenotypic and phenotypic level, indicating mutual association of these traits. Path coefficient analysis revealed that fruit weighthad maximum direct contribution (0.884 towards fruit yield followed by number of fruits per plant (0.852, plant height (0.024and number of branches per plant (0.020. However, days to 50 per cent flowering exhibited highest negative direct effect (-0.013 followed by test weight (-0.009 and fruit diameter (-0.003. These important traits may be viewed in selection programmefor the further improvement of okra.

  7. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Kumar Doreddula; Srinivasa Reddy Bonam; Durga Prasad Gaddam; Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu; Nadendla Ramarao; Vijayapandi Pandy

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus m...

  8. Synergistic Effect of Fungicides on the Incidence of Seed Mycoflora of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh, S.; Mashooda Begum

    2008-01-01

    Seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) variety Arka anamika were treated with 5 fungicides including Anucop, Bavistin, Captan, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax with different doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) and the combination Anucop + Bavistin, Anucop + Captan, Anucop + Vitavax, Bavistin + Vitavax, Anucop + Dithane, Bavistin + Dithane, Bavistin + Captan, Captan + Vitavax, Anucop + Bavistin + Captan, Anucop + Bavistin + Dithane, Anucop + Captan + Vitavax, Bavistin + Captan + Vitavax were ...

  9. Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B Adewole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR, NPK (IO, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY or no soil amendment as the control (CT] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05 higher nutrient uptake [N (0.0034 mg kg-1, K (0.0160 mg kg-1, Na (0.9753 mg kg-1, Ca (0.0130 mg kg-1 and Cu (0.01136 mg kg-1] in the okra roots than in the other treatments, yet the significantly (p < 0.05 highest uptake of P (0.0012 mg kg-1 was obtained with the MY treatment. Lower values of these nutrient contents were obtained in the shoots. The control treatment gave the significantly highest values of crude fibre (27.33% and total ash (14.05%, as compared to the other treatments, whereas the other nutritional properties obtained showed no significant difference among any of the treatments. The results indicated that high-quality okra pods could be effectively produced with no soil amendment when planted in soils with a high fertility, such as those treated with sewage sludge.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

    2014-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

  11. Characterisation of twenty-nine (29) accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of investigations were carried out to determine the genetic variability within 29 accessions of okra (Abelmoschus spp (L.) Moench) through characterisation using morphological, biochemical, nutritional and molecular markers. The goal was to obtain information on key traits of okra germplasm relevant to breeders and other researchers towards improvement of the crop. Twenty six (26) indigenous (landraces) and three (3) exotic accessions of okra were collected from eight regions of Ghana and their morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated under field conditions at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research fields using the International Plant Genetic Research Institute (IPGRI) descriptor list for okra. The 29 exhibited significant variation in all but two quantitative traits studied. Block coefficients of variation were extremely low, implying that results obtained are reliable and repeatable over replications. The 29 accessions were grouped into two major clusters and subsequently into five sub-clusters based on both quantitative and qualitative characters studied. The association between pairs of quantitative yield traits in the okra landraces revealed that flowering and fruiting parameters had significant (P < 0.01) positive associations. Factor scores of 12 characters contributed substantially to total genetic variation among the 29 okra accessions studied. The pattern of clustering did not show distinct association between morpho-agronomic characters and geographic origin of the collections. The output of the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that different characters contributed differently to total genetic variation. The means of maximum viscosity values for mucilage extracted from the fruits ranged from 53.0 - 366.8bu, with three accessions; DKA (366.8bu), Yeji-Local (329bu) and Amanfrom (316.8bu) recording very high values whilst Cape (53.0bu) had the least maximum viscosity value. There was low level of polymorphism detected among all accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The accessions, Atomic and Akrave were detected to have originated from a common ancestry. While there was high variability among Okra accessions for the amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and total antioxidant activity in the fresh fruits and the quantities were generally high making okra a good source of natural antioxidants. Ethanol extraction yielded better antioxidant activity than aqueous (water) solvent. The accession, Agric short fruit recorded the highest total flavonoid content (TFC) of 5159.21±12.90?g/g/QE while Cs-Legon had the lowest TFC of 2003.69±2.55?g/g/QE in the ethanol extract. On the other hand, Kortebortor-ASR registered the highest total phenolic content of 63.22 ±3.95?/g/GAE) while Volta had the lowest TPC of 6.82±0.09?/g/GAE in the aquous extract. Debo and Kortebortor-ASR recorded the highest (25.83±5.30?/g/GAE) and lowest (8.0±0.37?/g/GAE) Total Phenolics Content in the ethanol extract respectively. Nine essential mineral elements (sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, bromine, chlorine, copper, aluminium and manganese) were detected among all accessions using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). There was significant variation in concentrations of these elements found in fresh fruits of the accessions. There were strong positive associations between five pairs of elements contained in the fruits of the accessions of okra.(au)

  12. Screening of Fe-Deficiency Tolerance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Through Hydroponic Culture

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    Motiar RAHMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Screening for Fe deficiency tolerance in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Bangladeshi genotypes (‘BARI-1’, ‘Local variety’, ‘Orca Onamica’, and ‘Prince’ were studied based on different morphological and physiological parameters. Number of leaves, shoot height and weight were significantly reduced in ‘Orca Onamica’ and ‘Prince’, whereas ‘BARI-1’ and ‘Local variety’ did not show prominent decrease in the aforesaid growth parameters under Fe deficiency. Again, ‘Orca Onamica’ and ‘Prince’ showed significantly decreased root length and root biomass under Fe deficiency. In contrast, these parameters were unchangeable in ‘BARI’-1 and ‘Local variety’ in Fe shortage compared to controls. Furthermore, Fe deficiency caused severe decrease in chlorophyll (a and b and Fe concentrations in leaves of ‘Orca Onamica’ and ‘Prince’ grown on hydroponic culture. In contrast, chlorophyll (a and b and Fe concentrations were not significantly decreased in ‘BARI-1’ and ‘Local variety’ due to Fe deficiency. Based on these findings, tolerance to Fe deficiency in these okra cultivars can be categorized as: tolerant (‘BARI-1’ and ‘Local’, and sensitive (‘Orca Onamica’ and ‘Prince’. The ranking can be applied in plant breeding program and may have great advantage over conventional methods. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of hydroponic culture as an efficient method to screen Fe-efficient crop plants.

  13. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

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    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moenchwere studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248, P2(IC27826-A, P3(IC29119-B, P4(IC31398-A, P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819, P7(IC89976, P8(IC90107, P9(IC99716 andP10(IC111443 during mid kharif (July-October, 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819 and P7(IC89976 were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716, C17(IC27826-A × IC111443, C42(IC89976 × IC111443 were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443 and (IC27826-A × IC89819 having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize additive gene action to develop high yielding lines or varieties in okra.

  14. Genetic architecture of resistance to yellow vein mosaic and leaf spot diseases in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

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    P. Sindhumole? and P. Manju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis of four crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench viz., NBPGR/TCR-1498 x NBPGR/TCR-2060, NBPGR/TCR-2019 x Parbhani Kranti, MDU-1 x Varsha Uphar, NBPGR/TCR-985 x Parbhani Kranti was conducted for studying gene action of resistance to two major diseases viz., yellow vein mosaic (YVM and Alternaria leaf spot under Kerala conditions. Duplicate gene action was observed for resistance to both diseases, which indicated hindrance to improvement by simple selection. Hence reciprocal recurrent selection would be useful for the effective utilisation of both types of additive and non-additive gene effects simultaneously.

  15. Effect of Drip Irrigation Levels and Emitters Depth on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Growth

    OpenAIRE

    AL-HARBI, A. R.; A.M. Al-Omran; F.I. El-Adgham

    2008-01-01

    Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (Climson Spineless CV.) growth, rooting, yield and water use efficiency were evaluated in a field trial, where four irrigation rates at 60 (T1), 80 (T2), 100 (T3) and 120% (T4) of the estimated evapotranspiration (ETo) and four drip irrigation emitters depth: surface 0.0 m depth (D0), sub-surface at 0.15 m depth (D1), at 0.25 m depth (D2) and at 0.35 m depth (D3) were imposed following a split-plot in a randomized complete block experimental design with thre...

  16. Producción y tecnología de la Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) en el noreste de México / Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and technology in northeastern Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo, Díaz Franco; Jesús, Loera Gallardo; Enrique, Rosales Robles; Manuel, Alvarado Carrillo; Sergio, Ayvar Serna.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En México la okra es una hortaliza no tradicional cuya producción oscila de 4 000 a 7 000 ha anuales y rendimiento medio de 10 t ha-1, se destina para el mercado de exportación hacia Estados Unidos de América. Los principales estados productores son Morelos, Michoacán, Guerrero y Tamaulipas; éste úl [...] timo cuenta con la mayor área productora de 5 000 ha. Además de ser un cultivo generador de divisas y rentable, la okra representa una fuente de empleo. La investigación sobre el cultivo de la okra se inició afínales de ladécadade los ochenta. La calidad de fruto es determinante para su comercialización; se prefiere fruto de textura suave, de verdor intenso y de forma regular. El rendimiento de okra es mayor en suelos de textura franco arcillosos. Un problema para el establecimiento es el bajo nivel de emergencia de la okra que es atribuido a las bajas temperaturas del suelo en siembras tempranas (febrero). La fertilización foliar no tiene efecto en el rendimiento de fruto. La poda resulta atractiva ya que optimiza la producción de una sola siembra, al continuar con la cosecha después del término del ciclo normal. Algunos híbridos probados en la región muestran ventajas productivas con relación a la var. testigo 'Clempson Spineless'. La enfermedad de mayor impacto es el moteado amarillo de la okra transmitida por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Esta virosis ha sido la causa del abandono del cultivo en los estados de Guerrero y Morelos. El inadecuado control de la maleza en okra tiene efectos directos en el rendimiento, dificulta la cosecha e incrementa los costos de producción. Abstract in english In Mexico, the okra is a non-traditional vegetable cultivated in 4000 to 7000 ha annually with an average yield of 10 t ha-1; most of the production is exported to the United States of America. Main okra producer states include: Morelos, Michoacan, Guerrero and Tamaulipas. In this last state okra is [...] produced in up to 5 000 ha. Okra is a rentable vegetable crop that also promotes hand labor. Research on okra started in Mexico twenty years ago. Fruit quality is a key factor for okra marketing; soft texture fruits with intense green color and of regular shape are preferred. Higher okra yield are obtained in clay loam soils. A problem for crop establishment are the low soil temperatures that causes low okra emergence in early plantings. Foliar fertilization has not being effective to increase yields. Pruning is a promising practice because its optimizes crop yields by extending the crop season. Some okra hybrids tested in the region show productive advantages in relation to the traditional cultivar 'Clemson Spineless'. The most important disease is yellow mottled virus, transmitted by whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). This virus has caused the abandonment of the okra crop in the states of Guerrero and Morelos. Ineffective weed control in okra has deleterious effects on yield, increases production cost and difficults harvest.

  17. Effect of Drip Irrigation Levels and Emitters Depth on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Al-Harbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (Climson Spineless CV. growth, rooting, yield and water use efficiency were evaluated in a field trial, where four irrigation rates at 60 (T1, 80 (T2, 100 (T3 and 120% (T4 of the estimated evapotranspiration (ETo and four drip irrigation emitters depth: surface 0.0 m depth (D0, sub-surface at 0.15 m depth (D1, at 0.25 m depth (D2 and at 0.35 m depth (D3 were imposed following a split-plot in a randomized complete block experimental design with three replications in 2005 and 2006 seasons. Vegetative growth characters (plant height, number of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weight, rooting (weight, length, width and root/shoot ratio, early and total yields were measured. Marketable Total Yield (MTY increased significantly with the increase of irrigation level in both seasons. MTY for T3 treatments were 14.32 t ha-1 in 2005 and 10.29 t ha-1 in 2006 and for D1 treatments were 10.8 t ha-1 in 2005 and 9.75 t ha-1 in 2006 season. The Crop Water Use Efficiency (CWUE ranged from 1.45-2.93 kg m-3 and 1.29-2.43 kg m-3 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. MTY increased significantly as emitter depth increases from surface to 0.35 m in both seasons. Crop Water Production Function (CWPF was done on the results. It reflects the beneficial of applied water in increasing yield. The CWPF was represented by quadratic polynomial equations.

  18. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200?mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable. PMID:25401145

  19. Decontamination of sliced and powdered okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and some aspects of nutrient quality before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food security in Africa is crucial for survival of the increasing population. However, agricultural produce in the field are drastically reduced along the food pipeline (from farm gate to the consumer's table) by bioderioagents including microorganisms. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is one such farm produce of economic importance in Ghana with a great potential of providing essential nutrients and vitamins in our diet. The high moisture content of the fresh fruit makes it susceptible to microbial deterioration in a short time. Dehydration methods (sun-drying and solar drying) are practiced worldwide but in Africa, this is attended by contamination by aeromycoflora and other agents such as insect eggs and larvae. In addition are physical and chemical contaminants. In this thesis, the mycoflora and Total Aerobic Bacteria load of market samples and solar-dried okra (Clemson spineless and Legon Finger) chips and powder were ascertained with the view to documenting toxin-producing fungal species and update the resident mycoflora and bacteria load. Insects resident in the samples were detected by the hidden infestation technique; mycoflora was determined by the decimal serial dilution method on different media and Total Aerobic Bacteria population was determined on Plate Count Agar at 320C for 48hr. In order to establish storage stability of the okra, the chips and powdered samples were placed in glass desiccators with glycerol: water mixtures providing Environmental Relative Humidities of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95% representative of the Ghanaian Tropic Conditions to undergo sorption at the same temperature. Gamma irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 20kGy) were used as a preservation process to decontaminate resident mycoflora and total aerobic bacteria. This was supplemented by an in vitro study in the radio-resistance of six selected resident fungi (Aspergillus; Penicllium spp). The veracity of the dry okra supporting growth of selected Aspergillus and Penicillium species was carried out in liquid cultures (okra meal broth and okra meal broth amended with glucose) using the conventional oven dry weight method at 300C for 5 days. The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in an artificially inoculated 'black' and 'white' market samples of okra powder was studied using the current Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) to quantify aflatoxins with post column derivatisation (PCD) involving bromination. Elemental composition (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Na, K, Ca, Fe) was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Flame Photometer methods. A Bench Nuclear Magnetic Resonance equipment determined percentage moisture and fat concurrently; crude protein was ascertained by the Kjeldahl method, total ash was determined by the dry ashing method using Carblolite Eurotherm CW Furnace. Vitamin C was determined by the AOAC (2000) Iodometric Titration method and pH was estimated by AOAC (2000) method, while Brabender Viscograph measured viscosity of powdered samples of okra and Brookfield Viscometer was employed for the okra chips. Colour change was determined on L*a*b* system using a Minolta CR-30 Chromameter. The chips of Clemson spineless and Legon finger as well as the 'black' and 'white' okra powder were hygroscopic and equilibrated at 20-95% ERH with 6-8 days. Samples were visibly mouldy after 6-10 days and harboured a miscellany of fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pullularia, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Rhodotorula sp). Potential toxin-producing fungi (A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. sulphureus, P. digitatum, P. citrinum, P. brevicompactum, F. verticillioides, P. expansum) variably contaminated the samples. The Cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricone was recorded for the first time in 'white' okra powder but not the remaining samples. The insect showed mycophagy, ingesting spores of the Mucorales. The okra fruit was a good medium for vegetative growth of the resident fungi. A dose of 10kGy significantly (p?0.05) eliminated resident mycoflora and reduced

  20. 'Anjitha'- A new okra variety through induced mutation in inter specific hybrids of Abelmoschus SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on inter specific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional combination breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistant genes and wild character of A. manihot. The present study envisaged the breaking of undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (10, 20, 30 and 40 kRad) of F1 seeds obtained by inter specific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluation and selection of high yielding YVM resistant types from the segregating generations till F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of gamma rays. The mutated hybrids and the wild parent showed complete resistance to YVM disease incidence which was confirmed through grafting trials. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more number of leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 20 kR while fruit yield was maximum in 40 kR due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 30kR which suggested that 30 kR could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Thirteen superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to three Comparative Yield Trials (CYT). Culture AE18 out yielded the others in CYTs and Farm trials and was released as 'Anjitha' by the XXIII State Seed Sub Committee during 2006 for cultivation in Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

  1. Anjitha - A New Okra Variety through Induced Mutation in Interspecific Hybrids of Abelmoschus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on interspecific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistance genes and the wild character of A. manihot. This study was aimed at breaking this undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (100 200, 300 and 400 Gray) of F1 seeds obtained by interspecific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluating and selecting high yielding YVM resistant types from the generations segregating until F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of Gamma-rays. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 200Gy, while fruit yield was maximum in 400Gy due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease-resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 300Gy which suggested that 300Gy could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to CYTs and farm trials. Cultivar AE18 outyielded the others and was released as 'Anjitha' during 2006, for cultivation in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM-resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity in okra (abelmoschus esculentus l.) using rapd markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty nine okra genotypes were assessed for genetic variability using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Twenty polymorphic RAPD primers amplified 111 DNA fragments, with an average of 5.5 fragments per primer. Among 39 okra genotypes, 107 fragments (96%) were found to be polymorphic. The UPGMA cluster analysis placed okra genotypes into seven main clusters. Sabzpari 2001 and Acc. No. 019221 had shown maximum similarity (83%) while the minimum similarity (44.14%) was observed between the genotypes Punjab Selection and Acc. No. 019217. Thus, by using RAPD primers a considerable polymorphism appeared to exist, which showed genetic variability in the okra genotypes. (author)

  3. Genetic diversity revealed by morphological traits and ISSR markers in 48 Okras (Abelmoschus escullentus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cong-Ying; Wang, Ping; Chen, Pang-Pang; Xiao, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Cheng; Hu, Shuai; Zhou, Ping; Chang, Hong-Ping; He, Zhuang; Hu, Rong; Lu, Xiu-Tao; Ye, Jia-Zhuo; Guo, Xin-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Okra is a widely distributed crop in the tropics, subtropics, and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Its major potential uses as a vegetable, oil and protein source, and source of paper pulp and fuel, or biomass are compatible. It is expected to have high value of exploitation and application. Due to the limited number of molecular studies focused on okras, the methods of morphological and ISSR markers were used to analysis the genetic diversity of 48 okras in the present study. The 22 primers were picked for ISSR-PCR, and a total of 154 fragments were amplified with an overall average polymorphism of 54.55 %. We used the 154 markers to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). A high level of genetic diversity was found among 48 individuals. The 48 Okras was divided into four clusters at Dice's coefficient of 0.19 with clustering analysis. Based on these data of the genetic diversity, it will be possible to exploit the available resources of okra in more valuable ways. PMID:26261400

  4. The effects of color plastic mulches and row covers on the growth and yield of okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench'Clemson Spineless'] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in shorter, AL. Okra was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (3...

  5. Genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra (abelmoschus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of salt tolerant plants through selection and breeding depends on the presence of the genetic variability within the crop species in response to salt stress, which must have significant genetic component. Such information is not extensively available in vegetable crops. The present study was carried out to gain some information on the genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra. North Carolina Mating Design II (NCM II) was used for the estimation of genetic components of variation in the traits affecting salinity tolerance. The inheritance of the traits affecting salinity tolerance at the seedling stage appeared to be controlled by both additive and non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis). The narrow sense heritability estimates ranged from 40 to 65% and 7 to 70% and the estimates of broad sense heritability ranged from 65 to 99% and 20 to 99% for absolute and relative values. The additive effects were relatively more prominent and narrow sense heritability was moderate. The high additive component for absolute Na/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio at 60 and 80 mM NaCl, relative Na+ at 80 mM NaCl suggested that improvement for salinity tolerance in okra would be possible on the basis of these characteristics through selection and breeding. The genetic variation for tolerance to NaCl salinity existed among the okra genotypes, which had considerable heritable component and, therefore, genetic improvement of okra genotypes for salinity tolerance through recurrent selection method is possible. (author)

  6. Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) / Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thirupathi, Reddy Medagam; Haribabu, Kadiyala; Ganesh, Mutyala; Begum, Hameedunnisa.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de heterosis podría ayudar en la selección de cruzas heteróticas para la explotación comercial de híbridos F1 de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Cuarenta y cinco F1s fueron desarrolladas cruzando 10 líneas elite de gombo: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398- [...] A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) y P10(IC111443), en forma de medio dialelo durante el verano 2009. Todas las 45 F1s junto con sus 10 padres y un control estándar (Híbrido de Mahyco N° 10) fueron evaluadas en un diseno de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones durante kharif temprano (junio a septiembre) 2009 en la Estación de Investigación de Vegetales, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, para heterosis de la producción de gombo y sus componentes. La significancia de cuadrados medios debida a genotipos reveló la presencia de variabilidad genética considerable entre el material estudiado para casi toda la producción y atributos de producción excepto la altura de planta. La heterosis media total entre los padres y control estándar para la producción total por planta fue 6,92 y -15,44%, respectivamente, mientras para la producción comerciable por planta fue 6,64 y el -22,18%, respectivamente. Cruzas negativamente heteróticas como C19(P3XP5) para días a 50% floración (-4.35%) y C4(P1XP5) para primera floración y nudos fructíferos (-15,22%), respectivamente, son importantes para explotar heterosis de precocidad en quingombó. Las cruzas con heterosis estándar no significativa en cualquier dirección dada para producción total por planta C42, C31, C35, C25, y C36 (8,6; -0,08; -2,61; -3,26; y -4,57%, respectivamente) y producción comerciable por planta C42, C31, y C36 (-5,87; -6,56, y -10,54%, respectivamente), fueron estadísticamente iguales con el control estándar para rendimiento medio y fueron tan prometedoras como aquellas del control estándar. El híbrido F1 C42(P7XP10) con alto potencial de rendimiento tiene potencial para cultivo comercial después de evaluación adicional para la temporada kharif temprana. Abstract in english The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC8 [...] 9819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Mahyco Hybrid N° 10) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates during early kharif (June to September) 2009 at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, for heterosis of yield and its components of okra. Significance of mean squares due to genotypes revealed the presence of considerable genetic variability among the material studied for almost all yield and yield attributes except plant height. The overall mean heterosis over mid parent and standard control for total yield per plant was 6.92 and -15.44%, respectively, while for marketable yield per plant were 6.64 and -22.18%, respectively. Negatively heterotic crosses like C19 (P3XP5) for days to 50% flowering (-4.35%) and C4(P1XP5) for first flowering and fruiting nodes (-15.22%), respectively, are important to exploit heterosis for earliness in okra. The crosses with non-significant standard heterosis in any given direction for total yield per plant C42, C31, C35, C25, and C36 (8.63, -0.08, -2.61, -3.26, and -4.57%, respectively) and marketable yield per plant C42, C31, and C36 (-5.87, -6.56, and -10.54%, respectively), were statistically on par with the standard control in their mean performance and are found to be as promising as that of the standard control. The F1 hybrid C42(P7XP10) with high yield potential has the potential for commercial cultivation after further evaluation for early kharif season.

  7. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

  8. Advances in breeding of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Okra, an important vegetable of the tropics and sub-tropics is very popular in India. Its production is limited by 'yellow vein mosaic virus'. Advances in breeding for resistance to this virus have been made through inter-specific hybridisation as well as mutagenesis. Hybridisation used A. manihot ssp. manihot and ssp. tetraphyllus. New varieties showed 87-146% yield increases over older virus susceptible varieties. The number of fruits increased by 13-30%, virus incidence decreased by 84-99%. An EMS induced mutant 'EMS8' showed a yield increase of 107%, a fruit number increase of 16% and a disease decrease of 99%. The mutant also carries a good amount of resistance to the fruit borer; infestation decreased by 46%. The mutant is the best among the tested varieties for canning, is suitable for dehydration, and can be stored prepacked at room temperature for 6 days. (author)

  9. Effect of Seed Treatment on the Incidence of Seed-borne Diseases of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Anam; G.A. Fakir; K. M. Khalequzzaman; M. M. Hoque; Abdur Rahim

    2002-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to know the effect of seed treatment on the incidence of seed-borne fungal diseases and on production of seed yield of okra. The lowest germination (95.0%) was recorded in unclean farmer`s seeds; while highest germination (99.0%) was recorded in Vitavax-200 treated seeds followed by clean apparently healthy seeds (98.5%). Seed-borne fungal diseases of okra in the field, five diseases viz. Foot and root rot, Anthracnose and die-back, Cercospora leaf spot, Corynespo...

  10. Yellow vein mosaic virus resistant hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nirosha, P. Irene Vethamoni and V. A. Sathiyamurthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven parents and 42 hybrids of okra were screened for resistance/susceptibility to yellow vein mosaic virus. The parents P1 (AE 64 (White, P2 (AE 64 (Pink and P4 (AE 65 (Pink were found complete resistance to disease. The parents P3 (AE 65 (White, P6 (AE 70 (White and P7 (AE 71 (White were found tolerant to disease. The parent P5 (AE 66 (Pink found susceptible to disease. 42 hybrids are obtained by crossing seven parents in diallel design. Twelve out of 42 hybrids did not show any symptom of YVMV and were P1 x P2, P1 x P3, P1 x P4, P1 x P5, P1 x P7, P2 x P1, P2 x P4, P4 x P1, P4 x P2, P4 x P3, P4 x P5 and P4 x P7. Eight hybrids viz., P2 x P3, P3 x P1, P3 x P2, P3 x P4, P4 x P6, P5 x P1, P6 x P4 and P7 x P4 were highly resistant to the YVMV disease with the incidence of 7.14, 3.57, 7.14, 7.14, 7.14, 3.57, 3.57 and 3.57 per cent respectively at 105 DAS.

  11. Genetic analysis for fruit yield and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Akotkar and D. K. De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The components of gene effects for yield and its components in okra were studied using generation mean analysis from six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 derived from six different genotypes. Joint scaling test was applied to detect the presence of epistasis. Epistasis was detected in both the cases. Prevalence of duplicate type of epistasis was observed in all the cases except number of fruits/ plant, fruit length in C1 (IC 3307 x IC 433645, fruit diameter, inter node length in C2 (IC- 43736 x Parbhani Kranti, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit weight in C3 (IC-342075 X IC-332453. Additive, dominance and epistatic gene effects contribute significantly to the inheritance of various yield characters studied. The joint scaling test confirmed the inadequacy of the additive dominance model in most of the crosses for majority of the characters and indicated the presence of epistasis. Low narrow sense heritability values for most of the characters indicating that these characters are more influenced by the environment and they cannot be improved by simple selection.

  12. Gene action and combining ability of yield and its components for late kharif season in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Medagam, Thirupathi Reddy; Kadiyala, Hari Babu; Mutyala, Ganesh; Hameedunnisa, Begum; Jampala, Dilipbabu; Reddivenkatagari Subbarama, Krishna Reddy.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic system controlling the quantitative traits is important for devising an efficient selection program through the use of a suitable mating design. Forty five Fis were generated by crossing 10 germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) namely P1(IC282248), P2( [...] IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443) during summer 2009. Forty five F1s along with their 10 parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates during late kharif (August-November) 2009 at Vegetable Research Station, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, for studying gene action and combining ability of yield and its components. Significant general combining ability and specific combining ability variances were obtained in majority of the traits except fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots; implying that both the additive and non-additive gene effects operated in the genetic expression of the traits. The relative magnitude of general and specific combining ability variances indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for majority of the characters studied except number of branches per plant and fruit width. Combining ability analysis of parents revealed that the parental lines P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819) and P7(IC89976) were superior general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and other traits. The crosses C23(IC29119-B x IC99716), Cn(IC27826-A x IC111443), C42(IC89976 x IC111443) and C43(IC90107 x IC111443) were superior specific combiners for total as well as marketable yield per plant with the potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The crosses C17 (IC27826-A x IC111443) and C42(IC89976 x IC111443) involving one or both of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects for marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding.

  13. Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seed and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nzikou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1 (Blye and Dyer.The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet to 21.98%(Blye & Dyer. The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters,unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differential scanning calorimetry w eredetermined. Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds have ash content of 5.68% (with the presence of followingminerals: Ca, M g, K and N a. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especiallyoleic (up to 24.89% and linoleic (up to 42.78%. Abelmoschus esculentus L. oil can be classified in theoleic-linoleic acid group. The dominant saturated acid w as palmitic (up to 25.79%. Abelmoschus esculentusL. seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (24.85%. The content of insaponifiables is1.53%. Taking into account these results, the gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. finds its applications in thefood and cosmetic industry.

  14. Effect of Diazotrophs and Chemical Fertilizers on Production and Economics of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus, L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Barnali Mal; Premananda Mahapatra; Santanu Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    The effect of diazotrophs and chemical fertilizers on yield attributing characters and economics of okra cultivation was evaluated. Application of highest dose of NPK @100% in combination with vermicompost (5 t ha-1) and biofertilizers with FYM increased the fruit yield of okra (cultivar Mahyco-10) considerably with yield varying between 80.00 q ha-1 to 227.13 q ha-1 and 80.49 q ha-1 to 229.62 q ha-1 during 2010 and 2011 respectively. In okra cv. Utkal Gaurav ...

  15. Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seed and Oil

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Nzikou

    2010-01-01

    Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet) and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1) (Blye and Dyer).The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet) to 21....

  16. Effect of Seed Treatment on the Incidence of Seed-borne Diseases of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Anam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to know the effect of seed treatment on the incidence of seed-borne fungal diseases and on production of seed yield of okra. The lowest germination (95.0% was recorded in unclean farmer`s seeds; while highest germination (99.0% was recorded in Vitavax-200 treated seeds followed by clean apparently healthy seeds (98.5%. Seed-borne fungal diseases of okra in the field, five diseases viz. Foot and root rot, Anthracnose and die-back, Cercospora leaf spot, Corynespora leaf spot and leaf blight, respectively caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum dematium, Cercospora abelmoschi, Corynespora cassiicola and Macrophonina phaseolina were recorded. The incidence of five seed-borne diseases have been found to be reduced by the use of seeds treated with Vitavax-200 and clean apparently healthy seeds. Vitavax-200 treated seeds as well as clean apparently healthy seeds increased the seed yield by 21.62 and 15.31%, respectively, over the unclean farmers` seeds.

  17. Effect of Monocrotophos and Methamidophos on Jassid, Amrasca devastans
    (Distant in Different Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two commonly used insecticides, Methamidophos 60SL @ 1000ml/ha and Monocrotophos 40WSC @ 1500 ml/ha were evaluated on Amrasca devastans L. during 1999 on Pusa Swani, Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma okra varieties. Both insecticides provided effective control of Jassid and kept the population below economic threshold level up to ten days after insecticidal application. However, Methamidophos 60SL proved better on Pusa Swani as compared to Monocrotophos 40WSC, which decreased jassid population on Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma, respectively.

  18. Diferenciação de lotes de sementes de quiabo pelo teste de envelhecimento acelerado / Differentiation of seeds lots of okra by accelerated aging test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salvador Barros, Torres; Francisca Gleiciane da, Silva; Maryjane Diniz de Araújo, Gomes; Clarisse Pereira, Benedito; Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra, Pereira; Edvan Costa da, Silva.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os testes de germinação e de vigor são componentes essenciais do processo de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes, e o teste de envelhecimento acelerado é um dos mais utilizados para avaliação do vigor de sementes. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar a metodolog [...] ia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, visando à identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Para isso, quatro lotes de sementes da cultivar 'Colhe Bem' e cinco lotes da cultivar 'Santa Cruz 47' foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: germinação, emergência de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e em solução saturada com NaCl (38 e 41ºC durante 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas) e grau de umidade no início dos testes e após a incubação para o teste de envelhecimento acelerado. Os testes de envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e em solução saturada com cloreto de sódio, a 41ºC durante 96 horas, constituem em opções promissoras para detectar diferenças de vigor entre lotes de sementes de quiabo. Abstract in english The vigor and germination tests are essential components of seed quality control for the seed industry. Accelerated aging is one for the most useful tests used for the evaluation of seed vigor. In this sense, this paper aimed to study the methodology of the accelerated aging test, in order to identi [...] fy different levels of vigor seed lots of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Four seed lots of the 'Colhe Bem' cultivar and five seed lots of the 'Santa Cruz 47' were submitted to the following assessments: germination, seedling emergence, accelerated aging by traditional procedures and saturated NaCl (38 and 41°C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) and moisture content at the beginning of the tests and, after incubation to accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test at 41°C/96 hours (traditional procedure and saturated NaCl) consisted efficient to detect vigor differences among seed lots of okra.

  19. Development of Seed Treatments Bio fertilizer and Nutrient Uptake Study Using Tracer Technique for Okra Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of bio fertilizer seed treatments for okra seeds were carried out by mixing phosphate solubilising bacteria (AP 3) and plant growth promoter (AP 2) with adhesives. The seeds were coated with inoculum and four types of adhesives namely, Gum Arabic; Polyethylene Glycol (PEG); Sodium Alginate and Methylcellulose respectively. From eight seed treatments, all seed treatments significantly increased seed germinations except treatment T4 (Gum Arabic and AP3). In general, maximum germination rates and log of viable cells were observed when treated with polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) mixed with AP2 (T7) and AP3 (T8). These results show that using PEG as adhesive enhanced the germination rates and log of viable cells of AP2 and AP3. Thus, PEG could be a good adhesive for seed treatment. In greenhouse experiment, okra seeds treatment with AP2 and PEG (T1) showed the highest dry weight compared to other treatments. Seeds treatment with AP3 and PEG (T2) showed higher contribution of N compare to seeds treatment (T1). There were no significant different within seed treatments and urea treatment in okra yield. All treatments significantly increased yields compared with control. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma rays on fruit weight and number of seeds in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and Momordica charantia L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 5,15,30,60,90 and 120 kR doses of gamma rays, lower doses showed stimulatory effects on fresh and dry weight of fruit, while higher doses proved inhibitory in Abelmoschus esculentus and Momordica charantia. Abortion of mature seeds was also higher at 30 kR and above doses. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Effect of different levels of nitrogen alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cv. T-13 under the agro-climatic conditions of Mingora, Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Khan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation were undertaken to study the effect of different level of nitrogen (0,100,120,140 kg ha-1 alone and in combination with constant doses of phosphorous (90 kg ha-1 on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cv.T-13 at Agriculture Research Station (North Mingora, Swat during 1997. Maximum plant height (185 cm, number of pods per plant (24.59 pod length (12.63 cm, and the highest yield per hectare (16950.79 kg was recorded on the plots fertilized with 120:90:60 kg ha-1. No significance differences were observed in days to emergence, flowering, and first picking respectively.

  2. Urea polymer coated with controlled release in physiological quality okra seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquéias de Oliveira Assis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of urea coated with controlled release polymer in the seed quality of okra cultivar Santa Cruz 47.The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications.The experiment consisted of two parts. At first, we evaluated four doses of nitrogen (0, 48, 96, and 144 kg ha-1 applied using as a source, a commercial mixture containing 30% urea and 70% common urea polymer controlled release. In the second part, we tested the effect of two nitrogen sources, urea and conventional urea polymer controlled release at a dose of 120 kg ha-1. In the first part, the treatment means were compared by regression analysis and the second, the “t” test at 5%. To evaluate the physiological quality of seeds, the following tests and / or determinations were carried out: moisture, seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings, and electrical conductivity. The seed quality of okra cultivar Santa Cruz 47, reduces to the application of doses of conventional commercial mixture containing urea and urea polymer coated controlled release. The nitrogen sources used did not affect the physiological quality of seeds of okra.

  3. Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Brazil / Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia de Araujo, Aranha; Leonardo Cunha de, Albuquerque; Leonardo Silva, Boiteux; Alice Kazuko, Inoue-Nagata.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento de begomovírus de quiabeiro foi realizado no Brasil Central. Amostras foliares foram coletadas em campos de produção de quiabo e avaliadas em testes utilizando primers universais para begomovírus. A infecção por begomovírus foi confirmada em apenas uma amostra (#5157) de um total de [...] 196 amostras. O DNA total foi submetido à amplificação por PCR e introduzido em plântulas de quiabeiro pelo método de biobalística, sendo que a amostra de DNA bombardeada foi infecciosa em plantas de quiabeiro. O DNA-A e DNA-B do isolado #5157 foram clonados e a sequência de nucleotídeos mostrou características típicas de begomovírus do Novo Mundo. A sequência do DNA-A apresentou 95,6% de identidade nucleotídica com um isolado de Sida micrantha mosaic virus do Brasil, sendo assim identificado como sua estirpe de quiabeiro. Os clones gerados a partir da amostra #5157 foram infecciosos para quiabeiro, Sida santaremnensis e em um grupo de plantas solanáceas quando inoculados por biobalística após circularização do inserto isolado, seguido por amplificação por círculo rolante. Abstract in english A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157) out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and in [...] troduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotide sequences exhibited typical characteristics of New World bipartite begomoviruses. The DNA-A sequence shared 95.6% nucleotide identity with an isolate of Sida micrantha mosaic virus from Brazil and thus identified as its okra strain. The clones derived from #5157 were infectious to okra, Sida santaremnensis and to a group of Solanaceae plants when inoculated by biolistics after circularization of the isolated insert, followed by rolling circle amplification.

  4. Influence of Wastewater Application and Fertilizer use on Growth, Photosynthesis, Nutrient Homeostatis, Yield and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Neelima Akhtar; Saima Kausar; Shahla Faizan

    2014-01-01

    The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW) and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical cha...

  5. Effect of Monocrotophos and Methamidophos on Jassid, Amrasca devastans
    (Distant) in Different Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    , Munir Ahmad2; Nighat Perveen; Muhammad Sultan; Muhammad Aslam; Muhammad Aulakh

    2001-01-01

    Two commonly used insecticides, Methamidophos 60SL @ 1000ml/ha and Monocrotophos 40WSC @ 1500 ml/ha were evaluated on Amrasca devastans L. during 1999 on Pusa Swani, Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma okra varieties. Both insecticides provided effective control of Jassid and kept the population below economic threshold level up to ten days after insecticidal application. However, Methamidophos 60SL proved better on Pusa Swani as compared to Monocrotophos 40WSC, which decreased jass...

  6. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E. Oppong; Abenney-Mickson, S.; Sabi, E.B.; Plauborg, Finn; Abekoe, M.; Kugblenu, Y.O.; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    Three seasons' experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N-K chemical fertilizers (twice d...

  7. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E O; Abenney-Mickson, S

    2015-01-01

    Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

  8. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E. Oppong; Abenney-Mickson, S.

    2015-01-01

    Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

  9. Selection for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Disease of Okra by Induced Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production for both exporting and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of two okra varieties, Annie and Okura, were irradiated with Gamma-rays at doses of 400 and 600Gy. Screening of YVMD resistant plants was conducted for M3 and M4 plants under field conditions in Petchaburi and Phichit provinces, and greenhouse conditions using whitefly transmission in Bangkok. One M4 plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400Gy was found to be highly resistant, but none of Annie. M5 plants of B-21 were screened further for YVMD resistance under both greenhouse and field conditions. Ten resistant lines obtained by screening for YVMD resistance up to the M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS), both located in the northern Thailand. Three of the mutant lines were further tested at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi province, an okra growing area in the west of central Thailand where YVMD was seriously widespread. At the KHRC, all tested mutant lines showed resistance up to a month, when the susceptible check variety already showed symptoms of the disease. However, only a small portion of the plants of the mutant lines appeared to be resistant throughout the whole growth duration; others eventually exhibited the yellow vein symptom. Plants were further screened in two growers' fields. Growers were satisfied with the plant stature and fruit shape of the mutants and their delayed disease development, and further screening is underway to select uniformly YVMD resistant lines for okra production in Kanchanaburi. (author)

  10. An Overview of Okra Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasababu, Nadendla

    2015-05-01

    Increasing attention towards “sustainable environment” invited the development of new materials to satisfy the needs of the public with less/no damage on surroundings. In this regard a specific attempt is made by the author to do review and understand the performance of the variable vegetable fibres of okra which is botanically called ‘Abelmoschus Esculentus’ and their composites under various conditions of load. Further the results exist in the literature are also reviewed for the purpose of comparison.

  11. Investigation of in vivo antioxidant property of Abelmoschus esculentus (L moench. fruit seed and peel powders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Sabitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench. fruit is a commonly consumed vegetable in many countries due to its rich medicinal value. However, till date, in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus has not been scientifically documented in animal models. Objective: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus (L. Moench. peel and seed powder (AEPP and AESP in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In rats, acute toxicity assessment of AEPP and AESP at 2 g/kg did not show any toxicity. Diabetes was induced by STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p. injection and diabetic rats received AEPP (100 and 200 mg/kg as well as AESP (100 and 200 mg/ kg orally up to 28 days. At the end of the 28 day, diabetic rats were killed and liver, kidney and pancreas were collected to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxidation level. Results: In diabetic rats, significant (P < 0.001 reduction of liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were observed as compared to normal control rats. Administration of both doses of AEPP and AESP significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 increased liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and decreased TBARS (P < 0.001 levels in diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that A. esculentus peel and seed powder has significant in vivo antioxidant property in diabetic rats.

  12. Seedling imaging analysis and traditional tests to assess okra seed vigor / Análise de imagens de plântulas e testes tradicionais para avaliação do vigor de sementes de quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lúcia Pereira, Kikuti; Júlio, Marcos-Filho.

    Full Text Available A avaliação do vigor é essencial em programas de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes. Uma das alternativas mais recentes para essa avaliação é o sistema computadorizado de análise de imagens de plântulas (SVIS), utilizado com sucesso para várias espécies de sementes de grandes [...] culturas e de hortaliças. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a eficiência do SVIS para identificar diferenças no potencial fisiológico de lotes de sementes de quiabo, em comparação com outros métodos utilizados para essa espécie. Cinco lotes da cultivar Clemson Americano e quatro da 'Santa Cruz' foram submetidos a testes de germinação (velocidade e porcentagem), germinação a baixa temperatura (15 ºC), envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com solução saturada de NaCl (41 ºC/72 e 96 horas) e emergência de plântulas. Também foi determinado o índice de vigor, o comprimento e a uniformidade de desenvolvimento de plântulas, por meio do SVIS. Essas avaliações foram realizadas no início, aos seis e doze meses de armazenamento. Concluiu-se que o índice de vigor e o comprimento de plântulas, avaliados por meio do software SVIS, são eficientes para identificar diferenças de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo, proporcionando resultados semelhantes aos obtidos no teste de envelhecimento acelerado (41 ºC/72 horas). Abstract in english Seed vigor testing is an important component of quality control programs adopted by seed industry. The software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) has been successfully used for seed vigor assessment in different species. The objective of this research was to verify the SVIS efficiency to assess okra [...] seed vigor in comparison to other vigor tests used for this species. Five seed lots of 'Clemson Americano' and four of 'Santa Cruz' were submitted to germination (speed and percentage), cold germination (speed and percentage), traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41 ºC/72 and 96 h) and seedling emergence tests during 12 months storage. Vigor index, uniformity of growth and seedling length were determined by the software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS). Results showed that the vigor index and seedling length determined by the SVIS analyses are efficient to determine okra seed vigor as well as the accelerated aging test (41 ºC/72 h).

  13. EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTION ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND YIELD OF THREE VARIETIES OF ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS

    OpenAIRE

    Osuagwu AN; Ekpo IA; Okpako EC; Agbor RB

    2013-01-01

    The effect of crude oil pollution on germination, seedling growth and yield of three varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were investigated. Three varieties of okra were planted in a well-drained humus soil polluted with 0%, 0.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% crude oil per kilogram of soil. Data were collected on the following parameters: days to seedling emergence, percentage germination, plant height, internodes length, leaf area, number of leaves per plant and number of fruits per plant. The re...

  14. INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L.) MEDIK

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka; Datta K Animesh

    2012-01-01

    Dry seeds (cultivar I – tall, branched, moisture content 3.5%; cultivar II – dwarf, unbranched, moisture content 1.5%) of Abelmoschus moschatus (L.) Medik (Family: Malvaceae; Common name: Ambrette; English name: Musk mallow) were treated (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00% for 3h and 6h durations) with chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to raise desirable ‘plant type’ mutants. Mutagenic sensitivity (from M1 biological damages like lethality, injury and sterility; LD...

  15. Impact Of Chlorpyriphos On The Morphological Parameters Of Cauliflower, Tomato And Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Mosmi Raina; Anil Raina

    2012-01-01

    The present study has been conducted to work out the effect of a wide spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, chlorpyriphos (O, O-Diethyl O- 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) on the morphological features of three commonly grown vegetables in the study area i.e. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, Variety: Snowball 16), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Variety: Pusa Ruby) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L., Variety: Pusa Sawani). Results revealed t...

  16. Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataravanappa V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. Results The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein, were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB. This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect ?C1 gene. ?C1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity determinant of begomovirus-beta satellite complexes and is involved in overcoming host defenses based on RNAi. Conclusion The diversity of beta satellites in okra across the sub-continent is higher than previously realized and is higher than for any other malvaceous plant species so far analyzed. The beta satellites identified in okra show geographic segregation, which has implications for the development and introduction of resistant okra varieties. However, the finding that the ?C1 gene of the major okra beta satellites (OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share high sequence identity and provides a possible avenue to achieve a broad spectrum resistance.

  17. Desempenho do quiabeiro consorciado com adubos verdes eretos de porte baixo em dois sistemas de cultivo / Okra performance intercropped with small size and erect green manure in two production systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebastião Wilson, Tivelli; Cristiaini, Kano; Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Elaine B, Wutke; Issáo, Ishimura.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o cultivo intercalar de adubos verdes eretos e de porte baixo na cultura do quiabeiro, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em cultivo convencional em Monte Alegre do Sul e outro em cultivo orgânico em São Roque-SP, de fevereiro a julho de 2008 e de dezembro de 2008 [...] a junho de 2009, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos, constando de quiabeiro em cultivo "solteiro" e consorciado com uma ou duas linhas de mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana) e de crotalária-espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis) nas entrelinhas. No cultivo orgânico, dois novos tratamentos foram adicionados ao experimento para avaliar os adubos verdes em cultivo solteiro. No quiabeiro avaliou-se a produção (g planta-1) e número de frutos por planta, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e altura média do dossel em diferentes épocas após a semeadura. Nos adubos verdes avaliaram-se altura média das plantas e produtividade de massa fresca. A eficiência do consórcio foi mensurada por meio da relação de área equivalente (RAE). A produção média do quiabeiro por planta foi de 190,9 e 582,0 g planta-1, respectivamente, no sistema convencional e orgânico. A RAE foi de 1,5 e 1,6 no consórcio do quiabeiro com duas linhas de mucuna-anã e crotalária-espectábilis, respecticamente. Verificou-se viabilidade agronômica da adoção do cultivo intercalar pelo agricultor familiar de quiabeiro, especificamente com duas linhas dos adubos verdes de porte ereto e baixo. Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic viability of the intercropping okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) with small size and erect green manuring species Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, two experiments were carried out, one in conventional system at Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo state, Brazil, fr [...] om February to July 2008 and one in an organic system at São Roque, São Paulo state, Brazil, from December 2008 to June 2009. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were constituted by okra monoculture and okra intercropped with one or two lines of M. deeringiana and one or two lines of C.spectabilis in the seeded at the same time of the okra crop. In organic farming two new treatments were added to the experiment to evaluate the green manures in single cropping. Production, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and diameter and plant height were evaluated in okra plants and plant height and fresh matter weight were determined in the green manuring plants at different periods after seeding.. The evaluation of the efficiency of the consortium was measured by the ratio of area equivalent (RAE). Average yield per okra plant was 190.9 and 582.0 g plant-1, respectively, under conventional and organic cropping. The RAE was 1.5 and 1.6 in the consortium of okra with two rows of M. deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, respectively. Intercropping erect short green manuring species with okra is agronomically viable and can be used by family farmers without interference with the yield of okra crop.

  18. Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium (Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd. PMID:16083107

  19. Expression de différents écotypes de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. au déficit hydrique intervenant pendant la boutonnisation et la floraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawadogo M., Zombre G., Balma D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of different ecotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under water deficit during budding and flowering phases. Despite numerous uses and its well known nutritional value, okra is cultivated on very small surfaces, on surroundings of traditional houses and often in dumping ground. To this little interest are added drought, diseases and pests that generate an important reduction of yield, leading okra to play the last roles in agricultural research programs of the country and this, despite the existence of early maturing ecotypes or resistant to some abiotic constraints. The low rate of improved varieties is the proof that it is necessary to develop strategies for participatory breeding programs that take into account farmers selection criteria including genotypes tolerant or resistant to drastic conditions such as water deficit to periods where the plant is expressing its genetic potential. Six ecotypes obtained through participatory plant breeding process in five agricultural districts of the country have been assessed for the tolerance to the drought occurring during the budding and the flowering phases. Results show that water deficit during budding phase has disastrous consequences for okra plants. The yield declines, and also the length, the number and the weight of fruits. Two types of period of flowering phases of okra plant have been observed: the period which intervenes during the accelerated growth phase of the main stem (type 1 and the one which starts once the growth of main stem begins to decline (type 2; this last type is the most frequently met. Water deficit during the phase of budding causes earlier flowering of type 2 plants and leads to delayed flowering of the type 1 plants. The best variables for discriminating okra ecotypes during water deficit are the relative water content (RWC, the length and the number of fruits. Three ecotypes (V1, V3 and V4 are chosen to be used in breeding program of okra for resistance to water deficit.

  20. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  1. INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dry seeds (cultivar I – tall, branched, moisture content 3.5%; cultivar II – dwarf, unbranched, moisture content 1.5% of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae; Common name: Ambrette; English name: Musk mallow were treated (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00% for 3h and 6h durations with chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS and hydroxylamine (NH2OH to raise desirable ‘plant type’ mutants. Mutagenic sensitivity (from M1 biological damages like lethality, injury and sterility; LD50 was ascertained, M2 mutation frequency and types (cv.I: pigmented stem, lax branching, long petiole, large flower and early flowering, 1089 plants scored; cv.II: funnel, thick stem and late flowering, 1945 plants screened, mutagenic effectiveness (EMS more effective than NH2OH and efficiency (variable response but threshold dose seems to be efficient and meiotic chromosome behaviour of the plant types were assessed. Macromutants evolved were viable and may be important genetic resources in the plant species.

  2. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS AND INOCULUM LEVELS OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON OKRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan A. Maitlo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among two methods of Macrophomina phaseolina inoculation used for pathogenicity test, soil infestation method comparatively checked more plant growth of okra plants than seed infestation method. Minimum plant length and weight, as well as seed germination were observed by soil infestation method. Significantly maximum plant mortality and root infection was also occurred in soil infestation method. Seed germination, plant growth, plant mortality and root infection of okra plants were adversely affected with the increasing inoculum levels of M. phaseolina. Seed germination and plant growth were negatively correlated with inoculated pathogen population; whereas, plant mortality and root infection were positively correlated with the inoculum level of M. phaseolina.

  3. Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole Moses B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO, compost organic fertilizer (OR, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05 higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

  4. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  5. Single and interactive effects of root-knot nematode and coal-smoke on okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.R.; Khan, M.W. (Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1994-02-01

    Effects of coal-smoke pollutants and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1, singly and jointly, were investigated on okra, Abelmoschus esculentus in 1988 and 1989. Plants in clay pots were placed at two sites (K1 and K2), 1 and 2 km away from the stack of a coal-fired thermal power plant, and also at a control site. The mean concentrations of SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2] and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 141, 76 and 309 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K1, and 184, 93 and 205 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K2, but the concentrations of the pollutants at the control site were very low. Okra plants at the K2 site showed browning of the leaves, whereas injury was mild at K1. The intensity of the browning and the impact of nematode disease was appreciably higher in the infected plants at the polluted sites in both the years. The plants grown at the two sites exhibited suppressions in plant growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments, particularly at K2. M. incognita at the control site also cause significant reductions, but joint effects of the nematode and coal-smoke were synergistic.

  6. Impact Of Chlorpyriphos On The Morphological Parameters Of Cauliflower, Tomato And Okra

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    Mosmi Raina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to work out the effect of a wide spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, chlorpyriphos (O, O-Diethyl O- 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate on the morphological features of three commonly grown vegetables in the study area i.e. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, Variety: Snowball 16, Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Variety: Pusa Ruby and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L., Variety: Pusa Sawani. Results revealed that on an average, the impact of chlorpyriphos on various morphological parameters of all the three vegetables have been statistically insignificant (using t- Test except for height of the plants in cauliflower treated with double the recommended dose which exhibited a significant decrease and weight of the head in cauliflower treated with recommended dose of chlorpyriphos which showed a significant increase. Also in okra total number of flowers/plant at treatment with both the dosages along with total number of fruits/plant at treatment with the recommended dose has exhibited statistically significant increase.

  7. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection and eggs (magnifying lens occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual e de ovos (lentes de aumento de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas.

  8. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations / Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; Gulab Newandram, Jham; Márcio Dionízio, Moreira.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica [...] populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual) e de ovos (lentes de aumento) de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas. Abstract in english The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal pop [...] ulation dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection) and eggs (magnifying lens) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.

  9. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  10. A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    K.K. Rewatkar; Naiyer Shahzad; Ayaz Ahmed; Mohd. Irfan Khan; Ganesh, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Abelmoschus manihot (L.) commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm c...

  11. A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Rewatkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Abelmoschus manihot (L. commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm count on sexually normal male mice. Two doses i.e. 100and 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract administered to Swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency.The result of the present study signatured for sexual enhancing capacity of the drug Abelmoschus manihot is an individual and also holds good aphrodisiac property when compared with standard drug. It was noticed that a 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect. Therefore, the conclusion suggestive that the Abelmoschus manihot will be a drug of choice or alternative therapy for a marketed product. Which may help the population to lead their sexual life perfectly with full of pleasure to interact body, mind and sole.

    Keywords: Abelmoschus manihot, Aphrodisiac, Mounting frequency, Intromission frequency, Penile erection index.

  12. Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasababu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2 okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

  13. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaud Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF, we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1 molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB (88 to 98% nucleotide identity. One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA (89% nucleotide identity, whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity, provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA. Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009 and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765. Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD.

  14. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

  15. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöle, Christian; Brandt, Simone; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates) after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS) with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL) led to reduced binding to 3'-sialyl lactose, sialylated Le(a) and Le(x). A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation) indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity. PMID:26389872

  16. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Thöle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL led to reduced binding to 3?-sialyl lactose, sialylated Lea and Lex. A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity.

  17. Selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease of okra by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmochus esculentus) production for both export and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were gamma-irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and planted at Huaysai King's Project in Petchaburi Province. M3 plants were screened for OYVMD (Okra YVMD) resistance under field conditions at Huaysai King's Project and Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) in Phichit Province. In addition, M4 plants were screened for OYVMD resistance under greenhouse conditions at Crop Protection Research and Development Office using whitefly transmission. None of Annie was found resistant but one plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400 Gy was found to be highly resistant. Ten resistant lines obtained through rescreening of B-21 descendants up to M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at PHRC and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS). The mutants had good stature and fruit shape but the fruits have spines on the ridges. Selections for OYVMD resistance and spineless fruits were performed at PHRC in three generations and seven of the lines were chosen for yield trial at PHRC. Three of the mutant lines were also screened for OYVMD resistance at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi Province, okra growing area, where OYVMD was seriously widespread. All mutant lines showed resistance against the local OYVMV isolates up to a month before they started showing signs of the disease. Seeds were collected from resistant individuals and planted in farmers's fields for further selection. The farmers were very satisfied with the stature and fruit shape of the mutants when tested against a commercial variety. (author)

  18. Okra Leaf Cotton, its Commercial Utilization in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Soomro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were under taken to assess the yield, earliness and insect pest resistance of some newly developed okra leaf strains compared with normal leaf commercial varieties CRIS-9 and NIAB-78. Accordingly, almost all the okra leaf mutants yielded better than NIAB-78. Out of nine okra leaf strains, three were better yields, two equally good and four gave low yield than CRIS-9 the second check variety. Highest yielding okra leaf strain produced 27 and 35 percent higher yield than CRIS-9 and NIAB-78 respectively. Okra leaf strains were documented as early maturing, whitefly tolerant and boll rot disease resistant. Realizing the better performance of okra leaf strains with reduced insecticide applications, the commercial utilization of these varieties in Sindh can not be ignored and may prove better replacement of current cultivars.

  19. Morphological and biochemical responses of Abelmoschus esculantus (L.) Moench to zinc nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokak, I. B.; Taranath, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing application and use of nanoparticles are directly related to their release in the environment. There has arisen the necessity to study the interactions of nanoparticles with plants and other organisms. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the morphological and biochemical responses of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench to zinc nanoparticles treatment. Seeds were treated with zinc nanoparticles at concentrations of 50 100, 200, 500 ppm. The morphological and biochemical responses recorded include germination percentage, root, shoot length, number of root hairs and number of leaves. Chlorophyll, protein, proline and carbohydrate contents in the leaves of 30-days-old treated plants were estimated. A greater amount of total dissolved solids (TDS) leached out from the seeds soaked in different concentrations of Zn nanoparticles compared to the control. Zinc nanoparticles executed a positive impact on the seed germination. The seed germination percentage increased in all the treatments compared to control. Increase in the chlorophyll and protein content was also observed in the treated plants. The proline content increased in treated plants indicating the stress. The carbohydrate content of leaves decreased drastically in response to the treatment.

  20. FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Hindustan Abdul Ahad; Mallapu Rani E; Gangadhar P; Suma Padmaja B; Lavanya G

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povid...

  1. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays, Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. with maize (Zea mays Linn., okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum. This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with five (5 replicates. The treatments comprised of intercropping distances of 1 m, 2 m and 3 m each for the three (3 crops (maize, okra and pepper and a plot for each of the three (3 arable crops without oil palm trees as control. Weed species distribution was carried out in each of the plots to determine the Simpson’s Diversity Index (D, Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1-D and Simpson’s Reciprocal Index (1/D. Weed species’ frequency, density, relative density, relative frequency, importance value, abundance, dominance and relative dominance were also computed from data collected at 3WAP and 6WAP. The results showed that the control plot has the highest weed species distribution at 3WAP having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.0930. Okra plot has the least weed species distribution with the highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2726. At 6WAP, the pepper plot has the highest weed species distribution having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.1741. Control plot has the least weed species distribution with highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2831.

  2. Genetic variability and heritability in cultivated okra [Abel moschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwangburuka, C. C.; Denton, O. A.; Khinde, O. B.; Ojo, D. K.; Popoola, A. R.

    2012-11-01

    Twenty-nine okra accessions from different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria were grown during the rainy and dry seasons, between 2006 and 2007 at Abeokuta (derived savanah) and Ilishan (rainforest) and assessed to determine their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance from eight yield related characters. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. There was high genotypic coefficient of variability, % broad-sense heritability and genetic advance in traits such as plant height (26.2, 90.7, 51.5), fresh pod length (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), fresh pod width (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), mature pod length (28.6, 98.5, 52.3), branching per plant (29.3, 82.3, 54.8) and pod weight per plant (33.9, 90.0, 63.3), suggesting the effect of additive genes and reliability of selection based on phenotype of these traits for crop improvement. The positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation between plant height at maturity, fresh pod width, seeds per pod and pods per plant, branches per plant with seed weight per plant and pod weight per plant, suggests that selection on the basis of the phenotype of these characters will lead to high seed and pod yield in okra. (Author) 26 refs.

  3. Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Salah M. I. El Naggar

    2001-01-01

    Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.). Seed shap...

  4. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  5. FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindustan Abdul Ahad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone were prepared. The prepared tablets were found to have better pharmacopoeial parameters with low standard deviation values. The swelling behavior and release rate characteristics were studied. The in-vitro dissolution study proved that the dried Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone in combination can be used as a matrix forming polymers for making controlled release matrix tablets.

  6. 76 FR 64001 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...S. Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra using the procedures that...petition from the American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI) requesting the revision of the United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra. The petitioners...

  7. Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5, three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

  8. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões.

  9. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations / Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; José Cola, Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael, Gusmão.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e par [...] asitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual) ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares) ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões. Abstract in english The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, [...] height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tavakoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w and P.V.P (22 %w/w were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

  11. Induced mutation breeding for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus in okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were irradiated by gamma rays to induce mutations for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD). In experiment I, seeds were irradiated at 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then planted at Huaysai King's Project, Petchaburi Province. Plants with a good plant type and green pods were selected for M2 generation. M3 plants were grown at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) where YVMD was seriously widespread. 33 plants without disease symptoms were selected for further screening. By using white fly transmission under greenhouse conditions, only four lines showed no disease symptoms. They were transplanted to the field at PHRC. Only Okura irradiated at 400 Gy, designated Rd53-3 showed disease resistance. Subsequent selections were conducted under greenhouse and field conditions up to M7 generation. Twelve resistant lines showing uniformity of plant type were selected for yield trial observation. All bore reasonable yield but their fruit shape was not suitable for the export market. They will be used as parental lines in further breeding programs. In experiment II, seeds of Annie and Okura were irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and then planted at Huaysai. M2 seeds were collected by two methods, the pedigree method by collecting seeds from selected healthy plants, and then planted them at Huaysai. The other method was bulk selection and then seeds were planted at Huaysai and PHRC. The M3 generation was screened for disease resistance under greenhouse and field conditions. The plants from bulk selection were all infected. By pedigree selection, 34 and 35 lines of Annie and Okura, respectively were obtained. Screening for okra YVMD resistance under greenhouse and field conditions in M4 generation, it was found that only one plant of Okura irradiated at 400 Gy designated B-21, showed no disease symptoms. Disease resistance screenings under greenhouse and field conditions were performed during M5 to M7 generation. Ten lines selected from B-21 showed a good plant type coupled with a desirable fruit shape. They will be used for further yield trials. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated potential antiproliferative activity against two human cell lines - Colorectal adenocarcinoma (COLO-205 and retinoblastoma (Y79. Conclusion The seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus possess significant antioxidant activity and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger, or substitute, probably as primary antioxidants. The plant possesses moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains used in this study. Hydroalcoholic seed and leaf extracts also exhibited antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines. A. moschatus may therefore, be a good candidate for functional foods as well as pharmaceutics.

  13. DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO QUIABEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DAS DATAS DE PLANTIO GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A influência de quatro épocas de plantio (15 de maio, 15 de junho, 15 de julho e 15 de agosto de 1998 no desenvolvimento e na produção do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi investigada em Goiânia, GO. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, cultivado há muitos anos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (Tukey 5% entre épocas de plantio, para as seguintes características: número de frutos produzidos durante as trinta primeiras colheitas, altura das plantas no início da colheita, número de ramos laterais e número de dias da semeadura ao início do florescimento, ao início da colheita e ao início da colheita em 75% das covas. A temperatura média dos meses seguintes às datas de plantio aumentou de maio para agosto. Observou-se uma redução do período da semeadura até o início do florescimento, até o início da colheita e até o início da colheita em 75% das covas. O número de ramos laterais também foi reduzido no mesmo período. Entretanto verificou-se aumento na altura das plantas e no rendimento das primeiras trinta colheitas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abelmoschus esculentus; data de plantio; épocas de plantio.

    The influence of four sowing dates (May 15th, June 15th, July 15th and August 15th, 1998 on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 was studied in Goiânia-GO. The experiment was conducted at the 'Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Goiás', on an oxisol which had been cropped for several years. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Significant differences (Tukey 5% were found among sowing dates for the following traits: number of pods yielded during the first thirty harvests (105 days, plant height at the beginning of harvest, number of lateral branches, number of days from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, number of days from the sowing to the harvest of the first pod and number of days from the sowing to the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills. The average temperature of the months following the sowing dates increased from May to August. The period from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, the beginning of harvest and the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills was shortened and the number of lateral branches decreased from May to August. At the same time, the plant height and the yield of the first thirty harvests increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Abelmoschus esculentus; planting date; development yield.

  14. Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV) and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Ali; Muhammad. Aslam Khan; Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Ehetisham-ul-haq; Muhammad Talha Javed; Muhammad Sajid

    2012-01-01

    Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). Correlation of environ...

  15. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE. Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade, bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI, período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI, considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura.An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after emergence (DAE. Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI, Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

  16. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Weed interference in okra crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.B., Santos; T.P., Silveira; P.S., Coelho; O.G., Costa; P.M., Matta; M.B., Silva; A.P., Drumond Neto.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz [...] -47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade), bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI), período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI) e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI), considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after em [...] ergence (DAE). Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI), Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI) and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP) were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

  17. Proximate Composition of Selected Congo Oil Seeds and Physicochemical Properties of the Oil Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Nzikou

    2010-01-01

    Proximate composition, energy content and mineral concentrations of oil seeds which can be usedin the preparation of Congolese diets were investigated. The paper also reports the physicochemicalcharacteristics of the oil extracts from the seeds. Moisture content (on dry weight basis) was highest(9.45 ± 0.8%) in gumbo (Abelmoschus esclentus) seeds (AES), followed by amarenthus hybridus seeds (AHS)(9.07 ± 0.84%) but was lowest (4.13 ± 0.24%) in terminalia catappa seeds (TCS). Ash was highest(7....

  18. Effect of Light Stress on Germination and Growth Parameters of Corchorus olitorius, Celosia argentea,Amaranthus cruentus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Delonix regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus, Amaranthus cruentus, Celosia argentea, Corchorus olitorius and Delonix regia were germinated under light and dark conditions. The germination parameters revealed that germination was higher in seeds of A. cruentus and C. olitorus under light while the seeds of D. regia germinated more in the dark. However, no major difference was observed in the germination of C. argentea and A. esculentus in light and darkness. The above findings point out that germination is species dependent. It also indicated that Amaranthus cruentus and C. olitorius adapt better to light while D. regia adapt better to dark condition. The shade plants of A. esculentus and D. regia were found to be taller than those under direct sunlight. However, seedlings of A. cruentus, C. olitorius and C. argentea were found to be taller those under direct sunlight than in the shade regimes. This could suggest that these plants have higher tolerance of heat with respect to A. esculentus and D. regia. Shade plants of A. esculentus, C. argentea, C. olitorius and D. regia exhibited lower leaf area which is an adaptation to maximize light interception. Higher leaf area was observed in the shade plant of A. cruentus may be an adaptation to maximize the little light available to the plant under shade. These findings revealed plants adaptation to cope with stress in the environment.

  19. Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam; Rohaida Che Man; Hayder A. Abdul Bari

    2011-01-01

    A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeline. In this study, the effect of the presence of a Drag Reducing Agent (DRA) on the pressure drop in horizontal pipes carrying water is investigated. An experimental rig is set-up. The test section...

  20. Utilization of Degraded Chitosan for Growth Promoter and Blossom Blight Disease Controls in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment focus on the comparison of the effect of gamma radiation and chemical reagent on degradation of chitosan and preliminary test of degraded chitosan with different molecular weight as plant growth promoter of okra in potting experiment. (author)

  1. Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Afzal; Muhammad Amjad

    2001-01-01

    Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf) was observed in the test area treated with (monocroto...

  2. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 ?m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m3 kg-1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m3 kg-1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m3 kg-1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m3 kg-1. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Dhania Zaharuddin; Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin; Ali Kadivar

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was...

  4. Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeline. In this study, the effect of the presence of a Drag Reducing Agent (DRA on the pressure drop in horizontal pipes carrying water is investigated. An experimental rig is set-up. The test section of the experimental set-up is consisted of: a smooth PVC pipe with length of 50 time pipe diameter connected to rough galvanized iron with 5 testing section 0.5 meter each The employing DRA is a new natural additive which is okra mucilage as polymeric DRA. The percent drag reduction (%DR is calculated using the obtained experimental data, in presence of the DRA. The results show that addition of DRA could be effective with several doses of DRA after average reading for 5 min. Highest %DR for about 60% is obtained for some experimental conditions. The result shows that okra mucilage is a potential DRA to be use in water transportation.

  5. Responses of growth of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus [/i]L. to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ibrahim Al-Dulaimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus[/i] L.. Materials and methods. A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady’s fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The plants were watered using (WW raw dairy wastewater, (T1 chemicals treatment, (T2 physical treatment, (T3 dilution method treatment and tap water (TW in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter pos-tharvest. Results. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with other treatments. Chemical treatment (TC2 at 20 mg/L Al2(SO43 and pH 6.5 improved all growth characteristics, compared with WW, and TW reached 85%, 70.8 cm, 28.6 cm, 99.4 cm, 65.36%, 15.86% and 3.543 Mgg FW for seed germination, shoot length, root length, seedling length, shoot dry matter, root dry matter and chlorophyll, respectively. Also, 25% concentration and 6.5 pH from the dilution method treatment improved all the qualities, but at a lower level. A maximum favourable effect was also observed in the (T2 physical treatment, and ranged from average to moderate in terms of impact. Conclusions. Thus, dairy effluent, after chemical treatment and proper dilution, can be used as a potential source of water for seed germination and plant growth in agricultural practices.

  6. Comparison between the DNA Fingerprints Obtained from the Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Tolerant Okra Mutants and Their Parental Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is a widespread disease that is found among export orchards of okra. In this report, we studied gamma radiation-induced YVMD tolerant okra mutants and other commercial okra varieties at DNA level. We found that DNA extraction method that utilized sodium dodecyl sulfate and potassium acetate to precipitate other biomolecules was a suitable method to use for DNA finger printing of okra. The MFLP finger printing technique was superior to the AFLP technique in finding polymorphisms among different okra varieties. Also polymorphisms between the YVMD-tolerant mutant lines and their parental variety could be detected, indicating that gamma radiation could induce some changes at DNA level in these plants

  7. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Screening of Okra Germplasm for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Rashid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve okra germplasms were screened for resistance to okra yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV under field conditions. Lines OK-292 and OK-285 showed resistant to YVMV in both season and OK 315, OK 316 and OK 317 were found tolerant. The highest yield per hectare found in the line OK-292 (18.00 t ha-1 followed by OK-285 (16 t ha-1 and line OK-310 produced the lowest yield (9.85 t ha-1 followed by pusa (9.95 t ha-1.

  9. Screening of Okra Germplasm for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, M H; Yasmin, L (Lubna); M. G. Kibria; A.K.M.S.R. Mollik; S.M. Monowar Hossain

    2002-01-01

    Twelve okra germplasms were screened for resistance to okra yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) under field conditions. Lines OK-292 and OK-285 showed resistant to YVMV in both season and OK 315, OK 316 and OK 317 were found tolerant. The highest yield per hectare found in the line OK-292 (18.00 t ha-1) followed by OK-285 (16 t ha-1) and line OK-310 produced the lowest yield (9.85 t ha-1) followed by pusa (9.95 t ha-1).

  10. Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmar E. Martinello; Nilton R. Leal; Antônio T do Amaral Júnior; Messias G Pereira; Rogério F. Daher

    2003-01-01

    Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores...

  11. The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

  12. Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran A. Siddiqui

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mungbean. Apart from suppressing root knot nematode, T. harzianum also elevated plant height and fresh shoot weight of both okra and munhbean.

  13. Gamma ray induced okra leaf mutant in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An orka leaf mutant characterised by narrow leaves was induced in M2 generation following 20 kr gamma ray irradiation in 320-F variety of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The mutant bred true for okra leaves in M3 generation. The mutant is earlier in maturity than 320-F and has more number of bolls, bigger boll size, higher yield and better staple than the latter. Okra leaf mutant by virtue of its having narrow leaves and consequently lesser transpiring surface withstands moisture stress better than the mother line. In an experiment under 'barani' (with only pre-sowing irrigation), okra leaf mutant recorded cotton yield of 1042 kg/ha as against 469 kg/ha in 320-F and 766 kg/ha in G.27, a 'Desi' variety which grows under moisture stress better than the hirsutums. Orka leaf character is a monogenic recessive, with F1 a medium-lobed heterozygote, as is seen from hybridisation between okra leaf mutant and broad leaved 320-F. (author)

  14. First Record of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease on Okra Plants and its Control in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. Farrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During June to September 2008, okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus L. in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate exhibited typical symptoms of Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS at different locations. Symptoms of infected okra leaves firstly started as light brown spots then turned to purple and varying in size. The spots spread to cover large areas of infected leaves. In case of severe infection, spots joined together and formed patches. Later, leaves were dry and remained intact with stem of plant. Samples of diseased leaves were collected to isolate the causal organisms. Isolated fungi were purified using single spore culture technique. Developed fungus was identified as Cercospora sp. Fresen based on cultural and morphological characteristics after light microscope examination. Also, Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus niger were isolated as associated fungi. Pathoginicity test confirmed efficiency of Cercospora sp. to induce typical symptoms on okra plants compared with other fungi. Foliar application using different concentrations of Topsin M-70WP and lemongrass oil was significantly reduced disease incidence compared with control. According to the available literature, this is the first record of CLS on okra in Egypt under natural infection in the field.

  15. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Botanical name Common name(s) Fruit fly Abelmoschus esculentus = Hibiscus esculentus Okra Melon, Peach. Acca sellowiana = Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Actinidia chinensis Kiwi...

  16. Functional effects of dried okra powder on reconstituted dried yam flake and sensory properties of ojojo—a fried yam (Dioscorea alata L.) snack

    OpenAIRE

    Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi; Olaitan, Ololade Funke

    2011-01-01

    Processing of raw yam (D. alata) tuber (RY) to more stable and instant form could ease the tedium in preparation, increase popularity and commercial potential of ojojo—a fried yam snack. In this study, the potential of dried okra powder (1%–5%) to reduce the sensory quality impairment in ojojo made from instant yam (D. alata) flake (YF) was tested. Inclusion of okra powder significantly increased the viscosity and increased dispersibility of reconstituted yam flour. Addition of okra powder si...

  17. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, J. B.; T.P. Silveira; P.S. Coelho; O.G. Costa; P.M. Matta; Silva, M. B.; A.P. Drumond Neto

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Foram avalia...

  18. Aibika (Abelmoschus manihot L.): Genetic variation, morphology and relationships to micronutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiang-Yalambing, Lydia; Arcot, Jayashree; Greenfield, Heather; Holford, Paul

    2016-02-15

    Aibika (Abelmoschus manihot L.) is believed to be a good source of micronutrients. However, although many varieties of aibika are commonly consumed in Papua New Guinea, their micronutrient content is unknown. Therefore, the mineral (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn & Cu), folate composition and the genetic variation of 23 aibika accessions from the collection at the National Agricultural Research Institute were studied over a 3year period to provide data for nutritional studies and to inform breeding programs. The data showed that aibika is, potentially, a crop of high nutritional value with the potential to boost the micronutrient status of local PNG communities. However, there were substantial differences in the micronutrient concentrations of the accessions from year to year and accessions that had the highest concentration of a particular mineral in 1year did not have the high concentrations in other years. Clusters determined using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis (UPGMA) of the micronutrient contents differed in each of the 3years. Genetic analysis made using random amplification of polymorphic DNA and directed amplification of mini satellite region DNA placed the accessions into five groups. There was no correlation between these groups and leaf morphology, nor were there correlations with the clusters determined from the UPGMA analyses. There appears to be considerable interaction between genotype and environmental factors determining micronutrient composition and environmental factors may play a greater role than genotype in influencing micronutrient composition. PMID:26433288

  19. Identification and characterization of a cytotoxic polysaccharide from the flower of Abelmoschus manihot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Zhihui; Li, Shuang; Wang, Liling; Lv, Jiajia; Li, Junsheng; Ma, Xingmiao; Fan, Ling; Qian, Fang

    2016-01-01

    A low molecular weight polysaccharide was identified from the flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus, a popular herbal medicine also known as Flos A. manihot. The polysaccharide, AMPS-a, was obtained from the ethanol-extracted debris of Flos A. manihot by successive purification through DEAE-cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 column. AMPS-a has an estimated molecular weight of 8.8×10(3)Da and is mainly composed of ?-d-glucose, ?-d-mannose, ?-d-galactose and ?-l-fucose at a molar ratio of 1.00:0.91:2.14:1.09. The preliminary structural features were studied by hydrolysis-methylation analysis, GC-MS, FT-IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. AMPS-a contains a backbone composed of repeating units of ?6)?-d-Galp-(1?6)?-d-Manp-(1?6)?-d-Galp-(1? with ?-d-Glcp (1?3)?-Fucp-(1? branching at O-3 of mannose. AMPS-a exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of hepatic (SMMC-7721, HepG2) and gastric (MGC-803, MKN-45) cancer cells in vitro, and the sugar branches were indispensible for the cytotoxicity. Our work contributes to the first report of a novel cytotoxic polysaccharide from Flos A. manihot that may provide a potential source of anti-tumor agent. PMID:26478094

  20. Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jurial Baloch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 ?m. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 ?m pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

  1. Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Zaki

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05 reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lilacinus alone.

  2. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 ?g/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 ?g/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 ?g/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers. PMID:23404549

  3. Genetics of the radiation-induced yellow vein mosaic disease resistance mutation in okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. AFLP and MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 population revealed DNA fragments that are potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

  4. Genetics of the Radiation-Induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 populations revealed a DNA fragment that is potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

  5. Functional effects of dried okra powder on reconstituted dried yam flake and sensory properties of ojojo-a fried yam (Dioscorea alata L.) snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi; Olaitan, Ololade Funke

    2014-02-01

    Processing of raw yam (D. alata) tuber (RY) to more stable and instant form could ease the tedium in preparation, increase popularity and commercial potential of ojojo-a fried yam snack. In this study, the potential of dried okra powder (1%-5%) to reduce the sensory quality impairment in ojojo made from instant yam (D. alata) flake (YF) was tested. Inclusion of okra powder significantly increased the viscosity and increased dispersibility of reconstituted yam flour. Addition of okra powder significantly (p?okra consistently improved the sensory acceptability of ojojo by increasing the product's moistness and fluffiness with reduced crispiness and roughness. In conclusion, addition of 0%-2% of okra powder to reconstituted YF produced ojojo samples which compared favourably with those made from RY in terms of colour, flavour and taste. PMID:24493896

  6. Influence of Sowing Time, Plant Spacing and Picking Interval on the Growth and Yield of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.H. Talukder; M.A. Mannaf; Alam, M K; M.A Salam; M.M.U. Amin

    2003-01-01

    A study was under taken to find out the effect of sowing time; spacing and picking interval on yield and yield components of okra (BARI Dherosh-1). Green pod yield was significantly higher when crop was sown on April (18.92 t ha 1) than March sown crop (16.24 t ha 1). Significantly highest yield (20.99 t ha 1) was recorded at closer spacing (60 x 30 cm2) than wider spacings. Yield was gradually decreased with increasing picking interval. Higher yield was obtained at 2 days picking interval (2...

  7. Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello; Nilton R. Leal; Antônio T. Amaral Júnior; Messias G Pereira; Rogério F. Daher

    2002-01-01

    Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se...

  8. Inheritance of Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance, a Mutant Phenotype from Gamma Radiation Mutagenesis in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting export-grade okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. This study aimed at determining the inheritance of YVMD resistance from B4610 through genetic analysis. Segregation analysis of the F2 and BC1F1 progeny from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a susceptible variety, indicated that YVMD resistance phenotype resulted from a single locus mutation (p > 0.05). In addition, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to aid in the assignment of YVMD resistance phenotype. Combinations of primers AV1F1 or AV1F2 with AV1R1 successfully amplified a DNA fragment from infected susceptible individuals but not from resistant individuals. DNA sequencing of the PCR product confirmed the identity of AV1 gene belonging to the yellow vein mosaic virus

  9. Method validation and dissipation dynamics of chlorfenapyr in squash and okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghani, Sherif B; Abdallah, Osama I

    2016-03-01

    QuEChERS method combined with GC-IT-MS was developed and validated for the determination of chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra matrices. Method accuracy, repeatability, linearity and specificity were investigated. Matrix effect was discussed. Determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.9992 and 0.9987 in both matrices. LODs were 2.4 and 2.2?g/kg, while LOQs were 8.2 and 7.3?g/kg. Method accuracy ranged from 92.76% to 106.49%. Method precision RSDs were ?12.59%. A field trial to assess chlorfenapyr dissipation behavior was carried out. The developed method was employed in analyzing field samples. Dissipation behavior followed first order kinetics in both crops. Half-life values (t1/2) ranged from 0.2 to 6.58days with determination coefficient (R(2)) ranged from 0.78 to 0.96. The developed method was utilized for surveying chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra samples collected from the market. Monitoring results are discussed. PMID:26471587

  10. Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean

    OpenAIRE

    Imran A. Siddiqui; Amer-Zareen; M. Javed Zaki; S.Shahid Shaukat

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mung...

  11. Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah M. I. El Naggar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.. Seed shape, size and colour as well as outer epidermal cell patterns as seen by SEM, anticlinal cell boundaries and periclinal cell walls sculpture allow the recognition of two distinct groups among studied taxa. Seed coat features indicated both intra-group and inter-group relationships. Recognized groupings do not correspond well with the classical treatments of the Malvaceae, rather they suggest restructuring of tribal and generic taxonomy in the family. One important conclusion of this study is the inclusion of Lavatera cretica L. in the genus Malva as M. linnaei, M. F. Ray.

  12. Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD / Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar E., Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T. do, Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de a [...] grupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado. Abstract in english RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods [...] to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

  13. Role of Antagonistic Microorganisms and Organic Amendment in Stimulating the Defense System of Okra Against Root Rotting Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Hafiza Asma; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. Stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. Organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cysts nematodes were examined individually and in combination in soil amended with cotton cake for suppressing the root rotting fungi and stimulating the synthesis of polyphenols and improving the antioxidant status in okra. Application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus in soil amended with cotton cake significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium solani with complete reduction of Rhizoctonia solani. Combine use of biocontrol agents in cotton cake amended soil showed maximum positive impact on plant growth, polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity in okra. PMID:26373176

  14. Residue analysis of fipronil and difenoconazole in okra by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their food safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Utture, Sagar C; Ahammed Shabeer, T P; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2015-06-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based method is reported for simultaneous analysis of fipronil (plus its metabolites) and difenoconazole residues in okra. The sample preparation method involving extraction with ethyl acetate provided 80-107% recoveries for both the pesticides with precision RSD within 4-17% estimated at the limits of quantification (LOQ, fipronil=1ngg(-1), difenoconazole=5ngg(-1)) and higher fortification levels. In field, both the pesticides dissipated with half-life of 2.5days. The estimated pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for fipronil and difenoconazole were 15 and 19.5days, and 4 and 6.5days at single and double dose of field applications, respectively. Decontamination of incurred residues by washing and different cooking treatments was quite efficient in minimizing the residue load of both the chemicals. Okra samples harvested after the estimated PHIs were found safe for human consumption. PMID:25624217

  15. Identification of DNA Fragments that Showed Linkage to the Radiation-induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease resistant mutant of okra was crossed to Pichit 03, a susceptible variety. Their progeny showed prolonged resistance when compared with Pichit 03. DNA fingerprints of F2 and BC1F1 individuals from the cross indicated that most DNA bands did not segregate with either the resistance or the susceptible characteristics. Nonetheless, polymorphic DNA bands could be identified between the mutant and Okura, the parental variety

  16. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Periods of weed interference in okra crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.P.S, Bachega; L.B, Carvalho; S, Bianco; A.B, Cecílio Filho.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos cresce [...] ntes de 0 (testemunha), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE), com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo. Abstract in english Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 [...] , and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE) with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

  17. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.S Bachega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

  18. Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer-Zareen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

  19. Application of the exploratory analysis of data in the geographical discrimination of okra of Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santos Panero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The contents of Cu, Zn, Na, Fe, K, Ca, Mn, Mg, PO43-, Cl- and SO42- were determined in samples of okra of the municipal districts of Caruaru and Vitória de Santo Antão, in Pernambuco, as well as in the municipal districts of Ceará-Mirim, Macaíba and Extremoz in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. The objective of this work is the application of two methods of  exploratory analysis of data: Principal Component Analysis - PCA and Hierarquical Cluster Analysis - HCA in the geographical discrimination of okra originating in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco. The results showed that Cl- and Na were the main elements for the differentiation of the samples of Rio Grande do Norte and, the samples of Pernambuco presented the largest amount of Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ca, Zn, K, PO43-, and SO42-. Boths the methods of exploratory analysis of data investigated are efficient for geographical discrimination of okra originating in Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco.

  20. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Aniqa; Taj, Samia; Rashid, Audil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Saleem, Aansa R; Ghufran, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants' resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady's Finger). A 6 weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after 30 days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance and WUE were determined weekly under stressed [60% field capacity (F.C.)] and non-stressed (100% F.C.) conditions. Stomatal conductance and Tr decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto 5 weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, WUE improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of A. esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum. PMID:26442046

  1. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Aniqa; Taj, Samia; Rashid, Audil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Saleem, Aansa R.; Ghufran, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger). A 6 weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after 30 days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance and WUE were determined weekly under stressed [60% field capacity (F.C.)] and non-stressed (100% F.C.) conditions. Stomatal conductance and Tr decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto 5 weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, WUE improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of A. esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum. PMID:26442046

  2. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. PMID:25040189

  3. Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

  4. Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L in a Sub-tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Masarirambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD where 2.3.2 (22 an inorganic fertilizer was used as a control, and was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level of kraal manure there were significant (p<0.05 increases in all the growth parameters that were measured. There were also significant (p<0.05 differences of fresh mass and dry mass yield of wild okra. There was an increase in fresh and dry mass yield with every increase in application level of kraal manure while the least fresh and dry mass was recorded in plants provided with 2.3.2 (22. Kraal manure applied at 60 ton/ha gave the highest yield of wild okra under the conditions of this experiment.

  5. Formulation of Okra-natural Mucilage as Drag Reducing Agent in Different Size of Galvanized Iron Pipes in Turbulent Water Flowing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B.M. Yunus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of pumping power losses in pipelines carrying liquids and flowing in turbulent mode is one of the major challenges in the power saving field. Pumping power saving by the addition of minute quantities of additives to the main flow was applied in the present study. Natural drag reducing agent was prepared and extracted from okra fruit and it was tested in a closed loop of turbulence water flowing system. Flow tests were conducted using water as the carrying liquid. The experimental work starts by pumping water from reservoir tank that had mixed with mucilage was pumped with six different flow rates in two different pipe diameters (0.015, 0.025 m ID. The types of pipe used are galvanized iron pipe. The testing length of this flow system is 1.5 m. The aim of this study is to formulate and to test the efficiency of okra-natural mucilage as drag reducer agent on transport of water in pipes; different concentrations of mucilage (100, 300, 500, 700 and 1000 ppm were used. Six different flow rates were used in the purpose to investigate the flow rates effect. The efficiency of mucilage was tested using clear water. The results shows that, percentage drag reduction (Dr% increases by increasing the concentration of okra-natural mucilage. Maximum Dr% of 71% was obtained using 1000 ppm of okra-natural mucilage in water flow system.

  6. Organic cultivation of okra with ground cover of perennial herbaceous legumes / Cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Mathias N da, Silva; Fábio Luiz, Oliveira; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Claudenir, Fávero; Mateus Augusto L, Quaresma.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da adubação verde com leguminosas herbáceas perenes tem se apresentado como prática interessante à produção de hortaliças, proporcionando melhorias no ambiente de cultivo e aumentando a produtividade das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro [...] em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo cultivo do quiabeiro em solo descoberto (controle) ou coberto com cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides), soja perene (Glycine wightii), calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides), amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi) e estilosantes campo grande (Stylosanthes capitata e Stylosanthes macrocephala). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A roçada das leguminosas, realizada na véspera da semeadura do quiabeiro, possibilitou a adição de quantidades de massa seca às áreas de cultivo, destacando-se o potencial do cudzu tropical (3,74 t ha-1), soja perene (1,55 t ha-1) e amendoim forrageiro (1,30 t ha-1). Nos cultivos de quiabeiro em solo coberto com cudzu tropical e com soja perene foram observados os menores acúmulos de massa seca de plantas espontâneas, até os 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro. Aos 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro, somente as áreas cobertas com amendoim forrageiro e com calopogônio apresentaram maiores volumes de água no solo em relação ao controle. Do início ao fim da colheita, as plantas de quiabeiro cultivadas em solo coberto com soja perene e com cudzu tropical apresentaram as maiores alturas. A produtividade máxima alcançada de frutos de quiabeiro (16,23 t ha-1), foi obtida no cultivo de quiabeiro em solo coberto com soja perene. Abstract in english The management of green manure with perennial herbaceous legumes has emerged as an interesting practice for vegetable production, improving the cultivation environment and increasing crop yields. In the present study we evaluated the organic okra cultivation in soil covered with perennial herbaceous [...] legumes. The treatments consisted of okra grown in bare soil (control) or covered with tropical kudzo (Pueraria phaseoloides), perennial soybean (Glycine wightii), calopogonium (Calopogonium muconoides), Pinto peanut (Arachis pintoi) and Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The weeding of legumes was realized before the okra was sown and this allowed the addition of quantities of dry matter, highlighting the potential of tropical kudzo (3.74 t ha-1), perennial soybean (1.55 t ha-1) and peanut (1.30 t ha-1). Okra cropped in soil covered with tropical kudzo and perennial soybean had the weed lowest dry matter accumulation until 150 days after sowing the okra. At 150 days after sowing the okra, only the areas covered with peanut and calopogonium had higher volumes of water in the soil compared to the control. Throughout the harvest, the okra plants grown in soil covered with perennial soybean and tropical kudzo showed the greatest heights. The maximum okra fruit yield (16.23 t ha-1) was obtained by growing okra in soil covered with perennial soybean.

  7. Effect of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Germination and Growth Performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench—A Widely Cultivated Vegetable Crop in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Oyedeji; Adebiyi, A.O.; M. A. Omotoyinbo; C. O. Ogunkunle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of crude oil-contaminated soil on the germination and growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus, a widely cultivated vegetable crop in Nigeria. The experiment was conducted in the Screen House, under controlled environmental conditions. The seedling emergence percentage, heights and girths were studied to determine the growth performance of the crop in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the investigation revealed that the crude ...

  8. Begomovirus characterization, and development of phenotypic and DNA-based diagnostics for screening of okra genotype resistance against Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataravanappa, V.; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C. N.; M Krishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The leaf sample from okra plants showing the yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms was collected in Karnataka state, India. The genome of the virus was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome (GU112065) is 2,741 bp in length and genome is similar to that of monopartite begomoviruses originating from the Old World, with seven conserved ORFs. Further nucleotide (nts) sequence comparisons showed that the genome has the highest sequence identities of 96.1 %...

  9. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que apresentou reduções em torno de 76,42%, Carbono Orgânico Total (COT 67,88%, fenóis totais 77,13% e nitrogênio amoniacal 34,63%. A metodologia de tratamento empregando Filtração Lenta e Fotocatálise demonstrou ser uma excelente opção de remediação de chorume.

  10. Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats / Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pritam S., Jain; Sanjay B., Bari.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi [...] realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle. Abstract in english In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was [...] undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.

  11. Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Asiya, Hameed; Tabasum N., Qadri; , Mahmooduzzafar; T.O., Siddiqi; M., Iqbal.

    Full Text Available Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1) which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied a [...] nd concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively) applied to plant in the soil shows a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the respective metal accumulation. It reveals a mechanism for constant detoxification of H2O2 that have to be associated with adaptations and ultimate survival of this plant species during stress conditions. A reduction of catalase activities was observed on exposure to these metals, which is supposedly due to the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Root length, shoot length, number of leaves showed an enhancement with 0.05 mM CdCl2 dose then a gradual decline with the increase in concentrations. The results indicate that A. esculentus is tolerant to high concentrations of these metals, a property related to a differential activation of its enzymatic antioxidant system, and also reveal that this species has a higher capacity of Cd absorption.

  12. Association of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus DNA-B with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus in okra showing yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, S; Krishna Reddy, M

    2015-06-01

    Okra samples showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting and bushy appearance were collected from different locations of India during the surveys conducted between years 2005-2009. The dot blot and PCR detection revealed that 75.14% of the samples were associated with monopartite begomovirus and remaining samples with bipartite virus. Whitefly transmission was established for three samples representing widely separated geographical locations which are negative to betasatellites and associated with DNA-B. Genome components of these three representative isolates were cloned and sequenced. The analysis of DNA-A-like sequence revealed that three begomovirus isolates shared more than 93% nucleotide sequence identity with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus from India (BYVMV), a monopartite begomovirus species that was reported previously as causative agent of bhendi yellow mosaic disease in association of bhendi yellow vein mosaic betasatellite. Further, the DNA-B-like sequences associated with the three virus isolates shared no more than 90% sequence identity with tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). Analyses of putative iteron-binding sequence required for trans-replication suggests that begomovirus sequences shared compatible rep-binding iterons with DNA-B of ToLCNDV. Our data suggest that the monopartite begomovirus associated with okra yellow vein disease has captured DNA-B of ToLCNDV to infect okra. Widespread distribution of the complex shows the increasing trend of the capturing of DNA-B of ToLCNDV by monopartite begomoviruses in the Indian subcontinent. The recombination analysis showed that the DNA-A might have been derived from the inter-specific recombination of begomoviruses, while DNA-B was derived from the ToLCNDV infecting different hosts. PMID:26104329

  13. Efeito da temperatura e reação de genótipos de quiabeiro ao mofo branco / Effect of temperature and reaction of okra genotypes to white mold

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan Herman, Fischer; Mirian de Souza, Filetti; Juliana Cristina Sodário, Cruz; César Júnior, Bueno.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O quiabeiro é suscetível a várias doenças que podem causar prejuízos ao agricultor, caso não sejam manejadas. Objetivaram-se avaliar o efeito da temperatura e a reação de genótipos de quiabeiro ao mofo branco. Plantas de 30 dias inoculadas na região do colo, com e sem ferimento, com dois isolados de [...] Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, foram mantidas por duas semanas nas temperaturas de 15; 20; 25; 30 ou 35ºC. Quatorze genótipos de quiabeiro com um e dois meses de emergência, assim como frutos no ponto de colheita comercial tiveram seus comportamentos avaliados quanto à doença. Avaliaram-se a incidência de plantas com tombamento ou mortas e o comprimento da lesão nos frutos inoculados. A doença foi favorecida por temperaturas entre 15 e 20ºC e, de maneira geral, não foram observadas diferenças entre os isolados e influência do ferimento na ocorrência da doença. Não foram encontrados genótipos de quiabeiro resistentes ao mofo branco, pois todos apresentaram incidência superior a 30% de plantas mortas, sendo as plantas mais novas mais suscetíveis, e comprimento de lesão nos frutos >6,0 cm. Entretanto, diferenças de suscetibilidade entre os genótipos foram observadas em plantas de 30 e de 60 dias e podem ser informações úteis aos produtores para escolha de cultivares em clima ameno, assim como ser exploradas em programas de melhoramento. Abstract in english The okra plant is susceptible to several diseases that can cause losses to the farmer if not managed. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and the reaction of okra genotypes to white mold. Plants aged 30 days, inoculated in the collar region, injured or not, including two strains o [...] f Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were maintained for two weeks at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 or 35ºC. Fourteen okra genotypes at one and two months after emergence, as well as fruits at commercial harvest time, had their behavior evaluated for the disease. Damping-off or dead plants were evaluated, as well as the injure length in the inoculated fruits. The disease was favored by temperatures between 15 and 20ºC and, in general, no differences were observed between the isolates and the influence of the injury on the disease occurrence. There were no okra genotypes resistant to white mold, since all of them had more than 30% of incidence of dead plants; younger plants were more susceptible and the injure length in fruits was > 6.0 cm. However, differences in the susceptibility between genotypes were observed for plants aged 30 and 60 days, which could constitute useful information for producers in the choice of cultivars under moderate climate and could be explored in breeding programs.

  14. Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil) / Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogéria Inês Rosa, Lara; Bruno Rafael, Spera; Danielle Roberta, Versuti; Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues, Fernandes; Terezinha Monteiro, Santos-Cividanes; Nelson Wanderley, Perioto.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar lepidópteros desfolhadores e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. As lagartas foram coletadas através de catação manual entre março e abril de 2009, individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido contendo ped [...] aços de folhas de quiabo e mantidas sob condições controladas (25±1°C, 12 horas de fotofase, 70±10% de UR) até a obtenção dos adultos de lepidópteros e/ou de seus parasitoides. Foram obtidos 63 adultos de lepidópteros: três espécies de Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), uma de Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) e uma de Tortricidae não identificada. Uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo (Diptera) e os Hymenoptera parasitoides Copidosoma floridanum Westwood (Encyrtidae), Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae) emergiram de A. flava e, C. floridanum e uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo, de P. includens. Este é o primeiro relato da associação entre S. frugiperda, P. includens e A. monuste orceis e seus parasitoides C. floridanum e Euplectrus sp. em plantas de quiabo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil). Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Pe [...] tri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10%) until the emergence of lepidopterans and/or parasitoids. In all, 63 lepidopterans were obtained: three species of Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker); one of Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart), and an unidentified species of Tortricidae. One unidentified tachinid fly (Diptera) and the Hymenoptera parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead) (Encyrtidae) and Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae) emerged from A. flava, while C. floridanum and an unidentified tachinid, from P. includens. This is the first report of an association between the herbivores S. frugiperda, P. includens and A. monuste orceis, the parasitoids C. floridanum and Euplectrus sp. on okra plants.

  15. Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra / Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Luiz, Finger; Maria Edith, Della-Justina; Vicente Wagner Dias, Casali; Mário, Puiatti.

    Full Text Available Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus) há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de inj [...] úria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10 e 25ºC. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial, com comprimento entre 8 e 12 cm, sendo então envoltos por uma camada de filme de PVC em bandeja de poliestireno expandido, seguido do armazenamento até o aparecimento de sintomas de deterioração ou murcha. A redução da temperatura de armazenamento de 25 para 10 ou 5ºC diminuiu a perda de massa nos frutos envoltos com PVC e dos frutos controle, com menor taxa a 5ºC. Ao reduzir a temperatura para 5 ou 10ºC e cobrir com filme de PVC, o conteúdo relativo de água foi mantido durante o armazenamento, porém a 25ºC a elevada perda de massa esteve associada a significante redução do conteúdo de água do pericarpo do fruto. O aparecimento de sintomas de injúria por frio foi retardado pela presença de filme de PVC nos frutos armazenados a 5ºC. No entanto a 10ºC, não foram detectados sintomas de degeneração associados à injúria por frio nos frutos envoltos com PVC ou controle até o décimo dia de armazenamento. A taxa de degradação de clorofila durante o armazenamento foi menor nos frutos mantidos nas temperaturas mais baixas e com filme PVC. O aparecimento de sintomas severos de injúria por frio a 5ºC relacionou-se com o menor conteúdo de clorofila dos frutos controle, quando comparado àqueles envoltos em filme de PVC. Abstract in english Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus) for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the mo [...] st popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.

  16. Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the most popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de injúria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10 e 25ºC. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial, com comprimento entre 8 e 12 cm, sendo então envoltos por uma camada de filme de PVC em bandeja de poliestireno expandido, seguido do armazenamento até o aparecimento de sintomas de deterioração ou murcha. A redução da temperatura de armazenamento de 25 para 10 ou 5ºC diminuiu a perda de massa nos frutos envoltos com PVC e dos frutos controle, com menor taxa a 5ºC. Ao reduzir a temperatura para 5 ou 10ºC e cobrir com filme de PVC, o conteúdo relativo de água foi mantido durante o armazenamento, porém a 25ºC a elevada perda de massa esteve associada a significante redução do conteúdo de água do pericarpo do fruto. O aparecimento de sintomas de injúria por frio foi retardado pela presença de filme de PVC nos frutos armazenados a 5ºC. No entanto a 10ºC, não foram detectados sintomas de degeneração associados à injúria por frio nos frutos envoltos com PVC ou controle até o décimo dia de armazenamento. A taxa de degradação de clorofila durante o armazenamento foi menor nos frutos mantidos nas temperaturas mais baixas e com filme PVC. O aparecimento de sintomas severos de injúria por frio a 5ºC relacionou-se com o menor conteúdo de clorofila dos frutos controle, quando comparado àqueles envoltos em filme de PVC.

  17. Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

  18. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2 prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3 and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2. The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2, malate dehydrogenase (N3, superoxide dismutase (N2 and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3. This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

  19. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais / The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosângela D' Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Marcelo Barreto da, Silva; Naylor Daniel da Costa, Aguiar; Fábio LK, Bérgamo; Alexandre Sylvio Vieira da, Costa; Lusinério, Prezotti.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG) e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorre [...] ntes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.). As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s) espécie(s) e, ou da(s) raça(s) de Meloidogyne presente(s) nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2), seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3) e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2). A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp. Abstract in english Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG), and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematode [...] s (Meloidogyne spp.). The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2) prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3) and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2). The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2), malate dehydrogenase (N3), superoxide dismutase (N2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3). This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

  20. Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce>soybean>watermelon>corn>okra?millet>sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

  1. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality

  2. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality.

  3. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following treatments: 1. sprinkler irrigation with spread manure; 2. sprinkler irrigation with placed manure; 3. drip irrigation with placed manure and 4. drip irrigation with fertigation. Fertigation was done only two times (two weeks after emergence and immediately after flowering) during the first experiment while weekly fertigation (8 times from two weeks after emergence) was done during the second experiment. The treatment effects on growth, yield, biomass, water use efficiency of the economical fresh pod yield (WUEy), and on the total above ground biomass (WUEtbm) were studied. The results showed that the okra crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice; however, the second experiment in the major dry season, the 2012 season, showed a marked improvement in the fertigated treatment compared to the others when fertigation was done weekly. In the second experiment despite the application of the same amount of nitrogen (89 kg N/ha), there were significant differences (P?0.05) between yield obtained with sprinkler spread manure (11.2 t ha-1), sprinkler placed manure (13.7 t ha-1), and drip fertigated (17.5 t ha-1); however, the yield difference between sprinkler placed manure (13.7 t ha-1) and drip placed manure (13.9 t ha-1) was insignificant (P?0.05) and WUEy and WUEtbm in the drip fertigated treatment was significantly (P?0.05) higher than in other treatments. Seasonal crop water use (ETc) for drip irrigation was 236 mm compared to 339 mm for sprinkler in the 2011 season. In the 2012 season, ETc for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted in significant water savings and yield increase compared with sprinkler irrigation.

  4. Languages of lossless seeds

    OpenAIRE

    B?inda, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Several algorithms for similarity search employ seeding techniques to quickly discard very dissimilar regions. In this paper, we study theoretical properties of lossless seeds, i.e., spaced seeds having full sensitivity. We prove that lossless seeds coincide with languages of certain sofic subshifts, hence they can be recognized by finite automata. Moreover, we show that these subshifts are fully given by the number of allowed errors k and the seed margin l. We also show tha...

  5. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-req...

  6. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-req...

  7. Modeling the Time Elapsing from Seed Sowing to Emergence in Some Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Uzun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple regression model based on mean temperature was developed to be used for predicting the time elapsing from seed sowing to seedling emergence for some vegetable crops, namely tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., pepper (Capsicum annum, L., aubergine (Solanum melongena, L., pea (Pisum sativum, L., carrot (Daucus carota, L., sweat corn (Zea mays, cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.var. capitata (L Alef, cauliflower Brassica oleraceae L.var. botrytis L, onion (Allium cepa, L., celery (Apium graviolens, L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L., parsley (Petroselinum hortense , garden beet (Beta vulgaris, L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L., melon (Cucumis melo, L., runner bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Thunb., okra (Hibiscus esculentus, L., asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L., spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L., radish (Rhaphanus sativus, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The prediction performance of the model with respect to the data used was highly acceptable. R2 values of regression co-efficients for each crop varied from 0.94 to 0.99 depending on the species. Plotting the actual days from seed sowing to emergence for all the crops against the predicted ones showed that the prediction performance of the model was good explaining 98% of the variation for combined data from all the crops. The present model also predicted optimum temperatures (To for tried vegetables in the limits of acceptability.

  8. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria...

  9. A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil / Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar P., Henz; Carlos A., Lopes; Ailton, Reis.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch) e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência [...] da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR). A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil. Abstract in english Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani b [...] ased on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH). The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.

  10. A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P. Henz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH. The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR. A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil.

  11. Determinação da demanda hídrica do quiabeiro em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ / Determination of water requirement of okra in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Herval Martinho Ferreira, Paes; Barbara dos Santos, Esteves; Elias Fernandes de, Sousa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as necessidades hídricas do quiabeiro em cada estádio do seu desenvolvimento, por meio da determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura e dos coeficientes de cultivo (Kc). O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Evapotranspirométrica da Universidade Estadual do No [...] rte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A cultivar utilizada foi a Santa Cruz 47, plantada no espaçamento 0,25 m x 1,00 m, em uma área de 1024 m², irrigada por aspersão convencional. Na área foram feitas as determinações da evapotranspiração da cultura e do coeficiente cultural, utilizando-se um lisímetro de 6 m² com balança eletrônica com variação de peso de 0,58 kg. Os resultados obtidos permitiram quantificar a evapotranspiração da cultura no período em 314 mm. O Kc do quiabeiro no primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento variou entre os valores de 0,8 e 0,5, obtendo o valor médio de 0,68; no segundo estádio variou de 0,5 a 1,0, sendo a média de 0,79; e no terceiro estádio o Kc variou de 1,0 a 0,3, sendo a média de 0,54. Abstract in english This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc) providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Esta [...] dual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m², irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m² with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, with a mean of 0,79,and the third stage Kc ranged from 1.0 to 0.3, the average being 0.54.

  12. Radon seed implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon seeds, formerly used for vascular and neoplastic tumors, acne, and other dermatological disorders, are rarely, if ever, used today. Because the half-life of radon is 3.83 days, these hollow gold seeds filled with radon gas are usually left in situ permanently. A case is reported of a woman who had seeds implanted 33 years ago for a vascular lesion. The seeds were removed and found to have minute amounts of residual radiation but not sufficient to cause radiation damage. Since seeds are foreign bodies, removal is recommended if they are easily accessible. (U.S.)

  13. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Adesemoye, A.O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spin...

  14. Alginate-okra gum blend beads of diclofenac sodium from aqueous template using ZnSO4 as a cross-linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Hasnain, M Saquib; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Rama, Bobba

    2015-08-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+))-ion induced diclofenac sodium (DS)-loaded alginate-okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) blend beads was successfully formulated through Zn(2+)-ion induced ionic-gelation cross-linking method in a complete aqueous environment. Effects of polymer-blend ratio and cross-linker concentration on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 8 h (R8h) were optimized by 3(2)-factorial design. The optimized formulation of Zn(2+)-ion induced DS-loaded alginate-OG beads demonstrated 89.27±3.58% of DEE and 43.73±2.83% of R8h. The bead sizes were within 1.10±0.07 to 1.38±0.14 mm. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the optimized bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR and P-XRD. These beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8h and followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of the optimized beads was influenced by the pH of test mediums, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. PMID:25987461

  15. Efficient Seeds Computation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Michalis; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Kubica, Marcin; Pissis, Solon P; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Szreder, Bartosz; Walen, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the cover is a generalization of a period of a string, and there are linear time algorithms for finding the shortest cover. The seed is a more complicated generalization of periodicity, it is a cover of a superstring of a given string, and the shortest seed problem is of much higher algorithmic difficulty. The problem is not well understood, no linear time algorithm is known. In the paper we give linear time algorithms for some of its versions --- computing shortest left-seed array, longest left-seed array and checking for seeds of a given length. The algorithm for the last problem is used to compute the seed array of a string (i.e., the shortest seeds for all the prefixes of the string) in $O(n^2)$ time. We describe also a simpler alternative algorithm computing efficiently the shortest seeds. As a by-product we obtain an $O(n\\log{(n/m)})$ time algorithm checking if the shortest seed has length at least $m$ and finding the corresponding seed. We also correct some important details missing in th...

  16. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  17. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-09-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  18. Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field / Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edilson, Costa; Taynara G de, Souza; Gleciane de L, Benteo; Katiane SS, Benett; Cleiton GS, Benett.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O quiabeiro é hortaliça de clima quente, encontrando condições favoráveis de desenvolvimento no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de mudas e a produtividade de quiabeiro. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul e [...] m Aquidauana. Na fase de mudas, foram testados substratos (100% ramas de mandioca triturada; 75% ramas de mandioca triturada + 25% de vermiculita; 50% ramas de mandioca triturada + 50% de vermiculita; 25% ramas de mandioca triturada + 75% vermiculita e 100% vermiculita). Estes substratos foram dispostos em dois ambientes protegidos (viveiro agrícola de tela de monofilamento de 50% de sombreamento e viveiro agrícola de tela aluminizada de 50% de sombreamento). Cada ambiente foi considerado um experimento, conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições. Em seguida, realizou-se a análise conjunta. No campo, foram distribuídos os 10 tratamentos gerados a partir das combinações entre ambientes e substratos (2 ambientes x 5 substratos), no delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As proporções médias de ramas de mandioca e vermiculita podem ser indicadas para a formação de mudas de quiabeiro. Pelas fitomassas seca aérea e total o ambiente com tela aluminizada pode ser indicado para produção de mudas de quiabeiro com a utilização do substrato na proporção 1:1. Mudas provenientes de maiores porcentagens de vermiculita antecipam a produção, enquanto que mudas oriundas apenas de ramas tendem a retardar essa fase. Mudas oriundas do ambiente aluminizado tendem a incrementar a produção de frutos de quiabeiro. Proporções médias de vermiculita e ramas, para mudas produzidas na tela aluminizada, propiciam maior número de frutos e produtividade do quiabeiro em Aquidauana. Abstract in english The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tes [...] ted substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite and 100% vermiculite). These substrates were placed in two protected environments (nursery with black screen, 50% of shading, and aluminized screen, 50% of shading). Each environment was considered an experiment conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications. After that we realized joint analysis. In the field, a total of 10 treatments generated from combinations of environments and substrates (2 environments x 5 substrates) were distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The average proportions of cassava stems and vermiculite may be suitable for okra seedlings. The results of shoot and total dry phytomass indicate that the aluminized screen can be recommended for okra seedlings production when the substrate with a 1:1 ratio is used. Seedlings grown on higher percentages of vermiculite anticipate production, while seedlings produced only in cassava stems tend to slow it down. The aluminized screen tends to increase the yield of okra seedlings. Average proportions of vermiculite and cassava stems for seedling production under aluminized screen, provide more fruits and yield of okra in Aquidauana.

  19. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Pearl millet seed pelleting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Becker Peske

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pearl millet seed is small and its size varies, making sowing more difficult. The pelleting technique increases and homogenizes seed size, but it is essential to determine the physical and physiological characteristics of pelleted seeds. The physiological analysis consisted of: first germination count, final germination, speed emergence index, and seedling emergence. Physical analysis consisted of determining the 1000-seed weight, 1000-seed volume and fragmentation. The control treatment did not receive any coating, and the other 36 treatments combined four binders: bentonite, polyvinyl acetate (PVA, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and methyl cellulose (Methocel®, and nine powder coating products: microcellulose, plaster, vermiculite, magnesium thermophosphate (Yoorin®, phytic acid, dicalcium phosphate, super simple phosphate (SS, monoamonic phosphate (MAP and reactive phosphate. Among the materials used to form the pearl millet pellet, the most efficient binders were the polyvinyl acetate and the methyl cellulose, and as coaters, the vermiculite and the microcellulose.

  1. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  2. 7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Okra—Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Onion—Allium cepa L. Onion, Welsh—Allium fistulosum L. Pak-choi... intybus L. Chives—Allium schoenoprasum L. Citron—Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai var.... gongylodes L. Leek—Allium porrum L. Lettuce—Lactuca sativa L. Melon—Cucumis melo L. Muskmelon—(see...

  3. UTILIZATION OF VERMIWASH POTENTIAL ON CERTAIN SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAKH NATH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of vermiwash on the growth, flowering and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus, lobia (Vigna unguiculata and radish (Raphnus sativus. Vermiwash was extracted from different vermicompost which was composted from different animal agro and kitchen wastes through earthworm Eisenia foetida. It was observed that treatment of vermiwash shows significantly increased in growth and productivity and decreased flowering period. The maximum significant growth was observed in 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with rice bran 38.0±1.3 cm. in case of okra, 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with gram bran (seed of Cicer arientinum 215.5±5.2 cm., in lobia crops and 30 mg/m2 concentration of buffalo dung with gram bran 20.4±1.4 cm. The significant early starting of flowering and increased in productivity was found in all treated groups with respect to control.

  4. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  5. Pollination, seed set and seed predation on a landscape scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Münzenberg, U.; Tscharntke, T.

    2001-01-01

    We analysed the combined effects of pollination and seed predation on seed set of Centaurea jacea in 15 landscapes differing in structural complexity. In the centre of each landscape, a patch of Centaurea plants was established for standardized measurements of flower visitation, seed predation and seed set. Both the number of flower-visiting bees and the proportion of flower heads damaged by seed predators increased with landscape complexity, which was measured as the proportion of semi-natur...

  6. SEED ARCHIVE AND STORAGE FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet seed storage facilities were updated, and seed is stored at 4C and 25% relative humidity. Over 15,000 packages of seed have been moved into the new storage facility. We used results from field scale germination studies to discard over 3,500 seedlots that showed no emergence. Current seed ...

  7. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  8. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grams per ounce (about 2 tablespoons), and contain protein and minerals including as iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc. Emerging research suggests that including chia seeds as part of a healthy diet may ...

  9. Efficient Seeds Computation Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Michalis; Crochemore, Maxime; S. Iliopoulos, Costas; Kubica, Marcin; P. Pissis, Solon; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Szreder, Bartosz; Walen, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the cover is a generalization of a period of a string, and there are linear time algorithms for finding the shortest cover. The seed is a more complicated generalization of periodicity, it is a cover of a superstring of a given string, and the shortest seed problem is of much higher algorithmic difficulty. The problem is not well understood, no linear time algorithm is known. In the paper we give linear time algorithms for some of its versions --- computing sho...

  10. Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F da Mota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless, e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet.The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual browning. The PVC was efficient in controlling the weight loss and retained the water content through storage. The lowest losses were observed for the cvs. Amarelinho and Star of David, without and with PVC, respectively. There was higher retention of vitamin C in the fruits wrapped with PVC and the cvs. Red Velvet and Star of David kept higher content of it. In general, the cv. Mammoth Spinless kept higher content of chlorophyll. The higher incidence of browning was in fruits stored without PVC. The Red Velvet had better shelf life due to lower browning.

  11. Conservação e qualidade pós-colheita de quiabo sob diferentes temperaturas e formas de armazenamento / Postharvest conservation and quality of okra submitted to different temperatures and storage forms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner F da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Paulo Roberto, Cecon; Derly José H da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia P, Firme; Gisele P, Mizobutsi.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do filme plástico de PVC e da temperatura de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de frutos de cultivares de quiabo. O experimento foi organizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo nas parcelas [...] as duas temperaturas (5 e 10 ºC), nas subparcelas um fatorial 2 (sem e com PVC) x 4 (cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless) e nas subsubparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem, com quatro blocos. A temperatura de 10ºC e o uso do filme de PVC foram mais eficientes no controle da perda de massa da matéria fresca. O filme foi mais eficiente na manutenção de maior teor relativo de água no pericarpo dos frutos armazenados a 5 e 10ºC. A cv. Amarelinho perdeu menos massa da matéria fresca e manteve maior teor relativo de água. Os frutos armazenados a 5ºC apresentaram maiores teores de vitamina C, com menor perda de vitamina C nas cvs. Mammoth Spinless e Star of David. Observou-se maior incidência de injúria por frio e escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC e a 5ºC. A cv. Amarelinho apresentou melhor conservação pós-colheita com temperatura de 10ºC e o uso da embalagem de PVC. Abstract in english This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of PVC film and temperature on the postharvest storage life in four cultivars of okra. The treatments were displayed in randomized complete blocks, in split-split-plot design, where the parcels were the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC, and in the sub parce [...] ls a 2 (control and PVC wrapped fruits) x 4 (cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless) factorial, and in the sub-sub parcels six sampling moments, containing four blocks. Storage at 10ºC and wrapping the fruits with PVC film improved the control of fresh mass loss. The film was more efficient in maintaining higher water content in the fruit pericarp at 5 or 10ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho lost less fresh mass and maintained higher water content. Fruits stored at 5ºC had higher vitamin C content. The cultivars Mammoth Spinless and Star of David showed lower losses of vitamin C. Cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of chlorophyll and Amarelinho the lowest. In general the development of chilling and browning was higher in fruits without PVC film at 5ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho had better postharvest conservation at 10ºC and using PVC film.

  12. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization / Nitrogênio aplicado à cultura do quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marinice O, Cardoso; Rodrigo F, Berni.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar, no período chuvoso amazônico, o efeito do nitrogênio aplicado ao quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual. O ensaio foi conduzido na Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, em Iranduba-AM, entre outubro/2010 e fevereiro//2011, em Argissolo Amarelo distrófico, textura média, u [...] tilizando-se covas com níveis residuais de fertilidade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições (duas linhas com quatro plantas, espaçadas de 1,5x1,0 m) e quatro tratamentos principais (ureia, em cobertura: 0,0; 20,0; 40,0 e 60 g planta-1 correspondendo a 0,0; 60,0; 120,0 e 180,0 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, em duas parcelas), com a cv Dardo. Além de dois tratamentos adicionais, representados pelo esterco de galinha (1,0 L por cova, com a cv Dardo) e pela cv Santa Cruz-47 (com 40 g planta-1 de ureia). As covas receberam micronutrientes e irrigação por gotejamento. As características avaliadas mostraram incrementos quadráticos com as doses de ureia. Os maiores valores da altura de planta (39,7 cm), do diâmetro de copa (86,2 cm), do número de frutos (36 unidades planta-1), da massa média de fruto (17,3 g), do número de colheitas no ciclo produtivo (26,4 unidades ciclo-1) e da produtividade (4051 kg ha-1) ocorreram com (g planta-1 de ureia): 48,3; 43,5; 38,5 g; 49,7; 32,7; e 40,5, respectivamente. As características originais concorreram com razoável equilíbrio para o desempenho geral da planta (CP1), evidenciando-se, secundariamente, antagonismo entre colheitas por ciclo e frutos por planta contra a massa média de fruto e o diâmetro de copa (CP2). O esterco de galinha proporcionou desempenho idêntico ao da ureia e sobressaiu ao tratamento sem ureia, para todas as características. A cv Santa Cruz-47 superou a cv Dardo somente para o diâmetro de copa e número de colheitas. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi 40,2 g de ureia planta-1 (120,6 kg ha-1 de N), com renda líquida por hectare de 2,09 toneladas de quiabo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the Amazonian rainy season, the effect of nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization. The trial was carried out in the Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, in Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil, between October/2010 and February/2011, [...] in dystrophic Yellow Argisoil, medium texture, using pits with residual fertility. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four repetitions (two lines with four plants, spacing of 1.5x1.0 m) and four main treatments (urea: 0.0; 20.0; 40.0 and 60.0 g plant-1 corresponding to 0.0; 60.0; 120.0 and 180.0 kg ha-1 of N, respectively, in two portions) using cv Dardo. Besides two additional treatments: chicken manure (1.0 L pit-1, with the cv Dardo) and cv Santa Cruz-47 (with urea rate of 40.0 g plant-1). Micronutrients in pits and dripping system irrigation were applied. All the studied traits had significant quadratic response with the increase of the urea rates. The highest estimated value for the plant height (39.7 cm), canopy diameter (86.2 cm), fruit number (36.0 un plant-1), fruit average mass (17.3 g), harvest number within production cycle (26.4 un cycle-1) and of the yield (4051 kg ha-1) were observed with (g plant-1 of urea): 48.3; 43.5; 38.5; 49.7; 32.7; and 40.5, respectively. Those original traits contributed reasonably poised for plant overall performance (PC1), but subordinate there was antagonism between harvest number and fruit number versus fruit average mass and canopy diameter (PC2). The chicken manure showed positive response compared to the control treatment, but didn't differ from urea rates for all these characteristics. When compared to cv Dardo, the cv Santa Cruz-47 only presented higher values to canopy diameter and number of harvests. The economical efficiency maximum dose was 40.2 g plant-1 of urea (120.6 kg ha-1 of N), with net income per hectare equal to 2.09 tons of okra fruits.

  15. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. S. Franca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Material and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85. Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8% patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4% treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%: 88.7/82, D90(Gy: 149.2/140.3, D90(%: 104.2/93.8, V150 (%: 53.8/47, respectively. No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33, PSA (p = 0.391, prostate volume (p = 0.397, activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109, number of seeds (p = 0.338, V100 (p = 0.332, although significant differences were measured in the values of D90(% and Gy (p = 0.022 and 0.011 and V150 (p = 0.023. Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry.

  16. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos A. S., Franca; Sergio L., Vieira; Antonio C. P., Carvalho; Antonio J. S., Bernabe; Antonio B. R., Penna.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Material and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, [...] PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85). Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8%) patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4%) treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%): 88.7/82, D90(Gy): 149.2/140.3, D90(%): 104.2/93.8, V150 (%): 53.8/47, respectively). No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33), PSA (p = 0.391), prostate volume (p = 0.397), activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109), number of seeds (p = 0.338), V100 (p = 0.332), although significant differences were measured in the values of D90(% and Gy) (p = 0.022 and 0.011) and V150 (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry.

  17. Farmers, seeds and varieties : supporting informal seed supply in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Thijssen, M.H.; Bishaw, Z.; Beshir, A.; Boef, W.S., de

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia is characterized by an enormous diversity in agro-ecosystems, crops and varieties, with the informal seed systems dominant in seed supply for almost all crops. The book addresses strategies and approaches through which professionals can support informal seed supply, and links these with the conservation and use of the huge genetic resource base of crops and local varieties. The book looks at informal seed supply from a number of different angles, introduces key concepts and strategie...

  18. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differ...

  19. 76 FR 31790 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...latest in seed testing and seed certification knowledge and...Richard C. Payne, Chief, Seed Regulatory and Testing Branch, Livestock and Seed Program, AMS, 801 Summit...reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)....

  20. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  1. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN L. ORROCk; ELLEN I. DAMSCHEN

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds? primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  3. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  4. COFFEE SEED PHYSIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are more than 70 species of Coffea (Rubiaceae), but only C. arabica and C. canephora are used commercially. Better understanding of seed physiology within Coffea will facilitate the incorporation of genetic traits for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses from wild relatives into commerci...

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  6. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  7. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  8. Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks

    OpenAIRE

    Mourik, T.A., van; Stomph, T.J.; A.J. Murdoch

    2005-01-01

    1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate levels of pathogens and influence seed mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of fungi and seed density within buried mesh bags on the mortality of seeds. Striga hermonthica ...

  9. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

  10. IMPACT OF IMPROVED SEEDS ON SMALL FARMERS' PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF BARA LOCALITY IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of small farmers in Bara locality.

  11. Effect of Intercropping Okra (Hibiscus esclentus with Pumpkin (Curcubita maxima Dutch ex Lam on Some Growth Parameters and Economic Yield of Maize (Zea mays and Maximization of Land Use in a Fadama Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to harness fadama lands in Niger-delta as a result of dearth of fertile arable land due to soil infertility from little or no fallow period. This study was carried out, to determine the compatibility of okra, pumpkin and maize in a fadama soil. Oba super2 variety of maize, NHae 47-4 variety of okra and locally sourced pumpkin were sown in October, 2003 and repeated in October 2004, in a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates. Maize and okra were monitored weekly for 8 and 10 weeks respectively for plant height and number of leaves while pumpkin were accessed for % vine coverage. Observation were carried for weed biomass, economic yield, aggregate yield and land equivalent ratio were calculated from the economic yield. The result of the 2 year study showed, that growth parameters did not all follow a consistend trend, although sole crops performed better than in their crop associations. The presence of pumpkin significantly reduced weeds growth in the crop associations. The economic or relative economic yield was significantly higher (p<0.05 in sole crops than in the individual crops of the association, but the aggregate yield was higher in the crop association than in their sole crops plot. The land equivalent ratio was highest in 3 crop association (1.97 than 2 crop association and least in sole crops of 1.00.

  12. SEDA (SEed DAtabase).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    Praha : Botanická zahrada hl. m. Prahy, 2005 - (Sekerka, P.), s. 64-65 ISBN 80-903697-0-7. [Introdukce a genetické zdroje rostlin. Botanické zahrady v novém ticíciletí. Praha (CZ), 05.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : database, seed, diaspore, fruit, Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Carlos A.S.; Vieira, Sergio L.; Bernabe, Antonio J.S.; Penna, Antonio B.R. [Brazilian Institute of Oncology, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Radioterapia Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosfranca@cremerj.org.br; Carvalho, Antonio C.P. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital

    2009-09-15

    Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V{sub 100}, V{sub 150} and D{sub 90} were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85). Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8%) patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4%) treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V{sub 100}(%): 88.7/82, D{sub 90}(Gy): 149.2/140.3, D{sub 90}(%): 104.2/93.8, V{sub 150} (%): 53.8/47, respectively). No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33), PSA (p = 0.391), prostate volume (p 0.397), activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109), number of seeds (p 0.338), V{sub 100} (p = 0.332), although significant differences were measured in the values of D{sub 90} (% and Gy) (p = 0.022 and 0.011) and V{sub 150} (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry. (author)

  14. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  15. Improving soybean seed quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the meal and oil fractions of soybeans may be genetically improved, either by mutagenesis or by genetic engineering. There are a number of mutant lines of soybeans containing a low raffinosaccharide meal, which can be used for animal feed, with an improved total metabolizable energy content. Mutant lines with an improved fatty acid profile of the oil include high oleic and high stearic soybeans. Cloning of the mutant genes facilitates the integration of these traits into high yielding elite lines by providing molecular markers. Cloned genes may also be reintroduced into soybeans to create transgenic lines with improved meal and oil traits, such as seeds with an increased lysine content and stable soybean oils with a very low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The design of transgene constructs has been assisted by using soybean somatic embryos in suspension culture as a model system for soybean seed transformation. This system has allowed selection of those genes and promoters that are the most effective way of achieving the desired phenotypes in soybeans. Experiments with constructs containing fatty acid biosynthesis genes in somatic embryos have also led to the conclusion that, in soybeans, gene-transgene sense suppression is a more effective way of silencing endogenous genes than antisense. Sense suppression of genes encoding microsomal, fatty acid omega-6 desaturates has resulted in soybean lines with over 80% oleic acid in their seed oil, and this trait is stable over at least three generations. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  16. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  17. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed fate, and may be helpful in developing models to predict seed shadows and recruitment patterns of large-seeded trees.

  18. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 ...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim...

  19. Magnetic biostimulation of wheat seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornarzyński K.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation carried out at the Department of Physics, University of Agriculture in Lublin consisted in the application of an alternating magnetic field (50 Hz, harmonic vibration for the biostimulation of wheat seeds.The purpose of research was to define the effect of the magnetic biostimulation on the germination of seeds. The wheat seeds were subjected to 18 different magnetic ex- posure doses. For the next investigation two magnetic exposure doses were selected. On the basis of the research, it can be said that germination capacity of wheat seeds de- pends on the magnetic exposure dose. The speed of germi- nation of the treated seeds was higher than in the case of untreated ones. The seeds with the highest moisture content and subjected to a higher magnetic exposure dose had the highest speed of germination. Maximum speed of germi- nation for all the studied combinations was observed 35 h after magnetic biostimulation.

  20. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  1. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A.J.G., van

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the functioning of the wheat seed system in four major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. A total of 304 wheat growers were interviewed in Arsi, West Shoa, North Shoa, and East Gojam zones. Most wheat growers w...

  2. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: farmers' varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A.J.G., van

    2011-01-01

    A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides (93%), seed treatment (90%) or insecticides (41%). In contrast barley growers had low awareness (36%) and use (0.5%) of modern varieties, herbicides (4%), insecticides (3%) and fertilizers (56%). Gra...

  3. Nutrição mineral de hortaliças: XIX - absorção de macro e micronutrientes pela cultura do quiabeiro (Hibiscus esculentum L.) / Mineral nutrition of vegetable crops: XIX. absorption of macro and micronutrientes by okra plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. C. B., Costa; H. P., Haag; J. R., Sarruge.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar aspectos da nutrição mineral do quiabeiro (Hibiscus esculentus L.), no que concerne a: quantidades de macro e micronutrientes extraídos nas diversas fases do desenvolvimento, em duas variedades (Campinas 1 e Green Velvet). Sementes de ambas variedades f [...] oram postas a germinar em vasos contendo silica e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa. Plantas foram coletadas em períodos de 10 dias até aos 70 dias de idade, separadas em caule, folhas, flores e frutos. No material coletado foi determinado o peso da matéria seca e analizado quantitativamente para macro e micronutrientes, com excessão do cloro. Observou-se que o desenvolvimento em altura é idêntico em ambas as variedades; variedade Campinas 1 apresenta maior peso de matéria seca no final do ciclo; a extração dos nutrientes é lenta até aos 20 dias, acentuando-se após este período até o final do ciclo, em ambas as variedades; a extração de potássio pela var. Green Velvet é aproximadamente o dobro da var. Campinas 1; a var. Campinas 1 extrai maiores quantidades de micronutrientes. Abstract in english Plants of the varieties. - Campinas 1 and Green Velvet, were cultivated under nutrition solution conditions (SARRUGE, 1970). Periodically, every 10 days, from the 10th day up plants were harvested, divided into stalks, leaves, flowers, fruits and analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn an [...] d Mb. Conclusions: Okra plants of the variety Campinas 1 showed a higher dry matter production in confront with the variety Green Velvet at the final stage of growth; The extraction of nutrients by plants of both varieties was rather small until the age of 20 days; The extraction on K by the variety Green Velvet was superior in 100% when compared to the variety Campinas 1. The variety Green Velvet has a greater demand in macronutrients than the variety Campinas ¹; In contrast the variety Campinas 1 extracted superior quantities of the micronutrientes than the variety Green Velvet. On ha of okra plants (20,000) removed the following quantities in nutrients:

  4. Seed production and quality of pinus durangensis mart., from seed areas and a seed stand in durango, mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development. (author)

  5. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...Richard C. Payne, Chief, Seed Regulatory and Testing Branch, Livestock and Seed Program, AMS, 801 Summit...reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Executive...Many small entities ship seed in interstate commerce....

  6. Seed cryopreservation of Halimium and Helianthemum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Félix; González-Benito, M Elena

    2008-01-01

    Seed germination of four Halimium species [H. atriplicifolium, H.hHalimifolium, H. ocymoides, H. umbellatum] and eight Helianthemum species [H. almeriense pau, H. appeninum.,H. cinereum, H. hirtum, H. marifolium, H. nummularium, H. syriacum, H. squamatum], all cistaceae species from the mediterranean region, was studied after seed storage in liquid nitrogen (Ln, -196C) for four months. In all samples assayed, mechanical scarification of the seed coat was carried out to enhance seed germination. For most samples studied, final germination percentages were unaffected by storage of seeds in Ln, both for intact seeds and for scarified seeds. The germination rate of cryopreserved seeds, expressed as days to reach 50 percent of the final germination percentage, was lower only for four samples of intact seeds and for three samples of scarified seeds. Therefore, this study shows that seed cryopreservation could be a suitable procedure for the long-term seed conservation of several Halimium and Helianthemum species. PMID:19137189

  7. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  8. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  9. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  10. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Ombir Singh; Altaf Hussain Sofi

    2013-01-01

    A clonal seed orchard (CSO) of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand) was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlate...

  11. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesemoye, A O; Obini, M; Ugoji, E O

    2008-07-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms. PMID:24031240

  12. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    OpenAIRE

    Gamel, T. H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1¿10.2% of the oil. The squalene content was 4.8¿4.9% in both types of oil. Air classification increased the lipid content and decreased the content of squalene, while heating (popping and cooking) ...

  13. Seed dormancy and consequences for direct tree seeding

    OpenAIRE

    Frochot, H; Balandier, P.; Sourisseau, A.

    2009-01-01

    Direct tree seeding was used in the past in afforestation and has nowadays a renewed interest due to its potential low cost, better tree seedling establishment and easiness to use in comparison with tree plantation. However many problems must still be solved before its full development. Seeds of forest trees are frequently dormant when harvested or after a period of storage and their germination needs the release of dormancy, either by exposition to natural climate, or by artificial means whe...

  14. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means...

  15. Relationship between eggplant seed morphology and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Neumann Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural differences such as abnormalities, damage and free spaces in seeds may affect germination. The aim of this study was to study the relationship between eggplant seed morphology and seed germination. Ten seed lots of the eggplant cultivar Embu were evaluated by X-ray image analysis and the germination test. Seed image analysis was performed by Image Pro Plus® software and the whole seed area and free space between the embryo and endosperm were measured. The internal seed area filled by the embryo and endosperm was calculated from the difference between the whole seed and free space areas. Based on these results and visual seed analysis, seeds were classified into three categories and information on germination was obtained for each one. X-ray image analysis provides a perfect view of the internal seed parts and for seed morphology studies. An increase in seed area filled by the endosperm and embryo does not improve seed germination. Mechanical seed damage and deteriorated tissues can adversely affect seed germination.

  16. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  17. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Conrad; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms that are designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes increasingly important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  18. Aerodynamic and geometric properties of amaranth seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Szot B.; Kram B.

    1999-01-01

    Geometrical properties (thickness, width and length) of individual amaranth seeds were measured by means of an optic device. The measurements allowed us to be calculated the values of seeds bearing surface for esti- mating aerodynamic properties. The determination of aero- dynamic properties was performed using prototype ap- paratus adapted to suit the size of amaranth seeds. With such parameters as: dynamic pressure, seed mass and seed bear- ing surface basic aerodynamic properties: critical...

  19. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  20. Seed storage proteins in coffee

    OpenAIRE

    BAÚ SANDRA M. T.; MAZZAFERA PAULO; SANTORO LUIZ G.

    2001-01-01

    It has been reported that Coffea arabica seeds contain as the main reserve protein, a legumin-like protein, constituted of two subunits, alpha and beta, of approximately 35 and 20 kDa. In this work the seed proteins of several coffee species and varieties were investigated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. No differences were observed in the electrophoretic profiles among varieties of C. arabica, however, marked differences were observed among species, or even among individuals of some species....

  1. Grafted natural polymer as new drag reducing agent: An experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulbari Hayder A.; Kamarulizam Nuraffini Siti; Nour A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation introduces a new natural drag reducing agent which has the ability to improve the flow in pipelines carrying aqueous or hydrocarbon liquids in turbulent flow. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) mucilage drag reduction performance was tested in water and hydrocarbon (gas-oil) media after grafting. The drag reduction test was conducted in a buildup closed loop liquid circulation system consists of two pipes 0.0127 and 0.0381 m Inside Diameter (ID), four testing sectio...

  2. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  3. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  4. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Selection for contrasting seed tocopherol content in sunflower seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Varo, Leonardo; Moral, Lidia del; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Fernández Martínez, José María

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower oil, with more than 09 of tocopherols in the alpha-tocopherol form, supplies more vitamin E than any other vegetable oil. Thus far, no breeding to increase vitamin E levels in sunflower seeds has been conducted. The objective of the present research was to develop sunflower lines with high and low total seed tocopherol content through evaluation and subsequent selection of a large germplasm collection (952 sunflower entries). A range of variation from 119 to 491 mg/kg was found. Sel...

  6. CT, MR, and ultrasound image artifacts from prostate brachytherapy seed implants: The impact of seed size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of brachytherapy seed size on the quality of x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) images and seed localization through comparison of the 6711 and 9011 125I sources. Methods: For CT images, an acrylic phantom mimicking a clinical implantation plan and embedded with low contrast regions of interest (ROIs) was designed for both the 0.774 mm diameter 6711 (standard) and the 0.508 mm diameter 9011 (thin) seed models (Oncura, Inc., and GE Healthcare, Arlington Heights, IL). Image quality metrics were assessed using the standard deviation of ROIs between the seeds and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) within the low contrast ROIs. For US images, water phantoms with both single and multiseed arrangements were constructed for both seed sizes. For MR images, both seeds were implanted into a porcine gel and imaged with pelvic imaging protocols. The standard deviation of ROIs and CNR values were used as metrics of artifact quantification. Seed localization within the CT images was assessed using the automated seed finder in a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system. The number of erroneous seed placements and the average and maximum error in seed placements were recorded as metrics of the localization accuracy. Results: With the thin seeds, CT image noise was reduced from 48.5 ± 0.2 to 32.0 ± 0.2 HU and CNR improved by a median value of 74% when compared with the standard seeds. Ultrasound image noise was measured at 50.3 ± 17.1 dB for the thin seed images and 50.0 ± 19.8 dB for the standard seed images, and artifacts directly behind the seeds were smaller and less prominent with the thin seed model. For MR images, CNR of the standard seeds reduced on average 17% when using the thin seeds for all different imaging sequences and seed orientations, but these differences are not appreciable. Automated seed localization required an average (±SD) of 7.0 ± 3.5 manual corrections in seed positions for the thin seed scans and 3.0 ± 1.2 manual corrections in seed positions for the standard seed scans. The average error in seed placement was 1.2 mm for both seed types and the maximum error in seed placement was 2.1 mm for the thin seed scans and 1.8 mm for the standard seed scans. Conclusions: The 9011 thin seeds yielded significantly improved image quality for CT and US images but no significant differences in MR image quality.

  7. CT, MR, and ultrasound image artifacts from prostate brachytherapy seed implants: The impact of seed size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Andrew K. H.; Basran, Parminder S.; Thomas, Steven D.; Wells, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Cancer Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V3V 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Cancer Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of brachytherapy seed size on the quality of x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) images and seed localization through comparison of the 6711 and 9011 {sup 125}I sources. Methods: For CT images, an acrylic phantom mimicking a clinical implantation plan and embedded with low contrast regions of interest (ROIs) was designed for both the 0.774 mm diameter 6711 (standard) and the 0.508 mm diameter 9011 (thin) seed models (Oncura, Inc., and GE Healthcare, Arlington Heights, IL). Image quality metrics were assessed using the standard deviation of ROIs between the seeds and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) within the low contrast ROIs. For US images, water phantoms with both single and multiseed arrangements were constructed for both seed sizes. For MR images, both seeds were implanted into a porcine gel and imaged with pelvic imaging protocols. The standard deviation of ROIs and CNR values were used as metrics of artifact quantification. Seed localization within the CT images was assessed using the automated seed finder in a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system. The number of erroneous seed placements and the average and maximum error in seed placements were recorded as metrics of the localization accuracy. Results: With the thin seeds, CT image noise was reduced from 48.5 {+-} 0.2 to 32.0 {+-} 0.2 HU and CNR improved by a median value of 74% when compared with the standard seeds. Ultrasound image noise was measured at 50.3 {+-} 17.1 dB for the thin seed images and 50.0 {+-} 19.8 dB for the standard seed images, and artifacts directly behind the seeds were smaller and less prominent with the thin seed model. For MR images, CNR of the standard seeds reduced on average 17% when using the thin seeds for all different imaging sequences and seed orientations, but these differences are not appreciable. Automated seed localization required an average ({+-}SD) of 7.0 {+-} 3.5 manual corrections in seed positions for the thin seed scans and 3.0 {+-} 1.2 manual corrections in seed positions for the standard seed scans. The average error in seed placement was 1.2 mm for both seed types and the maximum error in seed placement was 2.1 mm for the thin seed scans and 1.8 mm for the standard seed scans. Conclusions: The 9011 thin seeds yielded significantly improved image quality for CT and US images but no significant differences in MR image quality.

  8. Iodin 125 seed lost after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution induced by lost radioactive seeds is an important social problem. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the time and place where lost seeds were found and to develop a method to prevent the loss of seeds from the time of insertion to the discharge of the patient from the hospital. A total of 121 cases (7718 seeds) who received permanent insertion treatment from July 2006 to Dec 2007 were evaluated. During this period, the time and place of lost seeds was estimated from the place where the seeds were found. A total of 43 seeds were found before discharge for a rate of 0.56% (43/7718). Four seeds were found in the operating room. Two seeds were found in the in-patient room before the balloon catheter was removed. Five seeds were removed from the bladder by surgery using cystoscopy. In addition, 32 seeds were found in the room when surveying the room for patient discharge. Five seeds were brought from the patient's house after discharge. To prevent the loss of seeds from the patients' room, which is the best way prevent environmental pollution, careful monitoring and careful surveys of the room are needed. (author)

  9. Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Farooq; A, Wahid; Kadambot H. M, Siddique.

    Full Text Available Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutri [...] ent seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.

  10. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  11. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals...SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms. When used in conjunction with or...

  12. Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farooq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutrient seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.

  13. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture,...

  14. Preliminary Studies on the Characterization of Orange Seed and Pawpaw Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Ihedioha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of seeds and oil extracted from both papaya and orange seeds. The seeds of papaya and orange are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of papaya and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. The seeds were collected from homes and the oils obtained by solvent extraction were analysed for pH, moisture content, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification value, free fatty acid, acid value, iodine value and peroxide value. The orange seed cake was analysed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, nitrogen and crude protein. Results showed that the oil content of the pawpaw seeds was 25.8% while that of the orange seeds was 34%. Crude protein of the orange seed was 43.72%, which was higher than that of established high protein seeds and nuts. The orange seeds had higher yield of oil than the pawpaw seeds and the nutritive content of the orange seeds makes it suitable as feed for animals. However, the acid value for pawpaw seed oil was 47.12 while that of orange seed oil was 51.40. With respect to the acid value, the oil from pawpaw seed might be better oil. However, both oils still need to be refined before they are utilized.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  16. Growth of plants and preservation of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Lepinckas, Luz; Crist, Deborah; Scholl, Randy

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on growth of plants on agar and soil in various environmental settings and especially in growth chambers and greenhouses. Harvesting, seed quality, and seed preservation are also considered. In addition, this chapter elaborates the conditions that are critical to the growth and development of healthy plants that produce high quality and quantity of seeds. The plant and seed management methods are discussed in the chronological order in which they would normally be utilized. PMID:16739563

  17. Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review

    OpenAIRE

    M Farooq; Wahid, A; Kadambot H. M Siddique

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutrient seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improvin...

  18. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink; Tsegaye, A; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...

  19. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  20. Study on the seed laser phase error multiplication in seeded free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanglei, E-mail: wangguanglei@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Chao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Dong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Deng, Haixiao, E-mail: denghaixiao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-02-11

    Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) hold a great promise for generating high brilliant radiation with a narrow bandwidth. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser noise will be amplified in the harmonic up-conversion process, which may degrade the output radiation pulse quality of a seeded FEL. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies of seeded FEL schemes with seed laser imperfections are presented. It is found that the slippage effect in the modulator will slow down the multiplication process of the seed laser phase error, which may aid in the production of transform-limited short-wavelength pulses for seeded FELs.

  1. Study on the seed laser phase error multiplication in seeded free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) hold a great promise for generating high brilliant radiation with a narrow bandwidth. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser noise will be amplified in the harmonic up-conversion process, which may degrade the output radiation pulse quality of a seeded FEL. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies of seeded FEL schemes with seed laser imperfections are presented. It is found that the slippage effect in the modulator will slow down the multiplication process of the seed laser phase error, which may aid in the production of transform-limited short-wavelength pulses for seeded FELs

  2. Physicochemical Properties of Moringa stenopetala (Haleko Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Seifu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical properties of Moringa stenopetala (Haleko seeds produced in Mella district of Gamo Gofa Zone in southern Ethiopia are reported here for the first time. The average weight of the whole intact seeds (g/100 seeds, the kernel (g/100 seeds and an individual seed (g seed-1 was 73.6, 59.6 and 0.6 g, respectively. The kernel accounted for 79.7% of the seed’s dry weight and the hull accounted for 20.3%. The M. stenopetala seeds analyzed had an average length, width and bulk density of 17.6 mm, 8.2 mm and 0.9 g cm3, respectively. The mean moisture, oil, protein, ash and crude fiber contents of the M. stenopetala seeds analyzed were 6.1, 41.4, 42.6, 4.6 and 5.1 (g/100 g, respectively. The residue that remained after oil extraction of the seeds had an average crude protein content of 55.6 (g/100 g. The results showed that M. stenopetala seed contains high oil and protein contents suggesting that it could be used as important source of oil and protein.

  3. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

  4. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

  5. Drying kinetics of jatropha seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Cambuy Siqueira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the necessity of developing jatropha cultivation equipment, this work adjusted different mathematical models to experimental data obtained from the drying of jatropha seeds submitted to different drying conditions and selected the best model to describe the drying process. The experiment was carried out at the Federal Institute of Goiás - Rio Verde Campus. Seeds with initial moisture content of approximately 0.50 (kg water/kg dry matter were dried in a forced air-ventilated oven, at temperatures of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105°C to moisture content of 0.10 ± 0.005 (kg water/kg dry matter. The experimental data were adjusted to 11 mathematical models to represent the drying process of agricultural products. The models were compared using the coefficient of determination, chi-square test, relative mean error, estimated mean error and residual distribution. It was found that the increase in the air temperature caused a reduction in the drying time of seeds. The models Midilli and Two Terms were suitable to represent the drying process of Jatropha seeds and between them the use of the Midili model is recommended due to its greater simplicity.

  6. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A.J.G., van

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed samples from Ethiopia and 206 wheat and 200 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples from Syria were collected from major wheat and barley growing regions to investigate the quality of seed obtained from...

  7. Smallholder seed practices : maize seed management in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Badstue, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to contribute to an in­creased understanding of what is commonly referred to as 'local seed systems', 'farmer seed systems' or 'informal seed systems', both in relation to seed supply for agricultural production and in relation to the conservation of important crop genetic diversity. Within a general understanding of seed as an essential input for agricultural production, as well as a fundamental source of germplasm for crop improvement, this study offers a detailed analysi...

  8. Inflorescence characteristics, seed composition, and allometric relationships predicting seed yields in the biomass crop Cynara cardunculus

    OpenAIRE

    Archontoulis, S.V.; Struik, P. C.; X Yin; Bastiaans, L.; de Vos, J; Danalatos, N. G.

    2010-01-01

    Cynara (Cynara cardunculus) is a perennial C3 herb that has its potential as bioenergy crop. This paper aims (a) to derive empirical relationships to predict cynara seed yield per head and per unit area, avoiding laborious extraction of seeds from the complex structure of its inflorescences; (b) to determine the head-weight distribution per unit area, the seed composition and the oil profile of cynara seeds; and (c) to estimate the range of cynara biomass, seed and oil yield in representative...

  9. Seasonal Variation in Seed Dispersal by Tamarins Alters Seed Rain in a Secondary Rain Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Culot, Laurence; Muñoz Lazo, Fernando; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Poncin, Pascal; Heymann, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    Reduced dispersal of large seeds into degraded areas is one of the major factors limiting rain forest regeneration, as many seed dispersers capable of transporting large seeds avoid these sites with a limited forest cover. However, the small size of tamarins allows them to use small trees, and hence to disperse seeds into young secondary forests. Seasonal variations in diet and home range use might modify their contribution to forest regeneration through an impact on the seed rain. For a 2-yr...

  10. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Murali, NS.; Thabonithy, R.

    1997-01-01

    Water productivity (WP) of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May) and wet (August to December) seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding) and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding). In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for r...

  11. Mutation breeding in seed spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed spice is one of the important groups of crops cultivated in India for their large domestic consumption and bright export potential. But while the yield potential of the crops covered under this group is generally low, these crops generally also suffer from lack of usable variation for important yield traits and disease resistance in the germplasm collection and even if present may not be used with ease on account of very small size of their flower, thus restricting the crop improvement programs. We have, therefore, applied mutation breeding using gamma irradiation and chemical mutagens (EMS and Sodium Azide) for creation of variability for improvement of yield of major seed spice crops like Cumin, Coriander, Fennel and Fenugreek. Both M1 and M2 generations resulting from treatment of the mutagens were studied in respect of yield and yield attributes and other phenotypic alterations (Chlorophyll and other macro mutations) in certain genotype of these crops. Fenugreek was found relatively most radio and chemo-resistant followed by cumin. Mutagenic efficiency also varied noticeably between crops and mutagens; gamma rays were relatively more potent on cumin as compared to chemical mutagens whereas on fennel it was just reverse. Efficient mutagens more often yielded superior M2 progenies, i.e. progenies with significantly higher yield than their parent in fenugreek, fennel and cumin. Seed yield per plant of M2 progenies varied to different extents e.g. the yield was as high as 289% in coriander, 269 % in cumin, 122% in fennel and least in fenugreek (83%). In coriander specifically, one of the advance generation mutant showed increase in essential oil content along with seed yield comparable to the parent. The usefulness of induced mutations for improvement of seed yield is discussed (author)

  12. Production of true seed shallots in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, L., van den; Basuki, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Shallot production in Indonesia is based on crops grown from seed bulbs. The introduction of True Seed Shallot (TSS) could be an option to improve competiveness of Indonesian shallot production. In the period 2007 till 2010 a research project was conducted to improve growing techniques of TSS. Seed emergence in the nursery was improved if the seed was sown in furrows 0.5-1.5 cm deep and by closing the furrow after sowing with soil instead of burned rice husks. Compared to traditional seed bul...

  13. Effect of Physical Seed Sorting, Seed Treatment with Garlic Extract and Vitavax 200 on Seed Borne Fungal Flora and Seed Yield of Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.A. Islam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of physical seed sorting, seed treatment with garlic extract (1:2 and Vitavax 200 (0.4% were investigated for controlling seed borne fungal flora and seed yield of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.. Seed health test of jute revealed that farmer`s saved seed (control yielded all together 13 different fungi of 11 genera. Prevalence of Colletotrichum corchori, Macrophomina phaseolina, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were by 4.25, 10.75, 2.00, 4.25, 27.20, 8.00 and 22.50%, respectively. Septonema secedens Corda. was recorded as seed borne for the first time in jute. Garlic extract and Vitavax 200 increased the yield of jute by 47.38% and 46.05%, respectively over farmer`s saved seed (control when grown in the net house. Under field conditions seed treatment with garlic extract and Vitavax 200 increased seed yield by 77.50 and 82.50%, respectively over farmer`s saved seed.

  14. Seed germination, Dispersal and Seed Bank in Heracleum mantegazzianum.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Krinke, L.; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Thompson, K.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock , M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 74-91 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Germination * Dormancy * Seed Bank Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Cultivating knowledge on seed systems and seed strategies: Case of the rice crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Moustapha Bèye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives key information about seed systems with the objective of helping countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA to design appropriate strategies based on their own local realities. It starts with an in-depth assessment of the rice seed sector and emphasizes the factors that can influence its development. These factors may be associated with the biological characteristics of the rice crop, the complexity of farming systems, the policy environment, and the markets. The historical background of the seed sector in SSA is described in order to give a clear picture of the different attempts to find solutions in different countries and sub-regions. Five major strategic models and several alternative seed strategies are identified. However, local traditional seed systems will remain the primary source of seed supply for the majority of farmers for many years to come. These systems are based on farmer-saved seed and farmer-to-farmer seed exchanges, which are efficient tools in seed dissemination and food security. It is time to recognize local traditional systems and their contribution to the maintenance of seed quality and crop diversity and to develop tools for their better utilization. The community-based seed system (CBSS is proposed as such a tool. CBSS encourages technicians to recognize local traditional seed systems and to build integrated seed approaches that take into consideration local realities and the socio-cultural dimension of seed within African communities. This will likely require a transition period of 5 to 10 years to build the fundamentals of sustainable seed systems through the structuring of the seed sector and the creation of appropriate conditions to ensure food security, enriched biodiversity and sustainable production. With climate change, local traditional seed systems, as well as integrated seed approaches, will likely play a more important role to improve the performance of agricultural systems while ensuring farmer autonomy.

  16. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal at a range of spatial scales in complex seed-disperser networks, thus providing a robust and widely applicable framework for future studies. PMID:24669744

  17. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2013-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seed quality is important for subsequent establishment of baby leaf and other spinach products. The indeterminate flowering pattern in spinach produces seeds of different sizes, and consequently a non-uniform seed lot. Sorting seeds based on novel sorting methods might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest times 6 d apart were selected for further studies of seed development and germination counts. Analysis of mean germination time (MGT) of four germination counts (3, 7, 14 and 21 d) showed that smaller seed sizes ( 3.25 mm). A larger proportion of 2.5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide a useful tool for enhancing seed quality. Here our results demonstrate that a greater number of seeds with a low CF level had germinated on day 3 compared to the seeds with high CF levels. It is of relevance to develop a technology that could identify seeds that are sufficiently developed to germinate and successfully establish in the field regardless of seed size.

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte; Rolston, M P; Chastain, T G

    2013-01-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in ...

  19. Suppressive mechanism of seed coat pigmentation in yellow soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Senda, Mineo; Kurauchi, Tasuku; Kasai, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Shizen

    2012-01-01

    In soybean seeds, numerous variations in colors and pigmentation patterns exist, most of which are observed in the seed coat. Patterns of seed coat pigmentation are determined by four alleles (I, ii, ik and i) of the classically defined I locus, which controls the spatial distribution of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in the seed coat. Most commercial soybean cultivars produce yellow seeds with yellow cotyledons and nonpigmented seed coats, which are important traits of high-quality seeds...

  20. Seed loss through the urinary tract and retrieval after prostate seed implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes our experience with seed loss and retrieval through the urinary tract following seed implants for prostate cancer, and offers Japanese guidelines for safety and management. Two hundred consecutive patients were analyzed. All patients were preplanned with a modified peripheral loading technique and implanted with a Mick applicator under ultrasound guidance. All patients were instructed to return excreted seeds, if any, to our center. Seed loss occurred in 6% of patients and 0.13% of seeds. Seed loss tended to occur in the early period through either urine or ejaculation. (author)

  1. Hormones and tomato seed germination.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of all, it was demonstrated that endogenous ABA plays an important role in induction of primary dormancy, prevention of viviparous germination and arresting cell cycle activities of the radicle-tip c...

  2. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. Results: The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the observed potential negative effect in this trial, future randomized clinical trials may base their design on randomly assigning the exposed patients to give up use of sunflower seed intake. PMID:26473070

  3. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanovi? Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude protein content was so high as the 21.8% of the seeds. Standard procedures were applied to determine the fatty acids composition of the seed oil. The fatty acid profiles of the seed oil showed an unsaturated fatty acid content of 77.4% and the high content of 63.2% of PUFA. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic (18:2 acid in 62.2%. The presence of other fatty acids ranged in 10-14% for oleic (18:1 stearic (18:0 and palmitic (16:0 acids, respectively. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the seed oil was also determined as iodine, acid, saponification, peroxide values and specific gravity.

  4. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  5. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  6. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for prothioconazole in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, France, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance prothioconazole in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. In order to accommodate the intended uses of prothioconazole, France proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the value of 0.1 mg/kg for rape seed and 0.05 mg/kg for the other three oilseeds to 0.15 m...

  7. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the ...

  8. Water uptake curve in physic nut seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Caetano Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is a useful species in oil production for energy purposes, however its agricultural crop counts on little scientific knowledge. This work aimed to determine the water uptake curve in physic nut seeds, with the purpose to help future researches depending on this information. Two batches of seeds were used, represented by two sub-samples (intact seeds and dead seeds of each batch. The water uptake curve was determined weighing samples at specified intervals of time. A fully randomized experimental delineation was applied, with two treatments and four repetitions of 10 seeds each. Data were submitted to Bartlett, Anova and Turkey tests; regression equations were adjusted for the uptake curves. It was concluded that Jatropha curcas seeds follow the three-phases water uptake pattern , being phase I between 0 and 15h, phase II between 15h and 60h and phase three starting after 60h.

  9. Sowing seeds for the future: the need for establishing protocols for the study of seed dormancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Augusto Oliveira, Silveira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is a widely misunderstood plant trait. In several research areas, a lack of germination is wrongly assumed to result from seed dormancy. In an attempt to standardize seed dormancy research and improve communication among seed scientists, a straightforward protocol to address the occurr [...] ence and causes of seed dormancy is provided. Standardizing communication is not just a theoretical exercise but also has practical implications in agriculture and conservation. Standardization will make studies comparable and hence we will have a deeper understanding of the physiology, ecology and evolution of seed dormancy. A better understanding of the various aspects of seed dormancy will lead to greater appreciation of the biogeographical and phylogenetic distribution of seed dormancy among our flora.

  10. Fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments conducted in laboratory, the effect of fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in seeds of barley cultivar BRS Elis, with 58% incidence, was quantified. Fungicides indicated by barley research (carboxin + thiram, difenoconazole and triadimenol compared with the mixture carbendazim + iprodione were tested. As seed dresser adjuvants, water (500m mL/100 Kg and a polymer (150 mL/100 Kg were used. Treated seeds were stored in paper bags and kept in the refrigerator at 5ºC. At 30-day intervals during six months, seeds were plated on semi-selective Reis's medium (1983. The best control was obtained by the mixtures carboxin + thiram and carbendazim + iprodione and the polymer as seed dresser. The control efficiency was improved by the storage time without negatively affecting seed germination. Due to the transmission efficiency, the fungus eradication in seeds should be pursued.

  11. Applicator Training Manual for: Seed Treatment Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeKrony, Dennis M.

    This manual gives general information on seed treatment and type of seeds which can be treated. Also discussed are the problems and pests commonly associated with seed diseases and the fungicides and insecticides used for seed treatment. Information is also given on seed treatment equipment such as dust treaters, slurry treaters, and direct…

  12. Insect seed predators and environmental change

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, OT; Gripenberg, S

    2008-01-01

    1. The seed-to-seedling transition may be a critical stage in determining the dynamics of plant populations. Insects which kill seeds either before or after dispersal can influence the population dynamics of individual plant species, and ultimately, plant diversity and assemblage composition. 2. We discuss the potential for insect seed predators to maintain diversity in plant assemblages and to structure their composition, with a particular focus on diverse tropical forest habitats. We sugges...

  13. Improving Tree Seed Germination by Electrostatic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Zhi-bin Gui,; Antonio Piras; Li-min Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Tree species with shallow dormancy are used for reforestation by airplane sowing in order to establish forest in mountain areas. To enhance germination, the quality of young seedling, an electrostatic field is used to treat pine seeds. Experiments found that treatment effect depended on the dosage, process and vigor index of seeds, and the optimal dosage was 500 kV/m 10 minutes for dry or wet seeds to improve germination, seedling height and root length during initial germination and middle a...

  14. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S. M. T.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (Phemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (Phemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  15. A study of autorotating plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, S; Ide, A; Hoshino, Y; Okamoto, M

    2015-12-01

    A leading edge vortex exists on the upper surface of an autorotating plant seed. The vortex enhances the vertical aerodynamic force acting on the seed and decreases the rate of descent. We analyzed the flight data of rotary seeds and revealed that the lift-drag ratio affects the descent factor more strongly than the vertical force coefficient. This has also been confirmed by falling tests of model rotors, which have various aspect ratios, airfoil shapes and total masses. PMID:26382230

  16. Enhancing seed germination in hybrid tea roses

    OpenAIRE

    SCARIOT, VALENTINA; PIPINO, LUCA

    2011-01-01

    Rose breeders need reliable and efficient germination protocols to exploit all viable embryos in their breeding programme. A combined physical restriction of the seed coat and a physiological dormancy are present in the achenes of hybrid tea roses resulting in variable and not uniform seed germination. In this study, different treatment combinations were assessed to overcome the mechanical resistence of the pericarp and enhance germination. Both chemical and microbial seed scarifi...

  17. Seed Development and Quality in Maize Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Yaeghoob RAEY; Zahra TAJBAKHSH; GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI, Kazem

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate seed development and quality of maize (Zea mays) cultivars (DC-370, SC-500, OSSK-602 and SC-604), a split plot experiment (using R.C.B. design) with three replicates was conducted in 2009 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Subsequently, the quality of seed samples was determined in the laboratory. Germination percentage and seedling dry weight were enhanced, but electr...

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However, seed vigour can be reduced by high-temperature stress both before and after PM. High temperatures induce or increase the physiological deterioration of seeds. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality, particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The seed industry will need to consider management changes to minimize the risk of this occurring.

  19. Impact of Weed Seed Mixture in Seed Health of Aus Rice and Factors Affecting it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazlul Islam

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A socio-agronomical survey and a laboratory experiment on weed seed mixture with rice seed were carried out at the three different villages of Mymensingh district and in the laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh respectively during the period from January to June 2002 to know the farmer’s knowledge and idea about the impact of weed seed mixture on the quality of rice seeds, and to know the status of seed purity in rice collected from different locations of Bangladesh. In the socio-agronomical survey, 100 farmers from six villages e.g. Kazirshimla, Dewanibari, Seedstore, Bharadoba, Churkhai and Rampur under three Upazilas namely Trishal, Bhaluka and Sadar were randomly selected for interview. Pre-prepared questionnaire were used to ask questions on different aspects of weed contamination with rice seeds. Results revealed that 90% farmers of the area cultivated IR50 and only 3% farmers grew BR2 rice variety. They got higher average yields from IR50 (1.96 t ha-1 than other varieties e.g. BR2 (1.65 t ha-1 and BR3 (1.75 t ha-1. Farmers found five noxious weed seeds e.g. Echinochloa crusglli, E. colonum, Cyperus iria, Scirpus spp. and C. difformis in the rice seeds. E. crusgalli was appeared as the notorious weed to rice farmers. Forty percent of the interviewed farmers were educated up to class five and literate farmers used higher seed rate, which led to less weed infestation in the field. Eighty nine percent farmers used their own seed, which were produced and processed with care, and there was less possibility of weed seed contamination. Eight percent farmers used seeds from market, which contained more weed seeds in rice seeds. Laboratory analysis of seed samples collected from different locations of the country revealed that location has an impact on the weed seed mixture in rice seeds. Samples collected from the village more away from Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh contained more weed seeds. The purity percentage of farmers saved seed was about 95% and it contained 0.08% weed seed. The weed seeds found in the farmers saved seed samples were E. crusgalli, E.colonum, Scirpus spp. and Cyperus difformis.

  20. Past and present management influences the seed bank and seed rain in a rural landscape mosaic

    OpenAIRE

    Auffret, Alistair G.; Sara A. O. Cousins

    2011-01-01

    1. Seed bank and seed rain represent dispersal in time and space. They can be important sources of diversity in the rural landscape, where fragmented habitats are linked by their histories. 2. Seed bank, seed rain and above-ground vegetation were sampled in four habitat types (abandoned semi-natural grassland (ABA), grazed former arable field (FAF), mid-field islet (MFI) and grazed semi-natural grassland (SNG)) in a rural landscape in southern Sweden, to examine whether community patterns can...

  1. Seed Survival and Transmission of Cassava Anthracnose Disease, and Seed Treatment Effect on Seedling Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fokunang C.N; C.N.Akem; T Ikotun; Dixon, A. G. O.; E.A. Tembe

    1999-01-01

    Open pollinated seeds from cassava genotypes were used to investigate the survival and transmission of cassava anthracnose disease fungus. Seeds from each genotype were surface- sterilized, cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated for 8 days, at 25?2?C. Microscopic examination indicated that Colletorichum gloeosporioides was one of the seed-borne fungi, with up to 40 per cent incidence in some genotypes. Seeds from five genotypes with high incidence of C. gloeosporioides, were se...

  2. Parasitoid wasps indirectly suppress seed production by stimulating consumption rates of their seed-feeding hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xinqiang; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2015-07-01

    In parasitoid-herbivore-plant food chains, parasitoids may be simultaneously linked with both herbivore hosts and plants, as occurs when herbivores attacked by parasitoids continue to consume plants although they are destined to die. This peculiar property may cause parasitoids to confer a differential trophic cascading effect on plants than that known for typical predators. We hypothesized that larval koinobiont parasitoids would confer an immediate negative effect on plant seed production by stimulating consumption of their seed-predator hosts. We tested this hypothesis in an alpine parasitic food chain of plant seeds, pre-dispersal seed predators (tephritid fly larvae) and koinobiont parasitoids using field observations, a field experiment and a microcosm study. We first compared observed seed production in (i) non-infected capitula, (ii) capitula infected only by seed predators (tephritid flies) and (iii) capitula infected by both seed predators and their parasitoids in five Asteraceae species. Consistent with our hypothesis, seed loss in the capitula with both seed predators and parasitoids was significantly greater than in the capitula infested only by seed predators. This effect was replicated in a controlled field experiment focusing on the most common parasitoid-seed predator-plant interaction chain in our system, in which confounding factors (e.g. density and phenology) were excluded. Here, we show that parasitoids indirectly decreased plant seed production by changing the behaviour of seed predators. In a microcosm study, we show that larval parasitoids significantly extended the growth period and increased the terminal size of their host tephritid maggots. Thus, parasitoids suppressed plant seed production by stimulating the growth and consumption of the fly maggots. In contrast to the typical predator-induced trophic cascade, we highlight the significance of parasitoids indirectly decreasing plant fitness by stimulating consumption by seed predators. Future studies on trophic interactions should consider the net effect of both increased consumption by seed predators and their death after development of parasitoids. PMID:25803150

  3. Seed Dispersers, Seed Predators, and Browsers Act Synergistically as Biotic Filters in a Mosaic Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora, Regino; Matías, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analize the functional influence of animals on the plants they interact with in a mediterranean mountain. We hypothesise that seed dispersers, seed predators, and browsers can act as biotic filters for plant communities. We analyse the combined effects of mutualistic (seed dispersal) and antagonistic (seed predation, herbivory) animal interactions in a mosaic landscape of Mediterranean mountains, basing our results on observational and experimental field. Most of the dispers...

  4. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  5. Phase sensitive Raman process with correlated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phase sensitive Raman scattering was experimentally demonstrated by injecting a Stokes light seed into an atomic ensemble, whose internal state is set in such a way that it is coherent with the input Stokes seed. Such phase sensitive characteristic is a result of interference effect due to the phase correlation between the injected Stokes light field and the internal state of the atomic ensemble in the Raman process. Furthermore, the constructive interference leads to a Raman efficiency larger than other kinds of Raman processes such as stimulated Raman process with Stokes seed injection alone or uncorrelated light-atom seeding. It may find applications in precision spectroscopy, quantum optics, and precise measurement

  6. Weed Seed Labelling with Rare Earth Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dormancy period of weed seed under field conditions so far could not be determined with reliability because of the lack of a suitable method for labelling seed. Rademacher and co-workers labelled weed seed with 35S for studying germination in relation to different methods of soil cultivation. Since 35S has a half-period of 87.1 d only, labelling is practically ineffective after one year. The authors of this paper therefore tried to label weed seed with lanthanum, europium and dysprosium. Since these elements (1) do not occur in the standard soils in interfering quantities, and (2) can easily be determined by neutron activation analysis, they are useful for non-radioactive labelling. In pot experiments they were added like fertilizers before the soil was seeded with Sinapsis alba or Vicia villosa. After harvesting, samples of the plants' roots, stems, leaves, and seed were irradiated in the reactor and the rare earth elements determined by neutron-activation analysis. Evaluation of the results disclosed that traceable quantities of lanthanum, europium, and dysprosium were present in roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the grains of seed. It is the intention, in further experiments, to increase the concentration of the applied elements up to the limit of compatibility, and to find out whether a more concentrated supply will increase the incorporation in seeds. If one of these elements is present in a reasonable concentration, experiments with labelled weed seed will be possible for periods of several years. (author)

  7. Inheritance of seed coat color in sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Laurentin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance mode of seed coat color in sesame. Two crosses and their reciprocals were performed: UCLA37 x UCV3 and UCLA90 x UCV3, of which UCLA37 and UCLA90 are white seed, and UCV3 is brown seed. Results of reciprocal crosses within each cross were identical: F1 seeds had the same phenotype as the maternal parent, and F2 resulted in the phenotype brown color. These results are consistent only with the model in which the maternal effect is the responsible for this trait. This model was validated by recording the seed coat color of 100 F2 plants (F3 seeds from each cross with its reciprocal, in which the 3:1 expected ratio for plants producing brown and white seeds was tested with the chi-square test. Sesame seed color is determined by the maternal genotype. Proposed names for the alleles participating in sesame seed coat color are: Sc1, for brown color; and Sc2, for white color; Sc1 is dominant over Sc2.

  8. Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

  9. Physicochemical and grinding characteristics of dragonhead seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, D.; Mi?, A.; G?adyszewska, B.; Laskowski, J.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Gawlik-Dziki, U.

    2013-12-01

    The results of investigations on the physicochemical and grinding characteristics of Moldavian dragonhead seeds are presented. The data obtained showed that the physical properties (average size, sphericity, surface area, 1 000 seed mass, dynamic angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, and bulk and true densities) of the white and blue form of dragonhead seeds were not significantly different. Both forms of dragonhead showed similar levels of protein (average of 21%), whereas the blue form of dragonhead had a lower fat content (average of 23.1%) and higher mucilage content (13.35%) in comparison to the blue form of seed (24.6 and 9.95%, respectively). Antioxidant capacity of dragonhead seeds was comparable for both forms and averaged about 40%, which corresponded to EC50 values of 0.12 and 0.13 mgml-1 for the white and blue forms, respectively. The grinding material showed similar particle size distribution of ground material for both forms of dragonhead seeds. The lowest values of specific grinding energy were obtained for the white form of dragonhead seeds, those for the blue form were significantly higher. Grinding of dragonhead seeds using a screen 2.0 mm mesh size caused screen hole clogging. This problem did not occur when dragonhead seeds were mixed with wheat grain.

  10. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SEED SELECTION NOWADAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s insight into the theoretical foundations of plant breeding for self-pollinators and cross-pollinators. From the author’s point of view, plant breeding techniques depend on a type of pollination, population propagation and isolation from other variety pollen. Adaptive properties of crops are described as ones depending on a genetic type (genetically pure lines, populations, hybrids, pure varieties and clones. The key role of seeds in preserving a plant variety, or a cultivar, is emphasized. In the article, cultivar and yield qualities of seeds are characterized. The reasons for seed deterioration and yield decrease have been looked into. Improvement of main crops such as wheat, barley, rye, rice, soybeans, maize, triticale, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets is characterized in detail. The author shares the traditional point of view on the seed breeding program. It includes following steps: development phase (breeder’s seed, maintenance phase (in which a quantity of seed is maintained under high standards and the distribution phase (production of commercial seed for distribution to the public. The difference between primary and secondary seed selection is explained. The best periods for crop rotation and crop renovation are also described. The legally enforceable standards of quality and genetic purity for different crops are presented in the article. It is pointed out that it is vital to maintain high cultivar qualities after multiplication and distribution of the new variety. Only large-scale pedigree system for seed production promotes it

  11. Glyphosate and boron application effects on seed composition and seed boron in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Seed quality is determined by the content of protein and oil. Soybean seed contains five major fatty acids, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic). Both linoleic and li...

  12. Loose seeds versus stranded seeds in I-125 prostate brachytherapy: Differences in clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess clinical outcome in terms of biochemical No evidence of disease (bNED) for patients with stranded seed implants versus loose seed implants in prostate brachytherapy. Methods: From December 2000 until October 2006, we treated 896 T?2C Nx/0 Mx/0, prostate cancer patients with either stranded seed (n = 538) or loose seed (n = 358) I-125 implants. A total of 211 patients received a 6 months course of anti-androgen therapy, before treatment, for prostate volume reduction to <50 cc. Patients with very small and large gland volumes or a history of transurethral prostate resection, were preferably treated with stranded seeds, otherwise selection was arbitrary. Results: The 5-year bNED rates (95% Confidence Interval) for stranded seed patients and loose seed patients were respectively 86% (82-90) and 90% (85-95), the total 5-year bNED rate was 87% (85-90). When adjusted for possible confounding factors in a Cox-regression analysis, type of seed was significantly associated with biochemical failure with a 43% risk reduction (hazard ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34-0.97) for loose seeds versus stranded seeds. Conclusions: These results suggest that seed-type affects clinical outcome in prostate brachytherapy, with better bNED for patients with loose seed implants.

  13. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  14. Indirect interactions between browsers and seed predators affect the seed bank dynamics of a chaparral shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveny, Adrian J; Fox, Laurel R

    2006-11-01

    Interactions between herbivores and seed predators may have long-term consequences for plant populations that rely on persistent seed banks for recovery after unpredictable fires. We assessed the effects of browsing by deer and seed predation by rodents, ants and birds on the densities of seeds entering the seed bank of Ceanothus cuneatus var. rigidus, a maritime chaparral shrub in coastal California. Ceanothus produced many more seeds when protected from browsers in long-term experimental exclosures than did browsed plants, but the seed densities in the soil beneath browsed and unbrowsed Ceanothus were the same at the start of an intensive one-year study. The density of seeds in the soil initially increased in both treatments following summer seed drop: while densities returned to pre-drop levels within a few weeks under browsed plants, soil seed densities remained high for 5-8 months beneath unbrowsed plants. Rodent abundance (especially deer mice) was higher near unbrowsed plants than >30 m away, and rodents removed Ceanothus seeds from dishes in the experimental plots. At least in the short term, rodent density and rates of seed removal were inversely related to the intensity of browsing. Our data have management implications for maintaining viable Ceanothus populations by regulating the intensity of browsing and the timing, intensity and frequency of fires. PMID:16896769

  15. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means...

  16. 21 CFR 176.350 - Tamarind seed kernel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Tamarind seed kernel powder is the ground kernel of tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica L.) after removal of the seed coat. (b) It is used in the manufacture of paper and...

  17. EFFECTS OF FUNGICIDES ON ALFALFA SEED YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetislav Popovi?

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most seeded forage crop in the Republic of Croatia.The seed requirements are estimated at 250-300 thousand kg each year. Despite the relatively suitable management, favourable environmental conditions and numerously recognized national cultivars the state seed production is insufficient and more than 70% of seed requirements are compensated by import. The research of a fungicides efficiency on alfalfa seed yield components (plant height, branch number, number of seeds per pod, number and weight of pods per stem, number and weight of seeds per stem, weight of 1000 seeds has been carried out during 1994 and 1995 in Osijek. It involved application of two fungicides (both of them without a state alfalfa application licence: Impact C (flutriafol+carbendazim and Tilt 250 EC (propiconazol on alfalfa second growth seed stands in a different phenological stages of alfalfa development. The experiment was established at two three year old alfalfa stands of cultivar Osje?ka 66 sown in thick rows (0.12 m row spacing and wide rows (0.5m row spacing. The experimental design was split-plot with four replicates. The plot size was 25 m2. The fungicide application variants were as follows: 1.non treated; 2. at the beginning of a flowering stage; 3. in a full flowering stage; 4.at the end of a flowering stage; 5. as a combination of 2+4; and 6.as a combination 3+4 in a dose: Impact C 0.5 l/ha / 400 l of water and Tilt 250 EC 1 l/ha / 400 l of water. A control of the seed stands health during the vegetation confirmed the presence of disease agents: Phoma medicaginis, Stemphylium botryosum, Pseudopeziza medicaginis and Uromyces striatus. The results of the investigation indicate that applied fungicides did not significantly affect alfalfa seed yield. The total average seed yield in 1994 was 323 kg/ha and in 1995 213 kg/ha. In 1994 the seed yield on fungicide application variant 2 was 381.88 kg/ha and it was by 35% higher than on variant 3 and by 23% higher than on variant 4. In that year of the investigation the highest seed yielding variant was variant 2 in a wide row sown stand (456.3 kg/ha. It was by 48.4% higher than the same variant in a thick row sown stand (307.5 kg/ha and by 27,5% higher than variant 1 (357.85 kg/ha. Also variant 2 had the highest number of seeds per pod and lowest height of plants in 1994 and the highest number and weight of pods in 1995. Both fungicides had significant effect (P<0.01 on weight of 1000 seeds in 1995. Row space didn't significantly influence seed yield in 1994, but it significantly affecteded it in 1995 (P<0.05. The higher yield had a thick row sown stand. During the two year sinvestigations wide rows sown stand had by 13.8% grater height of plants, by 31.2% larger number of branches, by 15.1% higher weight of seeds and by 7% larger number of pods and seeds per stem, but it hadn't higher seed yield mostly because unfavourable environmental conditions. Concerning results and new knowledge it is recommendable to continue the investigations and to check up an economic return of fungicides application in alfalfa seed stands.

  18. Preliminary Studies on the Characterization of Orange Seed and Pawpaw Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Ihedioha; C.N. Ibeto; C.O.B. Okoye

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of seeds and oil extracted from both papaya and orange seeds. The seeds of papaya and orange are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of papaya and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. The seeds were collected from homes and the oils obtained by solvent extraction were analysed for pH, moisture content, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification v...

  19. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  20. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  1. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL from 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.07 mg/kg for the proposed use on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. An adequate analytical enforcement method is available to control the residues of bixafen in oilseeds. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bixafen on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk. This risk assessment has to be regarded as provisional since the residue definition for enforcement and risk assessment in oilseeds are provisional and pending the need for MRLs in rotational crops and the definitive MRLs in animal origin commodities.

  2. Effect of Physical Seed Sorting, Seed Treatment with Garlic Extract and Vitavax 200 on Seed Borne Fungal Flora and Seed Yield of Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S.M.A. Islam; Hossain, I; G.A. Fakir; M. Asad-ud-doullah

    2001-01-01

    Effects of physical seed sorting, seed treatment with garlic extract (1:2) and Vitavax 200 (0.4%) were investigated for controlling seed borne fungal flora and seed yield of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.). Seed health test of jute revealed that farmer`s saved seed (control) yielded all together 13 different fungi of 11 genera. Prevalence of Colletotrichum corchori, Macrophomina phaseolina, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were by 4.25...

  3. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  4. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  5. Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

  6. Water-soluble constituents of amomum seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Junichi; Ishikawa, Toru

    2003-07-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the amomum seed (seed of Amomum xanthioides WALL.), which has been used as a medicine for stomachic and digestive disorders, ten compounds, including two new and three newly isolated monoterpenoid glucosides and a newly isolated octane-tetrol, were isolated. Their structures were determined by spectral investigation. PMID:12843607

  7. Puncturevine seed response to postemergence herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) continues to plague growers, vegetation managers, and home gardeners. Puncturevine is a summer annual weed with spiny fruits that split into five segments, each containing one to four seeds. The seed nearest the pointed end of the bur is the largest and usually ge...

  8. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  9. Convective Drying of Rapeseed Hybrids’ Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Juki?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water release from seeds of three rape hybrids, (‘Artus’, ‘Baldur’ and ‘Titan’, during the convection drying of the seeds at three different drying temperature (40, 60 and 80 °C. The drying was conducted in laboratory scale drier which can simulate the conditions of large drier. The air velocity in the drier was maintained at 1.0 m/s. Activation energy needed for starting the process of water release during the convective drying of oil seed rape seeds was also studied. According to the obtained values, the mathematical models (equations and curves of kinematic drying were determined. By comparing the exponential equations and the constants of water release from seeds it was observed that drying of hybrid Artus was the slowest and the one of hybrid Titan the fastest. Results showed that there was a significant difference between all investigated hybrids in water release rate and that within the same drying conditions, hybrids showed different behaviour. Moreover, air temperature increase caused significant increase in water release from the seeds. The highest activation energy needed for starting the process of water release from the seeds had the hybrid Artus and the lowest one hybrid Titan. Due to this, it can be concluded that the activation energy was reversely proportional to the water release rate from the seeds.

  10. SELECTION OF METHIONINE-ENRICHED SOYBEAN SEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional quality of soybeans is limited by low levels of methionine. Methionine overproducing soybeans were developed by mutagenizing soybean seeds and selecting either for resistance to ethionine or for dark green foliage characteristic of methionine over-producing plants. Seeds from the m...

  11. Radioactive seed implantation treatment for prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are total 20 years for radioactive seed implantation treatment for prostate carcinoma, especially recent 5 years. Ultrasound or CT guidance plus computer treatment planning system make the seed implantation become more effective, mini-damage and low risk of complications, it become more and more popular in clinical treatment for cancer patients

  12. Florivory Modulates the Seed Number-Seed Weight Relationship in Halenia elliptica (Gentianaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Meng, Lihua; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Generally, plant reproductive success might be affected negatively by florivory, and the effects may vary depending on the timing and intensity of florivory. To clarify the impacts of florivory by the sawfly larvae (Tenthredinidae) on seed production of Halenia elliptica D. Don, we simulated florivory by removing different proportion of flowers at three reproductive stages in this alpine herb and then examined the seed number per fruit, the seed weight, and the seed mass per fruit of the remaining flowers. Seed number per fruit reduced significantly when flowers were removed at flowering and fruiting stages or when 15% and 60% of flowers were removed. However, seed weight increased significantly after flowers were removed, independent of treatments of reproductive stage and proportion. There was a similar seed mass per fruit between the plants subjected to simulation of florivory and control. The results indicated that florivory modulated the seed number-seed weight relationship in this alpine species. Our study suggested that selective seed abortion and resource reallocation within fruits may ensure fewer but larger seeds, which were expected to be adaptive in the harsh environments.

  13. Use of molecular marker techniques in seed testing by Brazilian seed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Vecchia P.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed market is becoming global and globalization is growing very fast. To compete favourably in this new global seed world, quality and cost are and will be certanly the key issues. High seed quality can only be obtained by a thorough control of the entire seed production process, step by step from planning to final delivery. That requires science, technology, expertise, experience, good management and certanly, the most important, an absolute and unconditional commitment with quality. Seed testing for quality assurance is one important step in the process of production of high quality seed. In the late years a considerable amount of research has been published, particularly on the use of some Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA based new technologies (RAPD, microsatelites, AFLP for genetic purity determinations in seed testing. As far as we know, no Brazilian seed company is using, on regular basis, RAPD or other molecular marker techniques in the determination of genetic purity in seed testing. Most of these are using morphological or physiological traits expressed by seed, seedling or mature plant and/or electrophoresis of seed or seedling proteins/isoenzymes for that purpose. Main reasons for that are: DNA molecular marker techniques are relatively new; lack of specialized personnel to run DNA molecular marker assays on routine basis; higher cost/sample when compared to proteins/isoenzymes electrophoresis.

  14. Water restriction and seed coating in the microbiolization of maize seeds with Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Junges

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seed microbiolization with Trichoderma spp. techniques associated with water restriction and film coating on the physiological performance of maize seed. The treatments were: T1 - Spore suspension: we used the commercial product Agrotrich ® plus (0.1 g in 1 ml water/100 seeds, T2 - Water restriction: it was performed on PDA + mannitol (- 0, 7 MPa on which was grown and sporulated Trichoderma spp. disinfected seeds were distributed 100 on each plate. When was the first seed root protrusion, the others were removed and dried in a laboratory environment for 48 h, T3 - Pelliculation: performed with the addition of the polymer Color Seed (50 mL kg-1 to the pesticide treatment containing Trichoderma spp. The seeds were dried for 48 h in a laboratory environment. T4 - Water restriction and film coating: after the seeds were primed in the presence of the fungus was made with polymer coverage; T5 - Untreated seeds. The use of water restriction provided efficient microbiolization seeds with richoderma spp. with increased control of fungi. The association of water restriction and film coating provided control of fungi and kept the vigor of maize seedlings. The use of Trichoderma spp. promoted an increase in seedling vigor of maize, regardless of technique used microbiolization, demonstrating the benefits of this fungus when applied to corn seeds.

  15. Florivory Modulates the Seed Number-Seed Weight Relationship in Halenia elliptica (Gentianaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Meng, Lihua; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Generally, plant reproductive success might be affected negatively by florivory, and the effects may vary depending on the timing and intensity of florivory. To clarify the impacts of florivory by the sawfly larvae (Tenthredinidae) on seed production of Halenia elliptica D. Don, we simulated florivory by removing different proportion of flowers at three reproductive stages in this alpine herb and then examined the seed number per fruit, the seed weight, and the seed mass per fruit of the remaining flowers. Seed number per fruit reduced significantly when flowers were removed at flowering and fruiting stages or when 15% and 60% of flowers were removed. However, seed weight increased significantly after flowers were removed, independent of treatments of reproductive stage and proportion. There was a similar seed mass per fruit between the plants subjected to simulation of florivory and control. The results indicated that florivory modulated the seed number-seed weight relationship in this alpine species. Our study suggested that selective seed abortion and resource reallocation within fruits may ensure fewer but larger seeds, which were expected to be adaptive in the harsh environments. PMID:26495428

  16. Survey on Seed Decay during their Germination of Some Forages from their Aged Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Won

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to know the viability of several forage crops of aged seeds. The period of the present experiment was long and it ranged around 50 days (45, 36, 55 days; nearly 1.5, 1 and 2 months, respectively, for 1983, 1991 and 1997 produced seeds in the autumn of 2006. Except for two species of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea and sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench, the seeds produced in 1983 decayed above the level of (1/2 of seeds decay. Their tolerance of the seeds produced in 1991 to decay seemed to be strong as follows; reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea = Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis>sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor>white clover (Trifolium repense. In the seeds produced in 1997 white clover, one of leguminous forages, decayed at a level of (2/3 of seeds, so the leguminous species decayed more than all other gramineous species.

  17. Design of Millet Seed-metering Device under Hole-seeding Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshun Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that traditional millet drilling method needs labor-intensive artificial thinning-out, a hole-seeding method is proposed to replace it. Under hole-seeding conditions, an air-suction millet seed-metering device was designed. The design of air-cutting valve can assure that suction-holes are not clogged and reliably falling seeds. Suction-hole structure of the seed-metering device takes chamfer type. The dimension parameter of the chamfer hole is as follows: diameter of 4 mm, chamfer depth of 2.5 mm, fissuriform bottom of suction-hole is 1 mm width, number of holes is 32. The passing rate of hill spacing, repeat-sowing rate, leak-sowing rate and hill formation were analyzed by seed-metering test platform, which meets the precision of millet seed and agronomic requirements.

  18. Image analysis of moving seeds in an indented cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2010-01-01

    The indented cylinder is used for sorting seeds. The seeds are physically manipulated in a way, such that sorting is based primarily on the length of individual seeds. Seeds are separated into at least two subsets: (1) seeds of a length a threshold (a scalar) and (2) seeds of a length the same threshold. The threshold is dependent on a number of different parameters. Besides the seed length, the rotation, general size, shape, and surface texture of each seed, are also known to influence the fina...

  19. Clinical implications of cancer self-seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comen, Elizabeth; Norton, Larry; Massagué, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Most metastatic cancers are incurable--a fact that underscores the limitations of our existing paradigms for understanding metastasis. In this Review, we use breast cancer to explore many of the enigmas revealed by these existing paradigms. Traditionally, metastatic models describe metastasis as a unidirectional process, whereby cancer cells leave a primary tumor and unidirectionally seed metastasis in regional lymph nodes or distant sites. By contrast, recent data indicate that metastasis is a multidirectional process whereby cancer cells can seed distant sites as well as the primary tumor itself. This later process, known as 'self-seeding,' has been validated in diverse experimental models. Here, we show that the self-seeding model may answer many of the mysteries inherent to cancer metastasis. Indeed, reframing our understanding of metastasis within the self-seeding model offers new opportunities for prevention and cure of metastatic cancer. PMID:21522121

  20. Asymbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V; Zeng, Songjun

    2015-10-01

    The ability to germinate orchids from seeds in vitro presents a useful and viable method for the propagation of valuable germplasm, maintaining the genetic heterogeneity inherent in seeds. Given the ornamental and medicinal importance of many species within the genus Dendrobium, this review explores in vitro techniques for their asymbiotic seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors (such as temperature and light), methods of sterilization, composition of basal media, and supplementation with organic additives and plant growth regulators are discussed in context to achieve successful seed germination, protocorm formation, and further seedling growth and development. This review provides both a basis for the selection of optimal conditions, and a platform for the discovery of better ones, that would allow the development of new protocols and the exploration of new hypotheses for germination and conservation of Dendrobium seeds and seedlings. PMID:26183950

  1. Protein profile of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yanhua, Yang; Li, Dai; Hengchuan, Xia; Keming, Zhu; Haijun, Liu; Keping, Chen.

    Full Text Available Seeds are the most important plant storage organ and play a central role in the life cycle of plants. Since little is known about the protein composition of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds, in this work we used proteomic methods to obtain a reference map of rice seed proteins and identify important molecu [...] les. Overall, 480 reproducible protein spots were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis on pH 4-7 gels and 302 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and database searches. Together, these proteins represented 252 gene products and were classified into 12 functional categories, most of which were involved in metabolic pathways. Database searches combined with hydropathy plots and gene ontology analysis showed that most rice seed proteins were hydrophilic and were related to binding, catalytic, cellular or metabolic processes. These results expand our knowledge of the rice proteome and improve our understanding of the cellular biology of rice seeds.

  2. Isothermal seed germination of Adenanthera pavonina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Antonio, Zpevak; Sônia Cristina Juliano Güaltieri de Andrade, Perez; Marcos Silveira, Buckeridge.

    Full Text Available This work reports aspects of seed germination at different temperatures of Adenanthera pavonina L., a woody Southeast Asian Leguminosae. Germination was studied by measuring the final percentages, the rate, the rate variance and the synchronisation of the individual seeds calculated by the minimal i [...] nformational entropy of frequencies distribution of seed germination. Overlapping the germinability range with the range for the highest values of germination rates and the minimal informational entropy of frequencies distribution of seed germination, we found that the best temperature for the germination of A. pavonina seeds is 35 ºC. The slope µ of the Arrhenius plot of the germination rates is positive for T 35 ºC. The activation enthalpies, estimated from closely-spaced points, shows that |?H-|

  3. Efficiency of different methods for seeding grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna O?i?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the economic effects of different grassland sowing methods are still insufficiently explored. In order to detect the difference between grassland sowing methods a three-year field trialswere performed to determine the production and economic value of grasslands sown by: direct seeding into corn stubble field with row distance of 18 cm (DSK18 or ii 9 cm (DSK9, iii conventional seeding (KS, iv sod-seeding in existing grassland (RPTDS and v natural grassland as control (KPT. In the whole research period the highest average green mass productivity was achieved by conventional seeding (38.84 t/ha, while the lowest green mass yield had natural grassland and sod-seeded natural grassland (10.92 and 11.63 t/ha of green mass. Observed per unit of area, difference in production values ranged from 3276 kn, which was achieved with natural grass to 17.478 kn/ha, which was achieved by conventional seeding. Looking at the production efficiency, direct seeding into corn stubble field with row distance of 9 cm (3.17 has the largest coefficient, while natural grassland is on the economy border with coefficient 1.00. Relations between invested and obtained, which was measured with value of Gross Margin, is in range from 6 kn/ha (natural grassland to 11.420 kn/ha, which was achieved by conventional seeding. Looking at the production of hay, conventional seeding with 7.11 t/ha of hay had the maximum productivity, while the natural grassland and sod-seeded natural grassland had the lowest production (2.87 and 2.86 t/ha.

  4. The effect of vegetation area size on grass seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?kovi? Savo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys sowing norms (row spacing and seed rate in both our country and the world, as well as the optimal seed rates in grass seed production. It gives a short overview of row spacings and seed rates applied in our and some other countries. Earlier, grass cultivated for the purpose of seed production was grown on small vegetation area. According to some researches, high seed yields can be achieved by cultivating grass on large vegetation area. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the highest cocksfoot, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 50 cm spaced rows employing lower seed rates (8 and 4 kg/ha of seeds. The highest Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 20 cm spaced rows employing 20 kg/ha of seeds.

  5. Computer calculations in interstitial seed therapy: II. Dose control after seed implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After seed implantation exact dose control is desirable. In clinical practice a measurement of dose in a depth of tissue is hardly possible. A measurement may be possible by the method of three-dimensional reconstruction of the seed arrangement in water. To reconstruct an identical seed arrangement one must know the co-ordinates of the seeds. How can one measure the co-ordinates of the seeds in tissue? Several methods are given in the literature (Adams and Meurk, 1964; Nuttall and Spiers, 1946; Pierquin et al, 1960) but all seem to be somehow imperfect, because of the difficulties in correcting faults of projection and identifying individual seeds. The laborious procedure of correcting manually for projection enlargement, identifying of seeds and correcting for adjustment faults in making radiographs may be the reason for such methods not being used in routine practice. A computer programme has been written to correct central projection, to correct the two most important adjustment faults and to identify seeds in perpendicular radiographs. The method of determining the dose distribution after seed implantation consists of two parts, a manual part and a computer part. The manual part has three working steps: (1) Making radiograms in perpendicular planes of the subject, (2) Measuring co-ordinates of seed pictures in the radiographs, (3) Feeding the measured and other data into the computer

  6. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

    Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass-type festulolium, Paulita, and in a fescue-type festulolium, Hykor. The objectives were to examine the influence of row spacing (12, 24, and 36 cm) and seed rate (8, 12, or 16 kg ha-1) on plant establishment, development, and seed yield. Observations of autumn and spring in-row plant densities indicated satisfactory plant establishment in all combinations of seed rate and row spacing. The number of reproductive tillers was in the range from 800 to 2200 m-2 in Paulita and from 500 to 1300 m-2 in Hykor. Row spacing had an effect on the number of reproductive tillers and in both cultivars the highest number was achieved at 12-cm row spacing. Seed yields in the Italian ryegrass type averaged from 1050 to 1150 kg ha-1 and in the tall fescue type from 650 to 800 kg ha-1. Doubling row spacing from 12 to 24 cm had no effect on seed yield in Hykor, while a further increase of row spacing to 36 cm showed a decrease in seed yield. No effect of row spacing on seed yield was observed in Paulita. Neither of the two types was affected in seed yield by seed rate. The fact that row spacing in both types can be increased to 24 cm without having a concomitant negative effect on seed yield implies that mechanical weed control is an optional management technique. Therefore our results have important implications in/for organic grass-seed production. Udgivelsesdato: March

  7. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  8. Analyzing characteristics of hybrid rice seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yibin

    2004-03-01

    Incompletely closed glumes, germ on panicle and disease are three characteristics of hybrid rice seed, which are actual reasons of poor seed quality. To find how many and which categories should be classified to meet the demand of produce actually, the effects of various degree of incompletely closed glumes, germ on panicle and disease on ratio of germination in changed storage periods were studied with standard germination rate test. An electronic scanning microscope was used for micro-observation and measurement. Then the possibility of automation inspection was tested with a machine vision system. The measures of increasing quality of hybrid rice seed were discussed in the paper at last. In the light of the periods of treatment and the classification of characteristics, difference steps should be taken. Before storage, Seeds with germ or severe disease should be rejected at first. Then seeds with incompletely closed glumes or spot disease might be stored separately for a shorter time in dried condition and treated with antisepsis before using for some special fields with lower quality demand. The seeds with fine fissure between glumes should be stored in a strictly controlled condition separately and inspected before use, just like other normal and healthy seeds.

  9. Early planting and hand sorting effectively controls seed-borne fungi in farm-retained bean seed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernest, Dube; Julia, Sibiya; Morris, Fanadzo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Home-saved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed can be hand-sorted to remove discoloured seed, thereby reducing the level of contamination by certain seed-borne fungi and improving seed germination. In this study, the effect of planting date on the infection and discolouration of bean seed by seed-born [...] e fungi was investigated in order to improve the quality of hand-sorted, farm-retained bean seeds used by resource poor smallholder farmers. The germination quality and level of seed-borne fungi in hand-sorted first-generation bean seed harvested from an early-, mid- and late-summer season planted crop was therefore assessed. The highest percentage of discoloured seed (68%) was obtained from the mid-summer season planting. Non-discoloured seed from early- and late-season plantings had significantly (o

  10. SUPERMASSIVE SEEDS FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Li Hui [Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Group (T-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holz, Daniel E., E-mail: jlj@lanl.gov [Enrico Fermi Institute, Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-07-10

    Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z {approx}> 7 constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we elucidate the implications of the radiative feedback from early generations of stars and from BH accretion for popular models for the formation and growth of seed BHs. We show that by properly accounting for (1) the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from cosmological simulations of early star formation and radiative feedback, (2) the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and (3) the large radiative efficiencies {epsilon} of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift ({epsilon} {approx}> 0.1), we are led to the conclusion that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as {approx}> 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. This presents a strong challenge to the Population III seed model, which calls for seed masses of {approx}100 M{sub Sun} and, even with constant Eddington-limited accretion, requires {epsilon} {approx}< 0.09 to explain the highest-z SMBHs in today's standard {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. It is, however, consistent with the prediction of the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} seed BH. These results corroborate recent cosmological simulations and observational campaigns which suggest that these massive BHs were the seeds of a large fraction of the SMBHs residing in the centers of galaxies today.

  11. Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cie?lak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

  12. Gender inequality in predispersal seed predation contributes to female seed set advantage in a gynodioecious species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gretel L; Brody, Alison K

    2015-05-01

    Most flowering plants are hermaphrodites. However, in gynodioecious species, some members of the population are male-sterile and reproduce only by setting seed, while others gain fitness through both male and female function. How females compensate for the loss of male function remains unresolved for most gynodioecious species. Here, as with many plants, fitness differences may be influenced by interactions with multiple species. However, whether multiple species interactions result in gender-specific fitness differences remains unknown. Using observational data from 2009-2010, we quantified seed set of the two sex morphs of Polemonium foliosissimu and asked how it is affected by pollination, and seed predation from a dipteran predispersal seed predator (Anthomyiidae: Hylemya sp.). We assessed seed production and losses to predation in 27 populations for one year and in six populations for a second year. Females set significantly more seed than did hermaphrodites in both years. Of the fitness components we assessed, including the number of flowers per plant, fruit set, seeds/fruit, and proportion of fruits destroyed by Hylemya, only fruit destruction differed significantly between the sexes. In one year, seeds/fruit and predation had a stronger effect on seed set for hermaphrodites than for females. Because predispersal seed predators do not pollinate flowers, their effects may depend on successful pollination of flowers on which they oviposit. To examine if genders differed in pollen limitation and seed predation and/or their interactive effects, in 2011 we hand-pollinated flowers and removed seed predator eggs in a fully factorial design. Both sexes were pollen limited, but their degree of pollen limitation did not differ. However, predation reduced.seed set more for hermaphrodites than for females. We found no significant interaction between hand pollen and seed predation, and no interaction between hand pollination and gender. Our results suggest that while interactions with both pollinators and seed predators affect reproductive success, floral enemies can cause inequality in seed set between genders. The next step is to understand how the seed set advantage affects long-term fitness and persistence of females in gynodioecious populations. PMID:26236844

  13. Ragweed (Ambrosia sp.) seeds in bird feed

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, G.; Boschung, H.; Schulz-Schroeder, G.; Russ, G; Uj?i?-Vrhovnik, I.; Jakovac-Strajn, B.; Angetter, D.; I. John; Jørgensen, JS.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Swiss official feed inspection of Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station (ALP) was mandated to check bird feed and raw materials for the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds. Indeed, such seeds were found in varying amounts when analyzed in the feed microscopy laboratory. The producers were informed, and a limit of intervention (50 mg.kg-1 ? 9 to 10 seeds.kg-1) was finally set for this undesirable component. The results of five years of controls show, at first, around 50% of cont...

  14. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8 · 4H2O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn2+, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band (? 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe3+ present in the goethite at g ? 2, and in the seeds exist free radicals at g = 2:004, at room temperature. Ranging the temperature from 298 K until 77 K, the line width broadens, the cubic symmetry (g ? 2) disappears, and orthorhombic (g ? 9) and axial (g ? 4) symmetry appears in seeds spectra as well as in goethite spectra. Then, these results ratify the presence of goethite in all the seeds analyzed. Moreover, both the seed peel as the seed core has goethite, indicating that it is not a soil contamination, but actually goethite is absorbed by the seeds

  15. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed quality evaluation using seed physical attributes, saturated salt accelerated aging and the seed vigour imaging system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Peñaloza; Gerardo, Ramirez-Rosales; Miller B, McDonald; Mark A., Bennett.

    2005-12-15

    Full Text Available High seed quality is essential for optimum stand establishment in lettuce. As a result, it is necessary to have seed vigour tests that permit rapid, objective and accurate evaluation of seed quality. This study evaluated physical and physiological seed quality components of four seed lots of six let [...] tuce varieties obtained from a commercial company. Seeds were evaluated for seedling emergence under greenhouse conditions, standard germination, seed physical aspects, the Saturated Salt Accelerated Aging (SSAA) test and the Seed Vigour Imaging System (SVIS). Results indicated that large-seeded lettuce varieties had higher percentage germination, higher SSAA values, higher SVIS index and more rapid and uniform greenhouse emergence. Black-seeded lettuce varieties possessed higher seed quality and less fungal invasion when evaluated by the SSAA test. The SVIS index significantly correlated with SSAA values and seedling emergence under greenhouse conditions suggesting it can be used as a measure of seed vigour. It is concluded that the SSAA and SVIS tests are practical and accurate determinants of lettuce seed quality and distinguish between high and poor quality lettuce seed lots

  16. Seed Treatments for Enhancing Germination of Colophospermum mopane Seeds: A Multipurpose Tree in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mojeremane

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of concentrated sulphuric acid (98%, mechanical scarification, hot water, cold water and dry heat on the germination capacity of five-years-old Colophospermum mopane seeds. The results showed that treating five-years-old C. mopane seeds with concentrated sulphuric acid (98%, mechanical scarification, cold water and dry heat had no effect on the germination capacity of mopane seeds. Simmering hot water significantly decreased germination capacity. The results showed that Colophospermum mopane seeds stored for five years still attain germination percentage above seventy. It is concluded that C. mopane in Botswana have no hard seed coat or impervious seed coat and physiological dormancy as an adaptation to arid and desert conditions.

  17. Mustard Seed Meal suppresses Weeds in Potato and Peppermint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed meal is a co-product remaining after pressing mustard seed to remove the oil. Seed meals containing high glucosinolates have been reported to have herbicidal activity. Weed suppression with seed meal of Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold was evaluated in field trials on potatoes and peppermint in ...

  18. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Marking Or Labeling Provisions § 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon... only as a class of certified seed, the owner, or his or her designee, may label containers of seed...

  19. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  20. Germination in seed species ingested by opossums: implications for seed dispersal and forest conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Carlos Cáceres; Emygdio Leite de Araújo Monteiro-Filho

    2007-01-01

    Seed germination in plant species consumed by opossums, genus Didelphis, was investigated in southern Brazil, in order to improve knowledge of the strategies of zoochorous plants in the Neotropics. Seeds were obtained from opossum feces. Thirteen of the most frequent species in the diet of local opossums were tested for germination rates and germination responses under different qualities (red/far red ratio) and different intensities of light. Most seeds from feces germinated similarly to the...

  1. Synchrony between fruit maturation and effective dispersers' foraging activity increases seed protection against seed predators

    OpenAIRE

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C; CERDÁ, XIM

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms is conditioned by the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of animals and plants. In the present study we explore the timing of seed release of a myrmecochorous plant (Helleborus foetidus) and ant activity in two populations in southern Spain during 2 consecutive years. The results indicate that fruit dehiscence and seed shedding occur mostly in the morning and correspond to the period of maximum foraging activity of the most effective ...

  2. Organic matter and seed survival of Striga hermonthica - Mechanisms for seed depletion in the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Ayongwa, G.C.; Stomph, T. J.; Belder, P.; Leffelaar, P. A.; T. W. Kuyper

    2011-01-01

    Seed survival of Striga hermonthica is influenced by amendments of organic matter; however, the role of organic matter quality (C:N ratio) and mechanisms for enhanced seed decay are inadequately understood. In a field experiment, plots received a single dose of 6 t organic matter per hectare but with large differences in quality in terms of C:N ratio. Soil moisture, soil temperature and soil ethylene concentrations were measured, while buried nylon seed bags were periodically withdrawn from t...

  3. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Se...

  4. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: Where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, L.A.; Esque, T.C.; Nicklas, M.B.; Kane, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert-sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  5. Serotinous cones of Cupressus sempervirens provide viable seeds in spite of high seed predation

    OpenAIRE

    Battisti, Andrea; Cantini, Raffaella; Rouault, Gaelle; Roques, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Five half-sib families in an 18-year old family test of Cupressus sempervirens in Italy were compared for cone crop size, cone serotiny, and seed damage. The mean number of serotinous cones per tree was significantly different among families although families did not differ by the total number of cones produced during tree's lifetime. More than 60% of the cones were colonised either by a seed chalcid, Megastigmus wachtli, or by a seed bug, Orsillus maculatus, whereas pathogenic fungi (Seiridi...

  6. Testing Optimum Seeding Rates for five Bread Wheat Cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cultivar by seed rate trial was conducted in 1994-1995 crop seasons at Njoro, Kenya. Yield results were found to be significant (P > 0.01) for year, variety, seed rate and year by seed rate interaction. Test weight was highly significant (P -1 were grouped together for significantly higher yields (A) whereas seed rates 85 and 50 kg ha-1 had lower significant yields (B and C respectively). The same grouping was repeated for test weight. There was no significant cultivar by seed rate interaction and no cultivar, specific seed rate. However, since seed rates 245, 205, 165 and 125 kg ha-1 were grouped together, the lowest seed rate, 125 kg ha-1 can be recommended as the optimum seed rate for the above cultivars, as higher seed rates do not give significantly higher yields or higher test weights

  7. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to transplanting. Dry seeding was considered the best rice cultivation method on heavy clay soils.

  8. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Virginia; Ruchi .; Paul Ajit

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10) served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organole...

  9. Prairie remnant seed collection data, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a record of prairie seed collections on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge from 1992.

  10. Seed radiosensitivity of a hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the winter hexaploid triticale 6TA-131 containing approximately equal to 13% water were irradiated with either (230 to 1520 rads). Survival at three weeks and height at four weeks of field-grown plants were reduced significantly only at the highest doses of radiation. However, plants from seeds irradiated with 1520 rads of fission neutrons died later in the season. Mean percent seed set following enforced self-fertilization, an endpoint of significance to a mutation induction program, was reduced to approximately equal to 45% of control by either 46.50 krads of gamma radiation or 685 rads of fission neutrons. Weight per 1000 seeds was only slightly affected by radiation dose. (author)

  11. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  13. [Intracellular seeded aggregation of TDP-43].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato

    2012-01-01

    TAR-DNA binding protein of 43kDa(TDP-43) is the component protein of inclusions in brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we report a seed-dependent TDP-43 aggregation model using SH-SY5Y cells into which detergent-insoluble TDP-43 from diseased brains is introduced to provide seeds for aggregation. When these seeds were introduced into cells expressing HA-tagged TDP-43, round aggregates composed of phosphorylated and ubiquitinated HA-tagged TDP-43 were formed. Biochemical fractionation revealed the presence of Sarkosyl-insoluble phosphorylated full-length TDP-43 as well as its C-terminal fragments. Cells bearing TDP-43 inclusions exhibited increased levels of cell death and proteasome dysfunction. This seeding model reproduces characteristic features of affected neurons in brains with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:23196514

  14. Small RNA mediated regulation of seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shabari Sarkar; Karmakar, Prakash; Nandi, Asis Kumar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti

    2015-01-01

    Mature seeds of most of the higher plants harbor dormant embryos and go through the complex process of germination under favorable environmental conditions. The germination process involves dynamic physiological, cellular and metabolic events that are controlled by the interplay of several gene products and different phytohormones. The small non-coding RNAs comprise key regulatory modules in the process of seed dormancy and germination. Recent studies have implicated the small RNAs in plant growth in correlation with various plant physiological processes including hormone signaling and stress response. In this review we provide a brief overview of the regulation of seed germination or dormancy while emphasizing on the current understanding of the role of small RNAs in this regard. We have also highlighted specific examples of stress responsive small RNAs in seed germination and discussed their future potential. PMID:26528301

  15. Quantized Matrix Algebras and Quantum Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Plesner; Pagani, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  17. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  18. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  19. Importance of Seed Quality for the Fresh-cut Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    Seed is the most fundamental input in vegetable production on, which the effectiveness of other inputs and outputs depends. If the seed is of poor quality, the use of other inputs is less successful and will occasionally be irrelevant. A definition of seed quality will depend upon the use for, which the seed is intended. Viability, vigor, uniformity, purity and health of the seeds are quality parameters important for all production systems. The ideal situation for both fresh produce and fresh cu...

  20. Weed seed predation in organic and conventional fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, S; Wratten, S D; Kristensen, K; Esbjerg, P

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced biological control of weed seeds may improve sustainability of agricultural production. Biological control due to seed predation may be higher in organic fields because organic production generally supports more seed predators. To investigate such a difference, weed seed predation was studied in autumn in eight organic and eight conventional mixed cropping fields in New Zealand. Predation rates were estimated by observing removal rates of seeds of the annual weeds fathen or common lambs...

  1. Germination of grass seeds with recycling waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel; Delgado Arroyo, Maria del Mar

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of residual water irrigation on the rate and percentage of germination of grass seeds. Germination tests were carried out to compare the seeds irrigated with recycling waste water with seeds irrigated with distilled water. Test with Festuca arundinacea Sch. and Agrostis tenuis L. seeds was performed under laboratory conditions. Parameters used to evaluate germination were: number of germinated seeds (Gmax), mean germination time (MGT), the time...

  2. Physical properties characteristic of Polish and Canadian lentil seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Rusinek R.; Horabik J.; Szot B.

    2003-01-01

    The physical properties of the Polish variety of lentil seed, Tina and the Canadian variety, Laird Lentil (the most popular variety imported into Poland) were compared. The parameters of individual seeds (size distribution, mass per 1000 seeds) and the parameters of bulk seed (the bulk density, the porosity, the angle of internal friction, the wall friction coefficient and the pressure ratio) of both varieties were compared for the moisture content of the seed within the range 9 to 21%. The s...

  3. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Xiai Chen; Ling Wang; Wenquan Chen; Yanfeng Gao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid...

  4. Tamarind Seed Extract Enhances Epidermal Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Yusof bin Mohamad; Haris B Akram; Dinie Najwa Bero; Mohammad Tariqur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Traditional healing power of tamarind fruits and the established antioxidant activity of the seeds drive the present study. Wound healing efficiency of tamarind seed was evaluated. Different solvents: phosphate buffer saline (PBS), water, methanol and ethanol were used to prepare the extract. Circular wound was inflicted on the nape. 10 µl of 5 µg/ml of extract was applied topically twice daily. Wound area was measured using Adobe ®Photoshop C3 Extended version and the percentage of wound red...

  5. Calibration procedures for seeds preloaded in cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive seeds preloaded in sterilized cartridges or needles are commonly obtainable from manufacturers. Under the US regulations for control of radioactive materials, seed users are required to account for all seeds and independently verify their air kerma strength (SK). As a result, the viability of inspection schemes that rely on measurement of aggregate seeds is of interest. In this paper we consider the conditions (if any) under which cartridge inspection can satisfy regulatory requirements and still provide practical benefit (i.e., time savings) against the regular single-seed assay. The standards for comparison are the recommendations of AAPM TG40, AAPM TG56, and ACR's 'Standard for the Performance of Manually Loaded Brachytherapy Sources'. The practical benefit is judged in comparison to the effort required to apply the 10% assay recommendation of TG40 to seeds in cartridges. Two specific cartridge inspection schemes are considered: (a) measuring the SK of each cartridge in a batch; (b) measuring a single cartridge sampled at random from the batch. Unlike the 10% assay, which is defined (imperfectly, in our view) without reference to the prevalence of in-calibration seeds, the estimation of the relative merits of cartridge inspection methods must necessarily include such information and, as such, is manufacturer specific. In this paper results are provided for Oncura model 6711 125I seeds in shielded and unshielded Mick cartridges. We show that the only practically useful cartridge inspection scheme is the batch scheme applied to unshielded cartridges. The false positive rates associated with the other schemes are such that we expect to open a cartridge (and perform the 10% assay) at least 80% of the time. While anything less than 100% of the time is theoretically an improvement, this neglects the additional effort required to assay the cartridges

  6. Regulation of seasonal patterns in seed dormancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Derkx, M.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Buried seeds of many wild species pass annually through a pattern of induction and release of dormancy. These reversible changes in dormancy may be repeated for numbers of years when seeds are deprived from light and other germination-stimulating factors, and are a highly useful adaptation to the climatic conditions which prevail at the habitat.This thesis studied the regulation of germination and reversible changes in dormancy in two related species Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Sisym...

  7. Peptide signalling during angiosperm seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Gwyneth; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose

    2015-08-01

    Cell-cell communication is pivotal for the coordination of various features of plant development. Recent studies in plants have revealed that, as in animals, secreted signal peptides play critical roles during reproduction. However, the precise signalling mechanisms in plants are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the known and putative roles of secreted peptides present in the seeds of angiosperms as key signalling factors involved in coordinating different aspects of seed development. PMID:26195729

  8. Mycoflora of Calendula officinalis L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Pi?ta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Calendula offlcinalis harvested in the years 1985-1987 were investigated. Agar medium with nitrients was used to isolate the fungi. As a result of the mycological analysis, 3642 isolates belonglng to 23 species and dark unsporulating mycelium were obtained. Alternaria alternata dominated among the isolated fungi. Moreover, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum and Sclerotinia sc1erotiorum were obtained from the seeds.

  9. Stress, storage & survival of neem seed

    OpenAIRE

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display intermediate or recalcitrant storage behaviour. This thesis describes the results of our investigations concerning factors involved in the rapid loss of germinability of neem seeds. Stress and survival under different condition...

  10. Safe for saplings; safe for seeds ?

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Christian,; Gusberti, Michele; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    In wood pastures spatial associations of tree saplings with nurse structures such as unpalatable plants are generally explained as associational resistance; i.e. reduced herbivory by association with a defended neighbour. However, these associations may result from other underlying processes that occur at the seed stage. Here we tested whether the observed associations between Picea abies tree saplings and nurse structures could also be explained by higher soil seed densities under versus out...

  11. Wheat seed enhancement by vitamin and hormonal priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming has proven beneficial in many important agricultural crops. The present study was conducted to explore the role (if any) of hormonal and vitamin seed priming to improve the germination, seedling emergence, early seedling establishment, electrolyte leakage and nutrients uptake in wheat seedlings. The wheat seeds were soaked for 48 hours in aerated solution of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, kinetin and GA3 with 20 ppm concentration of each solution, whereas untreated seeds were taken as control. Seed priming with ascorbic acid resulted in maximum final germination and emergence percentage (FGP and FEP), radical and plumule length, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots, root shoot ratio, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and seedling dry weight compared to control (untreated seeds). Minimum mean germination and emergence time (MGT and MET) was recorded in seeds primed with kinetin and GA3. While in case of biochemical attributes, seedling potassium contents were decreased by hormonal seed priming while total soluble sugars were increased by salicylic acid and ascorbic acid seed priming. Hormonal seed priming had non-significant effect on phosphorus seedling contents. Untreated (Control) seeds showed maximum electrical conductivity at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after inbibition than primed seeds against the minimum electrical conductivity that was recorded in seeds primed with salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the wheat seeds primed with 20 ppm solution of ascorbic acid may be used for wheat seed invigoration. (author)

  12. Study of dose deposition for different configurations of OncoSeed 6711 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. Iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds are presented as a form of treatment. In prostate cancer therapy 80-120 iodine-125 seeds are implanted in the organ following a previous planning. During positioning and after it, the implanted seeds can undergo slight displacements relative to the original position. These deviations may cause changes in dose distribution in the tumor volume. This work has made a dosimetry study for iodine-125 seeds used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the first stage, we performed a one seed dosimetric parameters study following the TG-43 protocol recommendations with the objective of validating our methodology. Then a quantitative study of the variation in dose distribution for three configurations of four seeds OncoSeed 6711 was conducted with two configurations using the seeds in symmetrical positions and the other presenting small displacements. A soft tissue phantom and TLD dosimeters were used. Then a qualitative study of isodose curves of the configurations was performed using radiochromic film, Gafchromic model. This method was used to complement the study of the crystals. The seed´s dosimetric parameters obtained in this work showed excellent agreement with the TG-43 consensual values, thus validating the methodology used in this work. The results obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters have shown that there is a significant difference in dose distribution when there is a change in the positioning of the seeds. The use of these two methods simultaneously is efficient since the crystals bring a point view and the film has a global view of the dose distribution. (author)

  13. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2007-01-01

    To obtain information on possible sources of contamination of the seed harvest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., spp. napus) by other varieties (adventitious presence), we investigated the purity of certified seed lots; the abundance and origin of volunteers; and longevity and origin of seeds in the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with ISSR profiles from an assortment of 14 of the most commonly cultivated oilseed rape varieties from 1985 to 2004. This comparison was performed using the assignment program, AFLPOP. The age of the seed bank germinating to become volunteers was assumed from information on previously cultivated oilseed rape varieties at the site and the year of cultivation. The results showed that plants or seeds belonged to varieties cultivated at the site 4-17 years earlier, suggesting a long persistence of volunteer populations. High volunteer frequencies (6%, 29% and 32%) were found in the three oilseed rape fields analysed and, from soil cores, their soil seed-bank was estimated to be 50-100 seeds m(-2). The ISSR analysis of the 14 reference varieties showed that three of the certified seed lots contained other varieties above the allowed threshold. Our findings are discussed in the context of the coexistence between GM (genetically modified) and non-GM oilseed rape, and future levels of seed purity.

  14. Seasonal Variation in Seed Dispersal by Tamarins Alters Seed Rain in a Secondary Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culot, Laurence; Muñoz Lazo, Fernando Julio João; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Poncin, Pascal; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2010-08-01

    Reduced dispersal of large seeds into degraded areas is one of the major factors limiting rain forest regeneration, as many seed dispersers capable of transporting large seeds avoid these sites with a limited forest cover. However, the small size of tamarins allows them to use small trees, and hence to disperse seeds into young secondary forests. Seasonal variations in diet and home range use might modify their contribution to forest regeneration through an impact on the seed rain. For a 2-yr period, we followed a mixed-species group of tamarins in Peru to determine how their role as seed dispersers in a 9-yr-old secondary-growth forest varied across seasons. These tamarins dispersed small to large seeds of 166 tree species, 63 of which were into a degraded area. Tamarins' efficiency in dispersing seeds from primary to secondary forest varied across seasons. During the late wet season, high dietary diversity and long forays in secondary forest allowed them to disperse large seeds involved in later stages of regeneration. This occurred precisely when tamarins spent a more equal amount of time eating a high diversity of fruit species in primary forest and pioneer species in secondary forest. We hypothesized that well-balanced fruit availability induced the movement of seed dispersers between these 2 habitats. The noteworthy number of large-seeded plant species dispersed by such small primates suggests that tamarins play an important, but previously neglected, role in the regeneration and maintenance of forest structure. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9413-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20651905

  15. The Effect of Seed-borne Mycoflora from Sorghum and Foxtail Millet Seeds on Germination and Disease Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Yago, Jonar I.; Roh, Jae-Hwan; Bae, Soon-do; Yoon, Young-Nam; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Nam, Min-hee

    2011-01-01

    The seed-borne mycoflora of sorghum and foxtail millet collected from different growing areas in South Korea were isolated and taxonomically identified using dry inspection, standard blotter and the agar plate method. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo germination rates of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds of sorghum and foxtail millet using sterilized and unsterilized soil. The percent recovery of seed-borne mycoflora from the seed components of sorghum and foxtail millet seeds was...

  16. Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraishi Yutaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine the incidence of seed migration not only to the chest, but also to the abdomen and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 267 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. After seed implantation, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to document the occurrence and sites of seed migration. The incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was calculated. All patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis subsequently underwent a computed tomography scan to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Postimplant dosimetric analysis was undertaken, and dosimetric results were compared between patients with and without seed migration. Results A total of 19,236 seeds were implanted in 267 patients. Overall, 91 of 19,236 (0.47% seeds migrated in 66 of 267 (24.7% patients. Sixty-nine (0.36% seeds migrated to the chest in 54 (20.2% patients. Seven (0.036% seeds migrated to the abdomen in six (2.2% patients. Fifteen (0.078% seeds migrated to the pelvis in 15 (5.6% patients. Seed migration occurred predominantly within two weeks after seed implantation. None of the 66 patients had symptoms related to the migrated seeds. Postimplant prostate D90 was not significantly different between patients with and without seed migration. Conclusion We showed the incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Seed migration did not have a significant effect on postimplant prostate D90.

  17. A virtual seed file: the use of multispectral image analysis in the management of genebank seed accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsetts Edberg Hansen, Michael; R. Hay, Fiona; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for multispectral seed phenotyping as a fast and robust tool for managing genebank accessions. A multispectral vision system was used to take images of the seeds of 20 diverse varieties of rice (approximately 30 seeds for each variety). This was followed by extraction of feature information from the images. Multivariate analysis of the feature data was used to classify seed phenotypes according to accession. The proportion of correctly classified rice seeds was 93%. We conclu...

  18. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T2). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T2) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  19. Effects of Different Seed Drying Methods on Moisture Percentage and Seed Quality (Viability and Vigour) of Pea Seeds (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, A B; Wright, D.

    2003-01-01

    Post harvest management i.e. drying seeds at different drying methods (floors) studies were performed in an unheated glasshouse of the University of Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom. Seeds were air dried on different floors, made of concrete, cowdung and soil. It was observed that concrete drying floor was suitable to maintain seed quality (viability and vigour) for pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

  20. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Jo, Yeong-Min; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-01-01

    The major seed storage proteins (SSPs) in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi), which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi)-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs. PMID:26133242

  1. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  2. Effects of Seed Scarification on Seed Germination and Early Growth of Olive Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Rostami; A. Shasavar

    2009-01-01

    Present study conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical and mechanical scarification treatments on percentage and rate of seed germination of olive cultivars (Arbequina and Koronaiki). Results indicated that chemical and mechanical scarification treatments followed by an adequate stratification period can increase seed germination significantly. The best results obtained by chemical scarification treatments and mechanical scarification were not as effective. Chemical scarification t...

  3. INFLUENCE OF SEED TREATMENT CHEMICALS AND CONTAINERS ON SEED QUALITY OF MARIGOLD DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    t. p. kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to know the effect of seed treatment and containers on seed quality of marigold during storage. Result from the study indicated that seed treated with chlorax and stored in double layer polythene bag recorded higher seed quality parameters viz., significantly higher germination (49.25% and 38.81%, root length (4.13 cmand 3.30 cm, shoot length (3.51 cm and 3.90 cm, vigour index (376 and 281, germination rate index (11.31 and 11.04 and field emergence (43.25% and 33.44 with lowest electrical conductivity of seed leachate (1.292 dSm-1 and 1.856 dSm-1, respectively of marigold at the end of storage. With the advance in the storage period, an increase in moisture, seed health and electrical conductivity of seed were observed. Therefore, these treatments can be used for storage of marigold seeds in order to maintain viability.

  4. Methods and systems for seed planting management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID); Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Harker, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A seed planting system providing optimal seed spacing in an agricultural field. The seed planting system includes a mobile seed planter having one or more planting shoes, or members being adapted for towing by a farm vehicle or being self-propelled. Sensors, disposed proximate to respective planting shoes, detect seed planting events and send corresponding signals to a computer. Contemporaneously, a geospatial locator acquires, and transmits to the computer, the geospatial location of each planted seed. The computer correlates the geospatial location data with the seed deposition data and generates a seed distribution profile indicating the location of each seed planted in a zone of interest to enable the control of speed spacing.

  5. Improving the sludge conditioning potential of moringa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Joel O.; Eze, Romanus M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a cheaper material to effectively condition sludge, oil-free moringa seed was prepared and tested. A Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract the oil from moringa seed ( Moringa oleifera). The oil-free seed (marc) has been found to have higher conditioning potential than the ordinary moringa seed. However, the traditional ferric chloride is still a better sludge conditioner than moringa seed marc. For the digested domestic sludge used, optimum conditioning dosages were found to be 0.6, 0.80, and 1.10% of the total solids for ferric chloride, marc of the moringa seed, and ordinary moringa seed, respectively. Since little or no operational material is lost in the extraction process, the moringa seed marc is a promising conditioner in place of the ordinary seed.

  6. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cibele C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrical conductivity and moisture were measured. The seeds of A. alexandrae are recalcitrant, with high germination percentage (over 67% when undried (47% seed moisture. Lowering seed moisture below 31.5% reduced the germination rate significantly (<52.5%. Total germination failure was observed when seed moisture reached 15.1%. The electrical conductivity was the most sensitive vigor test to identify seed deterioration.

  7. Peasant seeds in Europe: stakes and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bocci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The myth of technological progress in agriculture and then modern plant breeding have resulted in a separation of farming from breeding activities. Seed laws have also contributed to this outcome (e.g. by imposing strict rules for the entry of varieties in the official catalogue. Nowadays, some pioneers, among them farmers rejecting industrialized agriculture and more often practising organic agriculture, are proposing a different option. In Europe, since the beginning of this century, they have been organizing themselves in networks: the Réseau Semences Paysannes in France, the Red de Semillas in Spain and the Rete Semi Rurali in Italy. Their members are farmers, consumers and scientists working together in order to reconsider the scientific, technical and legal aspects of seed production. These new varieties are designated ‘peasant varieties’, a concept that encompasses two main aspects: the seed, the reproductive part of the plant linked to its terroir, and the variety, shaped by history and coevolved with farmers. Scientists working with these networks are developing participatory plant breeding projects, which aim to broaden agrobiodiversity by creating so called new peasant varieties. The basis of these projects comes from old local varieties and landraces conserved in seed banks. In Europe, the legal framework has evolved since the establishment of ‘conservation varieties’ by directive 98/95. The European research project Farm Seed Opportunities is under way to support new seed policies, in the light also of the different national contexts. The debate in Europe now offers a range of seed systems models. It is time to enlarge this debate to southern countries through the sharing of knowledge between farmers of the North and the South, aiming at conserving agrobiodiversity and promoting rural innovation.

  8. Viability Prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Halkjær Olesen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to highlight the use of multispectral imaging in seed quality testing of castor seeds. Visually, 120 seeds were divided into three classes: yellow, grey and black seeds. Thereafter, images at 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375–970 nm were captured of all the seeds. Mean intensity for each single seed was extracted from the images, and a significant difference between the three colour classes was observed, with the best separation in the near-infrared wavelengths. A specified feature (RegionMSI mean based on normalized canonical discriminant analysis, were employed and viable seeds were distinguished from dead seeds with 92% accuracy. The same model was tested on a validation set of seeds. These seeds were divided into two groups depending on germination ability, 241 were predicted as viable and expected to germinate and 59 were predicted as dead or non-germinated seeds. This validation of the model resulted in 96% correct classification of the seeds. The results illustrate how multispectral imaging technology can be employed for prediction of viable castor seeds, based on seed coat colour.

  9. Seed quality characteristics of Pinus halepensis – seed germination strategy and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Tsitsoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus halepensis is a Mediterranean tree species occupying areas of high tourist interest, where it forms aesthetic and recreational forests. However, intense human pressure, adverse climatic conditions and overgrazing degrade Aleppo pine forest ecosystems and render the natural regeneration of this species difficult. The ecological, landscape, recreational and soil conservation uses of P. halepensis along with its aesthetic value, make this species important for landscape planning and multi-purpose forestry. For these reasons, artificial regeneration may be required in order to render ecosystem restoration faster. Although P. halepensis is characterized by a high germination capacity and a constant temperature of 20 °C is considered optimal for germination, no research has dealt with the germination behaviour and early growth of seedlings under alternative temperature conditions similar to those dominating outdoors. Moreover, little research was conducted on seed quality characteristics of this species. Thus, in this study seed quality of P. halepensis was estimated by measuring purity, number of seeds per kg, weight of 1000 seeds, average seed weight, seed moisture content and percentage of empty seeds. Also, seed germination capacity, germination rate, percentage of infected and not germinated viable seeds, abnormal seedlings as well as the total seedling length were studied under laboratory (alternative temperature and chamber (constant temperature conditions with the same photoperiod. Results showed that the percentage of empty seeds and abnormal seedlings was extremely low and the total germination percentage was very high (87–90% in both environments. Germination capacity, germination rate and the total length of seedlings did not show any differences among the two growth environments.

  10. Study of dose deposition for different configurations of seeds OncoSeed 6711

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. lodine-125 brachytherapy seeds are presented as a form of treatment. In prostate cancer therapy 80-120 iodine-125 seeds are implanted in the organ following a previous planning. During positioning and after it, the implanted seeds can undergo slight displacements relative to the original position. These deviations may cause changes in dose distribution in the tumor volume. This work has made a dosimetry study for iodine-125 seeds used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the first stage, we performed a one seed dosimetric parameters study following the TG-43 protocol recommendations with the objective of validating our methodology. Then a quantitative study of the variation in dose distribution for three configurations of four seeds OncoSeed 6711 was conducted with two configurations using the seeds in symmetrical positions and the other presenting small displacements. A soft tissue phantom and TLD dosimeters were used. Then a qualitative study of isodose curves of the configurations was performed using radiochromic film, Gafchromic model. This method was used to complement the study of the crystals. The seed's dosimetric parameters obtained in this work showed excellent agreement with the TG-43 consensual values, thus validating the methodology used in this work. The results obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters have shown that there is a significant difference in dose distribution when there is a change in the positioning of the seeds. The use of these two methods simultaneously is efficient since the crystals bring a point view and the film has a global view of the dose distribution. (author)

  11. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1?months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  12. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S.; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L.; Bonnett, Graham D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1?months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  13. Supermassive Seeds for Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L; Li, Hui; Holz, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z > 7 allow to constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. The combination of the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from recent cosmological simulations, the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and the large radiative efficiencies of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift, all suggest that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as > 10^5 solar masses. This is consistent with the prediction of the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 10^4 --10^6 solar mass seed BH. This also corroborates the results of recent cosmological simulations which suggest that these massive BHs wer...

  14. Protein fingerprint diversification of rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Zheng, Qi; Guan, Shuanghong

    To study protein fingerprint diversification of rice seeds induced by space environment we selected three series mutants induced in Chinese recoverable satellite in 1996 for 15 days including 1 Series 971 971ck the control sample in ground 971-5 and 971-4 samples after space derivation 2 Series 972 972ck the control sample in ground 972-4 and 972-1 samples after space derivation 3 Series 974 974ck the control sample in ground 974-5 and 974-8 samples after space derivation The proteins were extracted and separated to 4 groups Albumin Globulin Prolamine and Glutelin from the seeds of ground control group and inducted by space environment group Using RPLC method Reference peak was selected in every group and its relative retention time was 1 000 The relative retention time of other peaks was the ratio Calculate the contents due to the peak areas and draw a conclusion that some contents of protein were changed in the seeds of the mutant varieties There are character peaks among different varieties as the fingerprint Comparative analysis the fingerprint of Albumin Globulin and Prolamine can find the different in varieties identify The protein express abundance and easy be detected in the seeds So using RPLC method the Protein Fingerprint can identify breed handily and steadily Keywords rice seeds Space environment Protein Fingerprint

  15. Seed coat import and unloading in pisum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were undertaken with empty, attached ovules of Pisum sativum to observe the effects of osmotic solution changes on seed coat import and unloading into the apoplast. Through the use of 11CO2 pulse labelling along with collimated monitoring of plant sections, the authors were able to continuously and simultaneously measure total pod import, import into a single ovule, and washout from the ovule into a flow-through bathing solution. The authors results indicated that changes in bathing solution sucrose concentration had no immediate effect on tracer washout in Pisum, but did affect ovule import. Lowering the sucrose concentration decreased import and raising the concentration increased import. Furthermore, these import changes were only gradually reflected in the seed coat washout profile, suggesting a buffering capability of the non-phloem seed coat tissues. Additional results have also led them to propose that the terminal site of seed coat unloading in Pisum is the plasmalemma of an non-phloem seed coat cell type, that unloading from this site occurs via a passive membrane transport process, and that solutes move symplastically to this compartment from the phloem

  16. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  17. Physical properties characteristic of Polish and Canadian lentil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusinek R.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of the Polish variety of lentil seed, Tina and the Canadian variety, Laird Lentil (the most popular variety imported into Poland were compared. The parameters of individual seeds (size distribution, mass per 1000 seeds and the parameters of bulk seed (the bulk density, the porosity, the angle of internal friction, the wall friction coefficient and the pressure ratio of both varieties were compared for the moisture content of the seed within the range 9 to 21%. The seeds of the Canadian variety were found to be shapelier than the seeds of the Polish variety. The different swelling characteristics observed between the two varieties can be attributed to the different anatomical structures of the seed coating /husk/ in the two varieties. The seed coating of the Polish variety is rougher than that of the Canadian variety. Microscope photos of cross-sections of the seeds indicated that the seed coat of the Canadian variety is approximately twice as thin as the Polish variety. The concentration of papillary cells on the surface of the seed coat is higher in the case of the Canadian variety which produces a smoother surface than does the Polish variety. The mechanical properties of bulk seed were similar for both varieties.

  18. Detection of Seed-Borne Fungal pathogens on Soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soya beans (Glycine max max L.) are propagated by seed and are vulnerable to devastating seed-borne diseases where the importance of each disease varies greatly. Seed-borne diseases cause significant losses in seed, food production and quality of seed and grain. Studies on seed borne diseases in Kenya have not been given emphasis on very important seed crops among the soya beans. The identification and rejection of the seed crop is mainly based on visual appraisal in the field with little or no laboratory work undertaken. Three methods were used to analyse the health status of fifty two soyabean seed samples collected from the National Plant Breeding Research Centre-Njoro and farmers' fields in Bahati division of Nakuru district. The analysis was carried out in the laboratory. The objective of the analysis was to identify and inventory seed-borne fungal pathogens of soya beans grown in Kenya. The normal blotter, herbicide and germination test methods were used. The tests revealed the presence of several important fungal pathogens on soyabean seed samples. Among the pathogens recorded Phoma sp, phomopsis sp, fusarium sp, Hainesia lyhri and Cercospora kikuchii were frequently recorded on the seed samples. Results of the germination test between paper method showed low germination (0-6.7%) on the normal sedlings in all the test samples. Hainesia lyhri was a new record on the soyabean seeds

  19. Importance of Seed Quality for the Fresh-cut Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2011-01-01

    Seed is the most fundamental input in vegetable production on, which the effectiveness of other inputs and outputs depends. If the seed is of poor quality, the use of other inputs is less successful and will occasionally be irrelevant. A definition of seed quality will depend upon the use for, which the seed is intended. Viability, vigor, uniformity, purity and health of the seeds are quality parameters important for all production systems. The ideal situation for both fresh produce and fresh cut would be seeds, which germinate uniform at a high percentage and subsequently grow relatively fast to the desired size, thus, resulting in leaves of improved quality. It is likely that such leaves will be more able to withstand the rigorous processing that includes harvest, transportation, washing, sanitization, de-watering and packaging. This ideal situation would both be determined by the mentioned properties of the seeds and to a large extend the variety of the seeds. The quality of a vegetable product is defined by the interaction of these factors including environmental factors as well as by management and technology. Novel, fast and non-destructive technologies for seed testing allow for new sorting possibilities of a seed lot. At present new initiatives using multispectral imaging and single seed NIR spectroscopy is being developed at AU for description of seed lots. Preliminary results on investigations of Pak Choi seeds are presented.

  20. Efflux of Inorganic Ions in Leachates of Wheat Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashraf

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Na+, K+ and inorganic phosphate (Pi have been quantified in the leachates during early hours of imbibition of untreated and 2, 6, 16 and 24 hours of water pre-treated wheat seeds at 16?1?C. During the course of 24 hours imbibition of untreated seeds, Na+ effluxed 1.2 ppm/seed. K+ concentration at zero hour observed was 2.27 ppm/seed which increased to 7.2?0.9 ppm/seed in leachates of 24 hours of imbibition of control seeds. Rate of K+ leakage from the seed was faster (4.54 ppm/seed/hour during the initial 30 minutes which decreased to 0.3 ppm/seed/hour at 24 hours of imbibition. Pi leakage remained upto 8.1?1.2 ppm/seed during 24 hours of imbibition in control seeds. When seeds were pretreated in water for 2, 6, 16 and 24 hours, air-dried for a week to their original weights and allowed to re-imbibe for 1-3 days, decrease in ionic concentrations were noticed in their leachates with increase in duration to pre-treatment and least ionic concentrations were noticed in leachates of 24 hour pre-treated seeds. The significance of these changes during early hours of imbibition is discussed.

  1. Image analysis of moving seeds in an indented cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole; JØrgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2010-01-01

    The indented cylinder is used for sorting seeds. The seeds are physically manipulated in a way, such that sorting is based primarily on the length of individual seeds. Seeds are separated into at least two subsets: (1) seeds of a length a threshold (a scalar) and (2) seeds of a length the same threshold. The threshold is dependent on a number of different parameters. Besides the seed length, the rotation, general size, shape, and surface texture of each seed, are also known to influence the final sorting result. Such knowledge comes from previous experimentation with the indented cylinder. In our work we will seek to understand more about the internal dynamics of the indented cylinder. We will apply image analysis to observe the movement of seeds in the indented cylinder. This work is laying the groundwork for future studies into the application of image analysis as a tool for autonomous inspection in seed cleaning equipment. A prototype of an indented cylinder will be constructed. To make it more dynamic, the cylinder itself will be manufactured using 3D printing technology. The input will come either from 3D scans of existing cylinders or by defining their topology using parametric B-Spline surfaces. Using image analysis, the seeds will be tracked using a kalman filter and the 2D trajectory, length, velocity, weight, and rotation will be sampled. We expect a high correspondence between seed length and certain spatially optimal seed trajectories. This work is done in collaboration with Westrup A/S, Denmark.

  2. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy

  3. Subaru SEEDS Survey of Exoplanets and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks at Subaru (SEEDS) is the first strategic observing program (SSOPs) awarded by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). SEEDS targets a broad sample of stars that span a wide range of masses and ages to explore the formation and evolution of planetary systems. This survey has been awarded 120 nights over five years time to observe nearly 500 stars. Currently in the second year, SEEDS has already produced exciting new results for the protoplanetary disk AB Aur, transitional disk LkCa15, and nearby companion to GJ 758. We present the survey architecture, performance, recent results, and the projected sample. Finally, we will discuss planned upgrades to the high contrast instrumentation at the Subaru Telescope

  4. Mycoflora of commercial maize seed in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi?-Pap Sla?ana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear and kernel rots can reduce yield, quality and feed value of grain. Toxins produced by the fungi in corn can also have serious implications on the end use of the grain. Various fungi cause ear and kernel rots. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium are the most significant fungi which can cause corn ear and kernel rots. The aim of this paper is to test health of mercantile maize seed belonging to different hybrids. Seed health testing was done using filter paper and nutritive media (PDA method. Fungi from genera Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria were isolated from tested corn seed by both methods. Two species from the genus Fusarium were found in the tested corn samples F. graminearum and F. monilirome. Tested hybrids that belonged to different FAO maturity groups showed differences in susceptibility to ear and kernel rot.

  5. Gamma Tocopherol Content of Iranian Sesame Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannan Hajimahmoodi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma tocopherol content of 7 Iranian sesame seeds (sesamum indicume L. was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using C8 column and methanol, water and butanol as mobile phase. The gamma-tocopherol content varied from 563 to 1095 mg/kg in oil and 293 to 569 mg/kg in sesame seed and was in broad agreement with the Codex range. A large variation was found in the concentration of gamma-tocopherol in oils of different cultivars and the karaj cultivar had more gamma-tocopherol content than the Codex range with significant differences with the other cultivar. The gamma-tocopherol content was almost much more than the other literature values indicating the better nutritional value and oxidative stability in Iranian sesame seed. The present study showed that Iranian sesames are strong radical scavengers and can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants for medicinal and commercial uses.

  6. Seeding FEL with high harmonics in gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short wavelength Free Electron Lasers (FEL) usually operate in the single pass mode. Besides the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) configuration, seeding and High Harmonic Generation schemes have proven to be effective in the output radiation quality. We present here two tests experiment where the seed source is based on the High Harmonics produced in rare Gases (HHG), which appear to be very efficient and high quality light sources in the VUV-soft X-ray domain. These tests experiments are planned both on the SCSS (SPring-8 Compact Sase Source) prototype in Japan and on SPARC (Sorgente Pulsata e Amplificata di Radiazione Coerente) in Italy. Characteristics of these FELs and implementation of the seeding experiment are described. Expected performances are then given. (author)

  7. Seeded hot dark matter models with inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratsias, John; Scherrer, Robert J.; Steigman, Gary; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We examine massive neutrino (hot dark matter) models for large-scale structure in which the density perturbations are produced by randomly distributed relic seeds and by inflation. Power spectra, streaming velocities, and the Sachs-Wolfe quadrupole fluctuation are derived for this model. We find that the pure seeded hot dark matter model without inflation produces Sachs-Wolfe fluctuations far smaller than those seen by COBE. With the addition of inflationary perturbations, fluctuations consistent with COBE can be produced. The COBE results set the normalization of the inflationary component, which determines the large-scale (about 50/h Mpc) streaming velocities. The normalization of the seed power spectrum is a free parameter, which can be adjusted to obtain the desired fluctuations on small scales. The power spectra produced are very similar to those seen in mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

  8. Synchrony between fruit maturation and effective dispersers' foraging activity increases seed protection against seed predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C; Cerdá, Xim

    2007-10-22

    The evolution of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms is conditioned by the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of animals and plants. In the present study we explore the timing of seed release of a myrmecochorous plant (Helleborus foetidus) and ant activity in two populations in southern Spain during 2 consecutive years. The results indicate that fruit dehiscence and seed shedding occur mostly in the morning and correspond to the period of maximum foraging activity of the most effective ant dispersers. By contrast, ant species that do not transport seeds and/or that do not abound near the plants are active either before or after H. foetidus diaspores are released. Experimental analysis of diet preference for three kinds of food shows that effective ant dispersers are mostly scavengers that readily feed on insect corpses and sugars. Artificial seed depots suggest that seeds deposited on the ground out of the natural daily time window of diaspore releasing are not removed by ants and suffer strong predation by nocturnal rodents Apodemus sylvaticus. Nevertheless, important inter-annual variations in rodent populations cast doubts on their real importance as selection agents. We argue that traits allowing synchrony between seed presentation and effective partners may constitute a crucial pre-adaptation for the evolution of plant-animal mutualisms involving numerous animal partners. PMID:17698486

  9. Uptake of seed-applied copper by maize and the effects on seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Altomani Neves Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment is a low-cost and efficacious method to deliver a diversity of compounds to field crops. This study evaluated the uptake of seed-applied Cu by maize and the effect on seed vigor. The treatments were composed of a control (untreated seeds and five dosages of Cu: 0.11, 0.22, 0.44, 0.88 and 1.76 mg Cu seed–1, applied as cuprous oxide and copper oxychloride formulations. Seedling emergence and the speed of seedling emergence were determined in three periods: 1, 60 and 120 days after Cu application. Evaluations of root and shoot dry mass, Cu tissue concentration and efficiencies of Cu uptake and incorporation were conducted with two-leaf stage maize plants. Seed-applied Cu reduces the speed of maize seedling emergence, while the final emergence percentage is not affected. Shoot dry mass tends to increase with the application of Cu, while there is no interference on root dry mass within the dosages tested. Cu tissue concentration of both roots and shoots increases as higher dosages of Cu are applied to seeds, with higher accumulation in roots. Cuprous oxide promotes higher uptake of Cu by maize roots compared to copper oxychloride.

  10. Uptake of seed-applied copper by maize and the effects on seed vigor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Altomani Neves, Dias; Silvio Moure, Cicero; Ana Dionísia Luz Coelho, Novembre.

    Full Text Available Seed treatment is a low-cost and efficacious method to deliver a diversity of compounds to field crops. This study evaluated the uptake of seed-applied Cu by maize and the effect on seed vigor. The treatments were composed of a control (untreated seeds) and five dosages of Cu: 0.11, 0.22, 0.44, 0.88 [...] and 1.76 mg Cu seed–1, applied as cuprous oxide and copper oxychloride formulations. Seedling emergence and the speed of seedling emergence were determined in three periods: 1, 60 and 120 days after Cu application. Evaluations of root and shoot dry mass, Cu tissue concentration and efficiencies of Cu uptake and incorporation were conducted with two-leaf stage maize plants. Seed-applied Cu reduces the speed of maize seedling emergence, while the final emergence percentage is not affected. Shoot dry mass tends to increase with the application of Cu, while there is no interference on root dry mass within the dosages tested. Cu tissue concentration of both roots and shoots increases as higher dosages of Cu are applied to seeds, with higher accumulation in roots. Cuprous oxide promotes higher uptake of Cu by maize roots compared to copper oxychloride.

  11. Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh M. Moosa, Mamun Ur Rashid, A.Z.S. Asadi, Nazma Ara, M. Mojib Uddin and A. Ferdaus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenugraecum Linn on serum lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Administration of fenugreek seed powder of 25 gm orally twice daily for 3 weeks and 6 weeks produces significant (P<0.001 reduction of serum total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesteremic group but the change of serum HDL-cholesterol was not significant. On other hand, changes of lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients without fenugreek were not significant (P<0.001. The present study suggests that fenugreek seed powder would be considered as effective agent for lipid lowering purposes.

  12. New kaurene diterpenoid glycosides from fenugreek seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xu; Kang, Li-Ping; Yu, He-Shui; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Two new kaurene diterpenoid glycosides, named Graecumoside A (1) and B (2), were isolated from fenugreek seeds, along with three known flavonoid-C-glycosides, isoorientin (3), isovitexin (4) and vitexin (5). By combined analyses of 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS spectroscopy, the structures of two new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-?- D-glucopyranosyl kaur-5, 16-dien-3?, 6, 13?-trihydroxy-7-oxo-18-oic acid methyl ester and 3-O-?-neohesperidosyl kaur-5, 16-dien-3?, 6, 13?-trihydroxy-7-oxo-18-oic acid methyl ester, respectively. The kaurene diterpenoid glycosides were first isolated and identified from fenugreek seeds. PMID:22950814

  13. Dosimetry of 125I seed eye plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of a brachytherapy treatment-planning computer program to calculate accurately the dose from 125I seeds at distances relevant to eye plaque therapy was investigated. Thermoluminescent dosimetry measurements were made in a plastic phantom at depths of 0.5, 0.97, and 1.5 cm, and results were corrected for finite dosimeter size and phantom effects. Doses were calculated at the same depths with an 125I seed linear source model that accounted for dose anisotropy. Measurements and calculations were found to agree within their mutual uncertainties. The presence of a gold plaque was found to reduce the dose at all measured depths by 8%

  14. Breeding for Improved Seed Yield in Mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sadiq

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease resistant mungbean variety NIAB MUNG 92 showed tremendous impact for increasing the area and production of the country demonstrating genetic manipulation of economic traits. Large seed size and earliness had been introgressed into otherwise adapted genetic background. A series of high yielding elite lines having improved morpho-physiological characteristics had been developed. Out of these, NM 92 has been approved as NIAB MUNG 92 in November,1996 by the Punjab Seed Council for general cultivation in the province. The present paper reports the developmental history of NM 92 and its adoption by the growers to achieve sustainable mungbean production.

  15. Mycoflora of commercial maize seed in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Medi?-Pap Sla?ana S.; Maširevi? Stevan N.; Šofhauzer Ivana P.

    2011-01-01

    Ear and kernel rots can reduce yield, quality and feed value of grain. Toxins produced by the fungi in corn can also have serious implications on the end use of the grain. Various fungi cause ear and kernel rots. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium are the most significant fungi which can cause corn ear and kernel rots. The aim of this paper is to test health of mercantile maize seed belonging to different hybrids. Seed health testing was done using filter paper and nutritive media (P...

  16. Seed Dormancy, Seedling Establishment and Dynamics of the Soil Seed Bank of Stipa bungeana (Poaceae) on the Loess Plateau of Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiao Wen; Wu, Yan Pei; Ding, Xing Yu; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan Rong; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2014-01-01

    Studying seed dormancy and its consequent effect can provide important information for vegetation restoration and management. The present study investigated seed dormancy, seedling emergence and seed survival in the soil seed bank of Stipa bungeana, a grass species used in restoration of degraded land on the Loess Plateau in northwest China. Dormancy of fresh seeds was determined by incubation of seeds over a range of temperatures in both light and dark. Seed germination was evaluated after m...

  17. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

    Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass-type festulolium, Paulita, and in a fescue-type festulolium, Hykor. The objectives were to examine the influence of row spacing (12, 24, and 36 cm) and seed rate (8, 12, or 16 kg ha-1) on plant establishment, dev...

  18. Characterization of seed storage proteins and their synthesis during seed development in Olea europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Alché Ramírez, Juan de Dios; Castro López, Antonio Jesús; Rodríguez García, María I.

    2001-01-01

    SDS-PAGE analysis showed that seed storage proteins (SSPs) in olive mainly consisted of two hydrogen-bonded subunits, Solea I (41 kDa) and Solea II (47.5 kDa). When reduced, Solea I and II yielded 3 and 2 disulfide-bonded polypeptides, respectively. N-terminal sequencing confirmed that both Solea I and II shared a high similarity with II S proteins. Additionally, time-course of protein synthesis in olive seeds was investigated from 25 days after anthesis (DAA) until seed ripening. Before 105 ...

  19. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded that amaranth seeds ,watermelon seeds and their flour can be incorporated in the preparation of different products as well as improve their nutritional composition.

  20. Characteristics, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Lannea microcarpa Seed and Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Bazongo; Imaël Henri Nestor Bassolé; Søren Nielsen; Adama Hilou; Mamoudou Hama Dicko; Vijai K. S. Shukla

    2014-01-01

    The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%), crude oil (64.90%), protein (21.14%), total carbohydrate (10.85%) and moisture (3.24%). Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, ...

  1. Production of quality/certified seed of fodder-crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although, Pakistan has well developed Seed-production and certification Programme for major crops, but seed programme for fodder-crops is still not well organized. Availability of local certified seed, remained 250-350 mt for Berseem, Sorghum, maize, barley and oat. About 5000 to 9000 mt of seed has being imported during 2003-04 to 2005-06. Fodder Research Institute and jullundhur Seed Corporation have demonstrated a model of public/private partnership for initiation of certified seed of a few fodder crops. To produce quality seeds of fodder crops, various steps, procedures and prescribed standards have been given, which will help in production of quality seed of fodder crops in Pakistan. (author)

  2. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yi-bin

    2004-06-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and IIyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background. PMID:15101099

  3. Detection and transmission of Drechslera avenae from oat seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona Marcelo A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection, symptoms and symptomless transmission of Drechslera avenae (teleomorph Pyrenophora avenae from seed were investigated. The present study reported that the D. avenae is frequently found in oat (Avena sativa seed in Argentina. The prevalence of the seed lot infected was 54%. The incidence of seeds infected by D. avenae in the various seed lots from different regions ranged from 0 to 52% (overall mean of 7%. Besides conidia on conidiophore and immature pseudothecia, D. avenae produced small, spherical to pear-shape picnidia containing tiny conidia, on the seed surface. The pathogen was efficiently transmitted at a rate of 55% from seed to coleoptile tips in symptomless seedlings and at 12.5% to plumules. The importance of the infected seed and its epidemiological role are discussed.

  4. Rodent seed predation: effects on seed survival, recruitment, abundance, and dispersion of bird-dispersed tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, Nandini; Isvaran, Kavita; Datta, Aparajita

    2012-08-01

    Tropical tree species vary widely in their pattern of spatial dispersion. We focus on how seed predation may modify seed deposition patterns and affect the abundance and dispersion of adult trees in a tropical forest in India. Using plots across a range of seed densities, we examined whether seed predation levels by terrestrial rodents varied across six large-seeded, bird-dispersed tree species. Since inter-specific variation in density-dependent seed mortality may have downstream effects on recruitment and adult tree stages, we determined recruitment patterns close to and away from parent trees, along with adult tree abundance and dispersion patterns. Four species (Canarium resiniferum, Dysoxylum binectariferum, Horsfieldia kingii, and Prunus ceylanica) showed high predation levels (78.5-98.7%) and increased mortality with increasing seed density, while two species, Chisocheton cumingianus and Polyalthia simiarum, showed significantly lower seed predation levels and weak density-dependent mortality. The latter two species also had the highest recruitment near parent trees, with most abundant and aggregated adults. The four species that had high seed mortality had low recruitment under parent trees, were rare, and had more spaced adult tree dispersion. Biotic dispersal may be vital for species that suffer density-dependent mortality factors under parent trees. In tropical forests where large vertebrate seed dispersers but not seed predators are hunted, differences in seed vulnerability to rodent seed predation and density-dependent mortality can affect forest structure and composition. PMID:22327614

  5. Ecosystem services from keystone species: diversionary seeding and seed-caching desert rodents can enhance Indian ricegrass seedling establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longland, William; Ostoja, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), a native bunchgrass common to sandy soils on arid western rangelands, are naturally dispersed by seed-caching rodent species, particularly Dipodomys spp. (kangaroo rats). These animals cache large quantities of seeds when mature seeds are available on or beneath plants and recover most of their caches for consumption during the remainder of the year. Unrecovered seeds in caches account for the vast majority of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment. We applied three different densities of white millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds as “diversionary foods” to plots at three Great Basin study sites in an attempt to reduce rodents' over-winter cache recovery so that more Indian ricegrass seeds would remain in soil seedbanks and potentially establish new seedlings. One year after diversionary seed application, a moderate level of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment occurred at two of our study sites in western Nevada, although there was no recruitment at the third site in eastern California. At both Nevada sites, the number of Indian ricegrass seedlings sampled along transects was significantly greater on all plots treated with diversionary seeds than on non-seeded control plots. However, the density of diversionary seeds applied to plots had a marginally non-significant effect on seedling recruitment, and it was not correlated with recruitment patterns among plots. Results suggest that application of a diversionary seed type that is preferred by seed-caching rodents provides a promising passive restoration strategy for target plant species that are dispersed by these rodents.

  6. Viability of Macrotyloma axillare cv. Guatá seeds under chemical scarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleize Rocha Terra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the associacion of grasses and legumes results in a good forage yield as well as a good animal performance due to maintenance of adequate levels of crude protein (CP in the animal diet, both the direct effect of the ingestion of legumes, or even through indirect effect of the introduction of nitrogen by legumes in the pasture, thereby increasing the production of forage mass. However, the seeds of legumines have the so-called hardness seeds or dormant according to their coats impermeable to water. The hardness of the seed prevents the germination of the same since these seeds have a hard shell impervious to water and gas exchange, not allowing the imbibition of water by the seed, or embryo oxygenation. This dormancy may be broken by various known methods such as scarification, promoting cracks in the seed coat allowing the entry of water therein. In the case of Macrotyloma axillare exposure of seeds to scarification method has proven to be an efficient way to break dormancy and promoting seed germination. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the viability of seeds after suffering dormancy by immersion seeds in sulfuric acid. The experiment to break dormancy Macrotyloma axillares cv. Guatá was conducted in the laboratory of Plant Physiology at the Intituto de Zootecnia in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State, using the seeds that were stored in a cold room with temperatures between 10-12 ºC, relative humidity (RH 30-33% and no light. The treatments studied were: control, chemical scarification with sulfuric acid for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. We used a completely randomized design with two replications, being 100 seeds each repetition. After treatment the seeds were under to tetrazolium test resulting in viable seeds and seed viability. So the result of the tetrazolium test was obtained by average percentage of viable seeds, found in the repeats tested, respecting the maximum tolerances set out in Brazilian Rules for Seed Analysis 2009. According to statistical analysis of the different treatments, it was observed that the scraping of the seeds in sulfuric acid for 20, 30, 40 minutes had a minor amount of viable seeds even compared to control, these results show that scarification with sulfuric acid at longer times (20, 30, 40 can damage the seed embryo. However there was no statistically differences between the treatments with sulfuric acid for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, but the seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes presented the best result for mean percentage viable seed.

  7. Seed dispersal limitations shift over time in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J Leighton; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A

    2015-06-01

    Past studies have shown that tropical forest regeneration on degraded farmlands is initially limited by lack of seed dispersal, but few studies have tracked changes in abundance and composition of seed rain past the first few years after land abandonment. We measured seed rain for 12 months in 10 6-9-year-old restoration sites and five mature, reference forests in southern Costa Rica in order to learn (1) if seed rain limitation persists past the first few years of regeneration; (2) how restoration treatments influence seed community structure and composition; and (3) whether seed rain limitation is contingent on landscape context. Each restoration site contained three 0.25-ha treatment plots: (1) a naturally regenerating control, (2) tree islands, and (3) a mixed-species tree plantation. Sites spanned a deforestation gradient with 9-89% forest area within 500 m around the treatment plots. Contrary to previous studies, we found that tree seeds were abundant and ubiquitous across all treatment plots (585.1 ± 142.0 seeds · m(-2) · yr(-1) [mean ± SE]), indicating that lack of seed rain ceased to limit forest regeneration within the first decade of recovery. Pioneer trees and shrubs comprised the vast majority of seeds, but compositional differences between restoration sites and reference forests were driven by rarer, large-seeded species. Large, animal-dispersed tree seeds were more abundant in tree islands (4.6 ± 2.9 seeds · m(-2) · yr(-1)) and plantations (5.8 ± 3.0 seeds · m(-2) · yr(-1)) than control plots (0.2 ± 0.1 seeds · m(-2) · yr(-1)), contributing to greater tree species richness in actively restored plots. Planted tree species accounted for forest cover effects on seed rain, consistent with previous studies. We conclude that seed rain limitation shifted from an initial, complete lack of tree seeds to a specific limitation on large-seeded, mature forest species over the first decade. Although total seed abundance was equal among restoration treatments, tree plantations and tree islands continued to diversify seed rain communities compared to naturally regenerating controls. Compositional differences between regenerating plots and mature forests suggest that large-seeded tree species are appropriate candidates for enrichment planting. PMID:26465043

  8. Impact of management practices on Italian ryegrass seed quality

    OpenAIRE

    Simi? Aleksandar S.; Vu?kovi? Savo M.; ?upina Branko T.; Krsti? ?or?e B.; Stanisavljevi? Rade S.; Milivojevi? Marija S.

    2010-01-01

    Thousand-seed weight and total germination from the first production year and two seed harvests were measured in tetraploid Italian ryegrass (cv. Tetraflorum) to study variations in seed quality. Four-year field experiments were carried out (2002-2006) in western Serbia and Italian ryegrass was established with three row spacings (20, 40 and 60 cm), four seeding rates (5, 10, 15 and 20 kg ha-1) and using four spring nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-...

  9. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagi?, ?ura; Hampton, John

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legu...

  10. Scientific knowledge dissemination in Danish seed communities of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Danish agriculture and seed science have a history of successful collaboration spanning more than a hundred years. In this study, we interviewed 26 growers, consultants, and scientists from the Danish seed community focusing on their current knowledge status and on their views on improving scientific knowledge communication. Theoretically, we consider these actors participants in different communities of practice relating to the production of seeds (Seed-CoP), and we conclude that strong network...

  11. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Cibele C.; Bovi Marilene L. A.; Nakagawa João

    2003-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude) seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrical co...

  12. On the use of fungicides in ecological seed burial studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mitschunas, Nadine; Filser, Juliane; Wagner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for effects of saprophytic fungi on buried seed demography is usually obtained from studies involving the simultaneous burial of fungicide-treated seeds and of untreated seeds. However, any potential influence of fungicide treatment on seed dormancy levels is generally ignored in these studies. Also, some studies assume that a combination of several fungicidal compounds provides better protection against a broader range of fungi, ignoring chemical interactions that may potentially oc...

  13. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    OpenAIRE

    Neya, O.

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying and subsequent dry storage. Seeds col...

  14. Hares promote seed dispersal and seedling establishment after volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Nanae; Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

    2015-02-01

    Although seed dispersal through animal guts (endozoochory) is a process that determines plant establishment, the behaviour of carriers mean that the seeds are not always dispersed to suitable habitats for germination. The germinable seeds of Gaultheria miqueliana were stored in the pellets of a hare (Lepus timidus ainu) on Mount Koma in northern Japan. To clarify the roles of hares in seed dispersal and germination, field censuses and laboratory experiments were conducted. The field observations were conducted on pellets and seeds in four habitats (bare ground, G. miqueliana shrub patch, Salix reinii patch, and Larix kaempferi understory), and the laboratory experiments were conducted on seed germination with different light, water potential and cold stratification treatments. The laboratory experiments confirmed that seed germination began a few weeks after the sowing of seeds, independent of cold stratification, when light was sufficient and the water potential was low. The seeds did not germinate at high water potential. The pellets were gradually degraded in situ. More seeds germinated from crushed than from intact pellets. Therefore, over the long term, seeds germinated when exposed to light due to the degradation of pellets. The pellets were proportionally dispersed among the four studied habitats. More seeds sown in the field germinated more in shaded habitats, such as in the Gaultheria patch and the Larix understory, and seeds did not germinate on bare ground, where drought often occurred. Thus, the hares had two roles in the dispersal and germination of seeds: (1) the expansion of G. miqueliana populations through seed dispersal to various habitats and (2) the facilitation of delayed seed germination to avoid risks of hazards such as drought. The relationships between small mammals represented by the hare and the shrubs that produce berries are likely to be more mutually evolved than was previously thought.

  15. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Gemell; Elizabeth Hartley; Rosalind Deaker

    2012-01-01

    Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival...

  16. Seed extracts impede germination in Brassica rapa plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Barnum; Franks, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important mechanism of interference competition in some plants, but little is known about whether compounds exuded from seeds influence the germination of neighbors. We treated seeds of multiple lines of Brassica rapa (field mustard) with aqueous extracts of Brassica rapa Fast Plant seeds and extracts of seeds of the invasive, allelopathic plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard). Germination patterns differed significantly among populations, with Fast Plants germinating ea...

  17. Seed micromorphological survey of the Minuartia species (Caryophyllaceae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MOSTAFAVI, Golaleh; ASSADI, Mostafa; NEJADSATTARI, Taher; Sharifnia, Fariba; Mehregan, Iraj

    2013-01-01

    Seed micromorphology of 20 species of Minuartia L. (Caryophyllaceae) that represent 2 different subgenera (i.e. Minuartia subgen. Spergella (Fenzl) McNeill and Minuartia subgen. Minuartia) were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Some qualitative and quantitative characters such as seed length and width, seed shape, cell shape, and cell ornamentations were studied. The results showed that seed micromorphology might provide useful tools in recognition and separation of Minuartia hamat...

  18. Scanning electron microscopy in characterizing seeds of some leguminous trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Chatterjee, Amiyanghshu; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    SEM has greatly increased our knowledge of the microstructure of seeds. Mature seed coats are rather thick walled and stable in a vacuum: this allows quick preparation for SEM examination, without the need of complicated dehydration techniques. The low level of technical expenditure required, in combination with the high structural diversity exhibited and the intuitive ability to understand the "three dimensional", often aesthetically appealing micro-structures visualized, has turned seed-coat studies into a favorite tool of many taxonomists. We used dry mature seeds of 26 species of 4 Leguminous genera, Acacia, Albizia, Cassia and Dalbergia to standardize a procedure for identifying the seeds through SEM on the seed surface and seed sections. We cut transverse and longitudinal sections of the seeds and observed the sections from different regions of seeds: midseed, near the hilum and two distal ends. Light microscopy showed the color, texture, pleurograms, fissures and hilum at lower magnification. The anatomical study with SEM on the seed sections revealed the size, shape, and number of tiers and cellular organization of the epidermis, hypodermis, endosperm and internal structural details. We found the ornamentation pattern of the seeds including undulations, reticulations and rugae that were species specific. Species of Dalbergia (assamica, latifolia and sissoo), Albizia (odoratissima and procera), Acaia (arabica and catechu) and Cassia (glauca, siamia and spectabilis) are difficult to distinguish externally, but SEM studies provided enough characteristic features to distinguish from the other. This technique could be valuable in identifying seeds of important plant species for conservation and trading.

  19. The Encyclopedia of Seeds: Science Technology and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed deteriorate during storage and the nature and kinetics of deteriorative reactions depend on seed traits and the relative humidity and temperature at which seeds are stored. Aging reactions are hypothesized to involve oxidations. The temperature-dependency of reactions are described by Arrheni...

  20. 7 CFR 1400.212 - Growers of hybrid seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Growers of hybrid seed. 1400.212 Section 1400.212 Agriculture...Payment Eligibility § 1400.212 Growers of hybrid seed. The existence of a hybrid seed contract for a person or legal entity...

  1. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  2. Spatial aspects of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in orchids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Malinová, T.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 176, ?. 2 (2007), s. 237-241. ISSN 0028-646X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : orchids * seed dispersal * seed germination * seed sowing technique * seedling recruitment * spatial analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.249, year: 2007

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of the seed germination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presented a mathematical model of seed germination process based on the Monte Carlo method and theoretical premises resulted from the physiology of seed germination suggesting three consecutive stages: physical, biochemical and physiological. The model was experimentally verified by determination of germination characteristics for seeds of ground tomatoes, Promyk cultivar, within broad range of temperatures (from 15 to 30 deg C)

  4. Effect of sequential dry heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment on inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium on alfalfa seeds and seeds germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium on alfalfa seeds without having negative effect on seed germination. Inoculated alfalfa seeds were treated with dry heat at 60, 70 or 80 °C for 0, 12, 18 or 24 h followed by 2% hydrogen peroxide solution (10 min). Populations of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds treated with dry heat alone (60, 70 or 80 °C) for up to 24 h were reduced by 0.26-2.76 log CFU/g, and sequential treatment with dry heat and H2O2 reduced populations by 1.66-3.60 log CFU/g. The germination percentage of seeds subjected to sequential treatments was significantly enhanced to up to 97%, whereas that of untreated seeds was only 79.5%. This study suggests that sequential treatment with dry heat and hydrogen peroxide is applicable for reducing levels of Salmonella on seeds while simultaneously enhancing seeds germinability. PMID:26678124

  5. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. PMID:26304382

  6. Harry Seed, liquefaction and the gravel drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the results of implementing the recommendations of engineer Harry Seed to prevent liquefaction in the event of an earthquake in Japan. The topics of the article include the cause and effects of liquefaction, the design of gravel drains, damage from liquefaction, examples of gravel drain success, and improvements to the method that have been developed by the Japanese

  7. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  8. INTERACTION OF SEEDS WITH VIBRATING SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petunina I. A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article we present the results of theoretical and experimental researches of physic-mechanical proper-ties of seeds of vegetable cultures and their interaction with vibrating surfaces of working bodies of sowing devices. The general view of the laboratory installation developed by the authors of the article has been presented

  9. Preserve CRP Soil Quality by Direct Seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    As growers approach the end of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts and return lands to crop production, they are faced with the decision of how to best manage these lands. Direct seed may be a viable option in returning CRP lands to crop production to avoid some of the issues normally assoc...

  10. Hemagglutinating activity of Dolichos lablab seed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Lima, M; Pusztai, A; Nunes, D C; Farias, M E

    1988-01-01

    The hemagglutinating activity of a crude extract and partially purified protein fractions from seeds of Dolichos lablab grown in the state of Bahia, Brazil, has been examined. The crude extract agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes non-specifically with respect to blood groups. The hemagglutination of rabbit erythrocytes induced by the crude extract of D. lablab was inhibited most effectively by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (3 mM) and alpha-methyl-D-mannoside (3 mM) followed by D-glucosamine (6 mM), D-mannose (6 mM) and D-glucose (12 mM). The spectrum of sugar inhibition of the hemagglutinating activity of the Brazilian seeds combines the characteristics of seeds coming from Turkey and India as indicated by the preferential inhibitory effect exerted by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and the inhibition by D-mannose and D-glucose. These data suggest that the Brazilian seeds may belong to a different variety of Dolichos lablab. PMID:3203158

  11. Rhizoctonia seed, seedling, and wet root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn can cause seed and seedling rot of both lentil and chickpea as well as many other agricultural crops worldwide. The pathogen is favored in cool, sandy soil with high organic matter under no-till or reduced-till soil management practices. Survival spor...

  12. Artemisia tridenata seed bank densities following wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived a...

  13. Implications of Environmental Stress during Seed Development on Reproductive and Seed Bank Persistence Traits in Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Patrick Fuerst; Dennis Pittmann; Snyder, Amanda M.; Kristen L. Granger; Robert S. Gallagher

    2013-01-01

    Weeds produce seed under a wide range of conditions, depending on timing of emergence, prevailing crop, soil microsites, and climatic conditions, among other factors. We hypothesized that the maturation environment during weed seed development will influence reproductive allocation and seed persistence traits, such as seed dormancy and vigor, and needs to be considered when formulating weed management strategies. This research evaluated the effects of shade and drought stress on reproductive ...

  14. Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Annick St-Denis; Daniel Kneeshaw; Christian Messier

    2013-01-01

    Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and ...

  15. Assessment of seed quality parameters and effect of physical and chemical treatments on seed germination of Myriophyllum Spicatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Ahmad Wani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to understand the fruit and seed morphology, seed viability andeffect of various physical and chemical factors on seed germination allowing us to explore thespread potential and/or seedling recruitment mechanism in Myriophyllum spicatum L.. The fruit ofthe species is a schizocarp, while as seed is a nutlet. The seed set was recorded to be ranging from70.98-77.91% across the standing water populations, whereas no seed set was observed in runningwater populations due to the lack of an effective pollination system. The seed viability ranged from85-90%. For in-vitro seed germination studies, the seeds were subjected to different physical andchemical treatments under alternate light and dark as well as continuous dark conditions. Theseeds in control and those treated with different concentrations of GA3 and IAA and those whoseepicarp and mesocarp were removed did not show any signs of germination. However, it wasobserved that surgical exposure of the embryo (cutting of hard endocarp of seed has a promotereffect on germination and maximum percentage germination (76.66 ± 5.77 was recorded due tosurgical exposure of embryo plus different concentrations of GA3. Moreover, a good germinationpercentage was recorded in seeds subjected to chilling treatment. Further, it was observed thatseed germination of one-year-old seeds was less if compared to the current year seeds and overallpercentage germination was higher in alternate light and dark if compared to continuous darkconditions in all the treatments.Thus, we conclude that the dormancy of the seeds is due to thehard endocarp and that the light has a promoting effect on germination. With the increase in theage of the seeds, there is decrease in their viability and hence germination. The chilling wintertemperature of the Kashmir is responsible for breaking the hard endocarp of the seeds leading totheir germination and hence spread of the populations.

  16. Improving seed health and seed performance by positive selection in three Kenyan potato varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte-Geldermann, E.; Gildemacher, P.R.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Selecting seed potatoes from healthy-looking mother plants (positive selection) was compared with common Kenyan farmer practice of selection from the harvested bulk of potatoes (farmer selection) in 23 farmer-managed trials. Positive selection assured lower incidences of PLRV (39%), PVY (35%) and PVX (35%). Positive selection out-yielded farmer selection irrespective of the agro-ecology, crop management, soil fertility, variety and quality of the starter seed, with an overall average of 30%. ...

  17. ?-Amylase from Starchless Seeds of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum and Its Localization in Germinating Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Garima; Kayastha, Arvind M.

    2014-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds do not contain starch as carbohydrate reserve. Synthesis of starch is initiated after germination. A ?-amylase from ungerminated fenugreek seeds was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 210 fold with specific activity of 732.59 units/mg. Mr of the denatured enzyme as determined from SDS-PAGE was 58 kD while that of native enzyme calculated from size exclusion chromatography was 56 kD. Furthermore, its identity wa...

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN) SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA) SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta Rupa; Banik Jayanta

    2013-01-01

    The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya) seeds (CP) and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin) seeds (CM) were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P) and time for death (D) of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM) dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormi...

  19. Vacuum Seed Sowing Manifold: a novel device for high-throughput sowing of Arabidopsis seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Richard; Cox, Benjamin; Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Masson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The small size of Arabidopsis provides both opportunities and difficulties for laboratory research. Large numbers of plants can be grown in a relatively small area making it easy to observe and investigate interesting phenotypes. Conversely, their small size can also make it difficult to obtain large quantities of tissue for investigation using modern molecular techniques. Sowing large numbers of their seed can overcome this; however, their small seed size makes this difficult. Here we presen...

  20. Control of seed-borne pathogens on legumes by microbial and other alternative seed treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Tinivella, F.; Hirata, L.M.; Celan, M.A.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Schmitt, A.; Wolf, J. M.; Koch, E.; Groot, S. P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different seed treatments as alternatives to chemicals against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum cause of anthracnose on bean and Ascochyta spp. cause of Ascochyta blights on pea, respectively. Resistance inducers, commercially formulated microorganisms, non-formulated selected strains of different microorganisms (fungi, bacteria and yeasts) and plant extracts were applied as dry or liquid seed treatments on naturally infested se...

  1. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nan...

  2. Some Enzymatic Activities Of Fungi Isolated From Cotton Seeds And Cotton Seed Products

    OpenAIRE

    El Kady, I. A. [??????? ??? ?????? ??????

    1984-01-01

    Five hundred different cultures which belong to fifteen genera and forty-one species, isolated from cotton seeds and cotton seed products were studied for proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic activities. About 80% of the cultures tested proved to be protease-producers. High proportions of protease producing cultures were found in the genera Aspergillus (97.73%), Fusarium (95.83%) and Penicillium (46.34%). Most of the aspergilli which belong to the species A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. sydowit ...

  3. Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Noli

    Full Text Available Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control. During the second and third years the water content of the soil was monitored weekly, starting from just before the first treatment to harvest. These measurements indicate that the upper layers (0-20 cm, which are more subjected to evapotranspiration, are more affected by irrigations than the deeper layers (20-40. The effectiveness of irrigation treatments on seed yield was tightly dependent in the distribution of precipitations. The treatments applied in full or late flowering, both separately or together, determined significant increases in yield and in the percentage of seed balls with a diameter higher than 4.0 mm, whereas those at the beginning of flowering did not produced any improvements. No significant effects of the different treatments on 1000-seed weight and germinability were observed, except for a slightly negative influence of irrigations applied at the end of flowering.When all the traits were considered, an overall moderate correlation was detected between seed yield and quality.

  4. Condicionamento fisiológico de sementes de couve-flor / Priming seed treatment of cauliflower seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lúcia P, Kikuti; Julio, Marcos Filho.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos definir o procedimento para o condicionamento fisiológico de sementes de couve-flor e verificar a influência do potencial fisiológico das sementes sobre os resultados desse tratamento. Seis lotes de sementes, três da cultivar Sharon e três da cultivar Teresópolis Gi [...] gante, foram submetidos ao hidrocondicionamento entre camadas de duas, quatro e seis folhas de papel toalha e ao osmocondicionamento entre camadas de quatro folhas de papel toalha umedecidas com solução de polietilenoglicol 6000 (potenciais de -0,1 e -0,2 MPa). Em todos os procedimentos os teores de água foram ajustados para 32 e 38%, para a cultivar Sharon, e 34 e 41% para a cultivar Teresópolis Gigante. Os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a germinação e emergência das plântulas foram comparados à testemunha (sem condicionamento). O hidrocondicionamento entre quatro e seis folhas, até a obtenção dos teores de água mais elevados, beneficiou a velocidade de germinação (VG) e a de emergência de plântulas (VE), nas duas cultivares. Na cultivar Sharon a VG foi de 14,6 (testemunha) em comparação a 16,4 nas sementes hidrocondicionadas, para os lotes de maior e menor potencial fisiológico; paralelamente, os valores da VE aumentaram de 8,9 para 11,2 e de 7,8 para 11,6, nos lotes de menor potencial fisiológico. Para a cultivar Teresópolis Gigante, a VG e a VE foram favorecidas pelo hidrocondicionamento, independentemente do potencial fisiológico dos lotes (a VG aumentou de 16,4 para 21,4 e, a VE, de 9,5 para 13,5). Conclui-se que o hidrocondicionamento entre quatro e seis folhas de papel toalha, até a obtenção de teores de água próximos aos da emissão da raiz primária é favorável à velocidade de germinação e de emergência de plântulas em couve-flor e que o potencial fisológico inicial dos lotes pode influenciar a resposta ao condicionamento fisiológico, dependendo da cultivar ou histórico dos lotes. Abstract in english This research was conducted to define an adequate procedure for cauliflower seed priming and to verify whether the seed physiological potential affects priming results. Six seed lots, three of the cultivar Sharon and three of Teresópolis Gigante, were submitted to hydropriming between two, four and [...] six sheets of towel paper and to osmopriming between four sheets of towel paper moistened with polietilenoglycol 6000 solutions (-0,1 and -0,2 MPa potentials). In all priming procedures, the seed water content was adjusted to 32% or 38% for cv. Sharon and 34% or 41%, for cv. Teresópolis Gigante seeds. The effects of treatments on germination and seedling emergence were compared to unprimed control. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper was efficient to favor speed of germination (VG) and speed of seedling emergence (VE) in both cultivars when seeds attained 38% (cultivar Sharon) and 41% (cultivar Teresópolis Gigante). VG increased from 14,6 (control) to 16,4 (hydroprimed seeds) in cv. Sharon seed lots of higher and lower physiological potential; the same for VE that incresead from 8,9 to 11,3 and from 7,8 to 11,6 in seed lots of lower physiological potential. In seeds of cv. Teresópolis Gigante, hydropriming promoted increases in the VG and VE, independently of seed physiological potencial; VG values ranged from 16,4 to 21,4 and the VE from 9,5 to 13,5. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper, in which seeds attained moisture content close to the required for primary root protrusion is efficient to favor the speed of germination and seedling emergence of cauliflower seeds; the influence of vigor level on seed priming response is closely related to cultivar and seed lot management.

  5. Condicionamento fisiológico de sementes de couve-flor Priming seed treatment of cauliflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia P Kikuti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos definir o procedimento para o condicionamento fisiológico de sementes de couve-flor e verificar a influência do potencial fisiológico das sementes sobre os resultados desse tratamento. Seis lotes de sementes, três da cultivar Sharon e três da cultivar Teresópolis Gigante, foram submetidos ao hidrocondicionamento entre camadas de duas, quatro e seis folhas de papel toalha e ao osmocondicionamento entre camadas de quatro folhas de papel toalha umedecidas com solução de polietilenoglicol 6000 (potenciais de -0,1 e -0,2 MPa. Em todos os procedimentos os teores de água foram ajustados para 32 e 38%, para a cultivar Sharon, e 34 e 41% para a cultivar Teresópolis Gigante. Os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a germinação e emergência das plântulas foram comparados à testemunha (sem condicionamento. O hidrocondicionamento entre quatro e seis folhas, até a obtenção dos teores de água mais elevados, beneficiou a velocidade de germinação (VG e a de emergência de plântulas (VE, nas duas cultivares. Na cultivar Sharon a VG foi de 14,6 (testemunha em comparação a 16,4 nas sementes hidrocondicionadas, para os lotes de maior e menor potencial fisiológico; paralelamente, os valores da VE aumentaram de 8,9 para 11,2 e de 7,8 para 11,6, nos lotes de menor potencial fisiológico. Para a cultivar Teresópolis Gigante, a VG e a VE foram favorecidas pelo hidrocondicionamento, independentemente do potencial fisiológico dos lotes (a VG aumentou de 16,4 para 21,4 e, a VE, de 9,5 para 13,5. Conclui-se que o hidrocondicionamento entre quatro e seis folhas de papel toalha, até a obtenção de teores de água próximos aos da emissão da raiz primária é favorável à velocidade de germinação e de emergência de plântulas em couve-flor e que o potencial fisológico inicial dos lotes pode influenciar a resposta ao condicionamento fisiológico, dependendo da cultivar ou histórico dos lotes.This research was conducted to define an adequate procedure for cauliflower seed priming and to verify whether the seed physiological potential affects priming results. Six seed lots, three of the cultivar Sharon and three of Teresópolis Gigante, were submitted to hydropriming between two, four and six sheets of towel paper and to osmopriming between four sheets of towel paper moistened with polietilenoglycol 6000 solutions (-0,1 and -0,2 MPa potentials. In all priming procedures, the seed water content was adjusted to 32% or 38% for cv. Sharon and 34% or 41%, for cv. Teresópolis Gigante seeds. The effects of treatments on germination and seedling emergence were compared to unprimed control. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper was efficient to favor speed of germination (VG and speed of seedling emergence (VE in both cultivars when seeds attained 38% (cultivar Sharon and 41% (cultivar Teresópolis Gigante. VG increased from 14,6 (control to 16,4 (hydroprimed seeds in cv. Sharon seed lots of higher and lower physiological potential; the same for VE that incresead from 8,9 to 11,3 and from 7,8 to 11,6 in seed lots of lower physiological potential. In seeds of cv. Teresópolis Gigante, hydropriming promoted increases in the VG and VE, independently of seed physiological potencial; VG values ranged from 16,4 to 21,4 and the VE from 9,5 to 13,5. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper, in which seeds attained moisture content close to the required for primary root protrusion is efficient to favor the speed of germination and seedling emergence of cauliflower seeds; the influence of vigor level on seed priming response is closely related to cultivar and seed lot management.

  6. Czech Republic as an Important Producer of Poppy Seed

    OpenAIRE

    L. Smutka; P. Procha?zka

    2012-01-01

    Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum l.) is an important oilseed, whose cultivation has a long tradition in the Czech Republic. Poppy seed grown in the Czech Republic has good quality and, therefore, is preferred to poppy seeds in other parts of the world. The objective of this paper is to characterize the current position of the Czech poppy seed production and foreign trade in the world. Czech Republic is the main world producer of poppy seed and price maker of the European and world prices. With ...

  7. Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed supplementation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Kyong; ZHANG Xian-Hua; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seeds have a beneficial effect on human health. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of grape seeds on antioxidant activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control diet group (C), a high-fat diet group (HF), a 5% grape seed-supplemented control diet group (G), and a 5% grape seed-supplemented high-fat diet group (HG). Dietary supplementation with grape seeds reduced serum concentrations of lipid peroxides compared wi...

  8. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Baydar, Nilgün Göktürk

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  9. Physical Properties of Hungarian and Common Vetch Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    O. Faruk Taser; Ebubekir Altuntas; Engin Ozgoz

    2005-01-01

    The physical properties of Hungarian and common vetch seeds were determined at moisture content of 11.57 and 10.3% d.b., respectively. The mean values of length, width, thickness and geometric mean diameter were 4.27, 4.03, 3.38, 3.86 mm, respectively for Hungarian vetch seed and were 5.11, 4.49, 3.83, 4.44 mm, respectively for common vetch seed. One hundred seed weights of Hungarian and common vetch seed were 4.33 and 5.88 g, respectively. The mean sphericity value was obtained as 0.91 for H...

  10. The seed bank of a gallery forest in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini; Hermógenes de Freitas Leitão Filho; Paulo Yoshio Kageyama

    2004-01-01

    The soil seed bank was studied in a gallery forest in Southeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from edge to edge along transects perpendicular to the river during the wet (December, 1990) and dry (August, 1991) seasons. The number of seeds found in the seed bank samples was greater in the dry season than in the wet season indicating that there was important variation in the seed stocks in these two periods. The similarity values between the seed bank and the community composition were low....

  11. Glucosinolate pattern in Isatis tinctoria and I. indigotica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    The glucosinolate patterns in seeds of five ISATIS TINCTORIA and two ISATIS INDIGOTICA accessions were assessed with a recently developed and validated LC-MS assay for direct analysis of glucosinolates without prior desulfatation. Glucosinolate peaks were identified with in-source fragmentation and detection of the sulfate anion ( M/Z = 97), and by MS/MS experiments. The glucosinolate patterns of the seeds showed characteristic differences compared to leaves. Glucoisatisin and epiglucoisatisin were diagnostic of seed samples. Qualitative and quantitative differences in glucosinolate patterns between both ISATIS species were found for seed samples, enabling a differentiation of the two medicinal plants at the level of seed material. PMID:18537074

  12. Computed tomography in the CSF seeding of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past three years nine cases of brain tumors with CSF seeding have been revealed by computed tomography (CT). We have been analyzing the CT pattern of CSF seeding, CSF cytology, and spinal metastasis. The brain tumors were classified as follows: five medulloblastomas, two glioblastomas, one germinoma, and one meningeal carcinomatosis. Their CT patterns were divided into three groups: 1) diffuse seeding of the basal cisterns. 2) invasion of the ventricular wall. 3) solitary metastasis in the ventricle. The subarachnoid seeding included four medulloblastomas and one meningeal carcinomatosis. The second type of seeding included two glioblastomas and one germinoma. One medulloblastoma had a single metastasis in the lateral ventricle. In the medulloblastomas, the diffuse seeding of the basal cisterns was more common than the invasion of the ventricular wall or solitary metastasis in the ventricle. Medulloblastomas were also accompanied by spinal metastasis. Because there were many cases of spinal metastasis in the first type of seeding, we concluded that there was a definite correlation between the CSF seeding of the basal cisterns and spinal metastasis. Needless to say, CT was the most important method for the diagnosis of the CSF seeding of brain tumors. However, because there was a case of CSF seeding which had not been demonstrated by CT, we also emphasized the importance of neurological examination and CSF cytology in the diagnosis of the CSF seeding of brain tumors. (author)

  13. Universal seeds for cDNA-to-genome comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Liliana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To meet the needs of gene annotation for newly sequenced organisms, optimized spaced seeds can be implemented into cross-species sequence alignment programs to accurately align gene sequences to the genome of a related species. So far, seed performance has been tested for comparisons between closely related species, such as human and mouse, or on simulated data. As the number and variety of genomes increases, it becomes desirable to identify a small set of universal seeds that perform optimally or near-optimally on a large range of comparisons. Results Using statistical regression methods, we investigate the sensitivity of seeds, in particular good seeds, between four cDNA-to-genome comparisons at different evolutionary distances (human-dog, human-mouse, human-chicken and human-zebrafish, and identify classes of comparisons that show similar seed behavior and therefore can employ the same seed. In addition, we find that with high confidence good seeds for more distant comparisons perform well on closer comparisons, within 98–99% of the optimal seeds, and thus represent universal good seeds. Conclusion We show for the first time that optimal and near-optimal seeds for distant species-to-species comparisons are more generally applicable to a wide range of comparisons. This finding will be instrumental in developing practical and user-friendly cDNA-to-genome alignment applications, to aid in the annotation of new model organisms.

  14. Seed weight variation of wyoming sagebrush in Northern Nevada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos A., Busso; Barry L., Perryman.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed size is a crucial plant trait that may potentially affect not only immediate seedling success but also the subsequent generation. We examined variation in seed weight of Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young), an excellent candidate species for rangeland res [...] toration. The working hypothesis was that a major fraction of spatial and temporal variability in seed size (weight) of Wyoming sagebrush could be explained by variations in mean monthly temperatures and precipitation. Seed collection was conducted at Battle Mountain and Eden Valley sites in northern Nevada, USA, during November of 2002 and 2003. Frequency distributions of seed weight varied from leptokurtic to platykurtic, and from symmetry to skewness to the right for both sites and years. Mean seed weight varied by a factor of 1.4 between locations and years. Mean seed weight was greater (P0.05) in all study situations. Simple linear regression showed that monthly precipitation (March to November) explained 85% of the total variation in mean seed weight ( P=0.079). Since the relationship between mean monthly temperature (June-November) and mean seed weight was not significant (r²=0.00, P=0.431), this emphasizes the importance of precipitation as an important determinant of mean seed weight. Our results suggest that the precipitation regime to which the mother plant is exposed can have a significant effect on sizes of seeds produced. Hence, seasonal changes in water availability would tend to alter size distributions of produced offspring.

  15. Morphological and anatomical analyses of the seed coats of sweet granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Hernández Julián

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The study of histology and morphology of seeds of genus Passiflora has been of high utility for the classification of species. In seeds of sweet granadilla, the histological characteristics and methodologies for their study are unknown. This study was aimed to know the tissue and morphological characteristics of the seed coats of seeds of sweet granadilla and to be able to determine its value in the differentiation of accessions. Five accessions collected in producing zones of the Province of Huila, Colombia, were analyzed. In morphological analysis, all accessions presented falsifoveate ornamentation and entire margin. The seeds presented high change in weight and size for every accession; there stood out the seeds of the accession PmN for presenting major size (7.42 mm long, weight (35.62 mg, homogeneity in these variables and a typical orange color. For the histological analysis, a protocol was adapted to realize sections of seed coats in parafin, by means of which one managed to obtain sections (7 ? that in the optical microscope show clearly three well differentiated layers, belonging, possibly, to exotegmen (internal layer, mesotesta (medium layer and exotesta (external layer. Every layer presented differences in the form of the cells, color and thickness, between the sections of the basal and medium parts of the seeds, but the differences between the analyzed accessions were not observed. The majority of seeds had a thickness of seed coats that varied among 235 and 475 ?.

  16. Viability and vigor of jamun (Syzygium cumini) seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K., Sivasubramaniam; K., Selvarani.

    Full Text Available Jamun (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels) (Black plum, Damson plum) fruits weigh between 2-5 g at maturity. Fresh seeds represented 20-80% of the total fruit weight; the seed coat and cotyledons contributed 6% and 94% to the total seed weight respectively, while the weight of the embryonic axis was insignif [...] icant. Only the embryonic axis stained with Tetrazolium, not the cotyledons. The seeds are polyembryonic with up to four embryos, of which at most three germinate. Decoated seeds germinated faster than coated seeds under nursery conditions, with high significant germination percentages, dry matter production rates and vigor indices. The lack of staining of the cotyledon by tetrazolium was probably due to the presence of an impermeable layer. Decoating seeds for faster germination is recommended.

  17. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  18. Application of Bio-speckle Activity to Assess Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an assessment method for seed viability, using bio-speckle technique. Bio-speckle is caused by moving of the biological material under highly coherent light. If this phenomenon can be measured by successive speckle patterns during the period of germination, it is possible to identify different activities of the seeds. Viable and non-viable pisumsativum seeds were illuminated by a helium-neon laser source of 7mW with wavelength of 632.8 nm. The speckle patterns were recorded by a digital colour charge-couple device camera and stored in the host computer for further analysis using Matlab. Two methods were used to obtain information of biological activities from these speckle patterns. It was observed that the seeds activities can be distinguished as viable seeds and non-viable seeds. The results indicate that bio-speckle can be used to assess seed viability.

  19. Production of functional pita bread using date seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platat, Carine; Habib, Hosam M; Hashim, Isameldin Bashir; Kamal, Hina; AlMaqbali, Fatima; Souka, Usama; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2015-10-01

    Functional foods represent a novel approach to prevent diet-related diseases. Due to its excellent nutritional and antioxidant properties, date seed was used to develop functional pita bread. Flour was replaced by 5, 10, 15 and 20 % date seed powder. Regular and whole wheat pita breads were the references. Results clearly showed that date seed powder containing bread contained comparable dietary fibers levels as in whole wheat bread and higher levels of flavonoids and phenolics. Date seed powder containing breads were particularly rich in flavan-3-ols whereas reference breads did not contain any of them and only a limited amount of other phenolic compounds. They also exhibited a much higher antioxidant capacity. Additionally, compared to regular bread, acrylamide level was significantly lower in 5 % date seed powder containing bread, and lower in all date seed powder containing breads compared to whole wheat bread. Date seed powder supplemented bread appears as a promising functional ingredient to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:26396382

  20. Overlapping Community Detection Using Neighborhood-Inflated Seed Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Whang, Joyce Jiyoung; Dhillon, Inderjit S

    2015-01-01

    Community detection is an important task in network analysis. A community (also referred to as a cluster) is a set of cohesive vertices that have more connections inside the set than outside. In many social and information networks, these communities naturally overlap. For instance, in a social network, each vertex in a graph corresponds to an individual who usually participates in multiple communities. In this paper, we propose an efficient overlapping community detection algorithm using a seed expansion approach. The key idea of our algorithm is to find good seeds, and then greedily expand these seeds based on a community metric. Within this seed expansion method, we investigate the problem of how to determine good seed nodes in a graph. In particular, we develop new seeding strategies for a personalized PageRank clustering scheme that optimizes the conductance community score. Experimental results show that our seed expansion algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art overlapping community detection meth...