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First identification of ?-glucosidase inhibitors from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds.  

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Infusion of roasted okra seeds has long been consumed in Turkey for diabetes mellitus therapy. Previous reports of a hypoglycemic effect observed in rats administrated with okra seed extract indicated a possible connection with inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase. An attempt to identify active components was first herein conducted using alpha-glucosidase-inhibition-guided isolation, yielding two major flavonol glucosides named isoquercetin (2) and quercetin-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1"' --> 6")-glucoside (3). They selectively inhibited rat intestinal maltase and sucrase, in which isoquercetin (2) was 6-10 times more potent than its related diglucoside 3. This result suggested that an increase in hydrophilicity by the additional glucose residue in 3 led to a significant decline in the inhibitory effect and raised the possible involvement of the free 3-OH in exerting the inhibition. Our postulation was evaluated by examining alpha-glucosidase inhibition of quercetin (1), and the aglycone of 2 and 3, whose 3-OH is free from any glucose moiety. Interestingly, 1 displayed a broad inhibitory effect toward rat intestinal and baker's yeast alpha-glucosidases, with improved potency. A kinetic study of 1 indicated that it inhibited maltase by two distinct mechanisms, in competitive (K(i) 462 microM) and noncompetitive (K(i) 2153 microM) manners, whereas the mechanism underlying the inhibition of sucrase was verified as being of a competitive behavior (K(i) 218 microM). PMID:24079173

Thanakosai, Wannisa; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

2013-08-01

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Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control. PMID:22803337

Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

2012-06-01

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Effect of Fertilizer and Drying Methods on Seed Germination of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cultivars at Different Harvesting Times  

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Full Text Available Okra hardseedness results in slow and uneven germination. This study determined the effects of fertilizer application and drying methods on hardseedness breakdown of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. cultivars (cv. Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylias’. Three fertilizer level (150, 300 and 450 mg L-1 N and two different drying methods (seeds and pods were applied. The results showed that by increasing N application from 150 to 450 mg L-1 N increased seed germination regardless of drying method, whereas the application of 450 mg L-1 N resulted in the higher seed germination percentage, regardless of cultivar and drying method. In addition, harvesting seeds at 40 days after flowering (DAF resulted in an increase of germination rate, especially when 450 mg L-1 N were applied. Seed germination of seeds harvested at 40 to 50 days after flowering (DAF was reduced, especially when seed drying instead of pod drying was applied. However, for cv. ‘Boyiatiou’ the application of 150 mg L-1 N resulted in higher percentage of hard seeds and lower seed germination rate, whereas pod drying reduced the occurrence of hardseedness. For all cultivars, seeds from the middle part of the plant had a higher seed germination percentage at 450 mg L-1 N level, regardless of drying methods. In conclusion, increasing the N application rate up to 450 mg L-1, harvesting seeds at 40 DAF and collecting seeds from the middle part of the plant could be a useful means for reducing the occurrence of hardseedness and increasing germination percentage of okra seeds.

Ghadir Mohammadi

2013-03-01

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Biochemical and Mineral Responses of Okra Seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Variety Marsaouia to Salt and Thermal Stresses  

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Full Text Available The present research has studied the effects of NaCl and temperature on germination and emergence of okra. Studies were carried out with seeds of a local okra variety (Marsaouia subjected to 0 and 100 mM NaCl, performed in the dark at 10, 15, 25, 35 and 40°C at germination stage and by 12 h light at emergence stage. The cumulative germination percentage, the cumulative emergence percentage, starch content, the reducing sugars levels, total amylase activity, sodium and potassium accumulation were quantified in germinated seeds at 15°C, 25 and 35°C. Temperature presented a significant effect on salt sensitivity of this species at germination and emergence stages. Germination of okra seeds was completely inhibited at 10 and 40°C. The best germination and emergence temperature was recorded at 25°C. The adverse effect of salt was more pronounced at low and high temperature. During the salt stress treatment, the level of starch reserves was higher at 25°C and lower at 15 and 35°C, an increase in reducing sugars content in cotyledons was observed. The activity of total amylase was most intensive at lower temperature in control seeds and at higher temperature in salt treated seeds. The sodium concentration on germinated seeds increased significantly at 15 and 35°C, but potassium amount did not change regularly within thermal and salt stress interaction.

D. Mounir

2010-01-01

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Germination and Seedling Emergence of Primed Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seeds under Salt Stress and Low Temperature  

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Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of priming on the germination, emergence and seedling growth of Abelmoschus esculentus (cultivar Marsaouia under low temperature and salinity conditions. Seeds were primed for 24 h at 20°C in three priming media (KCl 4%, mannitol 0.75M, CaCl2 10 mM and control (non-primed seeds and were examined at different salinity levels (0, 40 and 100 mM NaCl. Results indicated that KCl priming increased final germination percentage, radicle length and seedlings dry weight 100%, 40.94 mm and 0.03 g, respectively, as compared with non-primed seeds. Mannitol and CaCl2 have been found to be better treatments for improving final emergence percentage. Overall increased NaCl level, led to the reductions in final germination and emergence percentage but these reductions were higher for non-primed compared to primed seeds. The increase in NaCl concentrations didn’t show any significantly effect on cotyledons fresh weight of primed or non-primed seeds. Besides, our results proved that priming alleviated the adverse effects of salinity for seedlings biomass as compared to non-primed seeds.

Besma Ben Dkhil

2014-01-01

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EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P?0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P?0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P?0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P?0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

Tesleem Ibrahim

2012-08-01

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Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Ten Cultivars of Okra-Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn. Moench  

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Full Text Available Ten quantitative traits of 10 genotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus were investigated with a view to identifying the high yielding potential of the cultivars and to determining the extent of association among their contributing traits. The plant materials used are labeled according to their genotypes as follows: NH47-4, MHae 474, FEae 98, FEak, Agk98, Agkae, Aklc, Ilae, Ijae2000 and Alae- B. Using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications, the ten genotypes of okra were grown (one seed per hill at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria during the rainy season of 2002 and 2003. At the appropriate stages of growth, the following traits were investigated: days to flowering, height at flowering, number of pods per plant, pod length, pod width, number of branches per pant, days to maturity, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred seeds and final plant height. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and phenotypic and genotypic correlation analyses computed. Results show that there is a strong relationship between pod length and pod width with the juxtaposition of number of seeds per pod. Hence, selection programme based on these traits are most likely to bring about further improvement in the yield of okra under rainfed conditions.

O.S. Osekita

2008-01-01

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Micorrización de okra (abelmoschus esculentus l. en riego por goteo  

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Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA Glomus intraradices en la productividad de okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. var. ?Clemson Spineless? en condiciones semiáridas y bajo un sistema de riego por goteo. En 2002 y 2003 se comparó la altura de planta (AP, colonización micorrízica (CM y el rendimiento comercial de fruto (RCF, en plantas originadas de semillas, con o sin la inoculación micorrízica. En 2003 el riego fue con agua con alta concentración de sales (conductividad eléctrica de 3000 mS cm-1. En 2004 se evaluó el índice de clorofila (IC, la AP y el RFC, en plantas de okra de los tratamientos: semilla inoculada con el HMA, con fertilización química (120N-50P-00K, con la combinación del HMA en semilla más 50 % de la fertilización química y el testigo. En 2002 y 2003 se registraron incrementos significativos del HMA en CM y RFC, con relación al testigo. Con agua de riego salina en 2003, se observaron mayores valores de CM y RFC cuando se inoculó con G. intraradices. En 2004 los tratamientos no influyeron significativamente en IC ni en AP; no obstante, en RFC los tratamientos HMA, fertilización química y HMA más 50 % de fertilización, superaron al testigo. Los resultados muestran que G. intraradices aumentó el RFC de okra durante los tres años en el sistema de riego por goteo. El efecto benéfico de la simbiosis con el HMA como promotor del rendimiento de fruto de okra, combinado con el sistema de riego por goteo, pueden representar un manejo de producción eficiente para regiones semiáridas.

Manuel Alvarado Carrillo

2007-01-01

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Comparative study of quality changes in okra abelmoschus esculentus (L) moench stored at different relative humidities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) pods were stored at the relative humidity of 90% and 100% for up to 10 days. The moisture content, crude fibre, and protein, fat, viscosity, hydrolysable and condensed tannin, total phenol, vitamin C and reducing power of the okra were determined on alternate days. Okra pods stored at 100% RH experienced the least percentage loss in all the determined parameters though the loss of antinutrient was lower at this relative humidity. (author)

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Efeitos de métodos de colheita e da localização dos frutos na planta sobre a ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) / Effects of harvesting methods and fruit position in plant on hard seed occurrency in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de sementes duras em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) foi estudada em função da colheita única dos frutos na senescência das plantas ou da colheita periódica dos frutos no estádio de maturação morfológica. As cultivares utilizadas foram "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" e "Cam [...] pinas-2 IAC 4076" e os frutos foram separados em aqueles provenientes da haste principal e os oriundos dos ramos laterais. A porcentagem de sementes duras foi avaliada por meio do teste padrão de germinação e os dados obtidos permitiram verificar que o método de colheita única aumentou a ocorrência de sementes duras e, pelo fato de "Amarelinho" não apresentar essa característica, esse método pode ser utilizado para a mesma, com redução nos custos de produção de sementes sem afetar sua qualidade. Abstract in english The occurrency of hard seeds was studied in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) as a function of single fruit harvesting after plant senescence or periodical fruit harvesting in the morphological ripening stage. The cultivars "Amarelinho", "Santa Cruz-47" and "Campinas IAC 4076" were utilized, [...] considering fruits beared on the main stem and those beread on lateral branches. The percentage of hard seeds was evaluated by the standard germination test and it was observed that single fruit harvest after plant senescence increased the occurrence of hard seeds independently of the utilized harvesting method. The possibility of taking advantage of single fruit harvesting during plant senescence is suggested, which will reduce seed production costs without interfering on seed quality.

J. W., Setubal; A.C.W., Zanin; J., Nakagawa.

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Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)  

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This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised compl...

Adewole, M. B.; Ilesanmi, A. O.

2011-01-01

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Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content. Okra slice sizes and drying temperatures affected all the quality parameters significantly (p?

Pendre, N K; Nema, Prabhat K; Sharma, Harsh P; Rathore, S S; Kushwah, S S

2012-06-01

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Effects of morphactin and gamma irradiation on the growth and yield in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations were carried out to examine the individual and combined influence of a morphactin (chlorflurenol) (10-100 ppm) and gamma-irradiation(40-60 KR) on growth and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Cv-Pusa Sawani. Morphactin caused inhibition of vegetative growth and weakened apical dominance. Gamma-irradiation of seeds reduced the growth and stimulated the branching. The combinations of gamma radiation and morphactin were found to inhibit the growth more vigorously. Morphactin application promoted fruit-set and yield at all the used concentrations. Gamma-irradiation enhanced the fruit-set and yield at 40 and 50 KR and reduced drastically at 60 KR. Combination of gamma radiation (40 KR) with morphactin (10-50 ppm) increased the yield while other combinations reduced this factor in okra. (author)

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Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Anthocyanins, Membrane Permeability and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seedlings  

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Full Text Available To study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Marsaouia to salinity, the effect on seedling growth, water content, anthocyanins content and chlorophyll fluorescence was investigated. Okra seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and sown in peat culture under controlled conditions and submitted during 2 weeks to saline stress ranging from 0 (distilled water to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmol of NaCl. Results showed that salt has no significant effect on aerial part dry weight and it showed no changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo and Fv/Fm. By contrast, root dry weight decreased with increasing NaCl concentration with a subsequent increase in root water content and cotyledons+hypocotyls/root ratio. In addition, anthocyanins content and electrolyte leakage were highly increased by exposure to high levels of salt especially 80 and 100 mmol NaCl.

Mounir Denden

2012-01-01

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Genetic divergence in okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus L. Moench.  

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Full Text Available Genetic divergence was studied among 25 okra germplasm lines using Mahalanobis D2 analysis. Analysis of variances for dispersion indicated significant differences among the genotypes and they were grouped into four clusters. The cluster I consisted of 22 genotypes, whereas cluster II, III and IV were solitary clusters. Highest inter cluster distance observed between clusters I and cluster IV, while cluster I shown maximum intra cluster distance. Characters days to 50 per cent flowering and plant height (cm contributed maximum of 18.0% towards genetic divergence followed by number of seeds per fruit (16.0%. Cluster I and IV shown high cluster means for yield and yield components, therefore genotypes viz., IIVR- 11, HRB- 55, 134, 148 and Parbhani kranti (Cluster I and 315 (Cluser IV of these diverse clusters may be used for further hybridization.

Shaikh Md. Soyab Akhil Mohd. Ab. Mazid, Mohrir M.N and Jadhav R. S.

2013-09-01

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Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR), NPK (IO), Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY) or no soil amendment as the control (CT)] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from [...] the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p

M. B, Adewole; A. O, Ilesanmi.

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Physicochemical properties of pectins from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

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Okra pectin obtained by hot buffer extraction (HBSS) consists of an unusual pectic rhamnogalacturonan I structure in which acetyl groups and alpha galactose residues are substituted on rhamnose residues within the backbone. The okra Chelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) pectin consists of slightly different structures since relatively more homogalacturonan is present within the macromolecule and the rhamnogalacturonan I segments carry slightly longer side chains. The rheological properties of...

Sengkhamparn, N.; Sagis, L. M. C.; Vries, R. J.; Schols, H. A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A. G. J.

2010-01-01

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Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice  

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Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200?mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000?mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

2014-01-01

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Callus Induced Organogenesis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculents L. Moench.  

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Full Text Available A viable protocol has been developed for indirect shoot organogenesis of okra. To establish a stable and high-frequency plant regeneration system, leaf disc and hypocotyl explants were tested with different combinations of ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA,iIndole-3-butyric acid (IBA, thidiazuron (TDZ and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Morphogenic callus induction was observed in highest frequency from hypocotyl explant by culturing in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA plus 0.5 mg L-1 TDZ. The highest percentage of shoot regeneration and highest mean number of shoot per callus mass was obtained with 2.0 mg L-1 BAP plus 0.1 mg L-1 IBA. Root formation was observed from callus induced in medium containing 1.5 mg L-1 NAA. Morphogenic difference due to explant type is clear for the studied in vitro traits. About 80% of regenerated plantlets were survived and showed new leaves development under ex vitro condition. This protocol would be useful to create somaclonal variation and to utilize transgenic approach for varietal improvement of okra.

M. Anisuzzaman

2008-01-01

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Effects of soil amendments on the nutritional quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]Moench  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different soil amendments [compost organic fertiliser (OR, NPK (IO, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY or no soil amendment as the control (CT] on the nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra during cultivation in a field contaminated with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench belongs to the Malvacea family. The experiment consisted of a randomised complete block design with four replications. At full physiological maturity, the roots, shoots and pods samples of the okra plants were collected for analyses. The results showed that OR resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05 higher nutrient uptake [N (0.0034 mg kg-1, K (0.0160 mg kg-1, Na (0.9753 mg kg-1, Ca (0.0130 mg kg-1 and Cu (0.01136 mg kg-1] in the okra roots than in the other treatments, yet the significantly (p < 0.05 highest uptake of P (0.0012 mg kg-1 was obtained with the MY treatment. Lower values of these nutrient contents were obtained in the shoots. The control treatment gave the significantly highest values of crude fibre (27.33% and total ash (14.05%, as compared to the other treatments, whereas the other nutritional properties obtained showed no significant difference among any of the treatments. The results indicated that high-quality okra pods could be effectively produced with no soil amendment when planted in soils with a high fertility, such as those treated with sewage sludge.

M. B Adewole

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Studies on Heterosis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In the present investigation, a study was undertaken at the Department of Agricultural Botany, Annamalai University during the year 2006 – 2008to identify potential parents and superior cross combinations for yield improvement in Okra. Six bhendi genotypes viz., Girija Vikas, MDU 1,Hissar Unnath, Arka Abhay and EC 305623 were crossed in full diallel fashion (including the reciprocals. The eight characters observedincluded days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, individualfruit weight, fruit yield per plant. The results revealed that the standard heterosis for fruit yield per plant was maximum in the hybrid MDU 1 xHissar Unnath, with a value of 65.23 per cent. This hybrid recorded high standard heterosis for all the characters except number of branches perplant and individual fruit weight.

P.Senthil Kumar and S. Sreeparvathy

2010-12-01

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Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

2014-01-01

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Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and Abelmoschus moschatus Medik: seeds production and analysis of the volatile compounds.  

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Nine accessions of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and three of Abelmoschus moschatus Medik were both grown in Central Italy for the evaluation of the production of seeds. Furthermore, the volatiles emitted by the mature seeds were sampled by mean of SPME. Seventy compounds were detected in the headspace of the seeds of A. esculentus. The principal constituents common to all the nine accessions were isopentyl 2-methyl butanoate (24.5-59.1%) and heptanoic acid 2-methylbutyl ester (6.6-13.5%). In the headspace around the seeds of A. moschatus 93 components were detected. Among the main volatiles shared by the three accessions, n-tridecane (1.5-26.9%), isopentyl 2-methyl butanoate (0.2-14.3%) and decanal (1.6-5.7%) should be mentioned. Many differences were present in the volatiles emitted by the various accessions and between the two Abelmoschus species. PMID:23768323

Molfetta, Ilaria; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi

2013-11-01

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The okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) transcriptome as a source for gene sequence information and molecular markers for diversity analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined leaf and pod transcriptome of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) has been produced by RNA sequencing and short read assembly. More than 150,000 unigenes were obtained, comprising some 46 million base pairs of sequence information. More than 55% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The okra transcriptome sequences were mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 935 non-redundant SSR motifs identified in the unigene set, 199 were chosen for testing in a germplasm set, resulting in 161 polymorphic SSR markers. From this set, 19 markers were selected for a diversity analysis on 65 okra accessions comprising three different species, revealing 58 different genotypes and resulted in clustering of the accessions according to species and geographic origin. The okra gene sequence information and the marker resource are made available to the research community for functional genomics and breeding research. PMID:23299025

Schafleitner, Roland; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Chen-Yu; Hegde, Satish Gajanana; Ebert, Andreas

2013-03-15

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Lectin of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-tumor effects of a newly-discovered lectin, isolated from okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (AEL), were investigated in human breast cancer (MCF7) and skin fibroblast (CCD-1059 sk) cells. AEL induced significant cell growth inhibition (63 %) in MCF7 cells. The expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3, caspase-9, and p21 genes was increased in MCF7 cells treated with AEL, compared to those treated with controls. In addition, AEL treatment increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in MCF7 cells. Flow cytometry also indicated that cell death (72 %) predominantly occurred through apoptosis. Thus, AEL in its native form promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells and may represent a potential therapeutic to combat human breast cancer. PMID:24129958

Monte, Leonardo G; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Reis, Larissa B; Braganhol, Elizandra; Prietsch, Rafael F; Dellagostin, Odir A; E Lacerda, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Gadelha, Carlos A A; Conceição, Fabricio R; Pinto, Luciano S

2014-03-01

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Relative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

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Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the relative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus. The experiment consisted of four treatments. Cow dung and poultry droppings were applied at the rates of 2.5 kg per 10 kg of soil one week before sowing, while NPK fertilizer (15:15:15 was applied at the rate of 6 g per 10 kg of soil three weeks after sowing. The treatments were laid in a completely randomized design with three replications. Plant growth was assessed using plant height, fresh weight, leaf area and dry weight. The application of cow dung, poultry droppings and NPK fertilizer had significant effects on all the parameters assessed. The application of poultry droppings gave plants with the greatest plant height, leaf area and fresh weight, while cow dung application gave the greatest dry weight. The data obtained from these treatments were significantly higher than the data obtained from the control. It was, therefore, concluded that the use of organic manure in the production of vegetables like okra should be encouraged.

Uka Ufere N.

2013-01-01

27

Composition analysis and immuno-modulatory effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract and investigate the effect of A. esculentus L. polysaccharides (AE-PS) on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs) in vitro. BMHC-derived immature DCs (BMHC-imDCs) were extracted from rats and treated with AE-PS. The hydrolysed okra extract contained 0.6% ?-1, 3-D-glucan. AE-PS induced the presence of polymorphic nuclei and elongated protrusion in the BHMC-imDCs, indicating DC activation. Treatment with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS increased the MHC class II and CD80/86 expression levels by 41% and 42%, respectively. Treated cells had reduced endocytosis activity. The secretion of IL-12 and IFN-? increased significantly by 120% and 75%, respectively, when treated with 100 ?g/mL of AE-PS. Moreover, IL-10 production was reduced by 66%. In conclusion, AE-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat dendritic cells and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines. PMID:23442637

Sheu, Shyang-Chwen; Lai, Mei-Huei

2012-10-15

28

Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus to Lime and Phosphorus Fertilization in an Acid Soil  

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Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of lime (CaCO3 and phosphorus (P application on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus on an acid soil. This was followed by a field trial to validate the findings from the pot study. Three rates of lime equivalent to 0, 500 and 1000 kg CaCO3 ha 1 and five rates of P equivalent to 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg P ha 1 of single super phosphate were applied in combinations as treatments. Pot study results obtained showed that plant growth, dry matter and fruit yields of okra were significantly increased due to application of low rates of lime or P and varying combinations of both, when compared with the control (no fertilizer, no lime. Combination of the lowest rates of lime and P (10 kg P and 500 kg CaCO3 ha 1 was found to be optimum for plant growth. Dry matter yield of plant shoot and root increased with increasing rates of both lime and P applied. However, highest fruit yields were obtained when lime was applied with or without P, while P increased fruit yield to the highest values only in the presence of lime. The results obtained in the field were similar to the trend observed in the pot study. Lime had significantly positive effect on P concentration in plant and actually reduced the amount of fertilizer P required for optimum yield. Therefore, for good performance of okra on acid soils it is beneficial to apply low level of lime along with low rates of P.

F.I. Oluwatoyinbo

2005-12-01

29

Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus L. Moench.  

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Full Text Available Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean were studied among the 25 germplasm lines of okra Significant differences among genotypes were observed for all the characters under study. Plant height (cm, number of fruits per plant and number of seeds per fruit observed high GCV and PCV. Plant height (cm, number of seeds per fruit, and number of fruits per plant recorded high heritability coupled with high GCV and high genetic advance as per cent of mean indicates selection could be effective for improvement in these characters.

Shaikh Md. Soyab Akhil Mohd. Ab. Mazid, Mohrir M.N and Jadhav R. S.

2013-09-01

30

Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (Ppod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra. PMID:17336057

Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

2007-08-01

31

Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest dose of fertilizers.

Muhammad Akbar Anjum

1999-01-01

32

Producción y tecnología de la Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) en el noreste de México / Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and technology in northeastern Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México la okra es una hortaliza no tradicional cuya producción oscila de 4 000 a 7 000 ha anuales y rendimiento medio de 10 t ha-1, se destina para el mercado de exportación hacia Estados Unidos de América. Los principales estados productores son Morelos, Michoacán, Guerrero y Tamaulipas; éste úl [...] timo cuenta con la mayor área productora de 5 000 ha. Además de ser un cultivo generador de divisas y rentable, la okra representa una fuente de empleo. La investigación sobre el cultivo de la okra se inició afínales de ladécadade los ochenta. La calidad de fruto es determinante para su comercialización; se prefiere fruto de textura suave, de verdor intenso y de forma regular. El rendimiento de okra es mayor en suelos de textura franco arcillosos. Un problema para el establecimiento es el bajo nivel de emergencia de la okra que es atribuido a las bajas temperaturas del suelo en siembras tempranas (febrero). La fertilización foliar no tiene efecto en el rendimiento de fruto. La poda resulta atractiva ya que optimiza la producción de una sola siembra, al continuar con la cosecha después del término del ciclo normal. Algunos híbridos probados en la región muestran ventajas productivas con relación a la var. testigo 'Clempson Spineless'. La enfermedad de mayor impacto es el moteado amarillo de la okra transmitida por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Esta virosis ha sido la causa del abandono del cultivo en los estados de Guerrero y Morelos. El inadecuado control de la maleza en okra tiene efectos directos en el rendimiento, dificulta la cosecha e incrementa los costos de producción. Abstract in english In Mexico, the okra is a non-traditional vegetable cultivated in 4000 to 7000 ha annually with an average yield of 10 t ha-1; most of the production is exported to the United States of America. Main okra producer states include: Morelos, Michoacan, Guerrero and Tamaulipas. In this last state okra is [...] produced in up to 5 000 ha. Okra is a rentable vegetable crop that also promotes hand labor. Research on okra started in Mexico twenty years ago. Fruit quality is a key factor for okra marketing; soft texture fruits with intense green color and of regular shape are preferred. Higher okra yield are obtained in clay loam soils. A problem for crop establishment are the low soil temperatures that causes low okra emergence in early plantings. Foliar fertilization has not being effective to increase yields. Pruning is a promising practice because its optimizes crop yields by extending the crop season. Some okra hybrids tested in the region show productive advantages in relation to the traditional cultivar 'Clemson Spineless'. The most important disease is yellow mottled virus, transmitted by whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). This virus has caused the abandonment of the okra crop in the states of Guerrero and Morelos. Ineffective weed control in okra has deleterious effects on yield, increases production cost and difficults harvest.

Arturo, Díaz Franco; Jesús, Loera Gallardo; Enrique, Rosales Robles; Manuel, Alvarado Carrillo; Sergio, Ayvar Serna.

2007-12-01

33

Producción y tecnología de la Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) en el noreste de México / Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and technology in northeastern Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México la okra es una hortaliza no tradicional cuya producción oscila de 4 000 a 7 000 ha anuales y rendimiento medio de 10 t ha-1, se destina para el mercado de exportación hacia Estados Unidos de América. Los principales estados productores son Morelos, Michoacán, Guerrero y Tamaulipas; éste úl [...] timo cuenta con la mayor área productora de 5 000 ha. Además de ser un cultivo generador de divisas y rentable, la okra representa una fuente de empleo. La investigación sobre el cultivo de la okra se inició afínales de ladécadade los ochenta. La calidad de fruto es determinante para su comercialización; se prefiere fruto de textura suave, de verdor intenso y de forma regular. El rendimiento de okra es mayor en suelos de textura franco arcillosos. Un problema para el establecimiento es el bajo nivel de emergencia de la okra que es atribuido a las bajas temperaturas del suelo en siembras tempranas (febrero). La fertilización foliar no tiene efecto en el rendimiento de fruto. La poda resulta atractiva ya que optimiza la producción de una sola siembra, al continuar con la cosecha después del término del ciclo normal. Algunos híbridos probados en la región muestran ventajas productivas con relación a la var. testigo 'Clempson Spineless'. La enfermedad de mayor impacto es el moteado amarillo de la okra transmitida por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Esta virosis ha sido la causa del abandono del cultivo en los estados de Guerrero y Morelos. El inadecuado control de la maleza en okra tiene efectos directos en el rendimiento, dificulta la cosecha e incrementa los costos de producción. Abstract in english In Mexico, the okra is a non-traditional vegetable cultivated in 4000 to 7000 ha annually with an average yield of 10 t ha-1; most of the production is exported to the United States of America. Main okra producer states include: Morelos, Michoacan, Guerrero and Tamaulipas. In this last state okra is [...] produced in up to 5 000 ha. Okra is a rentable vegetable crop that also promotes hand labor. Research on okra started in Mexico twenty years ago. Fruit quality is a key factor for okra marketing; soft texture fruits with intense green color and of regular shape are preferred. Higher okra yield are obtained in clay loam soils. A problem for crop establishment are the low soil temperatures that causes low okra emergence in early plantings. Foliar fertilization has not being effective to increase yields. Pruning is a promising practice because its optimizes crop yields by extending the crop season. Some okra hybrids tested in the region show productive advantages in relation to the traditional cultivar 'Clemson Spineless'. The most important disease is yellow mottled virus, transmitted by whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). This virus has caused the abandonment of the okra crop in the states of Guerrero and Morelos. Ineffective weed control in okra has deleterious effects on yield, increases production cost and difficults harvest.

Arturo, Díaz Franco; Jesús, Loera Gallardo; Enrique, Rosales Robles; Manuel, Alvarado Carrillo; Sergio, Ayvar Serna.

34

Biological Control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood, Root Knot Nematodes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In a greenhouse study P. lilacinus, T. harzianum and T. flavus were used as seed treatment and soil drench. Seed treatment by P. lilacinus reduced gall formation, egg mass production, nematode soil and root densities as compared to control and other treatments. P. lilacinus improved plant growth followed by T. flavus and T. harzianum comparing with control. In another experiment, where soil was treated with conidial suspension, maximum plant height and shoot weight was achieved by P. lilacinus > T. harzianum compared to control, whereas T. flavus was found less effective in the enhancement of plant tops. Maximum suppression in gall formation (at p<0.01 and egg mass production (at p<0.001 was obtained in okra plants treated with P. lilacinus whereas T. flavus and T. harzianum were almost equally effective. Conidial suspension of microbial antagonists used as soil amendment also reduced nematode root invasion (at p<0.001 as well as soil densities

Amer-Zareen

2001-01-01

35

Decontamination of sliced and powdered okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and some aspects of nutrient quality before and after gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food security in Africa is crucial for survival of the increasing population. However, agricultural produce in the field are drastically reduced along the food pipeline (from farm gate to the consumer's table) by bioderioagents including microorganisms. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is one such farm produce of economic importance in Ghana with a great potential of providing essential nutrients and vitamins in our diet. The high moisture content of the fresh fruit makes it susceptible to microbial deterioration in a short time. Dehydration methods (sun-drying and solar drying) are practiced worldwide but in Africa, this is attended by contamination by aeromycoflora and other agents such as insect eggs and larvae. In addition are physical and chemical contaminants. In this thesis, the mycoflora and Total Aerobic Bacteria load of market samples and solar-dried okra (Clemson spineless and Legon Finger) chips and powder were ascertained with the view to documenting toxin-producing fungal species and update the resident mycoflora and bacteria load. Insects resident in the samples were detected by the hidden infestation technique; mycoflora was determined by the decimal serial dilution method on different media and Total Aerobic Bacteria population was determined on Plate Count Agar at 320C for 48hr. In order to establish storage stability of the okra, the chips and powdered samples were placed in glass desiccators with glycerol: water mixtures providing Environmental Relative Humidities of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95% representative of the Ghanaian Tropic Conditions to undergo sorption at the same temperature. Gamma irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 20kGy) were used as a preservation process to decontaminate resident mycoflora and total aerobic bacteria. This was supplemented by an in vitro study in the radio-resistance of six selected resident fungi (Aspergillus; Penicllium spp). The veracity of the dry okra supporting growth of selected Aspergillus and Penicillium species was carried out in liquid cultures (okra meal broth and okra meal broth amended with glucose) using the conventional oven dry weight method at 300C for 5 days. The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in an artificially inoculated 'black' and 'white' market samples of okra powder was studied using the current Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) to quantify aflatoxins with post column derivatisation (PCD) involving bromination. Elemental composition (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Na, K, Ca, Fe) was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Flame Photometer methods. A Bench Nuclear Magnetic Resonance equipment determined percentage moisture and fat concurrently; crude protein was ascertained by the Kjeldahl method, total ash was determined by the dry ashing method using Carblolite Eurotherm CW Furnace. Vitamin C was determined by the AOAC (2000) Iodometric Titration method and pH was estimated by AOAC (2000) method, while Brabender Viscograph measured viscosity of powdered samples of okra and Brookfield Viscometer was employed for the okra chips. Colour change was determined on L*a*b* system using a Minolta CR-30 Chromameter. The chips of Clemson spineless and Legon finger as well as the 'black' and 'white' okra powder were hygroscopic and equilibrated at 20-95% ERH with 6-8 days. Samples were visibly mouldy after 6-10 days and harboured a miscellany of fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pullularia, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Rhodotorula sp). Potential toxin-producing fungi (A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. sulphureus, P. digitatum, P. citrinum, P. brevicompactum, F. verticillioides, P. expansum) variably contaminated the samples. The Cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricone was recorded for the first time in 'white' okra powder but not the remaining samples. The insect showed mycophagy, ingesting spores of the Mucorales. The okra fruit was a good medium for vegetative growth of the resident fungi. A dose of 10kGy significantly (p?0.05) eliminated resident mycoflora and reduced

36

Effect of Postharvest Storage Techniques on the Nutritional Properties of Benin Indigenous Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria, okra Abelmoschus esculentus are packed and stored in polypropylene bag when moved from outlying villages to the city market. The study aims at assessing other storage method for Benin indigenous okra other than polypropylene bag with respect to nutrients, antinutrients and antioxidants. In this study fresh harvested Benin okra were harvested and divided into three parts. One part was stored in 100% RH at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C, another at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C and the last part in polypropylene bag. The nutrients, antinutrients (Phytate and Saponin antioxidants (Vitamin C and Total Phenol and the Viscosity were subsequently determined. The result of the study indicates that the nutrient, antinutrient and antioxidant content reduces significantly (p>0.05 in the three storage methods: Moisture (88.73-84.62%, fibre (10.63-7.22%, protein (14.87-12.84%, fat (9.67-7.96%, phytate (3.84-1.18%, saponin (0.612-0.284%, vitamin C (46.28-14.39 mg/100g, total phenol (0.095-0.059% and the viscosity (58.16-53.42cp. The method of storage of 100%RH recorded the least percentage loss in moisture, fibre antioxidant and viscosity content of the okra while the least % loss was recorded for protein and fat in the polypropylene bag method. The highest loss of the antinutrient was recorded at the storage method of temperature of 10°C ± 2°C. On the average the storage method of 100%RH at temperature of 10°C ±2°C shows to be better method than the others.

F.O. Adetuyi

2008-01-01

37

Nature and magnitude of genetic variability and diversity studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the genetic variability of yield contributing characters, and the genetic diversityin forty-four genotypes of okra collected from the IIHR, Bangalore, India. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among thegenotypes for different morphological characters. High GCV and PCV were observed for plant height, inter-nodal length, first flowering node,first fruit producing node, height of first flowering node, average fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit. On the basis of D2 analysis, the 44genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters. The cluster III was the largest with eight genotypes followed by cluster I and VIII with seven,cluster II with five, cluster XII with three while, clusters IV, V, VI, IX, X and XI included only two genotype in each. The intra-cluster distancewas maximum in cluster XII (28.14, while inter-cluster distance was maximum between cluster VI and VIII (35.57 followed by I and IX(35.31, thus being a good source for attempting hybridization. Among the 44 genotypes, IIHR-238, IIHR-241 showed maximum number offruits per plant and total yield per plant (g. The characters namely days to 50% flowering (35.62%, 100 seed weight (28.44%, number of seedsper fruit (17.23% and average fruit weight (8.14% directly contributed towards maximum divergence and, therefore, selection of divergentparents based on these characters is recommended for getting good hybrids or segregants in okra.

K. Prakash and M. Pitchaimuthu

2010-12-01

38

'Anjitha'- A new okra variety through induced mutation in inter specific hybrids of Abelmoschus SPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on inter specific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional combination breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistant genes and wild character of A. manihot. The present study envisaged the breaking of undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (10, 20, 30 and 40 kRad) of F1 seeds obtained by inter specific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluation and selection of high yielding YVM resistant types from the segregating generations till F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of gamma rays. The mutated hybrids and the wild parent showed complete resistance to YVM disease incidence which was confirmed through grafting trials. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more number of leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 20 kR while fruit yield was maximum in 40 kR due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 30kR which suggested that 30 kR could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Thirteen superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to three Comparativeistance were advanced to three Comparative Yield Trials (CYT). Culture AE18 out yielded the others in CYTs and Farm trials and was released as 'Anjitha' by the XXIII State Seed Sub Committee during 2006 for cultivation in Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

39

Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

2013-01-01

40

Anjitha - A New Okra Variety through Induced Mutation in Interspecific Hybrids of Abelmoschus spp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on interspecific hybrids of okra between A. esculentus (cultivated type) and A. manihot (wild type) revealed that no useful recombinants were obtained from the conventional breeding programme because of the strong linkage between yellow vein mosaic (YVM) resistance genes and the wild character of A. manihot. This study was aimed at breaking this undesirable linkage through gamma irradiation (100 200, 300 and 400 Gray) of F1 seeds obtained by interspecific hybridization between A. esculentus var. Kiran and A. manihot and further evaluating and selecting high yielding YVM resistant types from the generations segregating until F6M6. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency increased with increasing doses of Gamma-rays. In the segregating generations, the irradiated treatments were late flowering and had more leaves, flowers and fruits per plant. Average fruit weight was maximum in 200Gy, while fruit yield was maximum in 400Gy due to larger number of fruits. A few high yielding disease-resistant plants resembling the cultivated plants were obtained in 300Gy which suggested that 300Gy could be the ideal irradiation dose in okra. Superior genotypes selected from F6M6 generation based on yield and YVM resistance were advanced to CYTs and farm trials. Cultivar AE18 outyielded the others and was released as 'Anjitha' during 2006, for cultivation in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. Anjitha is a high yielding variety having the fruit characters and quality ofhaving the fruit characters and quality of the cultivated parent A. esculentus var. Kiran combined with the YVM-resistant character of the wild parent A. manihot. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

Assessment of genetic diversity in okra (abelmoschus esculentus l.) using rapd markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty nine okra genotypes were assessed for genetic variability using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Twenty polymorphic RAPD primers amplified 111 DNA fragments, with an average of 5.5 fragments per primer. Among 39 okra genotypes, 107 fragments (96%) were found to be polymorphic. The UPGMA cluster analysis placed okra genotypes into seven main clusters. Sabzpari 2001 and Acc. No. 019221 had shown maximum similarity (83%) while the minimum similarity (44.14%) was observed between the genotypes Punjab Selection and Acc. No. 019217. Thus, by using RAPD primers a considerable polymorphism appeared to exist, which showed genetic variability in the okra genotypes. (author)

42

Interrelationships among Characters and Path Analysis for Pod Yield Components in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev Stevels  

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Full Text Available Correlation, stepwise multiple regression and path coefficient analysis were used to determine the relationships, direct and indirect effects of agronomic and reproductive characters on pod and seed yield. Eighteen F2 generation obtained from hybridization of West African okra were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications in a single locations. Data were collected on agronomic and reproductive characters. Significant differences were observed among the segregating population for pods/branch, seeds/pod, inter node distance, seeds/ridge branch length, height at flower bud initiation and height at flowering. A positive correlation (p<0.05 was recorded for number of pods/plant and seed weight, height at maturity, ridges/pod and seeds/ridge. The seed weight recorded a positive correlation coefficient with edible pod width, seeds/ridge and pods/plant. The stepwise multiple regression analysis identified two characters (height at maturity and number of pods/plant to have accounted for 31% of variation observed in seed weight. Mature pod length was responsible for 39% of variability in seed weight. The numbers of ridges per pod and plant height at maturity were responsible for 25% of variation due to regression in pod yield. The path analysis identified plant height at maturity, ridges/pod, pods/plant, mature pod length and seed/ridge as selection indicators for pod and seed yield improvement in West African Okra.

O.T. Adeniji

2007-01-01

43

Dissipation of flubendiamide in/on okra [Abelmoschus esculenta (L.) Moench] fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment was undertaken at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif (rainy season) in the year 2010 to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits following foliar application of Belt 39.35% SC formulation at 24 (standard dose) and 48 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1). After HPLC analysis study revealed that residues of flubendiamide in/on okra persisted till 5th and 7th day after the last spray at standard and double dose, respectively. The residues of flubendiamide were reported as parent compound, and des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite (photo product) of flubendiamide, was not detected in/on okra at any time during the study period. The initial deposits of 0.28 and 0.53 ?g g(-1) in/on okra fruits reached below determination level of 0.01 ?g g(-1) on the 7th and 10th day at standard and double dose, respectively. The half life of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits ranged from 4.7 to 5.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Soil sample collected from the treated field on the 15th day after the last spray revealed residues of flubendiamide or its metabolite below determination level (0.01 ?g g(-1)) at single and double dose. PMID:22147083

Das, Shaon Kumar; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Suvo Kumar

2012-03-01

44

Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) / Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El estudio de heterosis podría ayudar en la selección de cruzas heteróticas para la explotación comercial de híbridos F1 de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Cuarenta y cinco F1s fueron desarrolladas cruzando 10 líneas elite de gombo: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398- [...] A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) y P10(IC111443), en forma de medio dialelo durante el verano 2009. Todas las 45 F1s junto con sus 10 padres y un control estándar (Híbrido de Mahyco N° 10) fueron evaluadas en un diseno de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones durante kharif temprano (junio a septiembre) 2009 en la Estación de Investigación de Vegetales, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, para heterosis de la producción de gombo y sus componentes. La significancia de cuadrados medios debida a genotipos reveló la presencia de variabilidad genética considerable entre el material estudiado para casi toda la producción y atributos de producción excepto la altura de planta. La heterosis media total entre los padres y control estándar para la producción total por planta fue 6,92 y -15,44%, respectivamente, mientras para la producción comerciable por planta fue 6,64 y el -22,18%, respectivamente. Cruzas negativamente heteróticas como C19(P3XP5) para días a 50% floración (-4.35%) y C4(P1XP5) para primera floración y nudos fructíferos (-15,22%), respectivamente, son importantes para explotar heterosis de precocidad en quingombó. Las cruzas con heterosis estándar no significativa en cualquier dirección dada para producción total por planta C42, C31, C35, C25, y C36 (8,6; -0,08; -2,61; -3,26; y -4,57%, respectivamente) y producción comerciable por planta C42, C31, y C36 (-5,87; -6,56, y -10,54%, respectivamente), fueron estadísticamente iguales con el control estándar para rendimiento medio y fueron tan prometedoras como aquellas del control estándar. El híbrido F1 C42(P7XP10) con alto potencial de rendimiento tiene potencial para cultivo comercial después de evaluación adicional para la temporada kharif temprana. Abstract in english The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC8 [...] 9819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Mahyco Hybrid N° 10) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates during early kharif (June to September) 2009 at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, for heterosis of yield and its components of okra. Significance of mean squares due to genotypes revealed the presence of considerable genetic variability among the material studied for almost all yield and yield attributes except plant height. The overall mean heterosis over mid parent and standard control for total yield per plant was 6.92 and -15.44%, respectively, while for marketable yield per plant were 6.64 and -22.18%, respectively. Negatively heterotic crosses like C19 (P3XP5) for days to 50% flowering (-4.35%) and C4(P1XP5) for first flowering and fruiting nodes (-15.22%), respectively, are important to exploit heterosis for earliness in okra. The crosses with non-significant standard heterosis in any given direction for total yield per plant C42, C31, C35, C25, and C36 (8.63, -0.08, -2.61, -3.26, and -4.57%, respectively) and marketable yield per plant C42, C31, and C36 (-5.87, -6.56, and -10.54%, respectively), were statistically on par with the standard control in their mean performance and are found to be as promising as that of the standard control. The F1 hybrid C42(P7XP10) with high yield potential has the potential for commercial cultivation after f

Thirupathi, Reddy Medagam; Haribabu, Kadiyala; Ganesh, Mutyala; Begum, Hameedunnisa.

2012-09-01

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Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) / Heterosis para Producción y Componentes del Rendimiento en Gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El estudio de heterosis podría ayudar en la selección de cruzas heteróticas para la explotación comercial de híbridos F1 de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Cuarenta y cinco F1s fueron desarrolladas cruzando 10 líneas elite de gombo: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398- [...] A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) y P10(IC111443), en forma de medio dialelo durante el verano 2009. Todas las 45 F1s junto con sus 10 padres y un control estándar (Híbrido de Mahyco N° 10) fueron evaluadas en un diseno de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones durante kharif temprano (junio a septiembre) 2009 en la Estación de Investigación de Vegetales, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, para heterosis de la producción de gombo y sus componentes. La significancia de cuadrados medios debida a genotipos reveló la presencia de variabilidad genética considerable entre el material estudiado para casi toda la producción y atributos de producción excepto la altura de planta. La heterosis media total entre los padres y control estándar para la producción total por planta fue 6,92 y -15,44%, respectivamente, mientras para la producción comerciable por planta fue 6,64 y el -22,18%, respectivamente. Cruzas negativamente heteróticas como C19(P3XP5) para días a 50% floración (-4.35%) y C4(P1XP5) para primera floración y nudos fructíferos (-15,22%), respectivamente, son importantes para explotar heterosis de precocidad en quingombó. Las cruzas con heterosis estándar no significativa en cualquier dirección dada para producción total por planta C42, C31, C35, C25, y C36 (8,6; -0,08; -2,61; -3,26; y -4,57%, respectivamente) y producción comerciable por planta C42, C31, y C36 (-5,87; -6,56, y -10,54%, respectivamente), fueron estadísticamente iguales con el control estándar para rendimiento medio y fueron tan prometedoras como aquellas del control estándar. El híbrido F1 C42(P7XP10) con alto potencial de rendimiento tiene potencial para cultivo comercial después de evaluación adicional para la temporada kharif temprana. Abstract in english The study of heterosis would help in selection of heterotic crosses for commercial exploitation of F1 hybrids in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Forty five F1S were developed by crossing 10 elite lines of okra: P1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC8 [...] 9819), Py(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443), in half diallel fashion during summer 2009. All 45 F1s along with their 10 parents and one standard control (Mahyco Hybrid N° 10) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates during early kharif (June to September) 2009 at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, for heterosis of yield and its components of okra. Significance of mean squares due to genotypes revealed the presence of considerable genetic variability among the material studied for almost all yield and yield attributes except plant height. The overall mean heterosis over mid parent and standard control for total yield per plant was 6.92 and -15.44%, respectively, while for marketable yield per plant were 6.64 and -22.18%, respectively. Negatively heterotic crosses like C19 (P3XP5) for days to 50% flowering (-4.35%) and C4(P1XP5) for first flowering and fruiting nodes (-15.22%), respectively, are important to exploit heterosis for earliness in okra. The crosses with non-significant standard heterosis in any given direction for total yield per plant C42, C31, C35, C25, and C36 (8.63, -0.08, -2.61, -3.26, and -4.57%, respectively) and marketable yield per plant C42, C31, and C36 (-5.87, -6.56, and -10.54%, respectively), were statistically on par with the standard control in their mean performance and are found to be as promising as that of the standard control. The F1 hybrid C42(P7XP10) with high yield potential has the potential for commercial cultivation after f

Thirupathi, Reddy Medagam; Haribabu, Kadiyala; Ganesh, Mutyala; Begum, Hameedunnisa.

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Evaluating partial root-zone irrigation and mulching in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under a sub-humid tropical climate  

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Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted to compare the alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI with and without black plastic mulch (BPM with full root-zone irrigation (FRI in furrow-irrigated okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench at Bhubaneswar, India. APRI means that one of the two neighbouring furrows was alternately irrigated during consecutive watering. FRI was the conventional method where every furrow was irrigated during each watering. The used irrigation levels were 25% available soil moisture depletion (ASMD, 50% ASMD, and 75% ASMD. The plant growth and yield parameters were observed to be significantly (p < 0.05 higher with frequent irrigation (at 25% ASMD under all irrigation strategies. However, APRI + BPM produced the maximum plant growth and yield using 22% and 56% less water over APRI without BPM and FRI, respectively. The highest pod yield (10025 kg ha-1 was produced under APRI at 25% ASMD + BPM, which was statistically at par with the pod yield under APRI at 50% ASMD + BPM. Irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE, which indicates the pod yield per unit quantity of irrigation water, was estimated to be highest (12.3 kg m-3 under APRI at 50% ASMD + BPM, followed by APRI at 25% ASMD + BPM. Moreover, the treatment APRI at 50% ASMD + BPM was found economically superior to other treatments, generating more net return (US $ 952 ha-1 with higher benefit–cost ratio (1.70.

Sanatan Pradhan

2011-12-01

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Genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra (abelmoschus esculentus L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of salt tolerant plants through selection and breeding depends on the presence of the genetic variability within the crop species in response to salt stress, which must have significant genetic component. Such information is not extensively available in vegetable crops. The present study was carried out to gain some information on the genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra. North Carolina Mating Design II (NCM II) was used for the estimation of genetic components of variation in the traits affecting salinity tolerance. The inheritance of the traits affecting salinity tolerance at the seedling stage appeared to be controlled by both additive and non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis). The narrow sense heritability estimates ranged from 40 to 65% and 7 to 70% and the estimates of broad sense heritability ranged from 65 to 99% and 20 to 99% for absolute and relative values. The additive effects were relatively more prominent and narrow sense heritability was moderate. The high additive component for absolute Na/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio at 60 and 80 mM NaCl, relative Na+ at 80 mM NaCl suggested that improvement for salinity tolerance in okra would be possible on the basis of these characteristics through selection and breeding. The genetic variation for tolerance to NaCl salinity existed among the okra genotypes, which had considerable heritable component and, therefore, genetic improvement of okra genotypes for salinity tolerance through recurrent selection method is possible. (author)

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Assessment of genetic relatedness among okra genotypes [abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench] using rapd markers  

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DNA based RAPD (Randomly Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study geneticrelationships in number of crop plants. In this study, 44 okra genotypes collected from different parts of India, were selected toassess genetic distinctiveness and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 14arbitrary 10 mer primers. The molecular analysis showed that all the fourteen primers used revealed clear distinction between thegenotypes...

K Prakash, M. Pitchaimuthu And K. V. Ravishankar

2011-01-01

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Quality Attributes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench Pods as Affected by Cultivar and Fruit Size  

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Full Text Available Okra is a vegetable widely grown in the tropics, sub-tropics and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Fruit quality plays an important role in marketability and it is mainly related to the characteristic pod length. This work was intended to classify okra fruits belonging to different genotypes (a local variety - LV - and the cultivars Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Annie Oakley II according to their length and to compare certain quality attributes. LV fruits were considerably firm although they were smaller, thus they should be more suitable for canning or pickling. The hybrid material (Annie Oakley II yielded high quality fruits. These fruits may be destined for fresh consumption, given that they showed lower fibrousness. At the same time, they had high dry matter content, being suitable for dehydration. Okra fruits highlighted for their contribution of phenolic compounds.Total phenols levels significantly increased with fruit size in LV fruits, meanwhile no significant difference was observed for Annie Oakley II samples. Total flavonoids content showed a similar tendency although values did not differ significantly. Total flavonoids represented between 18-22% of the total phenols contents for the analyzed samples.

Daniela F. Olivera

2012-09-01

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Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

2010-03-15

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Irrigational impact of distillery effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Okra with special reference to heavy metals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed under natural environment to assess levels of different heavy metals in soil and Abelmoschus esculentus plants along with soil microbial population irrigated with five rates of distillery effluent (DE) viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % concentration in comparison with control (Bore well water). Results revealed that among various concentrations of DE, irrigation with 100 % DE significantly (P Cr > Cd > Zn > Cu, and for A. esculentus plants, it was in the order Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Zn after irrigation with distillery effluent. The enrichment factor value was found maximum for Ni in comparison to other metals at 100 % DE concentration as compared with BWW. However, the values of these metals were below the recommended permissible limit. PMID:24638936

Srivastava, Sachin; Chopra, A K

2014-07-01

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Variability and Association of Quantitative Characters among Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench Collection in South Western Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate genetic variability among Okra accessions based on quantitative morphological traits. Twenty five Okra accessions were planted in 2011/2012 at Gambella in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on 20 quantitative traits were collected and subjected to various statistical analyses. The analysis of variance showed significant differences (p<0.01 among the accessions for all quantitative characters measured. Estimate of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation also showed the presence of variability among the accessions for the majority of the character. High heritability (96.76 and 96.50% coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean (106.32 and 97.25% were recorded for internodes length and plant height, respectively. Correlation study between various quantitative characters highlighted significant association among characters. Fruit yield was positive and highly significant genotypic correlation with fruit length (r = 0.74, average fruit weight (r = 0.62, fruit diameter (r = 0.61, seed per pod (r = 0.56, hundred seed weight (r = 0.68 and number of pod per plant (r = 0.66. Path coefficient analysis at genotypic level revealed that internodes number had highly positive direct effect on fruit yield (p = 6.90 followed by average fruit weight (p = 6.89 which had positively genotypic correlation with yield. The present study indicated a considerable amount of variability for the majority of the quantitative characters in Okra for exploitation. However, it is recommended that the experiment should be repeated at more location and years with more collections to confirm the obtained results.

Mihretu Yonas

2014-01-01

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Quantitative inheritance for fruit traits in inter varietal crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available Gene effects for important fruit traits of four inter-varietal crosses of okra were estimated by partitioning the means and variances of means of sixbasic generations from each cross into their genetic components to assess the gene action governing the inheritance of fruit yield and earlinessrelated traits in spring and rainy season. The additive, dominance and digenic non-allelic gene interactions were observed to govern most of thefruit traits. The non-additive gene effects were more pronounced than additive ones for most of the traits in both the environments. The evidenceof duplicate type of epistasis has been obtained for all the characters in different crosses in both the seasons. Thus for developing high yieldingokra cultivars, recurrent selection in biparental progenies would help in exploiting the duplicate type of non-allelic interactions and allowrecombination and concentration of genes having cumulative effects in population.

Deepak Arora, Salesh Kumar Jindal and T. R. Ghai

2010-12-01

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Advances in breeding of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Okra, an important vegetable of the tropics and sub-tropics is very popular in India. Its production is limited by 'yellow vein mosaic virus'. Advances in breeding for resistance to this virus have been made through inter-specific hybridisation as well as mutagenesis. Hybridisation used A. manihot ssp. manihot and ssp. tetraphyllus. New varieties showed 87-146% yield increases over older virus susceptible varieties. The number of fruits increased by 13-30%, virus incidence decreased by 84-99%. An EMS induced mutant 'EMS8' showed a yield increase of 107%, a fruit number increase of 16% and a disease decrease of 99%. The mutant also carries a good amount of resistance to the fruit borer; infestation decreased by 46%. The mutant is the best among the tested varieties for canning, is suitable for dehydration, and can be stored prepacked at room temperature for 6 days. (author)

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Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus. PMID:24511684

Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

2013-11-15

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Ferti-irrigational Effect of Paper Mill Effluent on Agronomical Characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra  

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Full Text Available The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31 was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation of A. esculentus along with bore well water (control. The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO43¯, SO42¯, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (p>0.05 changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf of various heavy metals was Cr>Cd>Mn>Zn>Cu for soil and Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

A.K. Chopra

2013-01-01

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Period of Weed Control in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] as Influenced by Varying Rates of Cattle Dung and Weeding Regimes  

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Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2005 and 2006 planting seasons to investigate the influence of cattle dung and the critical period of weed interference on growth and yield components of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench]. The study was a factorial trial laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. The main plot comprised of four levels of cattle dung and the sub plots were three regimes of weeding. The growth attributes viz; plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter production differed significantly due to different treatments. These attributes increased significantly owing to application of cattle dung which leads to continuous availability of nutrients to the plants as well as appropriate timing of weeding which reduced the influence of weed interference on the okra. Yield and yield components were influenced significantly by application of cattle dung and weeding regimes. Highest fresh fruit yield (102.93 t ha-1 was observed in plots that received 8 t ha-1cattle dung and weeded at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing. Application of 8 t ha-1 of cattle dung as well as weeding at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing significantly enhanced okra growth and fruit yield. However, plots with sub-optimal cattle dung rate and infested with weeds till harvest produced least dry matter and fresh fruit yield.

Ojo Olajumoke FAYINMINNU

2010-06-01

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Genetic studies on fruit yield and yield attributes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available Eight genotypes of okra were crossed in half diallel fashion to study the combining ability of the parents and gene action in respect of fruit yield and 12 other component characters. The magnitude of GCA variance was higher than respective SCA variance indicating predominance of additive gene action for expression of all the characters. The components of variance for both GCA and SCA were recorded to be higher for fruit yield per plant and plant height. Considering the genetic variance, it was higher due to SCA than that of GCA for all the characters except for flowering characters thus suggesting significant role of non additive gene action in the expression of former characters. The genotype IC-332453 and Parbhani Kranti were the best general combiners. The crosses that exhibited higher SCA effects and per se performance for fruit yield per plant were IC-33107 X IC-433665, IC-342075 X IC-332453, IC-43736 X Parbhani Kranti, IC-433672 X IC-332453 and IC-3307 X IC-4376. In these crosses atleast one of the parents is a good general combiner. Therefore, complementary type of gene effect might have played important role in expression of the character.

P. K. Akotkar, D. K. De and U. K. Dubey*

2014-10-01

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Assessment of genetic relatedness among okra genotypes [abelmoschus esculentus (l. Moench] using rapd markers  

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Full Text Available DNA based RAPD (Randomly Amplification of Polymorphic DNA markers have been used extensively to study geneticrelationships in number of crop plants. In this study, 44 okra genotypes collected from different parts of India, were selected toassess genetic distinctiveness and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 14arbitrary 10 mer primers. The molecular analysis showed that all the fourteen primers used revealed clear distinction between thegenotypes and they generated a total of 104 RAPD bands most of which were polymorphic across accessions (74.03%. Thenumber of bands resolved per amplification was primer dependent and varied from 4 (OPV-07, OPV-08 to 11 (OPD-05 withaverage number of bands per primer was 7.41. RAPD data were used to calculate a Squared Euclidean Distance matrix, andbased on this, cluster analysis was done using minimum variance algorithm. Cluster analysis showed two major groups. Eachsub-group was characterized using morphological and genetic characteristics of the respective genotypes.

K. Prakash, M. Pitchaimuthu and K.V. Ravishankar

2011-03-01

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Gene action and combining ability of yield and its components for late kharif season in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Knowledge on the genetic system controlling the quantitative traits is important for devising an efficient selection program through the use of a suitable mating design. Forty five Fis were generated by crossing 10 germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) namely P1(IC282248), P2( [...] IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443) during summer 2009. Forty five F1s along with their 10 parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates during late kharif (August-November) 2009 at Vegetable Research Station, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, for studying gene action and combining ability of yield and its components. Significant general combining ability and specific combining ability variances were obtained in majority of the traits except fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots; implying that both the additive and non-additive gene effects operated in the genetic expression of the traits. The relative magnitude of general and specific combining ability variances indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for majority of the characters studied except number of branches per plant and fruit width. Combining ability analysis of parents revealed that the parental lines P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819) and P7(IC89976) were superior general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and other traits. The crosses C23(IC29119-B x IC99716), Cn(IC27826-A x IC111443), C42(IC89976 x IC111443) and C43(IC90107 x IC111443) were superior specific combiners for total as well as marketable yield per plant with the potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The crosses C17 (IC27826-A x IC111443) and C42(IC89976 x IC111443) involving one or both of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects for marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding.

Medagam, Thirupathi Reddy; Kadiyala, Hari Babu; Mutyala, Ganesh; Hameedunnisa, Begum; Jampala, Dilipbabu; Reddivenkatagari Subbarama, Krishna Reddy.

 
 
 
 
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Gene action and combining ability of yield and its components for late kharif season in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Knowledge on the genetic system controlling the quantitative traits is important for devising an efficient selection program through the use of a suitable mating design. Forty five Fis were generated by crossing 10 germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) namely P1(IC282248), P2( [...] IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716), and P10(IC111443) during summer 2009. Forty five F1s along with their 10 parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates during late kharif (August-November) 2009 at Vegetable Research Station, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, for studying gene action and combining ability of yield and its components. Significant general combining ability and specific combining ability variances were obtained in majority of the traits except fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots; implying that both the additive and non-additive gene effects operated in the genetic expression of the traits. The relative magnitude of general and specific combining ability variances indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action for majority of the characters studied except number of branches per plant and fruit width. Combining ability analysis of parents revealed that the parental lines P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819) and P7(IC89976) were superior general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and other traits. The crosses C23(IC29119-B x IC99716), Cn(IC27826-A x IC111443), C42(IC89976 x IC111443) and C43(IC90107 x IC111443) were superior specific combiners for total as well as marketable yield per plant with the potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The crosses C17 (IC27826-A x IC111443) and C42(IC89976 x IC111443) involving one or both of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects for marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding.

Medagam, Thirupathi Reddy; Kadiyala, Hari Babu; Mutyala, Ganesh; Hameedunnisa, Begum; Jampala, Dilipbabu; Reddivenkatagari Subbarama, Krishna Reddy.

2013-03-01

62

Heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression and heritability study in okra(Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench  

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Full Text Available P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations of six crosses viz., HRB-55 x AOL-05-4, VRO-5 x Red Long, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3, GO-2 x AOL-04-3, Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 were used to study heterobeltiosis,inbreeding depression and heritability for days to first flowering, days to first picking, plant height, primary branches perplant, stem girth, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant in okra (A. esculentus (L.Moench. HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 showed heterobeltiosis in desirable direction for almost all the fruit yield and itscontributing characters particularly, 94.06 per cent for fruit yield per plant and 86.12 per cent fruits per plant. Moderate tohigh narrow sense heritability was observed for primary branches per plant in the crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E1,VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 (E2; fruit girth in the crosses VRO-5 x Red Long (E1, VRO-6 x AOL-05-3 (E1, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1 and Arka Anamika x AOL-03-1 (E1; fruit weight in the crosses HRB-55 xAOL-05-4 (E2, VRO-5 x Red Long (E1 and GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E2. The highest heritability identified 99.35 per centfor fruit length in the cross HRB-55 x AOL-05-4. The results of heterosbeltiosis revealed that the cross HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 may be exploited for fruit yield and its component traits. The positive and significant inbreeding depressionobserved for days to first flowering in cross, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E1 and E2 and for days to first picking in the crossesHRB-55 x AOL-05-4 (E2, VRO-5 x Red Long (E2, GO-2 x AOL-04-3 (E2 and Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6 (E2. Thisindicates to obtain desirable segregants for earliness in subsequent segregating generations. The negative and significantinbreeding depression which is desirable for okra crop improvement also observed for different traits across theenvironments viz., twelve cases each in the crosses HRB-55 x AOL-05-4 and VRO-5 x Red Long; four cases in crossVRO-6 x AOL-05-3; eight cases in cross GO-2 x AOL-04-3; seven cases in cross Arka Anamika x AOL-03-6 and sixcases in cross Parbhani Kranti x AOL-03-6. These findings would be useful for the improvement of fruit yield and itsquality traits while handling the segregating generation for the development of improved varieties.

Khanorkar S.M and K. B. Kathiria

2010-07-01

63

Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na(+) and K(+)) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars. PMID:22761245

Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

2012-07-01

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Effect of Storage Conditons on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Fresh Okra (Abelmoschus esculenta Fruits  

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Full Text Available The effects of storage conditions on some physico-chemical and microbiological qualities of fresh okra were determined and compared. Fresh okra fruits were stored in open plates and sealed polyethylene bags in the refrigerator (F1, F2, on the shelf in the laboratory (S1, S2 and in the open sun (O1, O2 respectively for a period of nine (9 days. The moisture content, viscosity, microbiological composition and sensory properties of the stored fruits were determined on a daily basis during the period of storage. The moisture content and viscosity decreased during storage from 92.00% and 700 cP in fresh okra to 35.50% and 100 cP in okra stored in open plates in the sun (O2, respectively. On the other hand, bacterial count increased from 2.27x104 CFU/mL in fresh okra to 2.72x105 CFU/mL in okra stored in polyethylene bag in the sun (O2, while okra stored in open plates on the shelf (S1 had the highest mould count of 9.0x104 CFU/mL. Okra stored in polyethylene bag in the refrigerator (F2 had the highest moisture content of 84.50%, viscosity of 440 cP and the lowest bacterial and mould counts of 1.15x104 and 4.0x103 CFU/mL, respectively. Mean sensory scores in respect of colour, smell, texture and general acceptability showed that samples stored in the refrigerator scored higher in all attributes and had higher acceptability at the end of the storage period, which compared favourably with fresh okra fruits.

D.I. Gernah

2012-07-01

65

Avaliação da sensibilidade de plantas jovens de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) ao ozônio / Assessment of the sensitivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. - Malvaceae) to ozone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A sensibilidade de Abelmoschus esculentus ao ozônio (O3) foi determinada em plantas expostas por quatro dias, seis horas/dia, ao ar filtrado (AF) e ao AF enriquecido com 80 ppb de O3 (AF+O3), em câmaras de fumigação, analisando-se sintomas foliares visíveis e alterações nas trocas gasosas e em antio [...] xidantes. Avaliaram-se os sintomas foliares diariamente e as trocas gasosas e antioxidantes (ácido ascórbico e superóxido dismutase) ao fim do experimento. Todas as plantas em AF+O3 apresentaram sintomas foliares, caracterizados por pontuações avermelhadas na superfície adaxial, entre as nervuras. Em média, o índice de injúria foliar foi de 15% e a severidade de 62%. Fotossíntese líquida, condutância estomática, transpiração, concentração de ácido ascórbico e atividade da superóxido dismutase foram reduzidas significativamente nestas plantas, em comparação com as mantidas sob ar filtrado. Os resultados sugerem que Abelmoschus esculentus é sensível ao O3, apresentando baixos níveis de defesas antioxidativas e distúrbios fisiológicos. Abstract in english The sensitivity of Abelmoschus esculentus to ozone (O3) was assessed in plants exposed during four days, six hours/day, to filtered air (AF) and to AF plus 80 ppb of O3 (AF+O3) into fumigation chambers, by determining visible leaf symptoms and changes on gas exchange and on antioxidants. Visible sym [...] ptoms were daily evaluated. Gas exchange and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase) were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All plants from AF+O3 treatment showed leaf injury, characterized by interveinal reddish punctuations on the adaxial surfaces. In average, 15% of leaf injury index and 62% of severity were estimated. Net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, ascorbic acid level and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly reduced in those plants, compared to measurements performed in plants exposed to AF only. The results suggest that Abelmoschus esculentus is sensitive to ozone, showing low levels of antixidative defenses and physiological distubances.

Patricia, Bulbovas; Silvia Maria Romano, Sant' Anna; Regina Maria de, Moraes; Elisabeth de Souza, Lima; Juliana Moreno, Pina; Marisia Pannia, Esposito; Maurício Lamano, Ferreira; Adriano Afonso, Spielmann; Ciliane Matilde, Sollito; Cynthia Hering, Rinnert; Denílson Fernandes, Peralta; Juliana da Silva, Cardoso; Lílian, Carminitti; Luciana da Silva, Canêz; Marcelo M. dos Santos, Reis; Michel Navarro, Benatti; Silvia Ribeiro de, Souza; Marisa, Domingos.

66

Effect of Seed Treatment on the Incidence of Seed-borne Diseases of Okra  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to know the effect of seed treatment on the incidence of seed-borne fungal diseases and on production of seed yield of okra. The lowest germination (95.0% was recorded in unclean farmer`s seeds; while highest germination (99.0% was recorded in Vitavax-200 treated seeds followed by clean apparently healthy seeds (98.5%. Seed-borne fungal diseases of okra in the field, five diseases viz. Foot and root rot, Anthracnose and die-back, Cercospora leaf spot, Corynespora leaf spot and leaf blight, respectively caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum dematium, Cercospora abelmoschi, Corynespora cassiicola and Macrophonina phaseolina were recorded. The incidence of five seed-borne diseases have been found to be reduced by the use of seeds treated with Vitavax-200 and clean apparently healthy seeds. Vitavax-200 treated seeds as well as clean apparently healthy seeds increased the seed yield by 21.62 and 15.31%, respectively, over the unclean farmers` seeds.

M.K. Anam

2002-01-01

67

Evaluation of Different Cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan  

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Full Text Available Five different cultivars of okra viz. (penta green, pusa sawani, local cultivar, pusa green and clemson were evaluated for their performance under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan. Minimum number of days to flowering (36.33, maximum pods per plant (43.42, highest pods weight per plant (446.23 gm and in return the maximum yield of the pods (17.85 t ha -1 were obtained from the pusa green cultivar. Different parameters like days taken to germination, pod size and number of pods per plant remained non-significant for different okra cultivars.

Farooq Ali Khan

2002-01-01

68

Essential Mineral Elements Profile of 22 Accessions of Okra (Abelmoschus spp (L. From Eight Regions of Ghana  

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Full Text Available Five (5 essential macro, three (3 micro and two (2 trace mineral elements were determined in fresh fruits of twenty-two (22 accessions of okra using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA. These were correlated to assess the level of associations existing between these elements. Concentrations of these elements were juxtaposed with their recommended daily dietary intake (RDI in the individual accessions of okra and their variability with other traits examined for future improvement works towards breeding for high or low micro nutrient containing variety (ies.

J. K. Ahiakpa

2014-04-01

69

Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticides, Cascade (insect growth regulator and Pressurized water spray (M. Y. strategy was evaluated against insect pests of okra. Cascade was found to be the best efficient against Helicoverpa armigera and Earias spp. Pirate showed maximum efficacy against Amrasca biguttula biguttula, whereas, against Bemisia tabaci, the most effective treatment was Azodrin followed by M.Y. strategy.

Muhammad Tariq

2000-01-01

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Influence of Wastewater Application and Fertilizer use on Growth, Photosynthesis, Nutrient Homeostatis, Yield and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

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Full Text Available The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl¯, Ca++, Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater (GW. The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120 proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for the cultivation of okra.

Neelima Akhtar

2014-01-01

71

Effect of Chemical Paclobutrazol on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Har Lium Cultivar in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This investigation was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand in the late rainy season of the 2003 to 2004 with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults. The experiment aims to search for more information on the effect of different rates of chemical Paclobutrazol (PBZ application on growth, yield and quality of edible okra pods. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCDB with four replications was used for the experiment. The experiments consisted of five treatments, i.e., 0 (T1, 4,000 (T2, 8,000 (T3, 12,000 (T4 and 16,000 ppm ha-1 (T5 of chemical PBZ. The results showed that an increase in PBZ application rate highly decreased plant height, harvesting age and significantly decreased leaf area of the fifth leaf but highly increased pod length, fresh weight/pod and fresh pod yield ha-1 of the okra plants. PBZ had no significant effect on stem diameter and diameter of pods of the okra plants. Total soluble solid, fibre content, titratable acid, vitamin C and pectin contents in pods were not affected by chemical PBZ application. Pod yield highly increased with an increase in rate of PBZ application. The highest edible pod yield reached a value of 4,501 kg ha-1 for the highest rate of PBZ application (T5.

Chutichudet Benjawan

2007-01-01

72

Effects of Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus and Mixture Groundnut (Archis hypogaea  

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Full Text Available The effects of various row spacing on the yield and yield components of okra with groundnut were conducted at the training and research farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Yield and yield components of the crops in the various row spacing, monetary value of fresh okra fruits and dry groundnut pods were determined. The efficacy of the inter-cropping on weed suppression was evaluated. Okra plant height showed that R30 (30x50 cm was highly significant than the other treatments in the experiment. Treatment R90 (90x50 cm and R75 (75x50 cm had significantly higher number of branches (p=>0.05. The results show that productive nodes increased with increasing row spacing, R90 had 77%, while R75 and R60 had 69 and 66%, respectively. This actually affected crop yield. However, R75, R60 and R90 had the highest fruit yield and were significantly higher than R30 and R45 at p>0.05. Conversely, R30 and R45 suppressed weeds better but had low fruit yield compared to R75, R60 and R9d . The yield of groundnut showed that R60 and R75 had the highest yield although it was not significantly different from R90. Treatment R75 had the highest monetary yield of N 132,200.00 ha-1 than the other treatments compared.

I.I. Ibeawuchi

2005-01-01

73

Purification and biological activities of Abelmoschus esculentus seed lectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae) plant originated in Africa and has spread across a number of tropic countries, including northeastern Brazil. The plant has been used to treat various disorders, such as cancer, microbial infections, hypoglycemia, constipation, urine retention and inflammation. The lectin of A. esculentus (AEL) was isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a saturation level of 30/60 and purified by ion exchange chromatography (Sephacel-DEAE). The electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profile of the AEL showed two protein bands of apparent molecular mass of approximately 15.0 and 21.0 kDa. The homogenity of the protein was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which revealed the presence of a 10.29-kDa monomer and a 20.58-kDa dimer. The AEL exhibits agglutinating activity against rabbit (74.41 UH/mP) and human type ABO erythrocytes (21.00 UH/mP). This activity does not require the presence of divalent cations and is specifically inhibited by lactose, fructose and mannose. The intravenous treatment with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg of AEL inhibited the paw edema elicited by carrageenan by approximately 15, 22 and 44 %, respectively, but not that induced by dextran. In addition, treatment with 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg of AEL also inhibited the abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid by approximately 52, 57 and 69 %, respectively. In conclusion, AEL is a new lectin with a molecular mass of 20.0 kDa, which is -composed of a 10.291-Da monomer and a 20.582-kDa dimer, that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and hemagglutinating activities. In addition, the lectin hemagglutinating property is both metallo-independent and associated with the lectin domain. PMID:22965555

de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; de Morais Gomes, Vinicius; Delatorre, Plinio; da Conceição Simões, Rafael; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Leite, Joana Filomena; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Pinto, Nilson Vieira; de Luna Freire Pessoa, Hilzeth; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane

2012-12-01

74

Effect of Monocrotophos and Methamidophos on Jassid, Amrasca devastans
(Distant in Different Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Cultivars
 

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Full Text Available Two commonly used insecticides, Methamidophos 60SL @ 1000ml/ha and Monocrotophos 40WSC @ 1500 ml/ha were evaluated on Amrasca devastans L. during 1999 on Pusa Swani, Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma okra varieties. Both insecticides provided effective control of Jassid and kept the population below economic threshold level up to ten days after insecticidal application. However, Methamidophos 60SL proved better on Pusa Swani as compared to Monocrotophos 40WSC, which decreased jassid population on Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma, respectively.

Munir Ahmad

2001-01-01

75

Development of Seed Treatments Bio fertilizer and Nutrient Uptake Study Using Tracer Technique for Okra Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of bio fertilizer seed treatments for okra seeds were carried out by mixing phosphate solubilising bacteria (AP 3) and plant growth promoter (AP 2) with adhesives. The seeds were coated with inoculum and four types of adhesives namely, Gum Arabic; Polyethylene Glycol (PEG); Sodium Alginate and Methylcellulose respectively. From eight seed treatments, all seed treatments significantly increased seed germinations except treatment T4 (Gum Arabic and AP3). In general, maximum germination rates and log of viable cells were observed when treated with polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) mixed with AP2 (T7) and AP3 (T8). These results show that using PEG as adhesive enhanced the germination rates and log of viable cells of AP2 and AP3. Thus, PEG could be a good adhesive for seed treatment. In greenhouse experiment, okra seeds treatment with AP2 and PEG (T1) showed the highest dry weight compared to other treatments. Seeds treatment with AP3 and PEG (T2) showed higher contribution of N compare to seeds treatment (T1). There were no significant different within seed treatments and urea treatment in okra yield. All treatments significantly increased yields compared with control. (author)

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Effects of Green Manures on Growth, Yield and Quality of Green Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Har Lium Cultivar  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults. The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., T1 (Control, T2 (Jack bean, T3 (Cowpea, T4 (Green gram and T5 (Giant sensitive plant. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four replications. The results showed that Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults contained some considerable mean values of organic matter (1.64-1.66% but soil available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were relatively low, particularly potassium. Green manures of the four legume plants slightly improved soil property of the Roi-Et soil series (tested at the end of the experimental period. The most effective green manure on stem diameter, bushy diameter, leaf numbers plant- 1 and leaf area of the fifth leaf of the okra plants, in most cases, was found with Jack bean and Cowpea ranked the second. However, in most cases, Cowpea gave a similar effect as that of Green gram and Giant sensitive plant. Pod length and weight pod- 1, pod diameter and edible fresh pod yields (5,941.86 kg ha- 1 were highest with Jack bean green manure treatment (T2, whilst the rest, in most cases, were similar. Green manure treatments gave highly significant effect on total soluble solids of pods over the control treatment, whilst total acidity, fibre and pectin contents were unaffected by green manure treatments. Green manure of Jack bean was the best legume crop for green manure to be used in improving soil fertility, particularly for Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults.

Chutichudet Benjawan

2007-01-01

77

PRE-SOWING SEED BIO-PRIMING IN OKRA: RESPONSE FOR SEED PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available Seeds of eight varieties of okra: Lalu, Arka Anamika, Ramya, Satsira, Lady Luck, Debpusa Jhar, Japani Jhar and Barsha Laxmi were bio-primed with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens, and sown in the field in Split-plot Design with three replications along with the unprimed control in two consecutive summer seasons of 2011 and 2012 to assess the variation in response of individual varieties for seed yield and its attributes. Trichoderma viride was improved plant length as 108.21cm and 112.25 cm for variety Arka Anamika, maximum pod length i.e. 19.01 and 19.21 as well as in pod diameter as 16.64 mm and 16.85 mm for Lalu variety in first and second year respectively. Overall seed yield per plant was as maximum as 49.14g and 51.58g in 2011 and 2012 respectively for Lalu, while it was lowest for Lady Luck (24.13g and 25.69g in both the years. Expression for response towards individual bio-inoculants for individual varieties varied, which indicate the existence of genotypic response in enhancing the seed yield of individual varieties after pre-sowing bio-primed of seeds.From these findings it can be concluded that the bio-priming with compatible bio-agents will enhance the plant growth and yield attributes.

A K RAI

2014-06-01

78

Qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro em função da idade e do repouso pós-colheita dos frutos / Okra seed quality as a function of age and fruit post harvest rest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho foi conduzido na FCA-UNESP, em Botucatu (SP), objetivando-se estudar o efeito da idade do fruto e o período de repouso pós-colheita sobre a qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.). No dia da antese, as flores foram etiquetadas e os frutos fora [...] m colhidos com 34, 41, 48 e 55 dias após a antese (DAA). Para cada idade, em metade dos frutos as sementes foram extraídas imediatamente e a outra metade ficou em repouso por quatorze dias, antes da extração das sementes. Para verificar a qualidade das sementes os seguintes testes foram realizados: teor de água no dia da extração das sementes, massa de 100 sementes, teste de germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e condutividade elétrica. Pode-se concluir que o armazenamento para qualquer idade do fruto melhora o vigor das sementes. Para germinação final, o armazenamento é favorável quando os frutos são colhidos ainda novos (34 e 41 DAA). Abstract in english The work was carried out at FCA-UNESP, in Botucatu (SP), with the aim of studying the effect of fruit age and post harvest rest on quality of okra seeds cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.). At the day of the anthesis, the flowers were labeled and fruits were picked with 34,41,48 and 5 [...] 5 days after the anthesis (DAA). For each age, in half of the fruits the seeds were immediately extracted and the another half was stored for fourteen days before seed extraction. To verify the quality of seeds the following tests were accomplished: seed water content at extraction, weight of 100 seeds, germination test, first counted of germinated seeds and eletrical conductivity. It may be concluded that the fruit storage for any fruit age increases seed vigour, and for final germination, the rest is favorable when fruits are picked still new (34 and 41 DAA).

Márcia Maria, Castro; Amanda Regina, Godoy; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

79

Growth, yield and seed production of okra as influenced by different growth regulators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) affect various aspects of plant physiology, mainly vegetative and reproductive traits including yield and seed production. Therefore, different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of gibberellic acid (GA3) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), alone or in different combinations were sprayed on okra plants at 2-true leaf stage, to ascertain their impact on plant growth, pod production, seed yield and seed quality. All variables regarding vegetative and reproductive growth were significantly influenced by different concentrations of the growth regulators except number of days taken to flowering. Growth regulators were less effective when applied individually as compared to their combined use; however, performance of plants treated with individual PGR was better than the untreated plants. The number of leaves plant/sup -1/ and plant height was higher in plants when sprayed with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+100 ppm as well as with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. The number of pods plant/sup -1/, pod length, pod fresh and dry weight, seed yield and seed quality (in terms of germination percentage and 1000-seed weight) was maximum in plants receiving foliar spray of both GA3 and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. These results signify the role of GA/sub 3/ and NAA in okra pod production for fresh consumption as well as for seed yield. (author)

80

Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Harvesting Time on the Seed Quality of Four Okra Cultivars  

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Full Text Available In an experiment at the University of Thessaly during the summer season of 2011, the effect of foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3 to okra at an early stage of plant growth (3-4 leaves on plant growth, pod and seed characteristics was studied in relation to harvest time. GA3 was applied at concentrations of 0 (Control, 50, and 100 mg L-1 to four okra cultivars (‘Boyiatiou’, ‘Veloudo’, ‘Clemson’ and ‘Pylaias’ and pods were harvested 30, 35, 40 and 50 days after anthesis (DAA from the lower part of the plant. From the results it was found that GA3 application increased plant height irrespective of cultivar and GA3 concentration (50 and 100 mg L-1, but without increasing flower induction or pod set. Similarly, GA3 had no effect on pod dimensions (which were determined by genotype or mean 100 seed weight, except in Boyiatiou. Similarly, GA3 application did not consistently affect seed moisture content, but it did however, increase the number of seeds per pod. Germination was either promoted (‘Veloudo’, inhibited (‘Boyiatiou’ or not affected (‘Pylaias’, ‘Clemson’ by GA3. Differences in germination were apparently related to the incidence of hard seeds. Storage of seeds for 18 months improved germination. Overall, pod and seed characteristics were affected more by genotype and harvest time than by GA3 application.

Ghadir Mohammadi

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus in Brazil Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus no Brasil  

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Full Text Available A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157 out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and introduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotide sequences exhibited typical characteristics of New World bipartite begomoviruses. The DNA-A sequence shared 95.6% nucleotide identity with an isolate of Sida micrantha mosaic virus from Brazil and thus identified as its okra strain. The clones derived from #5157 were infectious to okra, Sida santaremnensis and to a group of Solanaceae plants when inoculated by biolistics after circularization of the isolated insert, followed by rolling circle amplification.Um levantamento de begomovírus de quiabeiro foi realizado no Brasil Central. Amostras foliares foram coletadas em campos de produção de quiabo e avaliadas em testes utilizando primers universais para begomovírus. A infecção por begomovírus foi confirmada em apenas uma amostra (#5157 de um total de 196 amostras. O DNA total foi submetido à amplificação por PCR e introduzido em plântulas de quiabeiro pelo método de biobalística, sendo que a amostra de DNA bombardeada foi infecciosa em plantas de quiabeiro. O DNA-A e DNA-B do isolado #5157 foram clonados e a sequência de nucleotídeos mostrou características típicas de begomovírus do Novo Mundo. A sequência do DNA-A apresentou 95,6% de identidade nucleotídica com um isolado de Sida micrantha mosaic virus do Brasil, sendo assim identificado como sua estirpe de quiabeiro. Os clones gerados a partir da amostra #5157 foram infecciosos para quiabeiro, Sida santaremnensis e em um grupo de plantas solanáceas quando inoculados por biobalística após circularização do inserto isolado, seguido por amplificação por círculo rolante.

Silvia de Araujo Aranha

2011-02-01

82

Detection and complete genome characterization of a begomovirus infecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Brazil / Detecção e caracterização do genoma completo de um begomovírus que infecta o quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um levantamento de begomovírus de quiabeiro foi realizado no Brasil Central. Amostras foliares foram coletadas em campos de produção de quiabo e avaliadas em testes utilizando primers universais para begomovírus. A infecção por begomovírus foi confirmada em apenas uma amostra (#5157) de um total de [...] 196 amostras. O DNA total foi submetido à amplificação por PCR e introduzido em plântulas de quiabeiro pelo método de biobalística, sendo que a amostra de DNA bombardeada foi infecciosa em plantas de quiabeiro. O DNA-A e DNA-B do isolado #5157 foram clonados e a sequência de nucleotídeos mostrou características típicas de begomovírus do Novo Mundo. A sequência do DNA-A apresentou 95,6% de identidade nucleotídica com um isolado de Sida micrantha mosaic virus do Brasil, sendo assim identificado como sua estirpe de quiabeiro. Os clones gerados a partir da amostra #5157 foram infecciosos para quiabeiro, Sida santaremnensis e em um grupo de plantas solanáceas quando inoculados por biobalística após circularização do inserto isolado, seguido por amplificação por círculo rolante. Abstract in english A survey of okra begomoviruses was carried out in Central Brazil. Foliar samples were collected in okra production fields and tested by using begomovirus universal primers. Begomovirus infection was confirmed in only one (#5157) out of 196 samples. Total DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and in [...] troduced into okra seedlings by a biolistic method; the bombarded DNA sample was infectious to okra plants. The DNA-A and DNA-B of isolate #5157 were cloned and their nucleotide sequences exhibited typical characteristics of New World bipartite begomoviruses. The DNA-A sequence shared 95.6% nucleotide identity with an isolate of Sida micrantha mosaic virus from Brazil and thus identified as its okra strain. The clones derived from #5157 were infectious to okra, Sida santaremnensis and to a group of Solanaceae plants when inoculated by biolistics after circularization of the isolated insert, followed by rolling circle amplification.

Silvia de Araujo, Aranha; Leonardo Cunha de, Albuquerque; Leonardo Silva, Boiteux; Alice Kazuko, Inoue-Nagata.

83

Influence of Some Soil Amendments on Insect Pest Infestation and Damage to Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench in Umudike, Abia State  

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Full Text Available Field experiment to determine the effect of three soil amendments (Poultry manure, goat manure and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on insect pest infestation and damage to Okra (Oboro dwarf variety was conducted in 2006 at Umudike, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three treatments and control replicated five times. During the experiment, application of poultry manure and goat manure at 50g/plant and 20g/plant of NPK 15:15:15 were applied two weeks after planting in a ring form. Results obtained showed that the application of goat manure and poultry manure generally, significantly reduced the prevalence of Podagrica spps with regards to plant height and leaf area of Okra. The application of NPK 15:15:15 may have promoted vegetative growth of Okra, making it more succulent and thereby enhancing high pest attack, survival and damage of the Okra. Hence, increasing the application rates of the different soil amendments may have significant increase on the yield as well as reduce pest invasion.

2007-01-01

84

Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)  

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The efficacy of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticides), Cascade (insect growth regulator) and Pressurized water spray (M. Y. strategy) was evaluated against insect pests of okra. Cascade was found to be the best efficient against Helicoverpa armigera and Earias spp. Pirate showed maximum efficacy against Amrasca biguttula biguttula, whereas, against Bemisia tabaci, the most effective treatment was Azodrin followed by M.Y. strategy.

Muhammad Tariq; Altaf Sabri, M.; Javed Sultan, M.

2000-01-01

85

Response of Maize (Zea mays and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

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Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP amended with cow dung (CD manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05 affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1, okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1 and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1 in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

M.O. Akande

2006-03-01

86

Improvement of Okra Seed Quality by Pre-soaking in H2O2 Solution  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of H2O2 solution in improving the seed quality of two Indian okra varieties (Anamika and Parbhani kanti was investigated. The seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations for six hours. Vigour index and % germination were estimated. Root and shoot lengths as well as dry matter contents of the normal seedlings were determined. Moreover, crop growth rate (CGR at 10 and 20 days after sowing (DAS were also worked-out. It has been experienced that, pre-soaking at 2.0% concentration significantly enhanced all the parameters studied. However, in some cases, 1.5 to 2.5% concentrations also gave identically the best results. Afterwards toxicity was clearly manifested through reduction of the studied parameters. Contrastly, pre-soaking in plain water resulted in poor values for all the parameters noted. Moreover, in terms of variety, Anamika was significantly better than Parbhani kanti.

T. M. T. Iqbal

2001-01-01

87

DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE QUIABEIRO [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] EM DIFERENTES TIPOS DE BANDEJA E SUBSTRATO / OKRA SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES AND TRAYS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Devido as vantagens que o sistema apresenta, a produção de mudas utilizando bandejas de isopor, cada vez mais vem sendo utilizada no estado de São Paulo. O sistema proporciona maior cuidado na fase de germinação e emergência, fazendo com que, muitas vezes, uma semente origine uma planta, além de pro [...] porcionar menor custo no controle de pragas e doenças e alto índice de pegamento após o transplante. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de quiabeiro, cultivar Santa Cruz - 47, produzidas no sistema de bandejas de isopor, montou-se um experimento, em ambiente protegido. Foram comparados três tipos de bandeja, que diferiam entre si pelo volume a altura das células, associadas a quatro diferentes substratos. Os substratos constaram de variações de uma mistura comercial, produzida pela Empresa Gioplanta. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema fatorial 3X4. Para as condições do experimento concluiu-se que as bandejas de maior volume proporcionaram melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de quiabeiro para todos os parâmetros estudados. No substrato que recebeu casca de arroz carbonizado na proporção 1:1, observou-se menor desenvolvimento das mudas. A utilização do produto comercial (adubado) com suplementação de nutrientes favoreceu o desenvolvimento das mudas de quiabeiro. Abstract in english An experiment with three types of trays with four substrates was carried out in a greenhouse using trays with different cell sizes for okra seedling production. The substrates used were a blend of a commercial mixture made by Empresa Gioplanta. The experimental design consisted of completely randomi [...] zed blocks, in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement, with 3 types of trays and the 4 substrates. The evaluation of growth was done 32 days after germination. The results indicated that the production of okra seedlings in trays with the largest cell volume presented the best results for all the parameters studied. Trays of various types that contained substrate GII and carbonized rice hulls in the proportion 1:1, presented the least developed seedlings. Fertilization applied initially and during seedling growth permitted a better development of okra seedlings.

Valéria Aparecida, Modolo; João, Tessarioli Neto.

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GENETIC DIVERSITY OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L. GENOTYPES FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS REVEALED BY AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity in 48 genotypes and accessions using eight Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP primer-pairs. The eight selected AFLP primer-pairs generated a total of 150 polymorphic loci. Using the generated AFLP data, the Un-Weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA ordered the genotypes into six groups based on Dice similarity coefficient. The range in taxonomic distance was from 0.23 to 1.0. Each cluster was found to have genotypes and accessions from different regions and climate and sometimes different continents. The size range of the loci ranged from 87-662 bp. Great variation between the genotypes and accessions in the different cluster could be of high value as the genetically diverse okra genotypes represent a potentially valuable source for improved pathogen and pest resistance.

Naser M. Salameh

2014-01-01

89

Response of different cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. to three diferent sowing dates in the mid hill of swat valley  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to evaluate 4 okra varieties, T-13 (check, Super Green, Pusa Green and Green Tech sown on 3 different dates, 10th May, 25th May and 10th June, and June 1998. It was found that variety, T-13, sown on May 25, 1998 gave significantly highest plant population percentage of (99.66. Variety, Green tech, sown on June 10, 1998 took more day’s (48.33 from sowing to 1st flowering and remained the tallest variety at first and last picking with 58 and 167 cm plant height when sown on May 25, 1998. Variety, T-13 (check, gave long edible fruits of 10 cm. While significantly highest yield of 15.68 ha-1 was obtained from variety, T-13 (check, sown on May 25, 1998.

Humayun Khan

2000-01-01

90

Differential Responses for Harvesting Times and Storage on Hardness of Different Varieties of Okra  

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Full Text Available Okra seed hardness results in slow and nonuniform germination. This study was conducted to determine the effects of time of harvest and storage on seed germination of four different cultivars of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The study was carried out at Agricultural faculty of Razi University in years 2009 and 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block under factorial arrangement with three replications. Four different cultivars of okra included, ?Boiatloy?, ?Beloudo?, ?Clemsson Seinless? and ?Pleas? and six harvesting times of 20-25-30-35-40 and 50 days after flowering were considered in the present study. The results showed that seed germination increased in 2009 from 3.4%, at first harvesting time, to 46.4% at fifth harvesting time, and in 2010 from 2.9%, at the first harvesting time, to 49.7% at fifth harvesting time. Different cultivars varied in seed germination. In 2009 ?Plea? and in 2010 ?Clemson? cultivars showed the highest germination. Seeds from different parts of the plant also showed different germination rate. In 2009 seeds from the middle part of the plant with 54.3% and in 2010 seed from the lower part with 50.3 % showed the highest germination. In 2009 seeds from the lower part of pod showed more germination, whereas in 2010 seeds from middle part of pod produced higher germination. By increasing time to harvest, the percentage of seed germination after storage highly increased. Different cultivars during storage showed different behaviors on germination. ?Beloudo? cultivar produced more seed germination than other varieties after storage, and ?Pleas? after storage produced lower seed germination. Seeds from the middle part of plant and middle part of pod showed a higher germination after storage.

Ghadir MOHAMMADI

2011-11-01

91

Controlled deterioration to evaluate okra seed vigor / Deterioração controlada para avaliação do vigor de sementes de quiabo  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os testes de germinação e de vigor são componentes essenciais do processo de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes. Objetivou-se com essa pesquisa estudar a metodologia do teste de deterioração controlada, visando a identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor de lotes de sementes [...] de quiabo. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Colhe Bem e Santa Cruz 47, representadas por quatro e cinco lotes de sementes, respectivamente. As nove amostras de sementes foram submetidas às avaliações de germinação, emergência de plântulas, deterioração controlada (sementes com umidade de 18, 21 e 24%; a 45ºC durante 24 e 48 horas) e grau de umidade no início dos testes e durante o monitoramento para o teste de deterioração controlada. O teste de deterioração controlada conduzido a 45ºC, com grau de umidade das sementes de 24% e período de exposição de 24 horas é eficiente para a avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de quiabo. Abstract in english Germination and vigor tests are essential components of seed quality control programs adopted by seed industries. We studied different procedures to perform the controlled deterioration test to identify differences in vigor among okra seed lots. Four seed lots of Colhe Bem cultivar and five seed lot [...] s of Santa Cruz 47 cultivar were submitted to the following tests: germination, seedling emergence, controlled deterioration (seeds with moisture contents of 18, 21 and 24% at 45°C for 24 and 48 hours) and moisture content. The controlled deterioration test is efficient to evaluate the physiological potential of okra seeds, and the combination of 24% water, 45°C during 24 hours is recommended.

Salvador B, Torres; Maryjane DA, Gomes; Francisca Gleiciane da, Silva; Clarisse P, Benedito; Francisco ECB, Pereira.

92

Antioxidant activity of extract and its major constituents from okra seed on rat hepatocytes injured by carbon tetrachloride.  

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The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 ? 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including ?, ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities. PMID:24719856

Hu, Lianmei; Yu, Wenlan; Li, Ying; Prasad, Nagendra; Tang, Zhaoxin

2014-01-01

93

Antioxidant Activity of Extract and Its Major Constituents from Okra Seed on Rat Hepatocytes Injured by Carbon Tetrachloride  

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The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 ? 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including ?, ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities. PMID:24719856

Hu, Lianmei; Yu, Wenlan; Li, Ying; Tang, Zhaoxin

2014-01-01

94

The Effect of Combined Application of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on the Growth and Yield of Okra  

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Full Text Available The effect of combined application of poultry manure and sawdust on soil properties, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were investigated at the main campus of Tai solarin University of Education Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria during 2010/2011 dry season. This size of the plot was 45 m by 5m; the seed was planted with three seed per hole at a spacing of 0.5 m. The total numbers of plots were 27 plots, for the avoidance of doubt; it comprises three treatments and each treatment was replicate three times. The treatments consisted of 0, 5, 10 ton/ha Broiler litter (Poultry manure and 0, 2, 5 ton/ha (sawdust. The results indicated a significant increase in growth parameters in those plants planted in 0, 2, 5 ton/ha poultry manure plot than sawdust plot. However, treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters (plant height, stem girth and number of leaves were increased significantly (p<0.05 as manure rates increased. Poultry manure at 10 ton/ha has significant increase in fruit yield of okra increase. The combined application of poultry manure and sawdust does not have effect on yield and fruit number of okra but there is a slight effect on plant height. Based on the findings of the experiments it could be deduced that poultry manure seems to promote higher growth and yield of okra. Thus, it should be recommended for farmers growing okra in region.

Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

2013-09-01

95

Germination and hardseedness of seeds in okra elite lines / Germinação e dureza de sementes em linhas elite de quiabo  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A presença de sementes duras e a baixa porcentagem de germinação são desafios importantes para o cultivo de quiabo. Por este motivo, cinco linhas elite de quiabo desenvolvidas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC), sendo três com cápsulas quinadas (linhas 8.1, 20.1.2 e 47.1) e duas com cápsulas [...] cilíndricas (linhas 13.1.2 e 20.1.R), foram avaliadas para qualidade de sementes, em comparação com dois lotes comerciais (Horticeres Sementes e Sakata Seed Sudamerica) de sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47. As sementes foram produzidas em experimento instalado no Parque Tecnológico do Centro de Horticultura do IAC, em Campinas, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas de 20 plantas. As cápsulas foram colhidas 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 e 75 dias após a antese (DAA), sendo as sementes extraídas imediatamente e submetidas ao teste padrão de germinação em laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, no que diz respeito à qualidade das sementes, cápsulas quinadas devem ser colhidas mais precocemente que cápsulas cilíndricas, mais precisamente 45 DAA para a linha 47.1 e de 45 a 55 DAA para as linhas 8.1 e 20.1.2. Sementes extraídas de cápsulas quinadas colhidas após esses períodos apresentaram redução na germinação e aumento no índice de dureza. Já as sementes provenientes de cápsulas cilíndricas apresentaram comportamento semelhante às sementes da cultivar Santa Cruz 47, apresentando melhor capacidade germinativa quando provenientes de cápsulas colhidas de 55 a 75 DAA, e ausência de dureza. Abstract in english The occurrence of hardseedness and the low percentage of seed germination are major challenges when growing okra. For this reason, five elite lines of okra developed at the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC), three with angular pods (lines 8.1, 20.1.2 and 47.1) and two with cylindrical pods (lines 1 [...] 3.1.2 and 20.1.R), were evaluated for seed quality and compared to two commercial seed samples (Horticeres Sementes and Sakata Seed Sudamerica) of cultivar Santa Cruz 47. Seeds were field produced in an experiment set in the Technological Park of the Horticulture Center of IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with three replications and 20-plant plots. Fruits were harvested 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 days after anthesis (DAA). Seeds were extracted straight away and subjected to the standard germination test in the laboratory. Observing the results, we concluded that, as far as seed quality is concerned, angular pods must be harvested earlier than cylindrical pods, more precisely 45 DAA to the line 47.1 and 45 to 55 DAA for lines 8.1 and 20.1.2. Seeds extracted from angular fruits harvested after these periods had reduced germination and increased hardseedness. Seeds from cylindrical capsules had the same behavior of the commercial seeds of cultivar Santa Cruz 47, showing better germination when extracted from pods harvested between 55 and 75 DAA, and no hardseedness.

Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Antonio A do, Lago; Francisco Antonio, Passos.

96

Selection for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Disease of Okra by Induced Mutation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production for both exporting and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of two okra varieties, Annie and Okura, were irradiated with Gamma-rays at doses of 400 and 600Gy. Screening of YVMD resistant plants was conducted for M3 and M4 plants under field conditions in Petchaburi and Phichit provinces, and greenhouse conditions using whitefly transmission in Bangkok. One M4 plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400Gy was found to be highly resistant, but none of Annie. M5 plants of B-21 were screened further for YVMD resistance under both greenhouse and field conditions. Ten resistant lines obtained by screening for YVMD resistance up to the M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS), both located in the northern Thailand. Three of the mutant lines were further tested at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi province, an okra growing area in the west of central Thailand where YVMD was seriously widespread. At the KHRC, all tested mutant lines showed resistance up to a month, when the susceptible check variety already showed symptoms of the disease. However, only a small portion of the plants of the mutant lines appeared to be resistant throughout the whole grod to be resistant throughout the whole growth duration; others eventually exhibited the yellow vein symptom. Plants were further screened in two growers' fields. Growers were satisfied with the plant stature and fruit shape of the mutants and their delayed disease development, and further screening is underway to select uniformly YVMD resistant lines for okra production in Kanchanaburi. (author)

97

Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three seasons’ experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N–K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha?1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation and water productivity were obtained under drip fertigated treatment and these parameters were significantly (P ? 0.05) higher than the other treatments. Under sprinkler irrigation, yield was higher with localized manure compared to manure evenly spread on the soil, even though the difference was not significant during the last season. The economic optimal crop N-uptake was estimated to be 125 kg ha?1 independent of season and adequate N-supply seemed especially important for ensuring sufficient light interception during the fruiting stage of okra. Drip irrigation treatments saved almost 30% of water compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation.

Danso, E O; Abenney-Mickson, S

2015-01-01

98

INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L.) MEDIK  

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Dry seeds (cultivar I – tall, branched, moisture content 3.5%; cultivar II – dwarf, unbranched, moisture content 1.5%) of Abelmoschus moschatus (L.) Medik (Family: Malvaceae; Common name: Ambrette; English name: Musk mallow) were treated (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00% for 3h and 6h durations) with chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to raise desirable ‘plant type’ mutants. Mutagenic sensitivity (from M1 biological damages like lethality, injury and steri...

Dubey Kumari Priyanka; Animesh, Datta K.

2012-01-01

99

Seedling imaging analysis and traditional tests to assess okra seed vigor / Análise de imagens de plântulas e testes tradicionais para avaliação do vigor de sementes de quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A avaliação do vigor é essencial em programas de controle de qualidade das empresas produtoras de sementes. Uma das alternativas mais recentes para essa avaliação é o sistema computadorizado de análise de imagens de plântulas (SVIS), utilizado com sucesso para várias espécies de sementes de grandes [...] culturas e de hortaliças. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a eficiência do SVIS para identificar diferenças no potencial fisiológico de lotes de sementes de quiabo, em comparação com outros métodos utilizados para essa espécie. Cinco lotes da cultivar Clemson Americano e quatro da 'Santa Cruz' foram submetidos a testes de germinação (velocidade e porcentagem), germinação a baixa temperatura (15 ºC), envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com solução saturada de NaCl (41 ºC/72 e 96 horas) e emergência de plântulas. Também foi determinado o índice de vigor, o comprimento e a uniformidade de desenvolvimento de plântulas, por meio do SVIS. Essas avaliações foram realizadas no início, aos seis e doze meses de armazenamento. Concluiu-se que o índice de vigor e o comprimento de plântulas, avaliados por meio do software SVIS, são eficientes para identificar diferenças de vigor de lotes de sementes de quiabo, proporcionando resultados semelhantes aos obtidos no teste de envelhecimento acelerado (41 ºC/72 horas). Abstract in english Seed vigor testing is an important component of quality control programs adopted by seed industry. The software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) has been successfully used for seed vigor assessment in different species. The objective of this research was to verify the SVIS efficiency to assess okra [...] seed vigor in comparison to other vigor tests used for this species. Five seed lots of 'Clemson Americano' and four of 'Santa Cruz' were submitted to germination (speed and percentage), cold germination (speed and percentage), traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41 ºC/72 and 96 h) and seedling emergence tests during 12 months storage. Vigor index, uniformity of growth and seedling length were determined by the software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS). Results showed that the vigor index and seedling length determined by the SVIS analyses are efficient to determine okra seed vigor as well as the accelerated aging test (41 ºC/72 h).

Ana Lúcia Pereira, Kikuti; Júlio, Marcos-Filho.

100

First report of an alphasatellite associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alphasatellite DNA associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV) which causes enation and leaf curling in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants was characterized. The full-length DNA comprises 1,350 nucleotides and shows typical genome organization of an alphasatellite. It shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity (79.7 %) to Hollyhock yellow vein virus-associated symptomless alphasatellite (HoYVSLA). This is the first report of the association of an alphasatellite with OELCuV from India. PMID:23475199

Chandran, S A; Packialakshmi, R M; Subhalakshmi, K; Prakash, C; Poovannan, K; Nixon Prabu, A; Gopal, P; Usha, R

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Formulation and Evaluation of Okra Fruit Mucilage as a Binder in Paracetamol and Ibuprofen Tablet  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to search for cheap and effective natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage form. The mucilage from the OkraFruit (Abelmoschus esculentus was subjected to Preformulation study for evaluation of its safety and suitability for use as binding agent. The mucilage extracted is devoid of toxicity. Tablets of Lactosewere prepared as a control and with 1-5% w/v concentrations of Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage and compared paracetamol, Ibuprofen tablet. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness,friability and disintegration time according to the USP. Studies indicate that the mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus may be used as a pharmaceutical adjuvant and as a binding agent at 4 to 5%w/v, depending on its binding ability and the stability of the resulting tablets.

Shah A

2012-12-01

102

Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy. PMID:22404565

Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

2012-06-01

103

Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. Results The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein, were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB. This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect ?C1 gene. ?C1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity determinant of begomovirus-beta satellite complexes and is involved in overcoming host defenses based on RNAi. Conclusion The diversity of beta satellites in okra across the sub-continent is higher than previously realized and is higher than for any other malvaceous plant species so far analyzed. The beta satellites identified in okra show geographic segregation, which has implications for the development and introduction of resistant okra varieties. However, the finding that the ?C1 gene of the major okra beta satellites (OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share high sequence identity and provides a possible avenue to achieve a broad spectrum resistance.

Venkataravanappa V

2011-12-01

104

Optimization of microwave-assisted hot air drying conditions of okra using response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was dried to a moisture level of 0.1 g water/g dry matter using a microwave-assisted hot air dryer. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the drying conditions based on specific energy consumption and quality of dried okra. The drying experiments were performed using a central composite rotatable design for three variables: air temperature (40-70 °C), air velocity (1-2 m/s) and microwave power level (0.5-2.5 W/g). The quality of dried okra was determined in terms of color change, rehydration ratio and hardness of texture. A second-order polynomial model was well fitted to all responses and high R(2) values (>0.8) were observed in all cases. The color change of dried okra was found higher at high microwave power and air temperatures. Rehydration properties were better for okra samples dried at higher microwave power levels. Specific energy consumption decreased with increase in microwave power due to decrease in drying time. The drying conditions of 1.51 m/s air velocity, 52.09 °C air temperature and 2.41 W/g microwave power were found optimum for product quality and minimum energy consumption for microwave-convective drying of okra. PMID:24493879

Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, Suresh; Murthy, Ganti S

2014-02-01

105

Desempenho do quiabeiro consorciado com adubos verdes eretos de porte baixo em dois sistemas de cultivo / Okra performance intercropped with small size and erect green manure in two production systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o cultivo intercalar de adubos verdes eretos e de porte baixo na cultura do quiabeiro, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em cultivo convencional em Monte Alegre do Sul e outro em cultivo orgânico em São Roque-SP, de fevereiro a julho de 2008 e de dezembro de 2008 [...] a junho de 2009, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos, constando de quiabeiro em cultivo "solteiro" e consorciado com uma ou duas linhas de mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana) e de crotalária-espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis) nas entrelinhas. No cultivo orgânico, dois novos tratamentos foram adicionados ao experimento para avaliar os adubos verdes em cultivo solteiro. No quiabeiro avaliou-se a produção (g planta-1) e número de frutos por planta, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e altura média do dossel em diferentes épocas após a semeadura. Nos adubos verdes avaliaram-se altura média das plantas e produtividade de massa fresca. A eficiência do consórcio foi mensurada por meio da relação de área equivalente (RAE). A produção média do quiabeiro por planta foi de 190,9 e 582,0 g planta-1, respectivamente, no sistema convencional e orgânico. A RAE foi de 1,5 e 1,6 no consórcio do quiabeiro com duas linhas de mucuna-anã e crotalária-espectábilis, respecticamente. Verificou-se viabilidade agronômica da adoção do cultivo intercalar pelo agricultor familiar de quiabeiro, especificamente com duas linhas dos adubos verdes de porte ereto e baixo. Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic viability of the intercropping okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) with small size and erect green manuring species Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, two experiments were carried out, one in conventional system at Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo state, Brazil, fr [...] om February to July 2008 and one in an organic system at São Roque, São Paulo state, Brazil, from December 2008 to June 2009. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were constituted by okra monoculture and okra intercropped with one or two lines of M. deeringiana and one or two lines of C.spectabilis in the seeded at the same time of the okra crop. In organic farming two new treatments were added to the experiment to evaluate the green manures in single cropping. Production, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and diameter and plant height were evaluated in okra plants and plant height and fresh matter weight were determined in the green manuring plants at different periods after seeding.. The evaluation of the efficiency of the consortium was measured by the ratio of area equivalent (RAE). Average yield per okra plant was 190.9 and 582.0 g plant-1, respectively, under conventional and organic cropping. The RAE was 1.5 and 1.6 in the consortium of okra with two rows of M. deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, respectively. Intercropping erect short green manuring species with okra is agronomically viable and can be used by family farmers without interference with the yield of okra crop.

Sebastião Wilson, Tivelli; Cristiaini, Kano; Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Elaine B, Wutke; Issáo, Ishimura.

106

Desempenho do quiabeiro consorciado com adubos verdes eretos de porte baixo em dois sistemas de cultivo / Okra performance intercropped with small size and erect green manure in two production systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o cultivo intercalar de adubos verdes eretos e de porte baixo na cultura do quiabeiro, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em cultivo convencional em Monte Alegre do Sul e outro em cultivo orgânico em São Roque-SP, de fevereiro a julho de 2008 e de dezembro de 2008 [...] a junho de 2009, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos, constando de quiabeiro em cultivo "solteiro" e consorciado com uma ou duas linhas de mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana) e de crotalária-espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis) nas entrelinhas. No cultivo orgânico, dois novos tratamentos foram adicionados ao experimento para avaliar os adubos verdes em cultivo solteiro. No quiabeiro avaliou-se a produção (g planta-1) e número de frutos por planta, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e altura média do dossel em diferentes épocas após a semeadura. Nos adubos verdes avaliaram-se altura média das plantas e produtividade de massa fresca. A eficiência do consórcio foi mensurada por meio da relação de área equivalente (RAE). A produção média do quiabeiro por planta foi de 190,9 e 582,0 g planta-1, respectivamente, no sistema convencional e orgânico. A RAE foi de 1,5 e 1,6 no consórcio do quiabeiro com duas linhas de mucuna-anã e crotalária-espectábilis, respecticamente. Verificou-se viabilidade agronômica da adoção do cultivo intercalar pelo agricultor familiar de quiabeiro, especificamente com duas linhas dos adubos verdes de porte ereto e baixo. Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic viability of the intercropping okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) with small size and erect green manuring species Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, two experiments were carried out, one in conventional system at Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo state, Brazil, fr [...] om February to July 2008 and one in an organic system at São Roque, São Paulo state, Brazil, from December 2008 to June 2009. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were constituted by okra monoculture and okra intercropped with one or two lines of M. deeringiana and one or two lines of C.spectabilis in the seeded at the same time of the okra crop. In organic farming two new treatments were added to the experiment to evaluate the green manures in single cropping. Production, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and diameter and plant height were evaluated in okra plants and plant height and fresh matter weight were determined in the green manuring plants at different periods after seeding.. The evaluation of the efficiency of the consortium was measured by the ratio of area equivalent (RAE). Average yield per okra plant was 190.9 and 582.0 g plant-1, respectively, under conventional and organic cropping. The RAE was 1.5 and 1.6 in the consortium of okra with two rows of M. deeringiana and Crotalaria spectabilis, respectively. Intercropping erect short green manuring species with okra is agronomically viable and can be used by family farmers without interference with the yield of okra crop.

Sebastião Wilson, Tivelli; Cristiaini, Kano; Luis Felipe V, Purquerio; Elaine B, Wutke; Issáo, Ishimura.

2013-09-01

107

Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time were evaluated. Aqueous coating suspensions of okra gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.6%w/v were prepared and used to coat the tablets in Hi-coater. The coated tablets were evaluated for weight uniformity, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and moisture uptake at controlled humidity. The coating remained intact, durable, and resistant to chipping when challenged to catastrophic fall or rubbed on a white paper. The coated tablets had lower friability, increased disintegration time (24 min compared to the core (3 min and improved hardness, but there was no difference in the dissolution profile of the samples from the batches containing okra and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as film formers. Changes were observed in some of the physicochemical properties of the formulations containing okra gum as with the known film former and it was convenient to conclude that these changes were due to the effect of the mechanical properties of the film formers. It was our conclusion that okra gum is a promising natural, biodegradable, cheap and eco-friendly film former in aqueous tablet film coating operation, particularly when masking of taste or objectionable odor in a solid dosage formulation is desired.

Ogaji Ikoni

2010-01-01

108

Expression de différents écotypes de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. au déficit hydrique intervenant pendant la boutonnisation et la floraison  

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Full Text Available Behaviour of different ecotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under water deficit during budding and flowering phases. Despite numerous uses and its well known nutritional value, okra is cultivated on very small surfaces, on surroundings of traditional houses and often in dumping ground. To this little interest are added drought, diseases and pests that generate an important reduction of yield, leading okra to play the last roles in agricultural research programs of the country and this, despite the existence of early maturing ecotypes or resistant to some abiotic constraints. The low rate of improved varieties is the proof that it is necessary to develop strategies for participatory breeding programs that take into account farmers selection criteria including genotypes tolerant or resistant to drastic conditions such as water deficit to periods where the plant is expressing its genetic potential. Six ecotypes obtained through participatory plant breeding process in five agricultural districts of the country have been assessed for the tolerance to the drought occurring during the budding and the flowering phases. Results show that water deficit during budding phase has disastrous consequences for okra plants. The yield declines, and also the length, the number and the weight of fruits. Two types of period of flowering phases of okra plant have been observed: the period which intervenes during the accelerated growth phase of the main stem (type 1 and the one which starts once the growth of main stem begins to decline (type 2; this last type is the most frequently met. Water deficit during the phase of budding causes earlier flowering of type 2 plants and leads to delayed flowering of the type 1 plants. The best variables for discriminating okra ecotypes during water deficit are the relative water content (RWC, the length and the number of fruits. Three ecotypes (V1, V3 and V4 are chosen to be used in breeding program of okra for resistance to water deficit.

Sawadogo M., Zombre G., Balma D.

2006-01-01

109

Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra  

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A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

2006-04-15

110

Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae. PMID:24426275

Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

2013-09-01

111

INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK  

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Full Text Available Dry seeds (cultivar I – tall, branched, moisture content 3.5%; cultivar II – dwarf, unbranched, moisture content 1.5% of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae; Common name: Ambrette; English name: Musk mallow were treated (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00% for 3h and 6h durations with chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS and hydroxylamine (NH2OH to raise desirable ‘plant type’ mutants. Mutagenic sensitivity (from M1 biological damages like lethality, injury and sterility; LD50 was ascertained, M2 mutation frequency and types (cv.I: pigmented stem, lax branching, long petiole, large flower and early flowering, 1089 plants scored; cv.II: funnel, thick stem and late flowering, 1945 plants screened, mutagenic effectiveness (EMS more effective than NH2OH and efficiency (variable response but threshold dose seems to be efficient and meiotic chromosome behaviour of the plant types were assessed. Macromutants evolved were viable and may be important genetic resources in the plant species.

Dubey Kumari Priyanka

2012-05-01

112

Studies on Heterosis in Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench and A. callei (A. Chev Stevels Cultivars During Shorter Day Photoperiods in South Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Better parent heterosis was studied in direct and reciprocal crosses using 9 early and late okra cultivars which belonged to the Early-early, Early-late, Late- early and Late-late okra flowering types. The ANOVA for length of pod, circumference of pod, number of locules per pod, number of seeds per pod, Number of pods per plant, weight of 1000 seeds, density of seeds, weight of pods per plant, days to flower opening, plant height and circumference of stem at 10 cm above soil level, showed almost very highly significant differences-an indication that the cultivars are genetically diverse. Very highly significant, narrow and intermediate, heterosis was recorded for most of the direct and reciprocal crosses, showing that selections could be made from the hybrids to meet desired local okra qualities. A cross between an Early-late and Late-early parents, using early okra as the maternal parent, gave rise to a stable viable bridge hybrid which outperformed the better parent in many respects thereby overcoming the hitherto strong barrier to gene flow in interspecific hybridization studies involving the two okra types and also indicating the existence of maternal effects. Consequently with this development, the window has been opened for possible accelerated transfer of several desirable genes from late okra types to many promising but vulnerable early okra types. This could result to minimizing the further erosion of such early okra germplasm still in the custody of the local farmers.

Obi Sergius Udengwu

2009-01-01

113

Patogenicidade de Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae em quiabeiro Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae in okra  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do parasitismo de Pratylenchus brachyurus e de dois isolados de P. coffeae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus em experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação. Algumas mudanças anatômicas induzidas no hospedeiro por P. brachyurus foram observadas e registradas em laboratório. O quiabeiro reagiu como bom hospedeiro para P. brachyurus e para um dos isolados de P. coffeae (K5. Entretanto, apenas a primeira espécie reduziu o crescimento da planta. Outro isolado de P. coffeae (M2 não se multiplicou em quiabeiro nem afetou o crescimento. Esse fato indicou a possibilidade do quiabeiro ser utilizado no futuro para diferenciação de isolados. Diferentemente das relações parasito-hospedeiro envolvendo Pratylenchus spp., P. brachyurus não causou lesões radiculares delimitadas, mas grandes áreas necrosadas. Sintomas iniciais foram observados em quiabeiro dez e 15 dias após a inoculação com P. brachyurus, não se verificando a presença do parasito no estelo de raízes infetadas.The effect of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The anatomical changes caused by P. brachyurus were studied under laboratory conditions. Okra was a good host for P. brachyurus and one isolate of P. coffeae (K5, but only the former decreased its growth. The other isolate of P. coffeae used (M2 did not multiply on nor damage okra, so this plant can be used to differentiate both isolates. In contrast to typical Pratylenchus spp. host plant relationships, P. brachyurus did not cause well-delimited root lesions, but large extensions of decayed tissues. Necrosis in okra roots was observed ten days after inoculation, but P. brachyurus was not found in the stele of infected roots 15 days after inoculation.

Mário M. Inomoto

2004-10-01

114

Patogenicidade de Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae em quiabeiro / Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae in okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos do parasitismo de Pratylenchus brachyurus e de dois isolados de P. coffeae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) em experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação. Algumas mudanças anatômicas induzidas no hospedeiro por P. brachyurus foram observadas e registradas em laboratór [...] io. O quiabeiro reagiu como bom hospedeiro para P. brachyurus e para um dos isolados de P. coffeae (K5). Entretanto, apenas a primeira espécie reduziu o crescimento da planta. Outro isolado de P. coffeae (M2) não se multiplicou em quiabeiro nem afetou o crescimento. Esse fato indicou a possibilidade do quiabeiro ser utilizado no futuro para diferenciação de isolados. Diferentemente das relações parasito-hospedeiro envolvendo Pratylenchus spp., P. brachyurus não causou lesões radiculares delimitadas, mas grandes áreas necrosadas. Sintomas iniciais foram observados em quiabeiro dez e 15 dias após a inoculação com P. brachyurus, não se verificando a presença do parasito no estelo de raízes infetadas. Abstract in english The effect of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The anatomical changes caused by P. brachyurus were studied under laboratory conditions. Okra was a good host for P. brachyurus and one isolate of P. coffeae [...] (K5), but only the former decreased its growth. The other isolate of P. coffeae used (M2) did not multiply on nor damage okra, so this plant can be used to differentiate both isolates. In contrast to typical Pratylenchus spp. host plant relationships, P. brachyurus did not cause well-delimited root lesions, but large extensions of decayed tissues. Necrosis in okra roots was observed ten days after inoculation, but P. brachyurus was not found in the stele of infected roots 15 days after inoculation.

Mário M., Inomoto; Rosangela A., Silva; João P., Pimentel.

115

EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTION ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND YIELD OF THREE VARIETIES OF ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS  

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Full Text Available The effect of crude oil pollution on germination, seedling growth and yield of three varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus were investigated. Three varieties of okra were planted in a well-drained humus soil polluted with 0%, 0.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% crude oil per kilogram of soil. Data were collected on the following parameters: days to seedling emergence, percentage germination, plant height, internodes length, leaf area, number of leaves per plant and number of fruits per plant. The results show that there were significant difference (p 0.05 were observed on internodes length but plant height differed significantly (p< 0.05 due to the concentrations of the crude oil in the soil. It can be concluded that the three varieties of okra used in these study were not tolerant to crude oil effect; in order to achieve a better performance of the plant in crude oil polluted environment, remediation of the polluted soil should be carried out before cultivation.

Osuagwu AN

2013-02-01

116

Genotoxic effect of cadmium in okra seedlings: comparative investigation with population parameters and molecular markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are considered as good bioindicators because of their significant role in food chain transfer. They are also easy to grow, adaptable to environmental stresses and can be used for assaying a range of environmental conditions in different habitats. Thus, many plant species have been used as bioindicators. In order to evaluate the genotoxic effect of cadmium, okra (Abelmoschus esculontus L.) seedlings were treated with different concentrations (30, 60, 120 mg I(-1)) of cadmium and investigated for their population parameters such as inhibition of root growth; total soluble protein content, dry weight and also the impact of metal on the genetic material by RAPD analysis. Root growth and total soluble protein content in okra seedlings were reduced with increased Cd concentrations. RAPD analysis indicated formation of new bands mostly at 60 and 120 mg I(-1) Cd treatments. Altered DNA band patterns and population parameters after Cd treatments suggest that okra could be used as an indicator to reveal the effects of genotoxic agents. PMID:24555326

Aydin, Semra Soydam; Basaran, Esin; Cansaran-Duman, Demet; Aras, Sümer

2013-11-01

117

PRODUCTIVITY OF OKRA VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY SEASONAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available In northern Nigeria, two distinct season are noticeable and these are the wet (April to October and the dry (November to March seasons. Due to little or no documented work conducted to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench, this study is therefore undertaken to compare the performance of okra during the wet and the dry seasons of northern Nigeria. Two okra varieties ('White velvet' and 'Ex-Borno' were evaluated during the 1997 and 1999 wet seasons and 1997/98 and 1999/2000 dry seasons at Samaru in northern Nigeria, in order to determine their productivity. The variables measured at the reproductive stage were plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf area, days to first flower, fruit weight/plant and fruit yield (t/ha. Significant differences were observed for all variables among seasons and among varieties. The wet season conditions were most favourable for increased growth, leaf formation and fruit yield, as compared with the dry season environment which resulted in less vegetative and reproductive growth. The interaction of season x variety was highly significant for plant height, fruit weight/plant, fruit yield and significant for leaf area and number of fruits/plant. The variety 'White velvet' produced more fruits than 'Ex-Borno'.

M. D. KATUNG

2007-08-01

118

Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO, compost organic fertilizer (OR, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05 higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

Adewole Moses B.

2012-01-01

119

78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra  

Science.gov (United States)

...United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Okra by removing the ``Unclassified'' section...The United States Standards for Grades of Okra are available through the Specialty...

2013-05-01

120

78 FR 63158 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra  

Science.gov (United States)

...United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Okra by removing the ``Unclassified'' category...revised United States Standards for Grades of Okra are available on the Specialty Crops...

2013-10-23

 
 
 
 
121

Analgesic Activity of Abelmoschus manihot Extracts  

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Full Text Available The natural products served as important sources of medicines now a day increasing, as they possess the therapeutic activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae leaves using hot plate and tail immersion model. The air-dried, powdered leaves (1000 g were extracted over Soxhlet with petroleum ether and methanol. The crude dried petroleum ether (10 g and methanol (25 g extracts was prepared at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 and evaluated for analgesic activity using the hot plate and tail immersion test. The results obtained indicate that the extracts possessed significant (p-1 dose as compared with the standard drug. This study showed that the petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Abelmoschus manihot leaves possess potential pharmacological active constituents responsible for inhibition of the analgesic effect.

J. Surana Sanjay

2011-01-01

122

Impact Of Chlorpyriphos On The Morphological Parameters Of Cauliflower, Tomato And Okra  

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Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to work out the effect of a wide spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, chlorpyriphos (O, O-Diethyl O- 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate on the morphological features of three commonly grown vegetables in the study area i.e. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, Variety: Snowball 16, Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Variety: Pusa Ruby and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L., Variety: Pusa Sawani. Results revealed that on an average, the impact of chlorpyriphos on various morphological parameters of all the three vegetables have been statistically insignificant (using t- Test except for height of the plants in cauliflower treated with double the recommended dose which exhibited a significant decrease and weight of the head in cauliflower treated with recommended dose of chlorpyriphos which showed a significant increase. Also in okra total number of flowers/plant at treatment with both the dosages along with total number of fruits/plant at treatment with the recommended dose has exhibited statistically significant increase.

Mosmi Raina

2012-09-01

123

Single and interactive effects of root-knot nematode and coal-smoke on okra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of coal-smoke pollutants and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1, singly and jointly, were investigated on okra, Abelmoschus esculentus in 1988 and 1989. Plants in clay pots were placed at two sites (K1 and K2), 1 and 2 km away from the stack of a coal-fired thermal power plant, and also at a control site. The mean concentrations of SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2] and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 141, 76 and 309 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K1, and 184, 93 and 205 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K2, but the concentrations of the pollutants at the control site were very low. Okra plants at the K2 site showed browning of the leaves, whereas injury was mild at K1. The intensity of the browning and the impact of nematode disease was appreciably higher in the infected plants at the polluted sites in both the years. The plants grown at the two sites exhibited suppressions in plant growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments, particularly at K2. M. incognita at the control site also cause significant reductions, but joint effects of the nematode and coal-smoke were synergistic.

Khan, M.R.; Khan, M.W. (Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Botany)

1994-02-01

124

Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in okra germplasm  

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Full Text Available – Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’. Inoculation (in all assays was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates (‘Fus-194’ and ‘Fus-201’. Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-194’ during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-201’. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to ‘Fus-194’, and 32% were resistant to ‘Fus-201’. The accessions ‘Santa Cruz-47’, ‘BR-2399’ and ‘BR-1449’ were the most promising resistance sources.

Frederick Mendes Aguiar

2013-04-01

125

Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations / Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica [...] populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual) e de ovos (lentes de aumento) de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas. Abstract in english The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal pop [...] ulation dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection) and eggs (magnifying lens) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.

Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; Gulab Newandram, Jham; Márcio Dionízio, Moreira.

126

Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo  

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Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection and eggs (magnifying lens occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual e de ovos (lentes de aumento de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas.

Germano Leão Demolin Leite

2005-01-01

127

Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations / Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica [...] populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total, temperatura média e suas relações com a mosca-branca em quiabeiro. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de adultos e de ninfas (inspeção visual) e de ovos (lentes de aumento) de mosca-branca ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população mosca-branca foram a senescência de plantas e inimigos naturais, principalmente Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. e Coccinellidae. O segundo cultivo de quiabo, a 50 m do primeiro, foi altamente atacado pela mosca-branca, provavelmente pela migração dos insetos do primeiro para o segundo cultivo. Não foi detectado efeito significativo do dossel de plantas sobre ovos e adultos. Foi encontrado maior número de ninfas na parte mediana do que na parte basal das plantas. Abstract in english The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal pop [...] ulation dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection) and eggs (magnifying lens) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.

Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; Gulab Newandram, Jham; Márcio Dionízio, Moreira.

2005-01-01

128

Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a polysaccharide from flowers of Abelmoschus esculentus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A water-soluble polysaccharide (OFPS11) was obtained from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) flowers using aqueous extraction and purification with DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl™ S-500 column. Its preliminary characterization and immunomodulating activity were investigated. Results showed that OFPS11 is mainly composed of galactose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 2.23:1 with molecular mass of 1,700 kDa. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with OFPS11 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG-2 cells. Additionally, OFPS11 enhanced the phagocytic ability and induced the elevation of NO production, TNF-? and IL-1? secretion of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, OFPS11 promoted both the expression of iNOS protein and of iNOS and TNF-? mRNA. OFPS11 can strongly increase NF-?B levels in nucleuses, which is an important transcription factor that can modulate expressions of iNOS, NO and TNF-?. These outcomes support that OFPS11 exerts its antitumor activity by probably stimulating macrophage activities through nuclear NF-?B pathway. PMID:24721087

Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Zou, Ye; Zheng, Daheng; Takase, Mohammed; Li, Qian; Wu, Huiyu; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

2014-06-15

129

Agro-potentiality of distillery effluent on soil and agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (okra).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study showed that irrigation of soil with different effluent concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) of distillery effluent (DE) for 60 days resulted in significant (P??0.05) changes were observed for water-holding capacity and bulk density of the soil. Among various concentrations of DE irrigation, irrigation with 100 % effluent concentration increased moisture content, (24.85 %), EC (77.88 %), Cl(-) (285.95 %), TOC (3,171.42 %), exchangeable Na(+) (241.04 %), available K(+) (52.49 %), Ca(2+) (990.37 %), Mg(2+) (1,751.72 %), TKN (1,417.00 %), available P (305.00 %), and SO4 (2-) (75.32 %) in the soil and decreased pH (-20.22 %). The more stimulation in agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and crop yield of A. esculentus were observed to be inversely proportional to the concentration of effluent water, with the best results being obtained at a dilution of 25 % of DE concentration. PMID:23264061

Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin; Kumar, Vinod; Pathak, Chakresh

2013-08-01

130

Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

2013-01-01

131

MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK (MALVACEAE  

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Full Text Available Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03 of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76%, soil pH 6.85 during the rainfed seasons of 2009 and 2010 (July to December and morphological (taxonomical details, anatomical (transverse sections of ovary, stem and root, stomatal, cytological (meiotic chromosome behavior and pollen attributes (fertility, viability and acetolysis studies were assessed. Results indicated marked differences between the cultivars and based on observations cultivar I is recommended as tall, branched whereas cultivar II as dwarf, unbranched types and the cultivars may further be explored for pharmacological research.

Dubey Kumari Priyanka

2011-02-01

132

Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites  

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Full Text Available The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2 okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

Srinivasababu

2009-10-01

133

Study on the degumming process of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic fiber  

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Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic has drawn much attention recently due to its potential beneficial health effects. The roots, flowers and seeds of A.manihot play an important role as medical materials. In this paper, the result of the chemical composition testing shows that the main constituent of A.manihot bast of the stems is cellulose (41.80 %. A.manihot fibers are extracted from A.manihot bast by the treatment of degumming. In the degumming process, the key parameters have been optimized. The results of FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other impurities can be effectively removed by this degumming process, and the main components of A.manihot fiber was cellulose much the same as cotton, the crystallinity of A.manihot bast and fiber were 50.45% and 63.73% respectively.

Chun-Yan Li

2013-06-01

134

Selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease of okra by induced mutation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmochus esculentus) production for both export and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were gamma-irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and planted at Huaysai King's Project in Petchaburi Province. M3 plants were screened for OYVMD (Okra YVMD) resistance under field conditions at Huaysai King's Project and Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) in Phichit Province. In addition, M4 plants were screened for OYVMD resistance under greenhouse conditions at Crop Protection Research and Development Office using whitefly transmission. None of Annie was found resistant but one plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400 Gy was found to be highly resistant. Ten resistant lines obtained through rescreening of B-21 descendants up to M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at PHRC and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS). The mutants had good stature and fruit shape but the fruits have spines on the ridges. Selections for OYVMD resistance and spineless fruits were performed at PHRC in three generations and seven of the lines were chosen for yield trial at PHRC. Three of the mutant lines were also screened for OYVMD resistance at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi Province, okra growing area, where OYVMD was seriously widespread. All mutant liMD was seriously widespread. All mutant lines showed resistance against the local OYVMV isolates up to a month before they started showing signs of the disease. Seeds were collected from resistant individuals and planted in farmers's fields for further selection. The farmers were very satisfied with the stature and fruit shape of the mutants when tested against a commercial variety. (author)

135

Okra Leaf Cotton, its Commercial Utilization in Sindh  

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Full Text Available Studies were under taken to assess the yield, earliness and insect pest resistance of some newly developed okra leaf strains compared with normal leaf commercial varieties CRIS-9 and NIAB-78. Accordingly, almost all the okra leaf mutants yielded better than NIAB-78. Out of nine okra leaf strains, three were better yields, two equally good and four gave low yield than CRIS-9 the second check variety. Highest yielding okra leaf strain produced 27 and 35 percent higher yield than CRIS-9 and NIAB-78 respectively. Okra leaf strains were documented as early maturing, whitefly tolerant and boll rot disease resistant. Realizing the better performance of okra leaf strains with reduced insecticide applications, the commercial utilization of these varieties in Sindh can not be ignored and may prove better replacement of current cultivars.

A.R. Soomro

2000-01-01

136

Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica / Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp.) foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655), A [...] . caillei (CGO 8656), A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657) e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658); 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides) com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2) de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos. Abstract in english Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil) maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-35 [...] 7991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes) and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes). No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

Gilmar Efrem, Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; João Carlos, Pimentel.

137

Proximate Composition of Selected Congo Oil Seeds and Physicochemical Properties of the Oil Extracts  

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Proximate composition, energy content and mineral concentrations of oil seeds which can be usedin the preparation of Congolese diets were investigated. The paper also reports the physicochemicalcharacteristics of the oil extracts from the seeds. Moisture content (on dry weight basis) was highest(9.45 ± 0.8%) in gumbo (Abelmoschus esclentus) seeds (AES), followed by amarenthus hybridus seeds (AHS)(9.07 ± 0.84%) but was lowest (4.13 ± 0.24%) in terminalia catappa seeds (TCS). Ash was highest...

Nzikou, J. M.

2010-01-01

138

Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill  

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Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

1991-09-01

139

Effect of Different Dose and Application Methods of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samson against Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoidand White Chitwood in Okra  

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Full Text Available The biocontrol potential of Paecilomyces lilacinus was evaluated in field conditions in two seasons during 2005-2008 at Annamalainagar and Vallambadugai of Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. In the field evaluation of different doses and application methods of P. lilacinus viz., seed treatment, seedling treatments, soil application treatments and the integration treatments produced mixed results on the growth of okra in both Annamalainagar and Vallambadugai. In two field trials of okra at two locations, shoot length, shoot weight and root length were significantly increased in mixture treatments compared to individual treatments, principally combination of seedling treatment (10g/l water + soil application treatment (5.0 kg/acre documented maximum shoot length (60 and 90 DAS, shoot weight (90 DAS and root length (90 DAS and they were positively correlated with fruit yield of okra.

Raja Kannan

2012-10-01

140

Pectin from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization of extraction and rheological properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of pectin extraction from okra pods. The extracted okra pectin was then investigated by steady-shear and oscillatory rheological measurements. Statistical analysis showed that the linear term of the liquid-solid ratio, the quadratic term of the pH, and the linear term of the extraction time showed highly significant effects on pectin yield. The optimal extraction conditions that maximized the pectin yield within the experimental range of the variables researched were a pH of 3.9, an extraction time of 64 min, an extraction temperature of 60°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 42:1. Under these conditions, the pectin yield was predicted to be 2.71%. At a liquid-solid ratio less than 2.5% w/w in aqueous solution, the pectin extracted from okra presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior and could be well described by the Cross model. The okra pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G'

Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Han-Ju; Wei, Zhao-Jun

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra  

Science.gov (United States)

...with revising official grade standards, is soliciting...States Standards for Grades of Okra. AMS has been...Fresh Fruit and Vegetable grade standards for usefulness...States Standards for Grades of Okra. AMS is removing...This category is not a grade and only serves to...

2012-02-09

142

Genetic variability and heritability in cultivated okra [Abel moschus esculentus (L.) Moench  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-nine okra accessions from different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria were grown during the rainy and dry seasons, between 2006 and 2007 at Abeokuta (derived savanah) and Ilishan (rainforest) and assessed to determine their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance from eight yield related characters. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. There was high genotypic coefficient of variability, % broad-sense heritability and genetic advance in traits such as plant height (26.2, 90.7, 51.5), fresh pod length (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), fresh pod width (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), mature pod length (28.6, 98.5, 52.3), branching per plant (29.3, 82.3, 54.8) and pod weight per plant (33.9, 90.0, 63.3), suggesting the effect of additive genes and reliability of selection based on phenotype of these traits for crop improvement. The positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation between plant height at maturity, fresh pod width, seeds per pod and pods per plant, branches per plant with seed weight per plant and pod weight per plant, suggests that selection on the basis of the phenotype of these characters will lead to high seed and pod yield in okra. (Author) 26 refs.

Nwangburuka, C. C.; Denton, O. A.; Khinde, O. B.; Ojo, D. K.; Popoola, A. R.

2012-11-01

143

Effect of Mulching on Growth and Productivity of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench under Saline Irrigation Condition  

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Full Text Available In present study the treatments comprises four levels of EC (0.87 EC, 4EC, 8EC and 12ECdS m-1 for Saline water irrigation, three levels Mulches (without Mulch, sugar cane trash at the rate of 10 tons ha-1 and 50 ? black plastic mulch and two varieties. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replication.Among the various saline irrigation water treatments under 4EC dS m-1 treatment higher value of transpiration rate, photosynthesis, pod length, pod girth and pod yield per plant were recorded as compared to EC8 and EC12 dS m-1. Black plastic mulch and sugarcane trash mulch significantly gave higher value of transpiration rate, photosynthesis, pod length and pod yield per plant as compared to without mulch except pod girth which was found lesser value under both types of mulches.

Hitendra Singh Bhadauria

2006-01-01

144

[Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles. PMID:24558867

Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

2013-11-01

145

FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone were prepared. The prepared tablets were found to have better pharmacopoeial parameters with low standard deviation values. The swelling behavior and release rate characteristics were studied. The in-vitro dissolution study proved that the dried Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone in combination can be used as a matrix forming polymers for making controlled release matrix tablets.

Hindustan Abdul Ahad

2011-02-01

146

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations / Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e par [...] asitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual) ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares) ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões. Abstract in english The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, [...] height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.

Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; José Cola, Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael, Gusmão.

147

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro  

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Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões.

Germano Leão Demolin Leite

2007-04-01

148

Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae) on okra plantations / Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantações de quiabeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e par [...] asitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual) ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta) localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os fatores que mais contribuíram com a redução da população de pulgões foram a senescência de plantas, área foliar e inimigos naturais, principalmente Adialytus spp., aranhas e Coccinellidae. Maior número de pulgões foi observado na parte basal que na mediana e apical de plantas de quiabeiro. A pluviosidade total pode reduzir a população de pulgões. Tricomas tectores (não-glandulares) ou baixa densidade destes, compostos orgânicos foliares e níveis de N e de K não foram importantes para a redução da população de pulgões. Abstract in english The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae) consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, [...] height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection) occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant). Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.

Germano Leão Demolin, Leite; Marcelo, Picanço; José Cola, Zanuncio; Marcos Rafael, Gusmão.

2007-04-01

149

7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds...Kale 75 Kale, Chinese 75 Kale, Siberian 75 Kohlrabi 75 Leek 60 Lettuce 80 Melon 75 Mustard, India 75 Mustard, spinach 75 Okra 50 Onion......

2010-01-01

150

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ASCORBATE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON OKRA (Hibiscus esculents L. GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH  

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Full Text Available Effect of drought stress was investigated at water potentials of-0.2 &-0.4 MPA (by using PEG 6000 on okra germination and seedling growth. In this study, percent germination, average time necessary for germination in day, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of okra seedlings were measured. Effect of ascorbate and salicylic acid and interaction of these tow substances were investigated on germination and seedling growth under normal condition and dry conditions. Drought inhabits from germination and seedling growth in this plant. Ascorbate and salicylic acid increase germination and decrease of average time necessary for germination under drought conditions. The seeds that were treated by ascorbate and salicylic acid, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of radical and plumule were increased. Results showed that ascorbate and salicylic acid decrease effects and damages of drought stresses on okra germination and seedlings growth. In general, adding salicylic acid and ascorbic acid significantly relieved the harsh effects of drought on okra germination and growth parameters and it seems that ascorbate and salicylic acid were able to enhance the tolerant ability of the plant to drought stress.

Amin Baghizadeh

2011-03-01

151

Induced mutation breeding for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus in okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were irradiated by gamma rays to induce mutations for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD). In experiment I, seeds were irradiated at 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then planted at Huaysai King's Project, Petchaburi Province. Plants with a good plant type and green pods were selected for M2 generation. M3 plants were grown at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) where YVMD was seriously widespread. 33 plants without disease symptoms were selected for further screening. By using white fly transmission under greenhouse conditions, only four lines showed no disease symptoms. They were transplanted to the field at PHRC. Only Okura irradiated at 400 Gy, designated Rd53-3 showed disease resistance. Subsequent selections were conducted under greenhouse and field conditions up to M7 generation. Twelve resistant lines showing uniformity of plant type were selected for yield trial observation. All bore reasonable yield but their fruit shape was not suitable for the export market. They will be used as parental lines in further breeding programs. In experiment II, seeds of Annie and Okura were irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and then planted at Huaysai. M2 seeds were collected by two methods, the pedigree method by collecting seeds from selected healthy plants, and then planted them at Huaysai. The other method was bulk selection and then seeds were planted at Huaysai and Pd then seeds were planted at Huaysai and PHRC. The M3 generation was screened for disease resistance under greenhouse and field conditions. The plants from bulk selection were all infected. By pedigree selection, 34 and 35 lines of Annie and Okura, respectively were obtained. Screening for okra YVMD resistance under greenhouse and field conditions in M4 generation, it was found that only one plant of Okura irradiated at 400 Gy designated B-21, showed no disease symptoms. Disease resistance screenings under greenhouse and field conditions were performed during M5 to M7 generation. Ten lines selected from B-21 showed a good plant type coupled with a desirable fruit shape. They will be used for further yield trials. (author)

152

Effect of household processing on fenazaquin residues in okra fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenazaquin (4-[[4 (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl] ethoxy]quinazoline) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. Residue levels of fenazaquin were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing, boiling and washing followed by boiling) in reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of fenazaquin (Magister 10 EC) @ 125 ga.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 250 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 3, 7, 15 days after treatment and at harvest (30 days). Residues were estimated by gas chromatograph equipped with capillary column and nitrogen phosphorus detector. Residues reached below maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg/kg at harvest. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.13 days at lower dose and 4.43 days at higher dose. Processing is shown to be very effective in reducing the levels of fenazaquin residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (60-61%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by boiling/cooking (38-40%) and then by washing (31-32%). PMID:19847374

Duhan, Anil; Kumari, Beena; Gulati, Rachna

2010-02-01

153

Determination of molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions in Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharides  

Science.gov (United States)

Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharide, AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3, and AMP-4, were purified from four kinds of Abelmoschus manihot gum (AMG). The molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions of AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3 and AMP-4 were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Results indicated that the molecular weights of AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3, and AMP-4 were approximately 3.91 × 103, 5.36 × 105, 3.87 × 103, and 5.12 × 105 Da, respectively. The Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharide was mainly composed of galactose, glucose and mannose with the molar ratios at 0.29: 1.00: 0.41 (AMP-1), 0.56: 0.13: 1.00 (AMP-2), 0.10: 1.00: 0.11 (AMP-3) and 0.55: 0.17: 1.00 (AMP-4), respectively.

Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Yingying; Wu, Mimi; Zhang, Xiuzhen

2012-09-01

154

Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra  

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Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

I. A. Siddiqui

2000-06-01

155

Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated potential antiproliferative activity against two human cell lines - Colorectal adenocarcinoma (COLO-205 and retinoblastoma (Y79. Conclusion The seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus possess significant antioxidant activity and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger, or substitute, probably as primary antioxidants. The plant possesses moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains used in this study. Hydroalcoholic seed and leaf extracts also exhibited antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines. A. moschatus may therefore, be a good candidate for functional foods as well as pharmaceutics.

Qureshi Insaf A

2011-08-01

156

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER  

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Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w and P.V.P (22 %w/w were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

N Tavakoli

2008-01-01

157

Comparative study between microwave and conventional dehydration of okra.  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on the quality of okra. No significant differences were found among pretreatments and dehydration methods for the chemical composition of dehydrated okra samples. Dipping in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at room temperature and immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C improved the retention of ascorbic acid of okra samples after dehydration by either conventional or microwave oven. Also, the reduced dehydration time required for microwave dehydration produced far less destruction of ascorbic acid. The highest rehydration ratio was found in unwashed okra sample and dehydrated by microwave after immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C. Dehydrated okra samples by sun drying and conventional oven had lower retention percentages of total chlorophyll and carotenoids than those of dehydrated okra samples by microwave oven. The general appearance and colour scores of dehydrated okra samples by microwave were significantly different from those of conventionally dehydrated or sun dried okra samples.

Este estudio se ha realizado para evaluar los diferentes pretratamientos y métodos de deshidratación en la calidad del kimbombó. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ellos respecto a la composición química de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas. La inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a temperatura ambiente y la inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a 92-95 °C mejoraron la retención de ácido ascórbico de las muestras de kimbombó después de la deshidratación tanto utilizando el homo convencional como el horno microondas. Además el menor tiempo necesario para la deshidratación usando el horno microondas produjo menos destrucción de ácido ascórbico. La mayor relación de rehidratación fue encontrada en muestras de kimbombó no tratadas o deshidratadas usando horno microondas tras inmersión en metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % y 92-95 °C. Las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas por secado al sol y homo convencional tuvieron menores porcentajes de retención de clorofilas totales y carotenoides que las de muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas usando homo microondas. La apariencia general y la calidad del color de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas mediante horno microondas fueron significativamente diferentes de aquéllas deshidratadas mediante homo convencional o secadas al sol.

Shams El Din, M. H. A.

1999-12-01

158

DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO QUIABEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DAS DATAS DE PLANTIO GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATES  

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Full Text Available

A influência de quatro épocas de plantio (15 de maio, 15 de junho, 15 de julho e 15 de agosto de 1998 no desenvolvimento e na produção do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi investigada em Goiânia, GO. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, cultivado há muitos anos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (Tukey 5% entre épocas de plantio, para as seguintes características: número de frutos produzidos durante as trinta primeiras colheitas, altura das plantas no início da colheita, número de ramos laterais e número de dias da semeadura ao início do florescimento, ao início da colheita e ao início da colheita em 75% das covas. A temperatura média dos meses seguintes às datas de plantio aumentou de maio para agosto. Observou-se uma redução do período da semeadura até o início do florescimento, até o início da colheita e até o início da colheita em 75% das covas. O número de ramos laterais também foi reduzido no mesmo período. Entretanto verificou-se aumento na altura das plantas e no rendimento das primeiras trinta colheitas.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abelmoschus esculentus; data de plantio; épocas de plantio.

The influence of four sowing dates (May 15th, June 15th, July 15th and August 15th, 1998 on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 was studied in Goiânia-GO. The experiment was conducted at the 'Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Goiás', on an oxisol which had been cropped for several years. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Significant differences (Tukey 5% were found among sowing dates for the following traits: number of pods yielded during the first thirty harvests (105 days, plant height at the beginning of harvest, number of lateral branches, number of days from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, number of days from the sowing to the harvest of the first pod and number of days from the sowing to the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills. The average temperature of the months following the sowing dates increased from May to August. The period from the sowing to the beginning of flowering, the beginning of harvest and the beginning of harvest on 75% of the hills was shortened and the number of lateral branches decreased from May to August. At the same time, the plant height and the yield of the first thirty harvests increased.

KEY-WORDS: Abelmoschus esculentus; planting date; development yield.

Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

2007-09-01

159

Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm / Busca por fontes de resistência à murcha de fusário (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) em germoplasma de quiabo  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) é um dos patógenos mais destrutivos do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus) no Brasil. Cinquenta e quatro acessos de quiabeiro foram avaliados quanto à resistência a FOV em casa de vegetação. Inicialmente foi conduzida uma seleção com o isolado 'Fus-194'. Tr [...] inta e três acessos, que foram resistentes na seleção inicial, foram reavaliadas em dois ensaios adicionais (sob duas condições de ambiente), utilizando dois isolados de FOV. Destes, onze acessos foram classificadas como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-194' em agosto (estação seca e com temperatura moderada), enquanto que 28% dos acessos foram classificados como altamente ou medianamente resistentes ao isolado 'Fus-201'. No ensaio conduzido na estação úmida e quente, 72% dos acessos apresentaram reação de alta a média resistência a 'Fus-194', enquanto que 32% foram resistentes a 'Fus-201'. A cultivar 'Santa Cruz-47' e os acessos 'BR-2399' e 'BR-1449' foram as fontes de resistência mais promissoras. Abstract in english Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate ('Fus-194'). Inoculation (in all assays) was [...] carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates ('Fus-194' and 'Fus-201'). Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-194' during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to 'Fus-201'. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to 'Fus-194', and 32% were resistant to 'Fus-201'. The accessions 'Santa Cruz-47', 'BR-2399' and 'BR-1449' were the most promising resistance sources.

Frederick Mendes, Aguiar; Sami Jorge, Michereff; Leonardo Silva, Boiteux; Ailton, Reis.

2013-03-01

160

Epidemiology of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (OYVMV and Its Management through Tracer, Mycotal and Imidacloprid  

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Full Text Available Field trials were conducted to evaluate the epidemiological factors of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Four varieties of okra were subjected to screening and evaluation of the chemicals. The variety Saloni F1 was highly resistant while Subz Pari was moderately resistant. Diksha was the tolerant variety while Lush Green was moderately susceptible. The chemical Imidacloprid was most effective to control whitefly population and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV. Correlation of environmental factors (maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall with percent plant infection of okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV was also determined. There was a significant correlation between environment and disease severity.

Muhammad Irfan Ali

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

7 CFR 319.37-2 - Prohibited articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...with the prohibited article Abelmoschus spp. (okra) Africa Cotton leaf curl agent. Brazil ...vein mosaic agent. Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria Okra mosaic virus. Iraq Okra yellow leaf curl agent. Papua New Guinea,...

2010-01-01

162

Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro / Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema) colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do q [...] uiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A) enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5) e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias), com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a sp [...] ore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5), three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days) and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of species was more efficient although there were higher ratios of influx with Acaulospora longula between 0 and 47th. day.

Ricardo Luís Louro, Berbara; Luís Rodrigues, Freire; Manlio Silvestre, Fernandes.

163

Hypolipidemic activity of okra is mediated through inhibition of lipogenesis and upregulation of cholesterol degradation.  

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Little is known about the hypolipidemic activity of okra; therefore, we investigated the hypolipidemic activity of okra and its interaction with gene expression of several key components involved in lipid homeostasis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed with hyperlipidemic diet or two hyperlipidemic diets supplemented with 1% or 2% okra powder for eight weeks. Results demonstrated that okra dose-dependently decreased serum and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride, and enhanced fecal excretion of bile acids. Gene expression analysis revealed that okra upregulated cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression, downregulated expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), with no effect on sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A). It was suggested that hypolipidemic activity of okra was mediated most likely by upregulation of cholesterol degradation through CYP7A1 and by inhibition of lipogenesis through SREBP1c and FAS. Okra raw and fractionated polysaccharide showed strong bile acid binding capacity in vitro, which may contribute to the hypolipidemic activity observed. In conclusion, okra has potential application in the management of hyperlipidemia and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:23606408

Wang, Hong; Chen, Gu; Ren, Dandan; Yang, Shang-Tian

2014-02-01

164

Infestation of Earias spp. on Cotton and Okra Grown as Mono and Mix Crops  

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Full Text Available Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of growing of cotton and okra as mono and mix crops or polycultures on percent infestation of Earias spp. on cotton and okra under field conditions. The results revealed that Earias spp. infestation on okra appeared about 45 days after sowing of the crop; whereas, on cotton the pest appeared atleast one month later than it appeared on okra. Two years data indicated a highly significant (F=14.36; DF = 6, 3, P<0.01 difference in percent infestation of Earias spp. on different mono and mix crops of cotton and okra. The highest Earias spp. infestation (18.45% was recorded on okra grown as mono crop followed by okra mix, cotton mono crop and cotton mix crop with percent infestation of 10.29, 5.97 and 3.90, respectively. It was concluded that okra could be used as a trap crop for the population management of Earias spp. in cotton crop.

G.H. Abro

2004-01-01

165

Response of okra to gamma-rays  

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The seeds of variety Pusa A-4 were treated with gamma-rays at three different doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 KGy. In M1 generation there was reduction in seed germination and pollen fertility. An interesting feature observed was the peculiar Y shaped branching in treated plants at 0.4 and 0.6 KGy doses. In M2 generation few morphological mutants were isolated. Seventy five percent of the observed mutants were isolated from the 0.6 KGy dose. (author)

166

Development and Performance Evaluation of an Okra Drying Machine  

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Full Text Available An okra dryer was designed, constructed and evaluated in this study for post-harvest processing of the fruit. The dryer consists of a heating chamber, two drying trays, a blower of 1hp, two heating elements of 2000 W each, 4 roller tyres for ease of mobility, a control box which consist of a thermostat that regulates the temperature in the dryer. The result of evaluation of the dryer in no load indicated that it was able to yield temperature very close to the preset (by the thermostat after about 3 min. The dryer was evaluated by drying okra of different thickness (5 and 10 mm, in two trays at two heights (25 and 50 cm from the bottom and at a preset temperatures of 50º and 70ºC. Moisture losses from the slices were obtained at intervals of 30, 45, 60 and 90 min. The result showed that increase in temperature from 50º to 70ºC, increases moisture loss from the slices. Slices of 5 mm thickness were observed to dry faster than 10 mm slices with those on the upper tray losing more moisture. The study further showed that slice thickness of 5 mm dried at 70ºC in the upper tray level of 60 cm from the base of the dryer are suitable for drying okra slices in the dryer.

O.K. Owolarafe

2011-09-01

167

Okra-gum fortified bread: formulation and quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze-dried okra extract was added to Hard Red Spring (HRS) wheat flour intended for high soluble-fiber bread. Seedless okra pods were blended in 0.05 M NaOH solution and the extract (OE) was freeze-dried at pH?7. SE-HPLC of OE showed the presence of covalently bound peptides. Okra extract powder (OE) 4, 7, 10, and 13 % was used to replace wheat flour in preparing four bread formulations. Although Farinograph water absorption was increased up to 4.4 % due to OE addition, the dough mixing Tolerance (MIT) was also increased. In the presence of OE, bread loaf volume was lower and freezable water was higher. Overall, bread firmness was lower at lower storage temperature, but higher OE increased firmness, due to water migration from crumb to crust. Color was darker for both crust and crumb. The bread melting temperature shifted to lower values at higher OE content as shown by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The test indicated that the properties of the blends were similar around the glass transition region. Dynamic rheology of the blends revealed weaker visco-elastic behavior compared to the control. The magnitude of the complex moduli for the 4 % OE was independent of frequency, while the remaining blends were frequency dependent. PMID:25328176

Alamri, Mohammed S

2014-10-01

168

Some Studies on the Comparative Efficacy of Different Traditional and Non-traditional Insecticides Against Okra Jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on Okra, Variety "Pusa Green"  

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Full Text Available Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr against okra jassid Amrasaca biguttula biguttula (Ishida. All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf was observed in the test area treated with monocrotophos plus surfactant.

Khalid Mehmood

2001-01-01

169

Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Weed interference in okra crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz [...] -47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade), bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI), período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI) e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI), considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after em [...] ergence (DAE). Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI), Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI) and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP) were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

J.B., Santos; T.P., Silveira; P.S., Coelho; O.G., Costa; P.M., Matta; M.B., Silva; A.P., Drumond Neto.

170

Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Weed interference in okra crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus) na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz [...] -47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE). Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade), bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI), período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI) e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI), considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after em [...] ergence (DAE). Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days for Period Previous to Interference (PPI), Critical Prevention Period of Interference (CPPI) and Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP) were determined, considering 5% loss. Plants from the species studied were placed in the plots, isolated or in competition with A. esculentus, aiming to to evaluate the competitive capacity of the main weeds. Area, number of leaves and plant height of A. esculentus were evaluated.Yield and number of fruit presented a similar behavior. The estimated PPI was 25 days, indicating when to start weed control. The CPPI observed was 75 days, indicating 100 days for TPIP. Among the weeds evaluated, Eleusine indica showed the highest competitive capacity against the the crop.

J.B., Santos; T.P., Silveira; P.S., Coelho; O.G., Costa; P.M., Matta; M.B., Silva; A.P., Drumond Neto.

2010-06-01

171

Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos / Genetic divergency of okra accessions based on morphological characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância [...] Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto. Abstract in english Twenty-seven morphological characteristics (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative) were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 39 Abelmoschus accessions by hierarchic method of single linkage and principal component analysis for the grouping of the genotypes. Standardized average Euclidean distance [...] was used as dissimilarity measure. Plants were grown in field conditions at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, using randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The accessions groups formation based on the hierarchic method of single linkage showed similar results to those obtained by principal components analysis since both methods grouped A. esculentus and A. caillei accessions. The hierarchic method has grouped the genotypes in the same way as for the 27 descriptors (quantitative and qualitative) as for the 13 quantitative descriptors, demonstrating that qualitative descriptors had a little influence on the genotypic discrimination. Qualitative descriptors were able to correctly classify species, although they masked the genetic variability at the germplasm, not allowing a comprehensive survey of the genomes. The characters that less contributed for the genotypes discriminations were the epicalyx length, 100 seeds weight, number of stigma segments, plant height, leaf width, first flowering node and fruit length.

Gilmar Efrem, Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T., Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

172

Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid  

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Full Text Available Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida. All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf was observed in the test area treated with (monocrotophos + surfactant.

Khalid Mehmood

2001-01-01

173

Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and Okra plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 ?m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m3 kg-1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m3 kg-1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m3 kg-1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m3 kg-1. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

174

Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extract in psychiatric and neurological disorders  

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Results: In the open field test, AEAM (200 and 400 mg/kg increased the numbers of rearing. However, the number of central motor and ambulation were reduced. The number of entries and the time spent in the open arm were increased, whereas the number of locomotion was decreased (pA. moschatus is an alternative source for CNS drug development. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 845-853

Haja Sherief Sheik

2014-10-01

175

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro / Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g [...] ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infest [...] ed with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da, Silva; Aurenice Lucena, Pereira.

176

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da Silva

2008-12-01

177

Responses of growth of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus [/i]L. to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater  

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Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus[/i] L.. Materials and methods. A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady’s fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The plants were watered using (WW raw dairy wastewater, (T1 chemicals treatment, (T2 physical treatment, (T3 dilution method treatment and tap water (TW in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter pos-tharvest. Results. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with other treatments. Chemical treatment (TC2 at 20 mg/L Al2(SO43 and pH 6.5 improved all growth characteristics, compared with WW, and TW reached 85%, 70.8 cm, 28.6 cm, 99.4 cm, 65.36%, 15.86% and 3.543 Mgg FW for seed germination, shoot length, root length, seedling length, shoot dry matter, root dry matter and chlorophyll, respectively. Also, 25% concentration and 6.5 pH from the dilution method treatment improved all the qualities, but at a lower level. A maximum favourable effect was also observed in the (T2 physical treatment, and ranged from average to moderate in terms of impact. Conclusions. Thus, dairy effluent, after chemical treatment and proper dilution, can be used as a potential source of water for seed germination and plant growth in agricultural practices.

Rana Ibrahim Al-Dulaimi

2014-03-01

178

Comparative Studies on the Effect of Sowing Dates and Spacing on the Growth and Yield of Okra in Different Years  

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Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of sowing time and spacing on the growth and fruit yield of okra in 1999 and 2000 in the farmer = s field, Lakshmipur, Bangladesh. The highest plant height was recorded 87.5 cm when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm and the lowest height was 73.3 cm when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm. The maximum number of leaves per plant was observed when it was sown on 5 March 2000 and the minimum was when sown on 20 May, 1999. Moreover, the fruit yield, number of fruit picking per plant, fruit length and weight per fruit were higher when okra was sown on 5 March, 5 April and 5 May, 2000 spaced at 45 x 45 cm than when okra was sown on 20 March, 20 April and 20 May, 1999 spaced at 35 x 40 cm. The highest number of percent mosaic infected plant was counted when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm and the lowest was when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm. In addition to that the highest number of vector of okra mosaic disease was counted when okra was sown on 20 May, 1999 at the spacing of 35 x 40 cm and the lowest was when okra was sown on 5 March, 2000 at the spacing of 45 x 45 cm. Percent mosaic infected plants was highest in 1999 and the lowest was in 2000 when it was sown on 20 May and 5 March due to the presence of the number of vectors of okra mosaic disease.

A.B.M. Sharif Hossain A. Wahab

2003-01-01

179

Variability studies for yield and its contributing traits in okra  

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Full Text Available Twelve okra genotypes were crossed in diallel fashion excluding reciprocals to generate 66 one-way hybrids. All the F1’s along with their parentswere grown at Vegetable Research Farm of the Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab during therainy season of 2004-05. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were noticed for number of primary branches per plantindicating maximum variability among the different genotypes. High estimates of heritability coupled with high genetic advance obtained fornumber of branches per plant, total yield per plant and marketable yield per plant indicating presence of additive gene effects which indicated theeffectiveness of selection for these traits. Presence of high heritability coupled with low genetic advance for days to fruit picking, average fruitweight, plant height, internodal length, number of fruits per plant, fruit diameter and average fruit length revealed that straight selection haslimited scope for further improving these traits.

Salesh Kumar Jindal, Deepak Arora and T R Ghai

2010-12-01

180

Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.  

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Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa. PMID:23535770

Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Common name(s) Fruit fly Abelmoschus esculentus = Hibiscus esculentus Okra Melon, Peach. Acca sellowiana = Feijoa sellowiana Pineapple guava Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Actinidia chinensis Kiwi Mediterranean. Aegle...

2010-01-01

182

Comparison between the DNA Fingerprints Obtained from the Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Tolerant Okra Mutants and Their Parental Variety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is a widespread disease that is found among export orchards of okra. In this report, we studied gamma radiation-induced YVMD tolerant okra mutants and other commercial okra varieties at DNA level. We found that DNA extraction method that utilized sodium dodecyl sulfate and potassium acetate to precipitate other biomolecules was a suitable method to use for DNA finger printing of okra. The MFLP finger printing technique was superior to the AFLP technique in finding polymorphisms among different okra varieties. Also polymorphisms between the YVMD-tolerant mutant lines and their parental variety could be detected, indicating that gamma radiation could induce some changes at DNA level in these plants

183

Investigating Drag Reduction Characteristic using Okra Mucilage as New Drag Reduction Agent  

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Full Text Available A concern in reserving environment from water pollution is a trigger for this investigation. Abundant source of okra in Malaysia, as well as cheap and easy to get are the advantages. Okra mucilage extracted from okra pod can be additive to reduce drag in pipeline and conserve the energy along pipeline. In this study, the effect of the presence of a Drag Reducing Agent (DRA on the pressure drop in horizontal pipes carrying water is investigated. An experimental rig is set-up. The test section of the experimental set-up is consisted of: a smooth PVC pipe with length of 50 time pipe diameter connected to rough galvanized iron with 5 testing section 0.5 meter each The employing DRA is a new natural additive which is okra mucilage as polymeric DRA. The percent drag reduction (%DR is calculated using the obtained experimental data, in presence of the DRA. The results show that addition of DRA could be effective with several doses of DRA after average reading for 5 min. Highest %DR for about 60% is obtained for some experimental conditions. The result shows that okra mucilage is a potential DRA to be use in water transportation.

Siti Nuraffini Kamarulizam

2011-01-01

184

Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.  

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The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod?=?500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8?±?1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes. PMID:25114358

Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

2014-08-01

185

RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi t from intercrop is 10% higher than monocrops. This is because of the attendant reduction in variable costs of labour and fertilizer that are associated with intercrops. The economic implication of this study is that any strategy that reduces cost of production in maize/ okra intercrops will increase its profi tability and attractiveness to farmers.

R ALABI

2007-04-01

186

Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants  

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The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

1994-11-01

187

Anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like activity of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract and its potential active components in vivo.  

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Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Searching for antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and antidepressant-like medicines from natural products is very important for the treatment of this disease. The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been reported to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury. In order to further explore the activity of Abelmoschus manihot on the central nervous system, the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like effects of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract (AMEE) as well as its potential active components in vivo was investigated in the present study. It was found that AMEE could protect mice against PTZ-induced clonic convulsions and mortality. AMEE could also decrease immobility time in the FST in mice. Furthermore, the potential active components of AMEE in rat brain were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS). Five parent components including isoquercitrin, hyperoside, hibifolin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin and three metabolites were detected in rat brain after administration of AMEE. In conclusion, eight flavonoids were identified in rat brain after administration of AMEE; meanwhile, these flavonoids might represent the potential bioactive components of AMEE and contribute to its anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activity in vivo. PMID:21784623

Guo, Jianming; Xue, Caifu; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; You, Yi

2011-11-15

188

Screening of Okra Germplasm for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus under Field Conditions  

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Full Text Available Twelve okra germplasms were screened for resistance to okra yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV under field conditions. Lines OK-292 and OK-285 showed resistant to YVMV in both season and OK 315, OK 316 and OK 317 were found tolerant. The highest yield per hectare found in the line OK-292 (18.00 t ha-1 followed by OK-285 (16 t ha-1 and line OK-310 produced the lowest yield (9.85 t ha-1 followed by pusa (9.95 t ha-1.

M.H. Rashid

2002-01-01

189

The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.  

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The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

2014-01-01

190

Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mungbean. Apart from suppressing root knot nematode, T. harzianum also elevated plant height and fresh shoot weight of both okra and munhbean.

Imran A. Siddiqui

2001-01-01

191

Performance Evaluation of Dry Season Okra under Sawdust and Trash Mulch Cover Treatments in Southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the agronomic performance of okra under various quantities of both sawdust and trash mulches. The location of the field was the research farmland of the Federal Polytechnic Ado Ekiti Nigeria; Lat 6?N and Long 16?E. The experimental design used was complete randomized design with 6 treatments on both specimens. The experiments were repeated the following year on the same plot but with transposed plot allocation. Soil moisture loss from uncovered plot was with the highest value dropping to less than 2 per cent. It was followed by that of trash plot and the lowest loss was on sawdust mulched plot. The number of leave formed by okra on sawdust, trash and no mulch plots was 43, 36 and 27 respectively while maximum girth diameter was 37 mm in both trash and sawdust covered plots but okra plant on control plot attained only 26 mm diameter. Fruit yield were almost similar to trash and sawdust mulched okra having 7.5 and 7.6 Tonnes/Ha respectively while control plot recorded 5.2 Tonnes/Ha. The ash content of dry matter of sawdust, trash and no mulched plants was 0.25, 0.20 and 0.17 kg respectively. It was concluded that sawdust could perform as much as the traditional trash materials commonly used in Southwestern Nigeria. Also, sawdust was a good material for conserving soil moisture.

Oladipo Isaac Olaposi

2013-12-01

192

Gamma ray induced okra leaf mutant in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An orka leaf mutant characterised by narrow leaves was induced in M2 generation following 20 kr gamma ray irradiation in 320-F variety of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The mutant bred true for okra leaves in M3 generation. The mutant is earlier in maturity than 320-F and has more number of bolls, bigger boll size, higher yield and better staple than the latter. Okra leaf mutant by virtue of its having narrow leaves and consequently lesser transpiring surface withstands moisture stress better than the mother line. In an experiment under 'barani' (with only pre-sowing irrigation), okra leaf mutant recorded cotton yield of 1042 kg/ha as against 469 kg/ha in 320-F and 766 kg/ha in G.27, a 'Desi' variety which grows under moisture stress better than the hirsutums. Orka leaf character is a monogenic recessive, with F1 a medium-lobed heterozygote, as is seen from hybridisation between okra leaf mutant and broad leaved 320-F. (author)

193

76 FR 64001 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra  

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...of Documents. Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL...OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 52 [Document...Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notification...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the...

2011-10-17

194

Potential of Sequential Cropping in the Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Okra  

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Full Text Available The response of different crops to a mixed population of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita and their potential as suppressants in sequential cropping systems was evaluated in greenhouse and field experiments. Crops rated as resistant were five maize cultivars, four sorghum cultivars, two millet varieties, guwar and two pigeonpea cultivars which had galling indices ranging between 1.4-3.6. cowpea cv. K80 was rated as moderately resistant with a galling index of 4 while greengram and cowpea cv. KKI were rated as susceptible with galling indices ranging from 5.6 to 7.4. Four crops namely sweetcorn, babycorn, maize cv. Pioneer (Ph3253 and guwar were selected after the greenhouse tests for field trials, based on their poor host status to root-knot nematodes as well as relative acceptability to vegetable growers. These crops were then incorporated into a rotation program with okra. Initial and final J2 numbers in the field were determined before planting and at the end of the season, respectively. Okra was then sown in the plots previously grown with the selected nematode suppressive crops and the nematode numbers determined mid and end of the season. A 44 and 21% decline in nematode numbers was recorded in plots under guwar or sweetcorn and babycorn, respectively. In contrast, a 441% increase in nematode numbers was recorded in plots under continuous crop of okra. The galling index on a crop of okra that followed sweetcorn was 3.3 compared to 8.6 in the control which was continuously under okra, resulting in an increase in yield within a range of 60-92%. This underscores the potential of rotating highly susceptible crops with poor hosts in the management of root-knot nematodes.

A.N. Mweke

2008-01-01

195

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the respondents are males and married. Women do not own personal okra farms but they do work with their husband on the family farms and mostly involved independently at the processing, preservation and marketing levels more than at the production level. About 49.0% of the respondents did not have any formal education while 51.0% were literates who have access to intermediate farm technology. The mean years of okra production experience is 16.91 years and the mean okra farm size is 3.64 acres with standard deviation of 2.58 acres. All the respondents practiced mixed cropping where other crops such as yam, banana, pineapples, cassava and others were planted with okra. Land preparation for okra production includes land clearing, ploughing, harrowing and heaping or ridging. About 80.0% of the okra farmers used cutlass and hoe regularly, which might have been responsible for okra production at subsistence or small-scale level. Only 20.0% of the okra farmers employed use of tractor. Majority of the farmers hired labour to supplement family labour. The mean persons day of family labour was 6.03 and that of hired labour was 1.25 persons day. Processing and preservation are carried out using traditional techniques of slicing, sun drying and grinding (using mortar and pestle. Sliced and dried okra are stored in gourd, basket and clay-pots. Fresh okra are put in basket lined with leave for maximum of three days during which it is marketed on retail and wholesale basis. Okra is consumed fresh and dried mostly to make draw soup by 81.0% of the respondents. Positive and significant relationships existed between socioeconomic characteristics of respondents investigated and total yield of okra produced. The r-value for variable related to land preparation and operation are low, between r = 0.234 and r = 0.470. The r-value of variables related to farm size and output (yield are very high between r = 0.550 and r = 0.922, which spelt out a situation tending towards a perfect relationship. There is also sharp difference in the r-value of farm size for okra (0.922 and farm size for other crops (0.550. It therefore means that okra yield depends on the size of the farm.

A.J. Farinde

2006-01-01

196

Simultaneous determination of seven active flavonols in the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot by HPLC.  

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A high-performance liquid chromatography method is developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven flavonols, namely quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, and quercetin, in the flower of Abelmoschus manihot. These seven flavonols are selected as chemical markers because they are the major pharmacologically active constituents in the flower. The method involves the use of a Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL reversed-phase column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) at 25 degrees C with a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous H(3)PO(4) as the mobile phase and detection at 370 nm. The recovery of the method is 94.31-107.08% with an RSD 0.9996) is obtained for all the flavonoids. The current assay method can be readily utilized for the determination of the flavonols present in the flower and is considered to be suitable for the quality control of A. manihot samples. The comparison of flowers collected from nine locations shows that flavonoid glucoside is more stable than aglycon in the flower. This is the first study that analyzes the stability of flavonoids in the flower of A. manihot. This research also provides important evidence that the flower is a potentially abundant resource for obtaining hibifolin. PMID:19298707

Lai, Xianyin; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin

2009-03-01

197

Response of young plants to mercury. [Pennisetum typhoideum, Medicago sativa L. var. Raska, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. var. Pusa-savni  

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Young individuals of three plant species viz., Pennisetum typhoideum Stapf. var. PHB-14, Medicago sativa L. var. Raska and Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. var. Pusa-savni, were tested for their response to Hg. All of them were found to be affected, Pennisetum being the most sensitive, followed by Medicago and Abelmoxchus in that order. The visible injury to leaves of plants, chlorophyll content and total dry matter was found to be affected in proportion to the metal doses administered. Measurement of Leaf Injury Index (LII) as a simple parameter of the susceptibility of the species is discussed.

Mhatre, G.N.; Chaphekar, S.B.

1984-01-01

198

Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review.  

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A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable) was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature. PMID:22624073

Zin, Thant; Maw, Myat; Pai, Dinker Ramananda; Paijan, Rosaini Binti; Kyi, Myo

2012-05-16

199

Further evidence reveals that okra mottle virus arose from a double recombination event.  

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As a result of surveys of okra begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) conducted over the last five years in Central Brazil, we report the complete genome sequence of an isolate of okra mottle virus (OMoV). The DNA-A and DNA-B components were 2660 and 2653 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and they were most closely related to the DNA-A (~99 % nt identity) and DNA-B (~98 % nt identity) components of an OMoV isolate from a soybean plant. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on these sequences, and it was shown that both of the OMoV DNA components were grouped in a branch with Brazilian begomoviruses known to infect weeds. By recombination analysis, strong evidence was observed that the OMoV genome may have been the product of a double inter-species recombination event. PMID:22941555

Albuquerque, Leonardo C; Aranha, Silvia A; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

2013-01-01

200

Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus  

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Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 ?m. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 ?m pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

Mohammed Jurial Baloch

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Use of Biocontrol Fungi with Carbofuran in the Control Of Root Knot Nematodes in Okra  

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Full Text Available Use of biocontrol fungi viz, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Talaromyces flavus alone or mixed with carbofuran significantly (P<0.05 reduced root knot indices on okra plants as compared to control. Maximum reduction in glass formation was observed in the treatments where carbofuran was used either with V. chlamydosporium or P. lilacinus. Greater increase in fresh weight of shoot was observed where P. lilacinus was used with carbofuran followed by the use of P. lilacinus alone.

M. J. Zaki

1998-01-01

202

Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.  

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The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 ?g/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 ?g/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 ?g/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers. PMID:23404549

Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

2013-09-01

203

Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments  

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The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments ...

Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.; Mcsorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

1998-01-01

204

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

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Full Text Available Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resulted in reduced nematode population, reduced galling, reduced nematode reproduction rate and enhanced fruit weight. Chemical analysis revealed that G. sepium leaves contained phenolic compound and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of aromatic amide, phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. L. leucocephala leaves showed the presence of phenolic compound, aromatic amide and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. The results of this study suggest that leaf and root extracts of L. leucocephala and G. sepium at the rate of 40,000 mg / kg could be useful in root knot nematode management in vegetable beds.

Adekunle O.K.

2007-01-01

205

Genetics of the radiation-induced yellow vein mosaic disease resistance mutation in okra  

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The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. AFLP and MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 population revealed DNA fragments that are potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

206

An Evaluation of Four Soybean Varieties Intercropped with Okra in Owerri Ultisol South Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available An evaluation of four soybean varieties namely TGX 1440-IE, TGX 1485-1D, TGX 1805-17F and Samsoy I, intercropped with Okra NHAE 47-4 was conducted in the ultisol of Owerri south eastern, Nigeria in 2001 and 2002 cropping seasons. Samsoy I, was significantly different (p<0.05 in height, number of branches and economic yield from other soybean varieties studied. Again Samsoy I and TGX 1485-ID were significantly different (p<0.05 from TGX 1440-IE and TGX 1805-17F in terms of total dry matter yield (TDMY nodule weight (mg/plant and nodule number, indicating a high potential for N-fixation in the Owerri ultisol. Okra showed no significant effect as it performed uniformly both in height, branching habit and economic yield. The highest economic yield (1.2 t ha-1 and monetary value (N78,500.00 ha-1 was obtained by intercropping Samsoy I+okra. The crop combinations were not effective in suppressing weeds, therefore care has to be taken to keep all plots weed-free.

I.I. Ibeawuchi

2005-01-01

207

Genetics of the Radiation-Induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. In an attempt to develop a DNA marker for YVMD-resistance, a BC1F1 and an F2 mapping population were generated from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a YVMD-susceptible variety. The populations were naturally inoculated with YVMD virus in the field at Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Pichit province, where the disease is widespread. Analysis of F1 and F2 progeny revealed the semi-dominant nature of the resistance which appeared to be caused by a single-locus mutation. MFLP fingerprintings of the F2 and the BC1F1 populations revealed a DNA fragment that is potentially linked to the mutation. In addition to the visual assessment of YVMD, a PCR method was developed for the assay of the presence of YVMD virus in leaf tissues. Sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments confirmed the presence of okra YVMD virus in the infected leaf tissues in susceptible plants. (author)

208

Functional effects of dried okra powder on reconstituted dried yam flake and sensory properties of ojojo-a fried yam (Dioscorea alata L.) snack.  

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Processing of raw yam (D. alata) tuber (RY) to more stable and instant form could ease the tedium in preparation, increase popularity and commercial potential of ojojo-a fried yam snack. In this study, the potential of dried okra powder (1%-5%) to reduce the sensory quality impairment in ojojo made from instant yam (D. alata) flake (YF) was tested. Inclusion of okra powder significantly increased the viscosity and increased dispersibility of reconstituted yam flour. Addition of okra powder significantly (p?okra consistently improved the sensory acceptability of ojojo by increasing the product's moistness and fluffiness with reduced crispiness and roughness. In conclusion, addition of 0%-2% of okra powder to reconstituted YF produced ojojo samples which compared favourably with those made from RY in terms of colour, flavour and taste. PMID:24493896

Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi; Olaitan, Ololade Funke

2014-02-01

209

Comparative Effect of Insecticide and Blue Polythene Hanging on the Incidence and Severity of Okra Mosaic in the Growth of Okra Plant  

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Full Text Available A field study was conducted to compare the efficacy of blue polythene hanging over the plant and spraying insecticide in reducing incidence and severity of okra mosaic under natural inoculated condition. Size of blue polythene strip was 0.04x3.5 m2 and six polythene strips were used per plot and the recommended dose of insecticide was 454 ml per acre. Blue polythene strips and insecticide reduced the infection of okra mosaic virus. The number of disease infected plants per plot and mosaic infected leaves per plant were the lowest and number of leaves per infected plant and plant height was the highest in the plots, where blue polythene strips were hanged and insecticide was sprayed followed by the spraying of insecticide and hanging of blue polythene strips. The number of disease infected plants per plot and mosaic infected leaves per plant were the highest and number of leaves per infected plant and plant height was the lowest in the control plots.

Md. Fazlul Haque

2002-01-01

210

Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  

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Full Text Available Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.. Seed shape, size and colour as well as outer epidermal cell patterns as seen by SEM, anticlinal cell boundaries and periclinal cell walls sculpture allow the recognition of two distinct groups among studied taxa. Seed coat features indicated both intra-group and inter-group relationships. Recognized groupings do not correspond well with the classical treatments of the Malvaceae, rather they suggest restructuring of tribal and generic taxonomy in the family. One important conclusion of this study is the inclusion of Lavatera cretica L. in the genus Malva as M. linnaei, M. F. Ray.

Salah M. I. El Naggar

2001-01-01

211

Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

Ikoni Ogaji

2011-01-01

212

Pomegranate seeds  

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This pomegranate has many seeds inside. These seeds are surrounded individually by red fruit. Some fruits also have many seeds, but all of the seeds are surrounded by the fruit instead of individually, like in an apple.

Peter N/A (None;)

2005-01-01

213

Okra polysaccharide improves metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  

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Okra is a tropical vegetable that is rich in polysaccharides. Here, we investigated the effects of okra polysaccharide (OP) on metabolic disorders in mice. We found that OP lowered body weight and glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased serum total cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. OP regulated the gene expression of liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in the liver and the adipose tissue of the mice. These results suggest that OP may have therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases via the inhibition of LXR and PPAR signaling. PMID:23894043

Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yang, Baican; Huang, Cheng

2013-11-01

214

Competitividad productiva de cuatro híbridos de Okra en fechas de siembra en el norte de Tamaulipas / Productive Competitiveness of four Okra Hybrids in Planting Dates in Northern Tamaulipas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La principal región productora de okra en México es el norte de Tamaulipas, la producción anual se divide en dos períodos: siembras "tempranas" de febrero a marzo y "tardías" de abril a mayo. La variedad de okra 'Clemson Spineless 80' es de uso generalizado. Para conocer su competitividad productiva [...] , se evaluaron los híbridos PX41596, PX41696, Cajun Delight y Cajun Delisht, en cuatro fechas de siembra en 1998 (26 de febrero, 18 de marzo, 17 de abril y 11 de mayo) y 1999 (1 y 20 de marzo, 19 de abril y 11 de mayo), en Río Bravo, Tamaulipas, México. Los híbridos utilizados superaron a la variedad Clemson Spineless 80 en producción precoz (primer mes de cosecha) y producción total en 227 y 29%, respectivamente. Se observó mayor contenido de clorofila en fruto y follaje en los híbridos PX41596 y PX41696, características interrelacionadas (R²= 0.77* *). El mayor rendimiento precoz de fruto se obtuvo en la siembra "temprana" de 1998 y 1999 (3101 kg ha-¹, promedio). Para el rendimiento total (14 975 kg ha-¹) y altura de planta (112.8 cm), destacaron las siembras de 26 de febrero de 1998 y 1 de marzo de 1999. En 1999 se registraron mayores valores en: rendimiento precoz (3172 kg ha-¹), total (16 501 kg ha-¹), altura de planta (99 cm) y período de cosecha (13 a 15 semanas). Se determinaron asociaciones positivas entre rendimiento precoz de fruto y rendimiento total (r= 0.60 **), y entre rendimiento total y altura de planta (r= 0.85**). Los híbridos estudiados mostraron mayor productividad que la variedad Clemson Spineless 80. Abstract in english The main okra producing area in Mexico is northern Tamaulipas. In this region yearly production occurs in two periods, an early sowing period from February to March, and a late sowing period from April to May. In this region cultivars of the Clemson Spineless 80 type are widely grown. The yield of o [...] kra hybrids PX41596, PX41696, Cajun Delight and Cajun Delisht, was evaluated in four planting dates in 1998 (Feb 26, Mar 18, Apr 17, and May 11) and 1999 (March 1st and 20th, April 19, and May 11), at Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. In comparison with cv. Clemson Spineless 80, early fruit yield (first month of harvest production) and total fruit yield of the hybrids was significantly superior in 227 and 29%, respectively. The highest fruit and foliar chlorophyll content were observed in hybrids PX41596 and PX41696, both traits were correlated (R²= 0.77**). In both years, the highe st early fruit yield (3101 kg ha-¹) was obtained in the early sowing period. The February 26, 1998 and March 1 st, 1999 sowing dates, gave the highest total fruit yield (14 975 kg ha-¹) and the higher plant height (112.8 cm). The highest values of early fruit yield (3172 kg ha-¹), total fruit yield (16 501 kg ha-¹), plant height (99 cm), and harvest period (13 to 15 weeks) were registered in 1999. Positive correlations were found between early and total fruit yield (r= 0.60* *), and between total fruit yield and plant height (r= 0.85**). The okra hybrids tested had a higher productivity than the cv. Clemson Spineless 80.

Arturo, Díaz Franco; Alfredo Sergio, Ortegón Morales; José Alberto, Ramírez de León.

215

Growth and Yield of Okra with Rock-Phosphate – Amended Organic Fertilizer  

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Full Text Available Phosphorous supply from organic manures for okra production can be insufficient for optimal fruit yield. The growth and yield of okra (Variety: NHAe 47-4 were assessed in field experiments with an organic fertilizer made from cowdung (CD, fortified with Ogun Rock Phosphate (ORP. The ORP was applied sole at 100 kg ha-1 and also with each of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 t ha-1 cowdung. There was a standard check of NPK 20-10-10 applied 2 weeks after planting at 400 kg ha-1 and an unfertilized control., Average number of leaves per plant, stem diameter and plant height were all similar, with 4 weeks growth. Average plant leaf area was however higher with ORP added to either 7.5 or 10.0 t ha-1 CD, relative to either sole ORP or the unfertilized treatments. At 8 weeks after planting, plant height was highest with 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP and was comparable only with plants from 7.5 t ha-1 CD + ORP application. Plant stem girths were similar with all ORP applications. Number of leaves per plant and average leaf area were highest with 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP. Applications of 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 t ha-1 CD + ORP had comparable leaf areas. Application of 10.0 t ha-1 CD + ORP gave the highest okra fruit yield which was comparable with yields from 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 t ha-1 CD +ORP that ranged from 2.92 to 3.05 t ha-1. Pod length and pod circumference were significantly higher with ORP + 10.0 or 7.5 t ha-1 CD. Plants from the unfertilized control treatment had significantly shorter pods with lower circumference than all the fertilized plants. Okra fruit yield is significantly increased with organic fertilizer fortification with ORP.

Eyitayo A. Makinde

2013-09-01

216

7 CFR 301.52 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.  

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...equipment. (9) Kenaf, including all parts of the plants. (10) Okra, including all parts of these plants, except: (i) Canned or frozen okra; or (ii) Okra seed; and (iii) Fresh, edible fruits of okra: (A) During...

2010-01-01

217

Determination of enzymes from Colletotrichum sp. AHU9748 essential for lepidimoide production from okra polysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The allelopathic substance lepidimoide (Lp), which exhibits multiple functions in the growth and development of plants, was produced by Colletotrichum sp. AHU9748 from okra polysaccharide. Okra polysaccharide has the repeating structure (1-->4)-O-alpha-(d-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-->2)-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranose in its hexasaccharide repeating unit of its main chain. To determine the enzymes essential for Lp production, the supernatant of a culture broth was fractionated by repeated column chromatographies to identify two serial fractions responsible for Lp production and non-Lp production by measuring Lp production together with beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), rhamnogalacturonan lyase (RG-lyase) and acetylesterase (AE) activities, which we hypothesized to be necessary for Lp production from the structure of Lp. We confirmed the presence of these three enzymatic activities in the highest-Lp-producing fraction. The addition of purified RG-lyase to fractions producing no or a small amount of Lp demonstrated that beta-gal and RG-lyase activities are necessary for Lp production. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three separated proteins on SDS-PAGE confirmed the presence of enzymes identical to beta-gal, RG-lyase and AE in the Lp-producing fractions. PMID:17189174

Saranpuetti, Chayaporn; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

2006-11-01

218

Inheritance of Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance, a Mutant Phenotype from Gamma Radiation Mutagenesis in Okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) is one of the major diseases affecting export-grade okra production in Thailand. YVMD-resistant B4610 mutant was generated through gamma irradiation of the Okura variety of okra. This study aimed at determining the inheritance of YVMD resistance from B4610 through genetic analysis. Segregation analysis of the F2 and BC1F1 progeny from the cross between B4610 and Pichit 03, a susceptible variety, indicated that YVMD resistance phenotype resulted from a single locus mutation (p > 0.05). In addition, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to aid in the assignment of YVMD resistance phenotype. Combinations of primers AV1F1 or AV1F2 with AV1R1 successfully amplified a DNA fragment from infected susceptible individuals but not from resistant individuals. DNA sequencing of the PCR product confirmed the identity of AV1 gene belonging to the yellow vein mosaic virus

219

Influence of Sowing Time, Plant Spacing and Picking Interval on the Growth and Yield of Okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was under taken to find out the effect of sowing time; spacing and picking interval on yield and yield components of okra (BARI Dherosh-1. Green pod yield was significantly higher when crop was sown on April (18.92 t ha 1 than March sown crop (16.24 t ha 1. Significantly highest yield (20.99 t ha 1 was recorded at closer spacing (60 x 30 cm2 than wider spacings. Yield was gradually decreased with increasing picking interval. Higher yield was obtained at 2 days picking interval (21.74 t ha 1, which was statistically similar to 3 days picking interval (19.53 t ha 1. Interaction among the effects of sowing times, spacing and picking interval on yield and yield components were found significant except interaction of sowing time with picking interval. The results showed that 2 or 3 days picking interval with closer spacing (60 x 30 cm2 sown in April were found higher yield (24.94 and 23.79 t ha 1, respectively in okra (var. BARI Dherosh-1.

M.A.H. Talukder

2003-01-01

220

Bioadhesive okra polymer based buccal patches as platform for controlled drug delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, polysaccharide from the Okra fruits (Hibiscus esculentus) was extracted, characterized and explored for its mucoadhesive potential. Mucoadhesive films of okra polymer (OP) were prepared by solvent casting method based on 3(2) factorial design. For these studies, OP (2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, w/v) and glycerol (plasticizer) (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, v/v) were taken as independent variables while tensile strength, mucoadhesive strength, contact angle, swelling index and residence time as dependent variables. The developed films were evaluated for their physicochemical, mechanical and electrical properties. The formulated films were found to be smooth, flexible, and displayed adequate mucoadhesive and tensile strength. Their near neutral pH and negative hemolytic studies indicated their non-irritability and biocompatible nature with biological tissues. The formulation comprising of 3% OP and 0.5% glycerol (F8) was found to exhibit optimum mechanical properties. Further, optimized film was loaded with zolmitriptan (model drug) to determine its drug release profiles. In vitro and ex vivo drug release studies demonstrated a controlled release of zolmitriptan over a period of 8h in simulated salivary fluid (SSF) pH 6.8, with the correlation coefficient values indicating its non-Fickian kinetics. Thus, OP can be used as a promising biomaterial for controlled drug delivery. PMID:25036601

Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Deepinder; Brar, Vivekjot

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of management practices on nematode and fungi populations and okra yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra was grown in field plots of Tifton loamy sand naturally infested with the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemoides ornalus and the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Plots were treated with various soil pesticides and left exposed or covered with biodegradable paper film mulch under trickle irrigation. Soil was assayed for nematodes and fungi, and plant roots were examined for root-rot and insect damage. Fewer nematodes and fungi generally were recovered from soil treated with DD-MENCS (with and without film mulch) or methyl bromide-chloropicrin (2:1) (MBC) and film mulch than from nontreated soil. Funfigation with DD-MENCS or MBC suppressed populations of M. incognita, C. ornatus, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Ethoprop (alone or combined with other pesticides), sodium azide, and chloroneb were less effective than DD-MENCS and MBC. Plant growth anti yield were greatest when nematodes and pathogenic fungi were controlled. Yield was increased 3-fold by DD-MENCS + film mulch or MBC + film mulch in comparison with the average yield of okra produced in Georgia. The root-knot nematode-Fusarium wilt complex was most severe in nonfuntigated soil. PMID:19305580

Johnson, A W; Sumner, D R; Jaworski, C A; Chalfant, R B

1977-04-01

222

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ASCORBATE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON OKRA (Hibiscus esculents L.) GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of drought stress was investigated at water potentials of-0.2 &-0.4 MPA (by using PEG 6000) on okra germination and seedling growth. In this study, percent germination, average time necessary for germination in day, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of okra seedlings were measured. Effect of ascorbate and salicylic acid and interaction of these tow substances were investigated on germination and seedling growth under normal condition and dry conditions. Drought inhabits ...

Amin Baghizadeh; Mahmood Hajmohammadrezaei

2011-01-01

223

Diversidade genética em quiabeiro baseada em marcadores RAPD / Genetic diversity in okra using RAPD markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a utilização de marcadores RAPD para estimar a diversidade em 42 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus e um de Hibiscus. As estimativas das distâncias genéticas foram feitas com base no complemento aritmético do Índice de Jaccard. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise multivariada, através de a [...] grupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e método de Tocher, para estudar os arranjos dos grupos de genótipos, bem como analisar os métodos de agrupamentos empregados. Trinta e um iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar fragmentos de DNA pela reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) e foram gerados 103 fragmentos RAPD. O agrupamento hierárquico dos 43 genótipos com base no método do vizinho mais próximo separou os acessos, de modo geral, conforme as espécies botânicas, formando 6 grupos distintos. Isto foi confirmado pela projeção das distâncias genéticas no plano bidimensional, onde o primeiro e maior dos grupos reuniu os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. Por outro lado, o método de Tocher reuniu 90% do germoplasma no grupo I incluindo, neste, os acessos de A. moschatus e A. manihot, além das outras duas espécies anteriores. O método de otimização de Tocher permitiu a formação de apenas 4 grupos de genótipos, mostrando-se coerente apenas em parte à análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Porém, o reagrupamento dos acessos do grupo I de Tocher pelo método hierárquico, revelou a existência de maior heterogeneidade genética no germoplasma estudado. Abstract in english RAPD markers were utilized to estimate the diversity among 42 Abelmoschus and 1 Hibiscus accessions . The genetic distances were based on the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. For this purpose we used the multivariate analysis technique by hierarchycal single linkage and the Tocher methods [...] to obtain the genotypes agglomeration as well as to analyze the methods employed. Thirty-one random decamer primers were used do amplify DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 103 RAPD fragments were generated. The hierarchycal method of single linkage has separated 43 genotypes, in a general way, according to the botanical species, forming six different groups. The genetic distances projection on the bidimentional level confirmed that the first and largest group has united A.esculentus and A. caillei accessions.On the other hand, the Tocher method grouped 90% of the germoplasm at group I, including A. moschatus and A. manihot accessions, besides the other two previous species. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of just 4 genotype groups. There was only partial coherence to the hierarchycal grouping analysis. The Tocher group I accessions regrouping by the hierarchycal method revealed the existence of a most important genetic heterogenity on the studied germplasm.

Gilmar E., Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; Antônio T. do, Amaral Júnior; Messias G., Pereira; Rogério F., Daher.

224

Produção de milho-verde em resposta ao efeito residual da adubação orgânica do quiabeiro em cultivo subsequente / Residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on the production of green corn in a subsequent cultivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A rotação de culturas é uma prática essencial, no cultivo de hortaliças, para controle de pragas e doenças e tem sido usada, também, visando ao aproveitamento dos resíduos de adubação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual da adubação orgânica, aplicada na cultura do quiabo [...] , sobre o rendimento de espigas de milho-verde em cultivo subsequente. O quiabeiro foi plantado com duas populações de plantas e adubado com biofertilizante líquido de suínos, nas doses: 0, 6, 12, 24, e 48 m³ ha-1. Após a retirada dos restos culturais do quiabeiro, sementes de milho híbrido AG 1051 e da variedade UFVM 100 foram semeadas, em linhas duplas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,40 m e 0,25 m entre plantas após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois cultivares de milho e resíduo de cinco doses de biofertilizante. O resíduo da adubação com biofertilizante de suínos em quiabeiro não foi suficiente para nutrir as plantas de milho-verde; consequentemente obteve-se baixa produtividade comercial. O plantio do milho-verde em sucessão ao quiabeiro, visando à rotação de culturas e aproveitamento de resíduos orgânicos, é promissor, sendo necessária adubação complementar de cobertura, para suprimento de N e K. O híbrido AG 1051 apresentou maior altura de plantas, número e produtividade de espigas comerciais despalhadas e peso médio de espigas comerciais. A variedade UFVM100 apresentou maior teor de P e K nas folhas, número de espigas com palha, número e produtividade de espigas não comerciais despalhadas. Abstract in english Crop rotation is an essential practice in vegetable production to control pests and diseases and it has also been used to recover residual fertilizer. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of organic fertilization of okra on yield of green corn ears in a subsequent cultivation. Okra was so [...] wn in two plant populations and fertilized with liquid swine biofertilizer at the rates: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m³ ha-1. After removing the crop from the area, corn seeds of hybrid AG 1051 and variety UFVM 100 were sown in double lines, at the spacing of 1.0x0.40 m, with 0.25 m between plants after thinning. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with two corn cultivars and five rates of liquid swine biofertilizer. The residual fertilizer of the swine biofertilizer applied to okra was insufficient to meet green corn crop requirements, hence a lower commercial yield was recorded. Green corn cultivated in succession to okra aiming at crop rotation and utilization of residual organic fertilization is a promising practice, but supply of N and K through supplemental fertilizing by top-dressing of biofertilizer is necessary. The hybrid AG 1051 showed higher plant height, number and yield of commercial ears without straw and mean weight of non-commercial ears. The variety UFVM100 showed higher P and K contents in the leaves, number of ears with straw, number and yield of commercial ears without straw.

Marlei Rosa dos, Santos; Maria Aparecida Nogueira, Sediyama; Izabel Cristina dos, Santos; Luís Tarcísio, Salgado; Sanzio Mollica, Vidigal.

225

Persistence of propargite on okra under subtropical conditions at Ludhiana, Punjab, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residues of propargite were estimated in okra fruits by high performance liquid chromatography following single application of Omite 57 EC @570 and 1,140 g a.i./ha. Residues of propargite were confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography. The average initial deposits of propargite were observed to be 1.36 and 3.32 mg/kg, respectively, which were below its maximum residue limit of 2 mg/kg. The residue levels of propargite dissipated below its limit of quantification of 0.02 mg/kg after 7 days at single dose and after 10 days at double dose. The half-life values (T ?(/)?) of propargite were worked out to be 0.79 and 0.73 days, respectively, at recommended and double the recommended dosages. PMID:20697883

Kang, B K; Jyot, Gagan; Sharma, R K; Battu, R S; Singh, B

2010-10-01

226

Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

Amer-Zareen

1999-01-01

227

Identification of DNA Fragments that Showed Linkage to the Radiation-induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease resistant mutant of okra was crossed to Pichit 03, a susceptible variety. Their progeny showed prolonged resistance when compared with Pichit 03. DNA fingerprints of F2 and BC1F1 individuals from the cross indicated that most DNA bands did not segregate with either the resistance or the susceptible characteristics. Nonetheless, polymorphic DNA bands could be identified between the mutant and Okura, the parental variety

228

Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo / Periods of weed interference in okra crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos cresce [...] ntes de 0 (testemunha), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE), com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo. Abstract in english Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check), 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 [...] , and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE) with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

L.P.S, Bachega; L.B, Carvalho; S, Bianco; A.B, Cecílio Filho.

229

New Matrix Tablet from Okra Gum: Effects of Method of Preparation and Gum Concentration on Tablet Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of methods of preparation and concentration of gum on the compressional and mechanical properties of Okra gum matrix. The compressional behavior of Okra gum matrices prepared by direct compression and wet granulations is analyzed using density measurements, Heckel and Kawakita analysis while the mechanical properties of the formulations were assessed using crushing strength (CS and friability (FR as well as CSFR ratio. Formulations prepared by direct compression had lower Pk values than those prepared by wet granulation while there was no significant difference between Py values of formulations prepared by direct compression and wet granulations. Therefore, formulations prepared by direct compression underwent plastic deformation more easily and rapidly than those prepared by wet granulation. The results show that DB values increased with decrease in concentration of the gum and granules undergo higher degree of fragmentation than powders. Formulations containing 90% w/w Okra gum exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation and gave the best packing. Tablets prepared by direct compression showed lower bond strength and higher friability values than those prepared by wet granulations. The crushing strength generally decreases with a decrease in the concentration of the gum while there was an inverse relationship between friability and gum concentration. CSFR decreases with a decrease in gum concentration and tablets prepared by wet granulations showed significantly higher values of CSFR (p

Bakre Lateef Gbenga

2013-09-01

230

Microbial, Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Traditional Sundried Okra (Orunla in Selected Markets in South-Western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial load and evaluate the nutritional content and sensory property of traditional sun dried okra (“orunla” - Yoruba, Nigeria. Samples were purchased from four different markets at different time in South-western Nigeria. Microorganisms present in the samples were analyzed on nutrient agar, potato dextrose agar and malt extract. Proximate evaluation of the sun dried okra was also carried out to determine the protein, ascorbic acid, ash and crude fibre contents. Nutritional evaluation revealed considerable amount of measured nutrient without significant difference (p>0.05 inspite of the time and place of purchase. Sensory evaluation of the samples showed that they were generally acceptable to a taste panel. Microbial study identified Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergills tamari, Fusarium compactum, Rhizopus nigricans and Bacillus lichiniforms as some of the microorganisms present in the sun-dried vegetable. This study thus, suggested that sun-dried okra could be consumed but when processed under control microbial condition.

O.C. Aworh

2012-01-01

231

Identification of a disease complex involving a novel monopartite begomovirus with beta- and alphasatellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Oman.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is an important viral disease of okra in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is caused by begomovirus-satellite complexes. A begomovirus and associated betasatellite and alphasatellite were identified in symptomatic okra plants from Barka, in the Al-Batinah region of Oman. Analysis of the begomovirus sequences showed them to represent a new begomovirus most closely related to cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV), a begomovirus of African origin. The sequences showed less than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to CLCuGeV isolates. The name okra leaf curl Oman virus (OLCOMV) is proposed for the new virus. Further analysis revealed that the OLCOMV is a recombinant begomovirus that evolved by the recombination of CLCuGeV isolates with tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Oman (TYLCV-OM). An alpha- and a betasatellite were also identified from the same plant sample, which were also unique when compared to sequences available in the databases. However, although the betasatellite appeared to be of African origin, the alphasatellite was most closely related to alphasatellites originating from South Asia. This is the first report of a begomovirus-satellite complex infecting okra in Oman. PMID:24287711

Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Akhtar J; Singh, Achuit S; Briddon, Rob W

2014-05-01

232

Seed Size  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners collect, arrange, and draw various seeds from smallest to biggest. They also estimate how many of the smallest would fit into the biggest. In addition, learners predict how many seeds they would find inside an apple or lemon, and cut open these fruits to check their prediction against the real seed count. The Did You Know section describes the biggest and smallest seeds on Earth.

Science, Lawrence H.

2007-01-01

233

Designer Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity students examine a variety of seeds, describe them, and determine how they are dispersed. Students investigate seed dispersal mechanisms. Students, working in pairs, create and test a wind dispersed seed that they have designed themselves. Students are limited to using a single piece of white paper, one lima bean to represent a seed, tape and scissors. Seeds are tested by dropping them in front of a window fan and recording the distance they travel. Repeat trials are conducted, averages calculated, and class data recorded. Students examine the features of successful seeds and redesign their seed to try to increase the distance it can be carried by wind. Results are analyzed and comparisons made to natural phenomena.

Frank Taylor (Radford High School REV)

1995-06-30

234

Field Efficacy of CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis Biopesticide to Control Helicoverpa armigera (H?bner and Earias vitella (Fabricius in Okra Crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CAMB Bacillus thuringiensis formulation and two other commercial Bt formulations (Agree and Larvo Bt were tested on Okra fields to control two lepidopteran pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vitella. CAMB Bt formulation was tested from 250-g/h dose to 1500 g/h dose to see the efficacy against target insect pests. Commercial Bt formulations, Agree and Larvo Bt were used as standard with one dose of 1000 g/h. All microbial insecticides successfully controlled H. armigera and E. vitella larvae in okra field. The efficacy of locally developed Bt formulation was promising in comparison to Agree and Larvo BT.

Shahid Karim

2000-01-01

235

Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

236

Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. PMID:25040189

Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

2014-08-01

237

Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of okra pod hydrocolloid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed to extract the hydrocolloid from okra pods (OPH). The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction of OPH were determined by response surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (microwave power (X1: 100-500 W), extraction time (X2: 30-90 min), and extraction temperature (X3: 40-90 °C)) on the extraction yield of OPH. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the microwave extraction of OPH. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest recovery of OPH (14.911±0.27%) were as follows: microwave power, 395.56 W; extraction time, 67.11 min and extraction temperature, 73.33 °C. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed with the predicted ones by analysis of variance. It indicated high fitness of the model used and the success of response surface methodology for optimizing OPH extraction. After method development, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the OPH was evaluated. MAE showed obvious advantages in terms of high extraction efficiency and radical scavenging activity of extract within the shorter extraction time. PMID:23817104

Samavati, Vahid

2013-10-01

238

Traveling Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners make three different "seed" types and determine which design flies the farthest. Learners wad a piece of paper, wad a piece of tape, and make a paper helicopter to represent plant seeds. Learners measure and record the distance each seed travels. Use this activity to help learners practice measuring and recording data. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2014-09-19

239

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo / Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo fo [...] ram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido), tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC) por oito dias). Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1%) durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilizatio [...] n of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid), time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC) during eight days). On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1%) used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Marcelo Augusto G., Carnelossi; Paula, Yaguiu; Anita Caroline L., Reinoso; Gláucia Regina de O., Almeida; Moema L., Lira; Gabriel Francisco da, Silva; Vahideh R.R., Jalali.

240

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo foram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido, tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC por oito dias. Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1% durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento.This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilization of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid, time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC during eight days. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1% used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo / Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo fo [...] ram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido), tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC) por oito dias). Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1%) durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilizatio [...] n of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid), time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in cold chamber (5±2ºC) during eight days). On the basis of the sensorial evaluation, okra cuts with approximately 2 cm of thickness were more accepted. Among the concentrations of sanitization products, the treatment with concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of active chlorine during 10 minutes showed significant efficiency in the reduction of total coliforms, mesophiles aerobic, molds and yeast. The citric acid (1%) used during rinses, revealed themselves efficient in the withdrawal of the mucilaginous juice of immature pods. The time for okra centrifugation must be of 10 minutes. The PEAD packing with vacuum preserved the better quality of the minimum processing product. For the minimum processing of okra the following flowchart must be used: reception, selection, washing, cut, sanitization, rinse with acid, centrifugation, packing and storage.

Marcelo Augusto G., Carnelossi; Paula, Yaguiu; Anita Caroline L., Reinoso; Gláucia Regina de O., Almeida; Moema L., Lira; Gabriel Francisco da, Silva; Vahideh R.R., Jalali.

2005-12-01

242

Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L in a Sub-tropical Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD where 2.3.2 (22 an inorganic fertilizer was used as a control, and was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level of kraal manure there were significant (p<0.05 increases in all the growth parameters that were measured. There were also significant (p<0.05 differences of fresh mass and dry mass yield of wild okra. There was an increase in fresh and dry mass yield with every increase in application level of kraal manure while the least fresh and dry mass was recorded in plants provided with 2.3.2 (22. Kraal manure applied at 60 ton/ha gave the highest yield of wild okra under the conditions of this experiment.

Michael T. Masarirambi

2012-01-01

243

Formulation of Okra-natural Mucilage as Drag Reducing Agent in Different Size of Galvanized Iron Pipes in Turbulent Water Flowing System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of pumping power losses in pipelines carrying liquids and flowing in turbulent mode is one of the major challenges in the power saving field. Pumping power saving by the addition of minute quantities of additives to the main flow was applied in the present study. Natural drag reducing agent was prepared and extracted from okra fruit and it was tested in a closed loop of turbulence water flowing system. Flow tests were conducted using water as the carrying liquid. The experimental work starts by pumping water from reservoir tank that had mixed with mucilage was pumped with six different flow rates in two different pipe diameters (0.015, 0.025 m ID. The types of pipe used are galvanized iron pipe. The testing length of this flow system is 1.5 m. The aim of this study is to formulate and to test the efficiency of okra-natural mucilage as drag reducer agent on transport of water in pipes; different concentrations of mucilage (100, 300, 500, 700 and 1000 ppm were used. Six different flow rates were used in the purpose to investigate the flow rates effect. The efficiency of mucilage was tested using clear water. The results shows that, percentage drag reduction (Dr% increases by increasing the concentration of okra-natural mucilage. Maximum Dr% of 71% was obtained using 1000 ppm of okra-natural mucilage in water flow system.

R.B.M. Yunus

2010-01-01

244

Scattering Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students will: 1) Investigate how seeds are dispersed. 2) Understand the variety of seed dispersal that exists in the plant kingdom. 3) Understand how factors in the natural environment can effect how far a seed is dispersed. Included in this one to two day lesson plan are the objectives, needed materials, procedures, adaptations for older students, discussion questions, an evaluation, extensions, suggested reading, links to other sites, vocabulary, and academic standards. Students will collect a variety of seeds and design a wind-dispersed seed mechanism. They can click on a vocabulary word to hear its pronunciation and a sentence using the word. Teachers can purchase the video, The Private Life of Plants 5-Pack (Branching Out) and download comprehension questions and answers. They can link to Teaching Tools to create custom worksheets, puzzles, and quizzes. A printable version of this lesson plan can be downloaded.

Discoveryschool.com; Cahill, Mary

2007-01-01

245

TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE  

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Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que apresentou reduções em torno de 76,42%, Carbono Orgânico Total (COT 67,88%, fenóis totais 77,13% e nitrogênio amoniacal 34,63%. A metodologia de tratamento empregando Filtração Lenta e Fotocatálise demonstrou ser uma excelente opção de remediação de chorume.

Núbia Natália Brito

2010-01-01

246

Diversity and interactions of begomoviruses and their associated DNA-satellites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the diversity of begomovirus/DNA-satellite complexes, plants of one crop species (okra; Abelmoschus esculentus) and one weed species (Ageratum conyzoides), both with leaf curling symptoms, were analyzed. Sequence analyses of complete genome components revealed a unique begomovirus/DNA-satellite complex in both plants. Okra was found to harbor infection with viruses of three begomovirus species, including the new recombinant species Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus, as well as one betasa...

Sattar, Muhammad Naeem

2012-01-01

247

Organic cultivation of okra with ground cover of perennial herbaceous legumes / Cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O manejo da adubação verde com leguminosas herbáceas perenes tem se apresentado como prática interessante à produção de hortaliças, proporcionando melhorias no ambiente de cultivo e aumentando a produtividade das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o cultivo orgânico de quiabeiro [...] em solo coberto com leguminosas herbáceas perenes. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo cultivo do quiabeiro em solo descoberto (controle) ou coberto com cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides), soja perene (Glycine wightii), calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides), amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi) e estilosantes campo grande (Stylosanthes capitata e Stylosanthes macrocephala). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A roçada das leguminosas, realizada na véspera da semeadura do quiabeiro, possibilitou a adição de quantidades de massa seca às áreas de cultivo, destacando-se o potencial do cudzu tropical (3,74 t ha-1), soja perene (1,55 t ha-1) e amendoim forrageiro (1,30 t ha-1). Nos cultivos de quiabeiro em solo coberto com cudzu tropical e com soja perene foram observados os menores acúmulos de massa seca de plantas espontâneas, até os 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro. Aos 150 dias após a semeadura do quiabeiro, somente as áreas cobertas com amendoim forrageiro e com calopogônio apresentaram maiores volumes de água no solo em relação ao controle. Do início ao fim da colheita, as plantas de quiabeiro cultivadas em solo coberto com soja perene e com cudzu tropical apresentaram as maiores alturas. A produtividade máxima alcançada de frutos de quiabeiro (16,23 t ha-1), foi obtida no cultivo de quiabeiro em solo coberto com soja perene. Abstract in english The management of green manure with perennial herbaceous legumes has emerged as an interesting practice for vegetable production, improving the cultivation environment and increasing crop yields. In the present study we evaluated the organic okra cultivation in soil covered with perennial herbaceous [...] legumes. The treatments consisted of okra grown in bare soil (control) or covered with tropical kudzo (Pueraria phaseoloides), perennial soybean (Glycine wightii), calopogonium (Calopogonium muconoides), Pinto peanut (Arachis pintoi) and Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The weeding of legumes was realized before the okra was sown and this allowed the addition of quantities of dry matter, highlighting the potential of tropical kudzo (3.74 t ha-1), perennial soybean (1.55 t ha-1) and peanut (1.30 t ha-1). Okra cropped in soil covered with tropical kudzo and perennial soybean had the weed lowest dry matter accumulation until 150 days after sowing the okra. At 150 days after sowing the okra, only the areas covered with peanut and calopogonium had higher volumes of water in the soil compared to the control. Throughout the harvest, the okra plants grown in soil covered with perennial soybean and tropical kudzo showed the greatest heights. The maximum okra fruit yield (16.23 t ha-1) was obtained by growing okra in soil covered with perennial soybean.

Diego Mathias N da, Silva; Fábio Luiz, Oliveira; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Claudenir, Fávero; Mateus Augusto L, Quaresma.

248

Many Seeds: Estimating Hidden Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners will estimate how many seeds are in a fruit or vegetable, then count to find out. The result: mix estimation with healthy eating. Vary the level of difficulty by using different foods: for younger learners, choose something with up to about 15 seeds inside (e.g. apples, snow peas); for a medium level of difficulty, try melon slices or cucumbers; for more challenge, use pomegranates or mini-pumpkins. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

249

Effect of Some Insecticides on the Population of Insect Pests and Predators on Okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field study was carried out to determine the efficacy of different insecticides against different insect pests and their predators on okra crop during the year 2005. The treatments included four insecticides i.e., Confidor, Sundaphos, Polo and Mospilan and their efficacy was checked by a control plot (unsprayed. Pre-treatments population of the jassid, thrips, whitefly, mites, spiders, ants and beetles was managed and post treatments observations were recorded after 24, 48, 72 h, 7 and 14 days of insecticidal spray. The results showed that in controlling jassid, all the insecticides were significantly (p<0.01 effective but Confidor proved to be more effective as compared to Sundaphos, Polo and Mospilan, where jassid mean population was 1.20 plant-1 as compared to pre-treatment population of 7.78 plant-1, thrips 1.16 plant-1 as compared to pre-treatment population of 6.52 plant-1, whitefly 1.18 plant-1 as compared to pre-treatment population of 8.31 plant-1, mites controlled to the level of 2.42 plant-1 as compared 8.56 plant-1 (control. All the insecticides were almost equal in effects on the spiders and the mean spider population was 0.31, 0.30, 0.31, 0.38 plant-1 in plots sprayed with Confidor, Sundaphos, Polo and Mospilan, respectively and similar was the situation with population of ants where mean population was 0.33, 0.38, 0.35 and 0.35 plant-1 in plots sprayed with Confidor, Sundaphos, Polo and Mospilan, respectively. The insecticides sprayed all were harmful for the beetles and the mean population of beetles was 0.03, 0.06, 0.03 and 0.07 plant-1 in plots sprayed with Confidor, Sundaphos, Polo and Mospilan, respectively. However, Confidor and Polo were more harmful to beetles as compared to Sundaphos and Mospilan. All the insecticides were effective against jassid, thrips, whitefly and mites, but Confidor proved to be most effective equally against all the insect pests under study as compared to Sundaphos, Polo and Mospilan. Confidor also proved better than other insecticides, because the population of predators i.e., spiders, ants and beetles was less affected by Confidor application as compared to Sundaphos, Polo and Mospilan.

Bhai Khan Solangi

2007-01-01

250

Seed Catalogues  

Science.gov (United States)

The Smithsonian Institutions Libraries Web site currently features a unique collection of seed and nursery catalogs dating from 1830 to the present. Online visitors may view a portion of the exhibit, which offers a look at "the history of the seed and agricultural implement business in the United States, as well as provides a history of botany and plant research such as the introduction of plant varieties into the US." Although this site does include much material, gardeners and anyone else with a horticultural bent should enjoy a casual browse through the online exhibit.

251

Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats / Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi [...] realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle. Abstract in english In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was [...] undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.

Pritam S., Jain; Sanjay B., Bari.

252

Project SEED.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

1986-01-01

253

Mighty Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this biology experiment, learners plant soybean seeds in plaster of Paris, witnessing firsthand the mighty power and ability of plants to grow in adverse conditions. This is also an excellent activity to touch upon exothermic reactions, as warmth is created when the plaster is mixed.

Cosi

2009-01-01

254

Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPAR?, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

2014-07-01

255

Efeito de alguns herbicidas na cultura do quiabeiro, em testes efetuados em casa de vegetação / Effect of some herbicides on okra crop in trials performed in the greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Duas variedades de quiabeiro foram testadas, em condições de casa de vegetação, com solo de textura areno-barrenta, na sua tolerância para 16 herbicidas, cada qual aplicado em uma única dose. Dentre os herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado o triflu-ralin destacou-se no combate às ervas dan [...] inhas gramíneas e não causou nenhum dano para a planta do quiabeiro. Os herbicidas cloroxuron, linuron, norea e propachlor mostraram ótimos resultados no cambate às ervas más e quanto à tolerância dessa malvácea. Do grupo das triazinas, todos os herbicidas usados nas condições do teste provocaram danos para o quiabeiro. Abstract in english Two okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) varieties were tested for their tolerance to sixteen herbicides at one rate each, as a pre-planting and as a pre-emergence applications in greenhouse trials. The results with the incorporated herbicides showed that only tri-fluralin at 0,75 kg/ha active ingredient w [...] as promising to this crop. Different results were obtained with the pre-emergence applications of the group of urea and anilide herbicides. While no symptoms of injury were observed with chloroxuron, norea, linuron, and propachlor, injury symptoms were evident with diuron, fluometuron, metobromuron and siduron. The four triazine herbicides were very damaging to the okra plants. Under the conditions of these tests, only the herbicides trifluralin, chloroxuron, norea, and linuron were promising to the okra crop.

Aldo, Alves; Reinaldo, Forster.

256

Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11, catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6, glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1 which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied and concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively applied to plant in the soil shows a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the respective metal accumulation. It reveals a mechanism for constant detoxification of H2O2 that have to be associated with adaptations and ultimate survival of this plant species during stress conditions. A reduction of catalase activities was observed on exposure to these metals, which is supposedly due to the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Root length, shoot length, number of leaves showed an enhancement with 0.05 mM CdCl2 dose then a gradual decline with the increase in concentrations. The results indicate that A. esculentus is tolerant to high concentrations of these metals, a property related to a differential activation of its enzymatic antioxidant system, and also reveal that this species has a higher capacity of Cd absorption.

Asiya Hameed

2011-01-01

257

Seed Magazine  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed is an online (and print) magazine dedicated to increasing the scientific awareness and knowledge of the general public. The site is updated six days a week and features news articles, original-content articles on a variety of science topics, columns, and reviews. "Cribsheets," a downloadable feature, provide brief tutorials on scientific issues and innovations that may occur in everyday conversation. The magazine also features a collection of multimedia materials, such as podcasts, slide shows, and video content. The web site's main page features articles from the latest issue; back issues may be browsed by category, author, or date. Information about subscribing to the print version is also provided.

258

Effect of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Germination and Growth Performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench—A Widely Cultivated Vegetable Crop in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of crude oil-contaminated soil on the germination and growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus, a widely cultivated vegetable crop in Nigeria. The experiment was conducted in the Screen House, under controlled environmental conditions. The seedling emergence percentage, heights and girths were studied to determine the growth performance of the crop in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the investigation revealed that the crude oil-contaminated soil affects the growth performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. as hindered germination, reduced heights and girths were observed in the crop planted in treated soil and this adversely and severely affects the crop agronomic growth and development and probably its yield. Therefore, contamination of agricultural soils with crude oil should be avoided and public awareness should be created on the detrimental effects of crude oil pollution in our terrestrial ecosystem. Innovative and environmental-friendly remediation strategies should be carried out on our agricultural soils that have been grossly polluted by crude oil exploitation and exploration.

A. A. Oyedeji

2012-10-01

259

Differential activation of the enzymatic antioxidant system of Abelmoschus esculentus L. under CdCl2 and HgCl2 exposure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cadmium and Mercury induced varying responses in Abelmoschus esculentus L. in relation to enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1) which are most related to the levels of Hg and Cd applied a [...] nd concentrations of thiol groups already present or induced upon treatment. In the present investigation varying concentrations of CdCl2 and HgCl2 (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1 and 2mM respectively) applied to plant in the soil shows a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the respective metal accumulation. It reveals a mechanism for constant detoxification of H2O2 that have to be associated with adaptations and ultimate survival of this plant species during stress conditions. A reduction of catalase activities was observed on exposure to these metals, which is supposedly due to the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Root length, shoot length, number of leaves showed an enhancement with 0.05 mM CdCl2 dose then a gradual decline with the increase in concentrations. The results indicate that A. esculentus is tolerant to high concentrations of these metals, a property related to a differential activation of its enzymatic antioxidant system, and also reveal that this species has a higher capacity of Cd absorption.

Asiya, Hameed; Tabasum N., Qadri; , Mahmooduzzafar; T.O., Siddiqi; M., Iqbal.

260

Bean Seed Imbibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enables students to examine the time course for seed imbibition and the pressure generated by imbibing seeds. Provides background information, detailed procedures, and ideas for further investigation. (DDR)

Hershey, David R.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. PMID:25069743

Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

2014-09-12

262

Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless.This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

Wagner Ferreira da Mota

2008-06-01

263

Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil) / Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou identificar lepidópteros desfolhadores e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. As lagartas foram coletadas através de catação manual entre março e abril de 2009, individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido contendo ped [...] aços de folhas de quiabo e mantidas sob condições controladas (25±1°C, 12 horas de fotofase, 70±10% de UR) até a obtenção dos adultos de lepidópteros e/ou de seus parasitoides. Foram obtidos 63 adultos de lepidópteros: três espécies de Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), uma de Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) e uma de Tortricidae não identificada. Uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo (Diptera) e os Hymenoptera parasitoides Copidosoma floridanum Westwood (Encyrtidae), Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae) emergiram de A. flava e, C. floridanum e uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo, de P. includens. Este é o primeiro relato da associação entre S. frugiperda, P. includens e A. monuste orceis e seus parasitoides C. floridanum e Euplectrus sp. em plantas de quiabo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil). Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Pe [...] tri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10%) until the emergence of lepidopterans and/or parasitoids. In all, 63 lepidopterans were obtained: three species of Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker); one of Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart), and an unidentified species of Tortricidae. One unidentified tachinid fly (Diptera) and the Hymenoptera parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead) (Encyrtidae) and Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae) emerged from A. flava, while C. floridanum and an unidentified tachinid, from P. includens. This is the first report of an association between the herbivores S. frugiperda, P. includens and A. monuste orceis, the parasitoids C. floridanum and Euplectrus sp. on okra plants.

Rogéria Inês Rosa, Lara; Bruno Rafael, Spera; Danielle Roberta, Versuti; Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues, Fernandes; Terezinha Monteiro, Santos-Cividanes; Nelson Wanderley, Perioto.

264

How Seeds Travel  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will rotate around to 7 different stations to identify how the 7 presented seeds travel, whether it be by wind, water, or animal. They will then record it in their plant journals by illustrating the seed, listing its characteristics, and identifying the way in which it travels. Designer Seeds 7 Stations Coconut-Water Maple Seed- Wind Burdock (burrs) - Animals ...

Liston, Mrs

2009-11-09

265

Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra / Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus) há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de inj [...] úria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10 e 25ºC. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial, com comprimento entre 8 e 12 cm, sendo então envoltos por uma camada de filme de PVC em bandeja de poliestireno expandido, seguido do armazenamento até o aparecimento de sintomas de deterioração ou murcha. A redução da temperatura de armazenamento de 25 para 10 ou 5ºC diminuiu a perda de massa nos frutos envoltos com PVC e dos frutos controle, com menor taxa a 5ºC. Ao reduzir a temperatura para 5 ou 10ºC e cobrir com filme de PVC, o conteúdo relativo de água foi mantido durante o armazenamento, porém a 25ºC a elevada perda de massa esteve associada a significante redução do conteúdo de água do pericarpo do fruto. O aparecimento de sintomas de injúria por frio foi retardado pela presença de filme de PVC nos frutos armazenados a 5ºC. No entanto a 10ºC, não foram detectados sintomas de degeneração associados à injúria por frio nos frutos envoltos com PVC ou controle até o décimo dia de armazenamento. A taxa de degradação de clorofila durante o armazenamento foi menor nos frutos mantidos nas temperaturas mais baixas e com filme PVC. O aparecimento de sintomas severos de injúria por frio a 5ºC relacionou-se com o menor conteúdo de clorofila dos frutos controle, quando comparado àqueles envoltos em filme de PVC. Abstract in english Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus) for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the mo [...] st popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.

Fernando Luiz, Finger; Maria Edith, Della-Justina; Vicente Wagner Dias, Casali; Mário, Puiatti.

266

Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the most popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de injúria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10 e 25ºC. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial, com comprimento entre 8 e 12 cm, sendo então envoltos por uma camada de filme de PVC em bandeja de poliestireno expandido, seguido do armazenamento até o aparecimento de sintomas de deterioração ou murcha. A redução da temperatura de armazenamento de 25 para 10 ou 5ºC diminuiu a perda de massa nos frutos envoltos com PVC e dos frutos controle, com menor taxa a 5ºC. Ao reduzir a temperatura para 5 ou 10ºC e cobrir com filme de PVC, o conteúdo relativo de água foi mantido durante o armazenamento, porém a 25ºC a elevada perda de massa esteve associada a significante redução do conteúdo de água do pericarpo do fruto. O aparecimento de sintomas de injúria por frio foi retardado pela presença de filme de PVC nos frutos armazenados a 5ºC. No entanto a 10ºC, não foram detectados sintomas de degeneração associados à injúria por frio nos frutos envoltos com PVC ou controle até o décimo dia de armazenamento. A taxa de degradação de clorofila durante o armazenamento foi menor nos frutos mantidos nas temperaturas mais baixas e com filme PVC. O aparecimento de sintomas severos de injúria por frio a 5ºC relacionou-se com o menor conteúdo de clorofila dos frutos controle, quando comparado àqueles envoltos em filme de PVC.

Fernando Luiz Finger

2008-01-01

267

Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

268

Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

2014-10-01

269

Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro / Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David [...] e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David an [...] d Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

Wagner Ferreira da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Derly José Henriques da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia Pittol, Firme; Rosilene Antônio, Ribeiro.

2008-06-01

270

Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro / Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David [...] e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David an [...] d Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

Wagner Ferreira da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Derly José Henriques da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia Pittol, Firme; Rosilene Antônio, Ribeiro.

271

The Seed Biology Place  

Science.gov (United States)

This remarkable site was created by Professor Gerhard Leubner and his colleagues at the University of Freiburg in Germany. Here, visitors can take advantage of a veritable cornucopia of reference materials related to seed biology, such as diagrams and illustrations of seed germination, plant hormones, endosperm weakening, and seed dormancy. Neophytes may wish to start by looking at the Seed Structure and Anatomy area, which features a concise and well-written overview of the structure, anatomy, and morphology of mature seeds. The same section contains information on the seed structure of the castor bean and other legumes. Another fascinating section on the site is dedicated to Seed Evolution. Visitors can discover a wealth of information here, including such topics as the evolutionary trends of angiosperm seeds and the seed ferns of the Late Permian period. All told, the site is a wonderful resource, and visitors will want to share it with friends.

Leubner, Gerhard

2012-02-10

272

Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais / The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG) e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorre [...] ntes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.). As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s) espécie(s) e, ou da(s) raça(s) de Meloidogyne presente(s) nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2), seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3) e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2). A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp. Abstract in english Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG), and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematode [...] s (Meloidogyne spp.). The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2) prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3) and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2). The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2), malate dehydrogenase (N3), superoxide dismutase (N2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3). This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

Rosângela D' Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Marcelo Barreto da, Silva; Naylor Daniel da Costa, Aguiar; Fábio LK, Bérgamo; Alexandre Sylvio Vieira da, Costa; Lusinério, Prezotti.

273

Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais / The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG) e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorre [...] ntes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.). As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s) espécie(s) e, ou da(s) raça(s) de Meloidogyne presente(s) nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2), seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3) e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2). A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp. Abstract in english Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG), and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematode [...] s (Meloidogyne spp.). The main species of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2) prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3) and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2). The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2), malate dehydrogenase (N3), superoxide dismutase (N2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3). This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

Rosângela D' Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Marcelo Barreto da, Silva; Naylor Daniel da Costa, Aguiar; Fábio LK, Bérgamo; Alexandre Sylvio Vieira da, Costa; Lusinério, Prezotti.

2007-03-01

274

Seed Dispersal: Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

The guest scientist in this two-minute radio program discusses seed dispersal in plants. He first explains why it is important for seeds to be distributed away from the mother plant. Then he contrasts wind-dispersed seeds with animal-dispersed seeds, pointing out that animals can disperse larger seeds that contain more nutrients for an emerging seedling. The program, which is available here in audio and text, is part of a Pulse of the Planet series on seed dispersal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.

2007-08-02

275

7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section 201.18 Agriculture Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling...

2010-01-01

276

Modeling the Time Elapsing from Seed Sowing to Emergence in Some Vegetable Crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple regression model based on mean temperature was developed to be used for predicting the time elapsing from seed sowing to seedling emergence for some vegetable crops, namely tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., pepper (Capsicum annum, L., aubergine (Solanum melongena, L., pea (Pisum sativum, L., carrot (Daucus carota, L., sweat corn (Zea mays, cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.var. capitata (L Alef, cauliflower Brassica oleraceae L.var. botrytis L, onion (Allium cepa, L., celery (Apium graviolens, L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L., parsley (Petroselinum hortense , garden beet (Beta vulgaris, L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L., melon (Cucumis melo, L., runner bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Thunb., okra (Hibiscus esculentus, L., asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L., spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L., radish (Rhaphanus sativus, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The prediction performance of the model with respect to the data used was highly acceptable. R2 values of regression co-efficients for each crop varied from 0.94 to 0.99 depending on the species. Plotting the actual days from seed sowing to emergence for all the crops against the predicted ones showed that the prediction performance of the model was good explaining 98% of the variation for combined data from all the crops. The present model also predicted optimum temperatures (To for tried vegetables in the limits of acceptability.

Sezgin Uzun

2001-01-01

277

Mycoflora of sugar beet seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mycological analyses of three forms of sugar beet seeds: beet seed balls. polished seeds. coated balls, were carried out for assessing the sanitary conditions of the seed material.

M. Kowalik

1984-12-01

278

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2). At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis), which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determi...

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID; EDUARDO FONTES ARAÚJO; GLAUCO VIEIRA MIRANDA; DENISE CUNHA FERNANDES DOS SANTOS DIAS; JOÃO CARLOS CARDOSO GALVÃO; VERÔNICA CARNEIRO

2003-01-01

279

Needs of Seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

Keeley, Page

2011-01-01

280

Grape Seed Extract  

Science.gov (United States)

... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Grape Seed Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera grapes.jpg © Steven ... This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, what the science says, potential ...

 
 
 
 
281

Radon seed implants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon seeds, formerly used for vascular and neoplastic tumors, acne, and other dermatological disorders, are rarely, if ever, used today. Because the half-life of radon is 3.83 days, these hollow gold seeds filled with radon gas are usually left in situ permanently. A case is reported of a woman who had seeds implanted 33 years ago for a vascular lesion. The seeds were removed and found to have minute amounts of residual radiation but not sufficient to cause radiation damage. Since seeds are foreign bodies, removal is recommended if they are easily accessible. (U.S.)

282

7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed...transported and shall include noxious weed seeds. [5 FR 31, Jan. 4,...

2010-01-01

283

Efeito da temperatura e reação de genótipos de quiabeiro ao mofo branco / Effect of temperature and reaction of okra genotypes to white mold  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O quiabeiro é suscetível a várias doenças que podem causar prejuízos ao agricultor, caso não sejam manejadas. Objetivaram-se avaliar o efeito da temperatura e a reação de genótipos de quiabeiro ao mofo branco. Plantas de 30 dias inoculadas na região do colo, com e sem ferimento, com dois isolados de [...] Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, foram mantidas por duas semanas nas temperaturas de 15; 20; 25; 30 ou 35ºC. Quatorze genótipos de quiabeiro com um e dois meses de emergência, assim como frutos no ponto de colheita comercial tiveram seus comportamentos avaliados quanto à doença. Avaliaram-se a incidência de plantas com tombamento ou mortas e o comprimento da lesão nos frutos inoculados. A doença foi favorecida por temperaturas entre 15 e 20ºC e, de maneira geral, não foram observadas diferenças entre os isolados e influência do ferimento na ocorrência da doença. Não foram encontrados genótipos de quiabeiro resistentes ao mofo branco, pois todos apresentaram incidência superior a 30% de plantas mortas, sendo as plantas mais novas mais suscetíveis, e comprimento de lesão nos frutos >6,0 cm. Entretanto, diferenças de suscetibilidade entre os genótipos foram observadas em plantas de 30 e de 60 dias e podem ser informações úteis aos produtores para escolha de cultivares em clima ameno, assim como ser exploradas em programas de melhoramento. Abstract in english The okra plant is susceptible to several diseases that can cause losses to the farmer if not managed. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and the reaction of okra genotypes to white mold. Plants aged 30 days, inoculated in the collar region, injured or not, including two strains o [...] f Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were maintained for two weeks at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 or 35ºC. Fourteen okra genotypes at one and two months after emergence, as well as fruits at commercial harvest time, had their behavior evaluated for the disease. Damping-off or dead plants were evaluated, as well as the injure length in the inoculated fruits. The disease was favored by temperatures between 15 and 20ºC and, in general, no differences were observed between the isolates and the influence of the injury on the disease occurrence. There were no okra genotypes resistant to white mold, since all of them had more than 30% of incidence of dead plants; younger plants were more susceptible and the injure length in fruits was > 6.0 cm. However, differences in the susceptibility between genotypes were observed for plants aged 30 and 60 days, which could constitute useful information for producers in the choice of cultivars under moderate climate and could be explored in breeding programs.

Ivan Herman, Fischer; Mirian de Souza, Filetti; Juliana Cristina Sodário, Cruz; César Júnior, Bueno.

284

Water relations in seed biology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

Villela F. A.

1998-01-01

285

Sesame seed lignans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sesame seed has been an important oilseed since ancient times. It contains 25% protein and 50% oil. Sesame seed possesses many health promoting effects, some of which have been attributed to a group of compounds called lignans (sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol and sesamolinol). Sesame seed contains lignan aglycones in oil and lignan glucosides. Sesamin, the major sesame oil lignan, is known to reduce plasma cholesterol and to increase plasma ?-tocopherol in humans. This thesis aimed at investig...

Moazzami, Ali

2006-01-01

286

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

2003-12-01

287

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 2...

Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

2004-01-01

288

UTILIZATION OF VERMIWASH POTENTIAL ON CERTAIN SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of vermiwash on the growth, flowering and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus, lobia (Vigna unguiculata and radish (Raphnus sativus. Vermiwash was extracted from different vermicompost which was composted from different animal agro and kitchen wastes through earthworm Eisenia foetida. It was observed that treatment of vermiwash shows significantly increased in growth and productivity and decreased flowering period. The maximum significant growth was observed in 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with rice bran 38.0±1.3 cm. in case of okra, 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with gram bran (seed of Cicer arientinum 215.5±5.2 cm., in lobia crops and 30 mg/m2 concentration of buffalo dung with gram bran 20.4±1.4 cm. The significant early starting of flowering and increased in productivity was found in all treated groups with respect to control.

GORAKH NATH

2010-06-01

289

GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

290

Neutron irradiation of seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

291

Soybean seed proteome rebalancing  

Science.gov (United States)

The soybean seed’s protein content and composition are regulated by both genetics and physiology. Overt seed protein content is specified by the genotype’s genetic framework and is selectable as a breeding trait. Within the genotype-specified protein content phenotype soybeans have the capacity to rebalance protein composition to create differing proteomes. Soybeans possess a relatively standardized proteome, but mutation or targeted engineering can induce large-scale proteome rebalancing. Proteome rebalancing shows that the output traits of seed content and composition result from two major types of regulation: genotype and post-transcriptional control of the proteome composition. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that specifies the seed proteome can enable engineering new phenotypes for the production of a high-quality plant protein source for food, feed, and industrial proteins. PMID:25232359

Herman, Eliot M.

2014-01-01

292

Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

2012-10-01

293

Identification of the potential active components of Abelmoschus manihot in rat blood and kidney tissue by microdialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, microdialysis combining with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify components in blood and kidney dialysis after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract. Microdialysis probe was implanted in the jugular vein and the kidney medulla, respectively; microdialysis samples were collected continuously, transferred to microtubes and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The components in microdialysis samples were separated by an UPLC HSS T3 column and eluted with acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The results showed that unbound constituents in blood circulation of the rat include hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin, myricetin, and hibifolin while unbound constituents in kidney are hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, which might be the potential active components in vivo. The developed method was simple and reliable, and could be adopted to rapidly screen and identify potential active components contributing to pharmacological effects of TCM and to better clarify its action mechanism. PMID:21247814

Xue, Caifu; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shang, Erxin; Shu, Yan; Lu, Yuwei

2011-02-15

294

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil / Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch) e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência [...] da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR). A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil. Abstract in english Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani b [...] ased on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH). The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.

Gilmar P., Henz; Carlos A., Lopes; Ailton, Reis.

295

A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani  

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Full Text Available Okra pods with unusual brown lesions and rot were collected in a local supermarket in Brasília DF. The objective of this paper was to characterize the causal agent, to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine some conditions conducive to disease. The pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on morphological characteristics which fitted the fungus description, such as pale to brown hyphae, with nearly right-angled side branches constricted at the base, hyphal cells 6-10 µm wide with a septum near the base. Five isolates were obtained from infected pods and identified as AG 1-IB anastomosis group. Wounded or unwounded okra pods cv. Santa Cruz 47 were inoculated with mycelium disks of R. solani and kept in humid chambers at 12 ºC or 25 ºC. After seven days at 25 ºC, both wounded and unwounded pods were completely rotted and brown, while those kept at 12 ºC showed small lesions ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 mm only in wounded pods. The pathogen was able to grow in different materials used for assembling crates and packs of horticultural products, such as pinewood, corrugated carton, plastic, Styrofoam and newspaper sheets when kept in humid chambers (24 ºC, 96 % RH. The disease occurrence can be related to careless handling practices and to the transmission of R. solani propagules by infected plant debris or soil particles. This is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani causing postharvest rot in okra pods in Brazil.Frutos de quiabo apresentando podridão e lesões marrons foram coletados em um supermercado de Brasília DF. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o agente causal e comprovar o envolvimento do fungo como causador da doença (Postulados de Koch e determinar algumas condições favoráveis à ocorrência da doença em frutos de quiabo após a colheita. O patógeno foi identificado como Rhizoctonia solani baseado nas suas características morfológicas, como hifas marrons a ocre, com ramificações laterais em ângulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR. A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil.

Gilmar P. Henz

2007-06-01

296

Aplicação da técnica de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS) na análise de pesticidas em quiabo por CG-EM / Application of the matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique in the analysis of pesticides in okra by GC-MS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A matrix solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass selective detection method for the simultaneous determination of monocrotophos, methyl parathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in okra is described. Analyses of 2 g of fortified okra (0.05-0.75 mg kg-1) showed an average recovery of 96.2% [...] (71.4-128.4%) and average relative standard deviation of 11.7% (1.4-37.1%). The cypermethrin recovery at the lower level was above 130%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 mg kg-1. The procedure was applied to the okra samples and has found 0.56 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-cis, 0.75 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-trans and 2.71 mg kg-1 of deltamethrin.

Haroldo Silveira, Dórea; Waneide Gomes, Lopes.

297

Glioblastoma with spinal seeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

298

Glioblastoma with spinal seeding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

2004-07-01

299

Seed recovery and regeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetohydrodynamic's (MHD) electric power generation capability depends on Faraday's law of induction. An ionized gas, called plasma, passes through a fixed magnetic field. The plasma is produced by seeding flue gases at a temperature of around 2500 deg C with potassium carbonate or formate. In a coal-fired open cycle MHD power plant the potassium seed material is in direct contact with the polluted flue gas from coal combustion. The molten slag droplets will capture a certain amount of potassium. The sulphur dioxide in the flue gases will react with potassium to potassium sulphate. The spent seed material has to be recovered and reprocessed so that the potassium can be reused as seed material. We can distinguish a preprocessing and a regeneration step. Seed preprocessing removes the minerals and volatile coal constituents from the potassium salts. Seed regeneration transforms the purified potassium sulphate into potassium carbonate or formate. Eight regeneration processes have been evaluated. The processes that convert the sulphur of the coal into saleable sulphur or sulphuric acid are still at an early stage of development. Considering all pros and cons, the Formate/Econoseed process appears most suited for seed regeneration purposes in coal-fired MHD systems. For an advanced MHD power plant the mass flow rates of the flue gas and of the potassium containing off-product streams will be calculated. It will be shown that the sulphur content of coal will influence the economical efficiency of the power plant

300

Determinação da demanda hídrica do quiabeiro em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ / Determination of water requirement of okra in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as necessidades hídricas do quiabeiro em cada estádio do seu desenvolvimento, por meio da determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura e dos coeficientes de cultivo (Kc). O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Evapotranspirométrica da Universidade Estadual do No [...] rte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A cultivar utilizada foi a Santa Cruz 47, plantada no espaçamento 0,25 m x 1,00 m, em uma área de 1024 m², irrigada por aspersão convencional. Na área foram feitas as determinações da evapotranspiração da cultura e do coeficiente cultural, utilizando-se um lisímetro de 6 m² com balança eletrônica com variação de peso de 0,58 kg. Os resultados obtidos permitiram quantificar a evapotranspiração da cultura no período em 314 mm. O Kc do quiabeiro no primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento variou entre os valores de 0,8 e 0,5, obtendo o valor médio de 0,68; no segundo estádio variou de 0,5 a 1,0, sendo a média de 0,79; e no terceiro estádio o Kc variou de 1,0 a 0,3, sendo a média de 0,54. Abstract in english This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc) providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Esta [...] dual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m², irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m² with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, with a mean of 0,79,and the third stage Kc ranged from 1.0 to 0.3, the average being 0.54.

Herval Martinho Ferreira, Paes; Barbara dos Santos, Esteves; Elias Fernandes de, Sousa.

 
 
 
 
301

Resposta do quiabeiro às doses de fósforo aplicadas em solo arenoso / Response of phosphorus levels on okra planted in sandy soil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da adubação fosfatada no rendimento do quiabeiro, cultivar Santa Cruz, em experimento com delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0; 44; 88; 132 e 176 kg ha-1 de P), em quatro repetições. O número máximo de frutos por planta (43) foi obtido na dos [...] e máxima de 176 kg ha-1 de P. A produtividade máxima estimada de frutos comerciais (38,6 t ha-1) ocorreu com 139 kg ha-1 de P. A dose de P que proporcionou maior retorno econômico foi 137 kg ha-1, com produção de 38,3 t ha-1 de frutos comerciais, o que representa um incremento de 17,4 t ha-1 de frutos. A dose mais econômica representou 98% daquela responsável pela máxima produção, o que pode indicar que o quiabeiro responde economicamente à adubação fosfatada no solo estudado e a dose de P responsável pela máxima produção comercial de frutos foi relacionada com 40 mg dm-3 de P disponível no solo (Mehlich 1). Da mesma forma, a dose responsável pelo maior retorno econômico foi associada com 38 mg de P dm-3. Abstract in english The influence of phosphorus fertilization on yield of okra, cv. Santa Cruz was evaluated. The research was carried out in the experimental design of randomized blocks, with five treatments (0; 44; 88; 132 and 176 kg ha-1 of P), and four replications. The maximum number of fruits per plant (43) was o [...] btained with the maximum level of 176 kg ha-1 of P. The estimated maximum yield of commercial fruits (38.6 t ha-1), was related to 139 kg ha-1 of P. The application of 137 kg ha-1 of P provided the highest economical income, yielding 38.3 t ha-1 of commercial fruits, with an increment of fruits of 17.4 t ha-1. The most economic level represented 98% of that responsible for the maximum yield, indicating that the okra responded economically to the use of P in sandy soil and, of the P level responsible for the maximum commercial yield of fruits were related to 40 mg dm-3 of available P in soil (Mehlich 1), and the level responsible for the highest economic income was related to 38 mg dm-3.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Carina Seixas M., Dornelas; Adriana U., Alves; Anarlete U., Alves; Jandiê Araújo da, Silva; Arnaldo Nonato P. de, Oliveira.

302

Resposta do quiabeiro às doses de fósforo aplicadas em solo arenoso / Response of phosphorus levels on okra planted in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da adubação fosfatada no rendimento do quiabeiro, cultivar Santa Cruz, em experimento com delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0; 44; 88; 132 e 176 kg ha-1 de P), em quatro repetições. O número máximo de frutos por planta (43) foi obtido na dos [...] e máxima de 176 kg ha-1 de P. A produtividade máxima estimada de frutos comerciais (38,6 t ha-1) ocorreu com 139 kg ha-1 de P. A dose de P que proporcionou maior retorno econômico foi 137 kg ha-1, com produção de 38,3 t ha-1 de frutos comerciais, o que representa um incremento de 17,4 t ha-1 de frutos. A dose mais econômica representou 98% daquela responsável pela máxima produção, o que pode indicar que o quiabeiro responde economicamente à adubação fosfatada no solo estudado e a dose de P responsável pela máxima produção comercial de frutos foi relacionada com 40 mg dm-3 de P disponível no solo (Mehlich 1). Da mesma forma, a dose responsável pelo maior retorno econômico foi associada com 38 mg de P dm-3. Abstract in english The influence of phosphorus fertilization on yield of okra, cv. Santa Cruz was evaluated. The research was carried out in the experimental design of randomized blocks, with five treatments (0; 44; 88; 132 and 176 kg ha-1 of P), and four replications. The maximum number of fruits per plant (43) was o [...] btained with the maximum level of 176 kg ha-1 of P. The estimated maximum yield of commercial fruits (38.6 t ha-1), was related to 139 kg ha-1 of P. The application of 137 kg ha-1 of P provided the highest economical income, yielding 38.3 t ha-1 of commercial fruits, with an increment of fruits of 17.4 t ha-1. The most economic level represented 98% of that responsible for the maximum yield, indicating that the okra responded economically to the use of P in sandy soil and, of the P level responsible for the maximum commercial yield of fruits were related to 40 mg dm-3 of available P in soil (Mehlich 1), and the level responsible for the highest economic income was related to 38 mg dm-3.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Carina Seixas M., Dornelas; Adriana U., Alves; Anarlete U., Alves; Jandiê Araújo da, Silva; Arnaldo Nonato P. de, Oliveira.

2007-06-01

303

Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

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Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L) Mell.,) in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agri...

Khalil, Shad K.; Mexal, John G.; Murray, Leigh W.

2001-01-01

304

SEED PRODUCTION IN EU COUNTRIES  

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Full Text Available The article presents seed production in EU countries. EU as a whole is one of the biggest seed markets. Certified seed production differs considerably with regard to crops and country. Highest level of seed production reach: Denmark, France, Germany and United Kingdom. The opposite refers to Bulgaria and Poland.

Jerzy Rembeza

2013-12-01

305

Priorities in seed pathology research  

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Full Text Available Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of seedborne pathogens that might go undetected using more conventional means. These types of research will be fundamental in guaranteeing seed health quality standards and achieving phytosanitary requirements throughout the world in the new millennium.

Nameth S.T.

1998-01-01

306

Easy PEAsy Seed Germination  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners determine the necessary conditions for pea seed germination. This activity encourages learners to make predictions and think about how they might investigate the effects of variables like light, temperature, and moisture.

Dyson, Paul

2012-04-09

307

Oil seed marketing prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

308

Seeds of Knowledge  

... Related Related content from IISD Related publications:Networks and Partnerships IISD Publications Centre Seeds of Knowledge » Kati Autere, Johara Belali, Charles Davies, Damaris Kinyoki, Dianna Kopansky, Daniela Lanza, Monica Mwove, Stephen Ndeti, Roshni Peshavaria, Davide Piga, Mia Turner, Sarah Czunyi, Leslie Paas, Jim Perry, László Pintér, UNEP, 2012. Paper, copyright: UNEP Seeds of Knowledge presents 24 case studies from 17 countries on grassroots solutions to the impacts of climate change. These solutions come at a critical time. As never ...

309

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

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Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

Nascimento Warley Marcos

2004-01-01

310

EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA  

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Full Text Available

Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

Lincoln Fonseca Zica

2007-09-01

311

Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

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Full Text Available Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L Mell., in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Seeds planted in January, February, and March matured during hot weather conditions (June, July, produced heavier seeds, but had lower germination, and higher infection with seed borne pathogens. Seed planted in July and August reached maturity after hot weather conditions in October and November had ended and exhibited higher germination, little infection with seed borne pathogen, but produced smaller seeds. Seed size was inversely related to germination. Conditions that favor production of large seeds also favor infection with seed borne pathogens and lower germination.

Shad K. Khalil

2001-01-01

312

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds  

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Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

2012-02-01

313

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dem [...] atium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa) and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity), and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm) and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum) were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds) and six (6.5 mm large seeds) replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

Adriana Luiza, Wain-Tassi; Juliana Faria dos, Santos; Rita de Cássia, Panizzi; Roberval Daiton, Vieira.

2012-02-01

314

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dem [...] atium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa) and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity), and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm) and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum) were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds) and six (6.5 mm large seeds) replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

Adriana Luiza, Wain-Tassi; Juliana Faria dos, Santos; Rita de Cássia, Panizzi; Roberval Daiton, Vieira.

315

Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field / Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O quiabeiro é hortaliça de clima quente, encontrando condições favoráveis de desenvolvimento no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de mudas e a produtividade de quiabeiro. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul e [...] m Aquidauana. Na fase de mudas, foram testados substratos (100% ramas de mandioca triturada; 75% ramas de mandioca triturada + 25% de vermiculita; 50% ramas de mandioca triturada + 50% de vermiculita; 25% ramas de mandioca triturada + 75% vermiculita e 100% vermiculita). Estes substratos foram dispostos em dois ambientes protegidos (viveiro agrícola de tela de monofilamento de 50% de sombreamento e viveiro agrícola de tela aluminizada de 50% de sombreamento). Cada ambiente foi considerado um experimento, conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições. Em seguida, realizou-se a análise conjunta. No campo, foram distribuídos os 10 tratamentos gerados a partir das combinações entre ambientes e substratos (2 ambientes x 5 substratos), no delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As proporções médias de ramas de mandioca e vermiculita podem ser indicadas para a formação de mudas de quiabeiro. Pelas fitomassas seca aérea e total o ambiente com tela aluminizada pode ser indicado para produção de mudas de quiabeiro com a utilização do substrato na proporção 1:1. Mudas provenientes de maiores porcentagens de vermiculita antecipam a produção, enquanto que mudas oriundas apenas de ramas tendem a retardar essa fase. Mudas oriundas do ambiente aluminizado tendem a incrementar a produção de frutos de quiabeiro. Proporções médias de vermiculita e ramas, para mudas produzidas na tela aluminizada, propiciam maior número de frutos e produtividade do quiabeiro em Aquidauana. Abstract in english The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tes [...] ted substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite and 100% vermiculite). These substrates were placed in two protected environments (nursery with black screen, 50% of shading, and aluminized screen, 50% of shading). Each environment was considered an experiment conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications. After that we realized joint analysis. In the field, a total of 10 treatments generated from combinations of environments and substrates (2 environments x 5 substrates) were distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The average proportions of cassava stems and vermiculite may be suitable for okra seedlings. The results of shoot and total dry phytomass indicate that the aluminized screen can be recommended for okra seedlings production when the substrate with a 1:1 ratio is used. Seedlings grown on higher percentages of vermiculite anticipate production, while seedlings produced only in cassava stems tend to slow it down. The aluminized screen tends to increase the yield of okra seedlings. Average proportions of vermiculite and cassava stems for seedling production under aluminized screen, provide more fruits and yield of okra in Aquidauana.

Edilson, Costa; Taynara G de, Souza; Gleciane de L, Benteo; Katiane SS, Benett; Cleiton GS, Benett.

316

Okra seedlings production in protected environment, testing substrates and producing fruits in field Formação de mudas de quiabeiro sob ambientes protegidos, em diferentes substratos, e produção de frutos a campo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The okra grows well in hot weather, finding favorable conditions for development in Brazil. We evaluated the production of okra seedlings and productivity. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. In the seedling phase we tested substrates (100% triturated cassava stems, 75% triturated cassava stems and 25% vermiculite, 50% triturated cassava stems and 50% vermiculite, 25% triturated cassava stems and 75% vermiculite and 100% vermiculite. These substrates were placed in two protected environments (nursery with black screen, 50% of shading, and aluminized screen, 50% of shading. Each environment was considered an experiment conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications. After that we realized joint analysis. In the field, a total of 10 treatments generated from combinations of environments and substrates (2 environments x 5 substrates were distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The average proportions of cassava stems and vermiculite may be suitable for okra seedlings. The results of shoot and total dry phytomass indicate that the aluminized screen can be recommended for okra seedlings production when the substrate with a 1:1 ratio is used. Seedlings grown on higher percentages of vermiculite anticipate production, while seedlings produced only in cassava stems tend to slow it down. The aluminized screen tends to increase the yield of okra seedlings. Average proportions of vermiculite and cassava stems for seedling production under aluminized screen, provide more fruits and yield of okra in Aquidauana.O quiabeiro é hortaliça de clima quente, encontrando condições favoráveis de desenvolvimento no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de mudas e a produtividade de quiabeiro. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul em Aquidauana. Na fase de mudas, foram testados substratos (100% ramas de mandioca triturada; 75% ramas de mandioca triturada + 25% de vermiculita; 50% ramas de mandioca triturada + 50% de vermiculita; 25% ramas de mandioca triturada + 75% vermiculita e 100% vermiculita. Estes substratos foram dispostos em dois ambientes protegidos (viveiro agrícola de tela de monofilamento de 50% de sombreamento e viveiro agrícola de tela aluminizada de 50% de sombreamento. Cada ambiente foi considerado um experimento, conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições. Em seguida, realizou-se a análise conjunta. No campo, foram distribuídos os 10 tratamentos gerados a partir das combinações entre ambientes e substratos (2 ambientes x 5 substratos, no delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As proporções médias de ramas de mandioca e vermiculita podem ser indicadas para a formação de mudas de quiabeiro. Pelas fitomassas seca aérea e total o ambiente com tela aluminizada pode ser indicado para produção de mudas de quiabeiro com a utilização do substrato na proporção 1:1. Mudas provenientes de maiores porcentagens de vermiculita antecipam a produção, enquanto que mudas oriundas apenas de ramas tendem a retardar essa fase. Mudas oriundas do ambiente aluminizado tendem a incrementar a produção de frutos de quiabeiro. Proporções médias de vermiculita e ramas, para mudas produzidas na tela aluminizada, propiciam maior número de frutos e produtividade do quiabeiro em Aquidauana.

Edilson Costa

2013-03-01

317

Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

2014-01-01

318

Macronutrient contents in okra plants under different sources and levels of organic matter on soil /
Teores foliares de macronutrientes em quiabeiro cultivado sob diferentes fontes e níveis de matéria orgânica
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was carried out during the period of November of 2001 to April of 2002 in order to evaluate the effects of sources and doses of organic matter on leaf mineral composition of okra cv. Santa Cruz. The treatments were distributed in a randomized blocks design with four replications with 25 holes with two plants in each plot. The treatments were arranged in a 3x4 factorial design, with three sources of organic matter: cattle manure, chicken manure and caprine manure incorporated at ...

Míriam Alice da Silva Brehm; Járisson Cavalcante Nunes; Alex Matheus Rebequi; Luís Carlos Francisco dos Santos; Adriana Araujo Diniz; Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante

2010-01-01

319

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

320

Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Material and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85. Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8% patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4% treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%: 88.7/82, D90(Gy: 149.2/140.3, D90(%: 104.2/93.8, V150 (%: 53.8/47, respectively. No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33, PSA (p = 0.391, prostate volume (p = 0.397, activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109, number of seeds (p = 0.338, V100 (p = 0.332, although significant differences were measured in the values of D90(% and Gy (p = 0.022 and 0.011 and V150 (p = 0.023. Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry.

Carlos A. S. Franca

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Ways of seeing the seed: Navdanya's seed satyagraha  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the 1960s, introduction of Green Revolution seeds in India has resulted in erosion of crop diversity and has had catastrophic effects on soil, water and farmers. More than 200,000 farmers have committed suicide since 1997. In 1987, Vandana Shiva started the Navdanya seed savers’ movement with the goal of conserving remaining crop diversity and assisting farmers in retaining seed sovereignty by developing and sustaining village-level seed supply systems and traditional farming practice...

Singh Decosas, Manisha

2010-01-01

322

7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...be considered inert matter. Weed seeds, as defined above in this...requiring further separation into weed seed and inert matter components are as follows: (a) The...The seeds are classified as weed seed and the remaining...

2010-01-01

323

Light water seed blanket reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seed blanket light water breeder reactor and a light water seed blanket thorium burner reactor have been considered. Both these proposals make use of geometry control in order to regulate reactivity

324

Farming: Plant varieties and seeds  

Jul 1, 2006 ... ARCHIVE: Farming: Plant varieties and seeds ... varietal identity; purity; \\germination capacity. Strict limits also apply to seed borne disease, and the \\presence of physical impurities such as weed seeds. ... wheat, barley, oilseed \\rape, field peas and beans, oats, linseed, triticale, yellow lupins and potatoes.

325

Corridors cause differential seed predation.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds? primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

JOHN L. ORROCk; ELLEN I. DAMSCHEN

2005-06-01

326

Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

Wagner F. da Mota

2005-07-01

327

Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo / Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade com [...] ercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores. Abstract in english In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruit [...] s of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

Wagner F. da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Derly José H. da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia P., Firme; Ludmila L. de M., Neves.

2005-07-01

328

Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo / Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade com [...] ercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores. Abstract in english In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruit [...] s of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

Wagner F. da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Derly José H. da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia P., Firme; Ludmila L. de M., Neves.

329

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

1997-10-01

330

Grass and grain seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Many types of grasses grow back after they have been cut back or mowed. Some weeds also do this, but other kinds of weeds stop growing once cut. Grains are seeds, but they are also valuable sources of food for humans and animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

331

The SEED Initiative  

Science.gov (United States)

Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

Teich, Carolyn R.

2011-01-01

332

Improving soybean seed quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the meal and oil fractions of soybeans may be genetically improved, either by mutagenesis or by genetic engineering. There are a number of mutant lines of soybeans containing a low raffinosaccharide meal, which can be used for animal feed, with an improved total metabolizable energy content. Mutant lines with an improved fatty acid profile of the oil include high oleic and high stearic soybeans. Cloning of the mutant genes facilitates the integration of these traits into high yielding elite lines by providing molecular markers. Cloned genes may also be reintroduced into soybeans to create transgenic lines with improved meal and oil traits, such as seeds with an increased lysine content and stable soybean oils with a very low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The design of transgene constructs has been assisted by using soybean somatic embryos in suspension culture as a model system for soybean seed transformation. This system has allowed selection of those genes and promoters that are the most effective way of achieving the desired phenotypes in soybeans. Experiments with constructs containing fatty acid biosynthesis genes in somatic embryos have also led to the conclusion that, in soybeans, gene-transgene sense suppression is a more effective way of silencing endogenous genes than antisense. Sense suppression of genes encoding microsomal, fatty acid omega-6 desaturates has resulted in soybean lines with over 80% oleic acid in their seed oil, and this traiteic acid in their seed oil, and this trait is stable over at least three generations. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

333

Study on Seed Quality Status and Fibre Yield of Different Seed Categories of Jute (Corchorus spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purity, viability, vigour, green yield and fibre yield of O-9897 (Corchorus olitorius L. and CVL-1 (Corchorus capsularis L. were studied. Different seed categories were breeder seed, foundation seed, certified seed and farmers seed. Purity, viability and vigour of breeder seed were the best in all respects and of farmers seed were poor. However moisture content was the highest in farmers seed and lowest in breeder seed. The 1000 seeds weight was highest in farmers seed among the seed categories and in CVL-1 over the variety O-9897. Base diameter, green yield and fibre yield were influenced significantly due to seed categories studied. The highest fibre yield was obtained from the breeder seed (3.20 t ha-1 in 0-9897 and 2.64 t ha-1 in CVL-1. Declining trend of fibre yield were observed like- breeders seed > foundation seed > certified seed > farmer`s seed as well.

M. Mahbubul Islam

2002-01-01

334

Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis-Branch-Inflorescence-Microgravity-Morphology-Seed-Space. Astrobiology 14, 866-875. PMID:25317938

Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

2014-10-01

335

Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

336

Seeds for effective oligonucleotide design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA oligonucleotides are a very useful tool in biology. The best algorithms for designing good DNA oligonucleotides are filtering out unsuitable regions using a seeding approach. Determining the quality of the seeds is crucial for the performance of these algorithms. Results We present a sound framework for evaluating the quality of seeds for oligonucleotide design. The F - score is used to measure the accuracy of each seed. A number of natural candidates are tested: contiguous (BLAST-like, spaced, transitions-constrained, and multiple spaced seeds. Multiple spaced seeds are the best, with more seeds providing better accuracy. Single spaced and transition seeds are very close whereas, as expected, contiguous seeds come last. Increased accuracy comes at the price of reduced efficiency. An exception is that single spaced and transitions-constrained seeds are both more accurate and more efficient than contiguous ones. Conclusions Our work confirms another application where multiple spaced seeds perform the best. It will be useful in improving the algorithms for oligonucleotide design.

Khoshraftar Shima

2011-06-01

337

Breeding for Grass Seed Yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

2010-01-01

338

Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

2013-01-01

339

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol ...

Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi; Juliana Faria dos Santos; Rita de Cássia Panizzi; Roberval Daiton Vieira

2012-01-01

340

Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed fate, and may be helpful in developing models to predict seed shadows and recruitment patterns of large-seeded trees.

Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. 201.33 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling...

2010-01-01

342

Magnetic biostimulation of wheat seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigation carried out at the Department of Physics, University of Agriculture in Lublin consisted in the application of an alternating magnetic field (50 Hz, harmonic vibration for the biostimulation of wheat seeds.The purpose of research was to define the effect of the magnetic biostimulation on the germination of seeds. The wheat seeds were subjected to 18 different magnetic ex- posure doses. For the next investigation two magnetic exposure doses were selected. On the basis of the research, it can be said that germination capacity of wheat seeds de- pends on the magnetic exposure dose. The speed of germi- nation of the treated seeds was higher than in the case of untreated ones. The seeds with the highest moisture content and subjected to a higher magnetic exposure dose had the highest speed of germination. Maximum speed of germi- nation for all the studied combinations was observed 35 h after magnetic biostimulation.

Kornarzyński K.

1999-12-01

343

Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless, e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet.The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual browning. The PVC was efficient in controlling the weight loss and retained the water content through storage. The lowest losses were observed for the cvs. Amarelinho and Star of David, without and with PVC, respectively. There was higher retention of vitamin C in the fruits wrapped with PVC and the cvs. Red Velvet and Star of David kept higher content of it. In general, the cv. Mammoth Spinless kept higher content of chlorophyll. The higher incidence of browning was in fruits stored without PVC. The Red Velvet had better shelf life due to lower browning.

Wagner F da Mota

2006-06-01

344

Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente / Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdividida [...] s, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless), e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet. Abstract in english The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red [...] Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual browning. The PVC was efficient in controlling the weight loss and retained the water content through storage. The lowest losses were observed for the cvs. Amarelinho and Star of David, without and with PVC, respectively. There was higher retention of vitamin C in the fruits wrapped with PVC and the cvs. Red Velvet and Star of David kept higher content of it. In general, the cv. Mammoth Spinless kept higher content of chlorophyll. The higher incidence of browning was in fruits stored without PVC. The Red Velvet had better shelf life due to lower browning.

Wagner F da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Paulo Roberto, Cecon; Derly José H da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia P, Firme; Ludmila L de M, Neves.

2006-06-01

345

Conservação e qualidade pós-colheita de quiabo sob diferentes temperaturas e formas de armazenamento Postharvest conservation and quality of okra submitted to different temperatures and storage forms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do filme plástico de PVC e da temperatura de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de frutos de cultivares de quiabo. O experimento foi organizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo nas parcelas as duas temperaturas (5 e 10 ºC, nas subparcelas um fatorial 2 (sem e com PVC x 4 (cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless e nas subsubparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem, com quatro blocos. A temperatura de 10ºC e o uso do filme de PVC foram mais eficientes no controle da perda de massa da matéria fresca. O filme foi mais eficiente na manutenção de maior teor relativo de água no pericarpo dos frutos armazenados a 5 e 10ºC. A cv. Amarelinho perdeu menos massa da matéria fresca e manteve maior teor relativo de água. Os frutos armazenados a 5ºC apresentaram maiores teores de vitamina C, com menor perda de vitamina C nas cvs. Mammoth Spinless e Star of David. Observou-se maior incidência de injúria por frio e escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC e a 5ºC. A cv. Amarelinho apresentou melhor conservação pós-colheita com temperatura de 10ºC e o uso da embalagem de PVC.This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of PVC film and temperature on the postharvest storage life in four cultivars of okra. The treatments were displayed in randomized complete blocks, in split-split-plot design, where the parcels were the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC, and in the sub parcels a 2 (control and PVC wrapped fruits x 4 (cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless factorial, and in the sub-sub parcels six sampling moments, containing four blocks. Storage at 10ºC and wrapping the fruits with PVC film improved the control of fresh mass loss. The film was more efficient in maintaining higher water content in the fruit pericarp at 5 or 10ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho lost less fresh mass and maintained higher water content. Fruits stored at 5ºC had higher vitamin C content. The cultivars Mammoth Spinless and Star of David showed lower losses of vitamin C. Cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of chlorophyll and Amarelinho the lowest. In general the development of chilling and browning was higher in fruits without PVC film at 5ºC. The cultivar Amarelinho had better postharvest conservation at 10ºC and using PVC film.

Wagner F da Mota

2010-03-01

346

Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente / Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdividida [...] s, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless), e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet. Abstract in english The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red [...] Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual browning. The PVC was efficient in controlling the weight loss and retained the water content through storage. The lowest losses were observed for the cvs. Amarelinho and Star of David, without and with PVC, respectively. There was higher retention of vitamin C in the fruits wrapped with PVC and the cvs. Red Velvet and Star of David kept higher content of it. In general, the cv. Mammoth Spinless kept higher content of chlorophyll. The higher incidence of browning was in fruits stored without PVC. The Red Velvet had better shelf life due to lower browning.

Wagner F da, Mota; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Paulo Roberto, Cecon; Derly José H da, Silva; Paulo César, Corrêa; Lúcia P, Firme; Ludmila L de M, Neves.

347

Microstructure of Dormant Cotton Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The roentgenograms of so-called stony, non-swelling, hard seeds of Gossypium hirsutum L., G. barbadense L. and G. herbaceum L. have been investigated. Abnormal morphological structures have been found without germination test. The original data on micro hardness of cotton seed peel and its structural layers are given. The obtained data form new approaches to a problem of seed hardness.

A.A. Paiziev

2006-01-01

348

Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

Bogdan Nowicki

1995-12-01

349

Influence of Seed Size and Seed Rate on Phenology, Yield and Quality of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size and seed rate on wheat performance. It was concluded that yield components like number of fertile tillers, spike length, 1000-grain weight were significantly affected by seed size and seed rate. Similarly photobiomass producing contributers like plant density and plant height were also found responsive to seed sizes. Seed sizes and seed rates also showed significant results regarding phenology. Protein content, however was increased by large seed size.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry

2001-01-01

350

Metal deposition using seed layers  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

2013-11-12

351

Seed production and quality of pinus durangensis mart., from seed areas and a seed stand in durango, mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development. (author)

352

Nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization / Nitrogênio aplicado à cultura do quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar, no período chuvoso amazônico, o efeito do nitrogênio aplicado ao quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual. O ensaio foi conduzido na Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, em Iranduba-AM, entre outubro/2010 e fevereiro//2011, em Argissolo Amarelo distrófico, textura média, u [...] tilizando-se covas com níveis residuais de fertilidade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições (duas linhas com quatro plantas, espaçadas de 1,5x1,0 m) e quatro tratamentos principais (ureia, em cobertura: 0,0; 20,0; 40,0 e 60 g planta-1 correspondendo a 0,0; 60,0; 120,0 e 180,0 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, em duas parcelas), com a cv Dardo. Além de dois tratamentos adicionais, representados pelo esterco de galinha (1,0 L por cova, com a cv Dardo) e pela cv Santa Cruz-47 (com 40 g planta-1 de ureia). As covas receberam micronutrientes e irrigação por gotejamento. As características avaliadas mostraram incrementos quadráticos com as doses de ureia. Os maiores valores da altura de planta (39,7 cm), do diâmetro de copa (86,2 cm), do número de frutos (36 unidades planta-1), da massa média de fruto (17,3 g), do número de colheitas no ciclo produtivo (26,4 unidades ciclo-1) e da produtividade (4051 kg ha-1) ocorreram com (g planta-1 de ureia): 48,3; 43,5; 38,5 g; 49,7; 32,7; e 40,5, respectivamente. As características originais concorreram com razoável equilíbrio para o desempenho geral da planta (CP1), evidenciando-se, secundariamente, antagonismo entre co